The Full Wiki

James Cook: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on James Cook

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James Cook

James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. 1775, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich
Born 7 November [O.S. 27 October] 1728
Marton, Yorkshire, England
Died 14 February 1779 (aged 50)
Hawaii
Nationality British
Education Postgate School, Great Ayton
Occupation Explorer, navigator, cartographer
Title Captain
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Batts
Children James Cook, Nathaniel Cook, Elizabeth Cook, Joseph Cook, George Cook, Hugh Cook
Parents James Cook, Grace Pace
Signature
.Captain James Cook FRS RN (7 November [O.S. 27 October] 1728 – 14 February 1779) was an English explorer, navigator and cartographer, ultimately rising to the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy.^ James Cook 1728 - 1779 .
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Statue of Captain James Cook at dusk.
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Statue of Captain James Cook at sunset.
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.Cook was the first to map Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean during which he achieved the first European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands as well as the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

^ By 1770 Cook had reached New Zealand.

^ Captain Cook's three voyages to the Pacific Ocean.

[1]
.Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager[2] and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec.^ In 1755 James Cook joined the Royal Navy as an able seaman, and within 2 years became a Master.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ After service in the British merchant navy as a teenager, he joined the Royal Navy in 1755, seeing action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveying and mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec.

^ After several sea voyages, he joined the Royal Navy in 1755.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

.This allowed General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham, and helped to bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society.^ Sponsors of the voyage were the Royal Society and the Admiralty.
  • James Cook biography images artists 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.findingnz.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ This allowed General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham, and helped to bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas discovery, and led to his commission as commander of the HM Bark Endeavour and the first of his three Pacific voyages in 1766.

^ In 1766 he observed an eclipse of the Sun and sent the details to the Royal Society in London—an unusual activity for a noncommissioned officer, for Cook still rated only as master.
  • James Cook (British naval officer) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This notice came at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.^ August, The Endeavour Bark, sails on first voyage.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This allowed General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham, and helped to bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas discovery, and led to his commission as commander of the HM Bark Endeavour and the first of his three Pacific voyages in 1766.

^ Cook was commissioned as a Lieutenant and given command of HM Bark Endeavour .

.Cook charted many areas and recorded several islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time.^ Cook accurately charted many areas and recorded several islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time.

^ This was James Cook's first known chart.

^ Sailing northwards, Cook charted this coast for the first time, narrowly escaping disaster on the Barrier Reef, before passing through Torres Strait and sailing on to Batavia (Jakarta) where he arrived on 11 October.
  • DNZB / BIOGRAPHY 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.dnzb.govt.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His achievements can be attributed to a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, courage in exploring dangerous locations to confirm the facts (for example dipping into the Antarctic circle repeatedly and exploring around the Great Barrier Reef), an ability to lead men in adverse conditions, and boldness both with regard to the extent of his explorations and his willingness to exceed the instructions given to him by the Admiralty.^ His huge achievements can be attributed to a combination of excellent seamanship, his superior surveying and cartographic skills, courage in exploring dangerous locations to confirm the facts (for example dipping into the Antarctic circle repeatedly and exploring around the Great Barrier Reef ), ability to lead men in adverse conditions, and boldness both with regard to the extent of his explorations and his willingness to exceed the instructions given to him by the Admiralty.

^ He then sailed to and mapped eastern and northern Australia (the Endeavor was stuck for a day on the Great Barrier Reef off northeastern Australia; the ship was damaged by coral and almost sank).
  • James Cook: British Explorer - EnchantedLearning.com 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Admiralty agreed and appointed Cook , now promoted to commander, to lead...Endeavour on the Barrier Reef had convinced Cook of the need to have a pair of ships...
  • James Cook Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]
Cook died in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779.

Contents

Early life

.Cook was born in the village of Marton in Yorkshire, today a suburb belonging to the town of Middlesbrough.^ Cook was born in relatively humble circumstances at Marton in North Yorkshire, which today is within the town of Middlesbrough.

^ Cook was born in humble circumstances in Marton, North Yorkshire , England.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | October 27| Thurkill�s Vision purgatory Japan UFO flying saucer Captain James CookSylvia Plath Dylan Thomas teetotal jazz origins 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ James Cook was born in 1728 in the village of Marton,now a suburb of Middlesbrough.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

[3] He was baptised in the local church of St. Cuthbert's where today his name can be seen in the church register. .Cook was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer, and his locally born wife Grace Pace from Thornaby on Tees.^ On 27th October 1728, James Cook was born, one of five children born to a Scottish Farm worker and his locally born wife.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The eight children of James Cook, Jr., and his wife were: .

^ Cook was one of five children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer, and his locally-born wife Grace.

[2][3] .In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe paid for him to attend the local school (now a museum).^ As a child, Cook moved with his family to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where he was educated at the local school (now a museum), his studies financed by his father's employer.

^ As a small boy, the family moved to Aireyholme Farm, three miles from Great Ayton.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Young James early showed signs of an inquiring and able mind, and his father’s employer paid for his schooling in the village until he was 12 years old.
  • James Cook (British naval officer) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1741, after five years schooling, he began work for his father, who had by now been promoted to farm manager.^ At 13 he began work with his father, who managed the farm.

^ School years were followed by a period of working on his father`s farm.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ When he was 13 years old, he began to work with his father in the administration of a farm.
  • About Captain James Cook - Discover Hawaii Tours 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For leisure he would climb a nearby hill, Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude.^ The farm sits beneath a popular local viewpoint, a conical shaped hill known as Roseberry Topping.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The nearby Roseberry Topping prominent against the sky, was the first of many conquered quests to befall James Cook.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

[4] Cook's Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled brick by brick in 1934.[5]
.In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles (32 km) to the fishing village of Staithes to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson.^ Works in Sanderson`s shop in Staithes.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In 1745 young James was apprenticed to William Sanderson, a shop keeper in the village of Staithes on the Yorkshire coast.

^ In 1745, when he was 16, Cook left home to be apprenticed in a grocery/ haberdashery in the fishing village of Staithes.

[3] .Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window.^ According to legend, Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window.

^ The "Freelove" on which James Cook served his first voyage to sea, was about 450 tons in weight.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Cook was now sent out with two ships to make the first circumnavigation of and penetration into the Antarctic.
  • James Cook (British naval officer) :: Voyages and discoveries -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.After 18 months, not proving suitable for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.^ Works in Sanderson`s shop in Staithes.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Sanderson took Cook to the nearby port town of Whitby and introduced him to John and Henry Walker.

^ JOHN HENRY COOK 101 , b.
  • Descendants of James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.carolyar.com [Source type: Academic]

[5] .The Walkers were prominent local ship-owners and Quakers, and were in the coal trade.^ The Walkers were prominent local ship-owners and Quakers , and were in the coal trade.

^ They were prominent ship owners and they were in the business of coal.
  • About Captain James Cook - Discover Hawaii Tours 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 1746, at the age of 17, Cook gave into his temptations for the sea and became an apprentice to the Walker Family, ship owners, at the port of Whitby.

.Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum.^ Grape Lane is where you can find the Captain Cook Memorial Museum.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The school room is now the Captain Cook School Room Museum.
  • Captain James Cook and the Captain Cook Trail 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.glendalehouse.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ As a child, Cook moved with his family to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where he was educated at the local school (now a museum), his studies financed by his father's employer.

.Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels plying coal along the English coast.^ Cook was taken as the apprentice in a ship merchantman of the small fleet of ships that transported coal along the English coast.
  • About Captain James Cook - Discover Hawaii Tours 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels plying coal along the English coast.

^ He served his apprenticeship as a seaman in Yorkshire coal-ships and after further sea-going experience in merchant ships, he enrolled in the Royal Navy as an able seaman, in 1755.
  • James Cook biography images artists 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.findingnz.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

.His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters sailing between the Tyne and London.^ His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove , and he spent several years on this and various other coasters sailing between the Tyne and London .

^ Students are based at the Townsville campus for the first four years and undertake varied clinical experience including rural rotations.
  • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He worked hard and soon had his first voyage aboard the Whitby collier 'Freelove.'

.As part of this apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, navigation and astronomy, all skills he would need one day to command his own ship.^ For this new apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra , trigonometry , navigation, and astronomy , skills he would need one day to command his own ship.

^ However I was willing to stay one day to see if they would return before I took any step to find them.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It would appear that for this part of the voyage Mr. Corner’s copy was the first written, and that Cook’s first idea was to christen the country New Wales.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.His three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea.^ His three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea .

^ Work began refitting both ships.

^ Once he completed his learning of three years, he began to work in commercial ships of the Baltic Sea, where he scaled quickly through the ranks of the merchant marine.
  • About Captain James Cook - Discover Hawaii Tours 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his 1752 promotion to Mate (officer in charge of navigation) aboard the collier brig Friendship.^ He soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his 1752 promotion to Mate (officer in charge of navigation) aboard the collier brig Friendship .

^ Once he completed his learning of three years, he began to work in commercial ships of the Baltic Sea, where he scaled quickly through the ranks of the merchant marine.
  • About Captain James Cook - Discover Hawaii Tours 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He completed his apprenticeship in April 1750, was promoted to mate in 1752, and Walker offered him the position of master of his own ship in 1755.

.In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, as Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.^ In 1755 he was offered command of this vessel, but within the month he volunteered for service in the British Royal Navy .

^ In 1755, the Kingdom of Great Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.

^ In 1755, the Kingdom of Great Britain was being rearmed for what was the beginning of the War of the Seven Years.
  • About Captain James Cook - Discover Hawaii Tours 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.discoverhawaiitours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more quickly in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 7 June 1755.[6]

Family life

Cook married Elizabeth Batts (1742–1835), the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn, Wapping[7] and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St. Margaret's Church in Barking, Essex. .The couple had six children: James (1763–1794), Nathaniel (1764–1781), Elizabeth (1767–1771), Joseph (1768–1768), George (1772–1772) and Hugh (1776–1793).^ Hugh Cook had been a student at nearby Christ's College while James Cook Junior had died in Poole Harbour near Portsmouth in 1794.

^ Children of Joseph Cook and Elizabeth Freeman are: 19 i.
  • Descendants of Daniel Cook b. 1808 - The Cook Genealogy Wiki 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC daniel.cook.name [Source type: General]

^ Hugh Palliser, Governor of Newfoundland, 1764-1768, whilst Cook was surveying there http://www.heritage.nf.ca/govhouse/governors/g22.html .

.When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London.^ When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London.

^ Captain James Cook, who lived in London between voyages http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConFactFile.66/Captain-James-Cook.html .

^ Cook is most closely connected with the area of London north of the River Thames and east of Tower Bridge.

He attended St. Paul's Church, Shadwell, where his son James was baptised. .Stepney Historical Trust has placed a plaque on Free Trade Wharf in the Highway, Shadwell to commemorate his life in the East End of London.^ When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London.

Start of Royal Navy career

James Cook's 1775 chart of Newfoundland
.Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, sailing with the rank of master's mate.^ Banks had sailed with Cook on his first voyage in the 'Endeavour' and took an influential interest in his subsequent ones.
  • James Cook biography images artists 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.findingnz.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ His first posting was HMS Eagle under the command of Captain Joseph Hamar at Spithead off Portsmouth.

^ Cook's ability was once again quickly identified when in July he was appointed Master's Mate.

.In October and November 1755 he took part in Eagles capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties.^ They attacked and captured a French East Indiaman, the Duc d'Aquitaine and took the prize back to Plymouth.

^ It would sometimes happen that neither the one nor the other could throw his Antagonist; in this Case they would either part by mutual consent or were parted by others.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ These men took a leading part in the continual dissensions in the island, until, in 1791, they were carried off by the Pandora, sent with the object of capturing the mutineers.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[6] .His first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was briefly the master of the Cruizer, a small cutter attached to the Eagle while on patrol.^ His first posting was HMS Eagle under the command of Captain Joseph Hamar at Spithead off Portsmouth.

^ In early March 1756 the Eagle , needing repairs, was back in Plymouth but later in the month it had set out again to patrol off Cherbourg, the Channel Islands and near the Isle de Batz off the Brittany coast.

[6]
.In June 1757 Cook passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, Deptford qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet.^ For this new apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra , trigonometry , navigation, and astronomy , skills he would need one day to command his own ship.

^ Cook's job as an apprentice required him to become very familiar with the coal ships of the area and he soon learned the ins and outs of the colliers type ships.

^ Cook's expertise in this type of ship would bring him to use this type of ship for all three of his major voyages of world exploration.

[8] .He then joined the frigate HMS Solebay as master under Captain Robert Craig.^ His first posting was HMS Eagle under the command of Captain Joseph Hamar at Spithead off Portsmouth.

^ However, this required starting again in the naval hierarchy, and on June 17 he began as able seaman aboard HMS Eagle under the command of Captain Hugh Palliser.

^ Cook travelled south to Portsmouth to join HMS Pembroke , 1250 tons and 64 guns, under the command of Captain John Simcoe in October 1757.

During this period he served in several minor actions in the vicinity of the British Isles.[9]
.During the Seven Years' War, he served in North America as master of Pembroke[10] In 1758 he took part in the major amphibious assault which captured Louisbourg from the French.^ After service in the British merchant navy as a teenager, he joined the Royal Navy in 1755, seeing action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveying and mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec.

^ James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland During the Seven Years' War, he participated in the siege of Quebec City before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.

^ Marine surveys of James Cook in North America, 1758-1768, particularly the survey of Newfoundland : a bibliography of printed charts and sailing-directions / by R.A. Skelton and R.V. Tooley.

.Cook then participated in the siege of Quebec City before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. He showed a talent for surveying and cartography and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege, allowing General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham.^ He showed a talent for surveying and cartography and was responsible for mapping much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege, allowing General Wolfe to make his famous stealth attack on the Plains of Abraham.

^ He was highly regarded for his work for General Wolfe, at the siege of Quebec, producing maps, enabling the fleet to move up the Saint Lawrence river.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ James Cook's 1775 Chart of Newfoundland During the Seven Years' War, he participated in the siege of Quebec City before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.

.Cook's surveying skills were put to good use in the 1760s, mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland.^ Later he surveyed the coast of Newfoundland.

^ Cook's surveying skills were put to good use in the 1760s, mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland.

^ Cook surveyed the northwest stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the Burin Peninsula and Cape Ray in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767.

.Cook surveyed the northwest stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the Burin Peninsula and Cape Ray in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767. Cook’s five seasons in Newfoundland produced the first large-scale and accurate maps of the island’s coasts; they also gave Cook his mastery of practical surveying, achieved under often adverse conditions, and brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his personal career and in the direction of British overseas discovery.^ From Bonne Bay, Cook surveyed west along the South Coast to Cape Ray and Cape Anguille, the southwest points of the island.

^ Sponsors of the voyage were the Royal Society and the Admiralty.
  • James Cook biography images artists 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.findingnz.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ He discovered the South Island and all the way, accurately charted the coast.

Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, it was at this time that Cook wrote, he intended to go not only:
"... farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go."[11]

First voyage (1768–71)

.In 1766, the Royal Society hired Cook to travel to the Pacific Ocean to observe and record the transit of Venus across the Sun.^ In 1766, the Royal Society hired Cook to travel to the Pacific Ocean to observe and record the transit of Venus across the Sun .

^ In this same year, Cook received instructions to set sail for the Pacific in order to study the passage of the planet Venus across the disc of the sun.
  • James Cook - New Zealand in History 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC history-nz.org [Source type: General]

^ It was on his first voyage, in 1770 (while in the South Pacific region to observe the transit of Venus)...
  • "Captain James Cook" (1987) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Cook was promoted to Lieutenant and named as commander of the expedition.^ Shortly after his return, Cook was promoted from Lieutenant to Commander (correctly "Master and Commander").

^ In this way Cook's name was brought to the attention of the Royal Society, the body that would be involved with sending the expedition to the South Pacific in 1768.

^ Cook was promoted to Commander and then notified that he had been chosen to lead the mission.

[12] .The expedition sailed from England in 1768, rounded Cape Horn and continued westward across the Pacific to arrive at Tahiti on 13 April 1769, where the observations were to be made.^ He sailed from England in 1768, rounded Cape Horn and continued westward across the Pacific to arrive at Tahiti on April 13, 1769, where the observations were to be made.

^ In this same year, Cook received instructions to set sail for the Pacific in order to study the passage of the planet Venus across the disc of the sun.
  • James Cook - New Zealand in History 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC history-nz.org [Source type: General]

^ At noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 22 degrees 53 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Capricorn 0 degrees 20 minutes West.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.However, the result of the observations was not as conclusive or accurate as had been hoped.^ When their results were later compared to those of the other observations of the same event made elsewhere for the exercise, the net result was not as conclusive or accurate as had been hoped.

.Cook later mapped the complete New Zealand coastline, making only some minor errors.^ Cook mapped the complete New Zealand coastline, making only some minor errors (such as calling Banks Peninsula an island, and thinking Stewart Island/Rakiura was part of the South Island).

^ Having rounded the Cape, Cook landed on Possession Island on 22 August, where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored (later naming the region New South Wales) for the British Crown.

^ Cook made his usual stop at New Zealand and confirmed the location of his Kerguelen Island while there.

.He then sailed west, reaching the south-eastern coast of the Australian continent on 19 April 1770, and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.^ Thursday April 19, 1770.

^ This point was on the southeastern coast of the Australian continent, and in doing so his expedition became the first recorded Europeans to have encountered its eastern coastline.

^ Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century.
  • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

[13]
A three-masted sailing ship crossing a bay
Endeavour replica in Cooktown harbour — just offshore the place where the original Endeavour was beached for 7 weeks in 1770.
.On 23 April he made his first recorded direct observation of indigenous Australians at Brush Island near Bawley Point, noting in his journal: "...and were so near the Shore as to distinguish several people upon the Sea beach they appear'd to be of a very dark or black Colour but whether this was the real colour of their skins or the C[l]othes they might have on I know not."[14] On 29 April Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the continent at a place now known as the Kurnell Peninsula, which he named Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander.^ They appeared to be of a very dark or black Colour; but whether this was the real Colour of their skins or the Cloathes they might have on I know not.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ That Island appear’d to them not to be very fruitful.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At first Cook bestowed the name Stingaree (Stingray) Bay to the inlet after the many such creatures found there; this was later changed to Botanist Bay and finally Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks, Daniel Solander and Herman Spöring.

.It is here that James Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal.^ This was James Cook's first known chart.

^ The first tertiary education institution in North Queensland, Australia was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in 1970.

^ Ever the observer, Cook was the first European to have extensive contact with various people of the Pacific.

[15]
.After his departure from Botany Bay he continued northwards, and a mishap occurred when Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef, on 11 June.^ A mishap occurred when Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef , on June 11, 1770.

^ The Grenville ran aground in Long Harbour at the head of Fortune Bay and needed repairs.

^ On the return journey south Cook nearly ran aground on shoals but by June 6th he had left the inlet tha the Earl of Sandwich later directed should be called Cook's River.

.The ship was badly damaged and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River).^ The ship was seriously damaged and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River).

^ Repairs were carried out as more people, a different Native American tribe from those met at Nootka, visited the ships to trade furs.

^ However we were very well supply’d with water by springs which were not far off.* (* Cooktown, which now stands on the Endeavour River, is a thriving place, and the northernmost town on this coast.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[2] .Once repairs were complete the voyage continued, sailing through Torres Strait and on 22 August he landed on Possession Island, where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored as British territory.^ Having rounded the Cape, Cook landed on Possession Island on 22 August, where he claimed the entire coastline he had just explored (later naming the region New South Wales) for the British Crown.

^ [Land upon Possession Island.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian explorer Vitus Bering makes his first voyage up the Siberian coast and passes through Bering Strait.
  • James Cook timeline: Alaskana | adn.com 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

He returned to England via Batavia (modern Jakarta, Indonesia), the Cape of Good Hope and the island of Saint Helena, arriving on 12 July 1771.

Interlude

.Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community.^ Cook's journals were published upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the scientific community.

^ Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of Captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, as an officer in the Greenwich Hospital.

^ After discovering islands named by Tasman, the Resolution and Adventure returned to New Zealand where they once again became separated near Cook Strait in a gale.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a bigger hero.^ Among the general public, however, the aristocratic botanist Joseph Banks was a bigger hero.

^ Joseph Banks, a botanist, went on the first voyage along with fellow botanist Daniel Solander from Sweden.

^ Facsimile of the Journal of HMS Endeavour by Joseph Banks http://www.genesis-publications.com/voyages/endeavour.html .

[2] .Banks even attempted to take command of Cook's second voyage, but removed himself from the voyage before it began, and Johann Reinhold Forster and his son Georg Forster were taken on as scientists for the voyage.^ Forster, Johann Reinhold, 1729-1798.

^ Banks even attempted to take command of Cook's second voyage, but removed himself from the voyage before it began.

^ On his second voyage Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendal, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, 13 cm (5 inches) in diameter.

.Cook's son George was born five days before he left for his second voyage.^ Cook arrived on the same day his second son, Nathaniel, was born.

^ On his second voyage Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendal, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, 13 cm (5 inches) in diameter.

^ For his third voyage Cook once again advised the Admiralty of the suitability of Whitby ships for the type of exploration being undertaken and chose the Resolution for the second time.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

[16]
.
The routes of Captain James Cook's voyages.
^ Statue of Captain James Cook at sunset.
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Cook's account of his voyage was completed by Captain James King.

^ The south-Pacific routes of Captain James Cook's voyages.

.The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue.^ The first voyage is shown in red , second voyage in green , and third voyage in blue .

^ The first voyage is shown in red , second voyage in green , third voyage in blue .

^ Cook in his first voyage, 1768-1771 [electronic resource] : also of prints published in Hawksworth's voyages of Biron, Wallis and Cook, 1773 ; as well as in Cook's second and third voyages, 177 .

The route of Cook's crew following his death is shown as a dashed blue line.

Second voyage (1772–75)

James Cook's 1777 South-Up map of South Georgia
Shortly after his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of Commander.[17] Then once again he was commissioned by the Royal Society to search for the mythical Terra Australis. .On his first voyage, Cook had demonstrated by circumnavigating New Zealand that it was not attached to a larger landmass to the south; and although by charting almost the entire eastern coastline of Australia he had shown it to be continental in size, the Terra Australis being sought was supposed to lie further to the south.^ This was James Cook's first known chart.

^ It was on his first voyage, in 1770 (while in the South Pacific region to observe the transit of Venus)...
  • "Captain James Cook" (1987) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three famous voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : narrating his discoveries and adventures in Tierra del Fuego, Tahiti, New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Australia, the Friendly Islands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the Sandwich Islands, western .

.Despite this evidence to the contrary, Dalrymple and others of the Royal Society still believed that this massive southern continent should exist.^ By late 1767 the Royal Society was committed to the scheme and nominated Alexander Dalrymple to lead an expedition to the Pacific, where, it had been determined, the best sightings of the Transit would occur.

^ People in Europe postulated that there was a southern continent waiting to be discovered and for its minerals, spices and other resources to be exploited.

^ Thomas Hornsby made representations to the Royal Society that Britain should play a significant role this time.

.Cook commanded HMS Resolution on this voyage, while Tobias Furneaux commanded its companion ship, HMS Adventure.^ Written by James Cook, commander of the Resolution.

^ The Adventure , which cost the Navy 2,103, was placed under the command of Captain Tobias Furneaux, a Devonshireman who had been Second Lieutenant under Wallis on the Dolphin .

^ Mindful of being parted from Adventure on his second voyage, Cook set a rendezvous with the Discovery at Furneaux's Adventure Bay in Van Diemen's Land and then Ship's Cove in Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Cook's expedition circumnavigated the globe at a very high southern latitude, becoming one of the first to cross the Antarctic Circle on 17 January 1773. He also surveyed, mapped and took possession for Britain of South Georgia explored by Anthony de la Roché in 1675, discovered and named Clerke Rocks and the South Sandwich Islands ('Sandwich Land').^ She was the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle (17 January 1773) and crossed twice more on the voyage.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Centenaire de la mort de Cook.

^ The first crossing of the Antarctic circle occurred in January 1773.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

.In the Antarctic fog, Resolution and Adventure became separated.^ They became separated in a heavy fog when only about 75 miles from Enderby Land but did not know that land was close.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ After discovering islands named by Tasman, the Resolution and Adventure returned to New Zealand where they once again became separated near Cook Strait in a gale.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ They were comissioned under the names of Drake and Raleigh which subsequently became the Resolution and Adventure .
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

Furneaux made his way to New Zealand, where he lost some of his men following a fight with Māori, and eventually sailed back to Britain, while Cook continued to explore the Antarctic, reaching 71°10'S on 31 January 1774.
.Cook almost encountered the mainland of Antarctica, but turned back north towards Tahiti to resupply his ship.^ Cook's Voyages round the world [electronic resource], for making discoveries towards the North and South poles.

He then resumed his southward course in a second fruitless attempt to find the supposed continent. .On this leg of the voyage he brought with him a young Tahitian named Omai, who proved to be somewhat less knowledgeable about the Pacific than Tupaia had been on the first voyage.^ It was on his first voyage, in 1770 (while in the South Pacific region to observe the transit of Venus)...
  • "Captain James Cook" (1987) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Freelove" on which James Cook served his first voyage to sea, was about 450 tons in weight.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This interesting evidence was brought to light by Sir Alfred Stephen, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, and puts an end to the legend which was long current, that Port Jackson was named after a sailor who first saw it.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.On his return voyage, in 1774 he landed at the Friendly Islands, Easter Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and Vanuatu.^ Three famous voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : narrating his discoveries and adventures in Tierra del Fuego, Tahiti, New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Australia, the Friendly Islands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the Sandwich Islands, western .

^ His short stay in Scotland, the country of his father, made an impression as he later used the name New Caledonia for an island in the Pacific, Caledonia being an ancient name for part of Scotland.

^ At 2 P.M. I left Lizard Island in order to return to the Ship, and in my way landed upon the low sandy Isle mentioned in coming out.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

His reports upon his return home put to rest the popular myth of Terra Australis.
.Another accomplishment of the second voyage was the successful employment of the Larcum Kendall K1 chronometer, which enabled Cook to calculate his longitudinal position with much greater accuracy.^ It sent William Wales, a highly qualified astronomer, with Cook and entrusted a new chronometer, recently completed by Larcum Kendall (K1), together with three chronometers made by John Arnold of Aldophi.
  • Captain James Cook - Whitby Accommodation - Queensland Bed & Breakfast 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Captain James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.queensland.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Cook in his first voyage, 1768-1771 [electronic resource] : also of prints published in Hawksworth's voyages of Biron, Wallis and Cook, 1773 ; as well as in Cook's second and third voyages, 177 .

^ Containing a complete historical account of Captain Cook's first, second, third and last voyages, undertaken for making new discoveries, &c.

.Cook's log was full of praise for the watch and the charts of the southern Pacific Ocean he made with its use were remarkably accurate – so much so that copies of them were still in use in the mid 20th century.^ On July 30th 1768 Cook received his secret instructions from the Admiralty and made ready to sail to the Pacific to observe the Transit of Venus and to search for Terra australis incognita, the Great Southern Continent.

^ Remarkable Ocean World of Captain James Cook http://www.oceansonline.com/captain_cook.htm .

^ According to media reports in Mississippi , Cook and Murphy were still meeting as of mid-afternoon.
  • James 'Bus' Cook - NFL Nation Blog - ESPN 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC espn.go.com [Source type: General]

[18]
.Upon his return, Cook was promoted to the rank of Captain and given an honorary retirement from the Royal Navy, as an officer in the Greenwich Hospital.^ Royal Copenhagen plate of Captain James Cook, 1978 http://www.allensinc.com/copenhagen/hist78.htm .

^ "In the wake of Captain Cook" an MPEG video clip promoting a CD-i title http://www.icdia.org/video/videos_sw.html .

^ Science of Cook's voyages, part of the Royal Navy in the 18th Century http://www.oak.netfirms.com/chap7.html .

His acceptance was reluctant, insisting that he be allowed to quit the post if the opportunity for active duty presented itself.[19] .His fame now extended beyond the Admiralty and he was also made a Fellow of the Royal Society and awarded the Copley Gold Medal, painted by Nathaniel Dance-Holland, dined with James Boswell and described in the House of Lords as "the first navigator in Europe".^ Code: H501221 Artist: Dance Holland, Nathaniel (1734-1811) Title: James Cook, English explorer, navigator and hydrographer, 1775-1776 Genre: Painting Period/Style: Eighteenth Century Location: National Maritime Museum Greenwich .

^ At 8 we were abreast of a high point of Land, which made in 2 Hillocks; this point I called Cape Hawke* (* After Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, First Lord of the Admiralty.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Rick, oh spelling lord and analytics genius… my site traffic has dropped because this is the first post I’ve made in over two months.
  • James Cook of Kawink Wants to Know What You Think - Sugarrae 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.sugarrae.com [Source type: General]

[8] But he could not be kept away from the sea. .A third voyage was planned to find the Northwest Passage.^ Third voyage to seek the Northwest Passage in the ships Resolution and Discovery begins.
  • James Cook timeline: Alaskana | adn.com 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

^ Another attempt was made to find the Northwest Passage, which also failed, and the ships sailed to Petropavlosk where, just offshore, Clerke died of tuberculosis which he had.

^ After a short stay he headed for New Albion, the Canadian coast and an attempt to find the Northwest Passage.

.Cook travelled to the Pacific and hoped to travel east to the Atlantic, while a simultaneous voyage travelled the opposite way.^ Captain Cook's three voyages to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, [microform] : in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 and 1780.

^ Further east is Greenwich where Cook spent a short period between his second and third voyages as a Captain at Greenwich Hospital.

Third voyage (1776–79) and death

A statue of James Cook stands in Waimea, Kauai commemorating his first contact with the Hawaiian Islands at the town's harbour on January 1778
.On his last voyage, Cook once again commanded HMS Resolution, while Captain Charles Clerke commanded HMS Discovery.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Written by James Cook, commander of the Resolution.

^ Captain Cook's voyages of discovery.

Ostensibly the voyage was planned to return Omai to Tahiti; this is what the general public believed, as he had become a favourite curiosity in London. .Principally the purpose of the voyage was an attempt to discover the famed Northwest Passage.^ Third voyage to seek the Northwest Passage in the ships Resolution and Discovery begins.
  • James Cook timeline: Alaskana | adn.com 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

.After returning Omai, Cook travelled north and in 1778 became the first European to visit the Hawaiian Islands.^ It was July 30th when Cook joined his new ship so it is probable that he made visit to his family and friends on the way north.

^ Frequent wars raged in the island for many years after Cook’s first visit.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ PREVIOUS to Cook’s visit no European, so far as is known, had ever sighted the East Coast of Australia, or, as it was then called, New Holland.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.In passing and after initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich, the acting First Lord of the Admiralty.^ The Main land within the above Islands forms a point, which I call Cape Grenville* (* George Grenville was First Lord of the Admiralty for a few months in 1763, and afterwards Prime Minister for two years.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There is another statue of Cook in Central London in the Mall outside The Admiralty, to which he would have been a regular visitor after his first and second voyages.

^ At 8 we were abreast of a high point of Land, which made in 2 Hillocks; this point I called Cape Hawke* (* After Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, First Lord of the Admiralty.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.From the South Pacific, he went northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.^ Trending of the Coast, which is North on the one Side and South-West on the other.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Journal of Captain Cook's last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, [electronic resource] : and in quest of a north-west passage, between Asia & America; performed in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, and 1779.

^ Miles broad, and 8 or 9 Leagues in length, North by West 1/2 West and South by East 1/2 East.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.He made landfall at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, near Cape Foulweather on the Oregon coast, which he named.^ (Latitude 20 degrees 30 minutes, Longitude 211 degrees 28 minutes), and the bay, Repulse Bay, which is formed by these 2 Capes.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Pictures of Cape Foulweather, named by Cook, from the Lookout Gift Shop http://www.lookoutgiftshop.com/cgi-bin/picturegallery.cgi .

^ At noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 22 degrees 53 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Capricorn 0 degrees 20 minutes West.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward.^ Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century.
  • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ P.M., saw 7 or 8 of the Natives on the South side of the River, and 2 of them came down upon the Sandy point opposite the Ship; but as soon as I put off in a Boat in order to speak with them they run away as fast as they could.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33 degrees 22 minutes South, and about 3 Leagues from the land, the Northermost part of which in sight bore North 19 degrees East.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[20] .He unknowingly sailed past the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and soon after entered Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island.^ History of Nootka Sound Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.island.net/~goldriv/history.html and then at http://www.village.goldriver.bc.ca/pages/hist_Nootka.html .

He anchored near the First Nations village of Yuquot. .Cook's two ships spent about a month in Nootka Sound, from March 29 to April 26, 1778, in what Cook called Ship Cove, now Resolution Cove,[21] at the south end of Bligh Island, about 5 miles (8.0 km) east across Nootka Sound from Yuquot, a Nuu-chah-nulth village whose chief who Cook did not identify but may have been Maquinna.^ Why did Cook call it Owhyhee?

^ Joe Mescher March 16, 2009 at 4:42 pm First post in two months is an awesome ninja attack against an entitled blogger… .
  • James Cook of Kawink Wants to Know What You Think - Sugarrae 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.sugarrae.com [Source type: General]

^ At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33 degrees 22 minutes South, and about 3 Leagues from the land, the Northermost part of which in sight bore North 19 degrees East.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Relations between Cook's crew of the people of Yuquot were cordial if sometimes strained. .In trading, the people of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the usual trinkets that had worked for Cook's crew in Hawaii.^ This bank, at least so much as we sounded, extends nearly North and South, how far I cannot say; its breadth, however, is not more than 1/4 or at most 1/2 a Mile.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This inequality of the Tide I did not observe till we run ashore; perhaps it is much more so to the Northward than to the Southward.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Solander observed as well as Mr. Green and myself, and we differ’d from one another in Observing the times of the Contact much more than could be expected.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Metal objects were much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin traded at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items the British received in trade were sea otter pelts. Over the month long stay the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the trade with the British vessels, instead of vice versa. Generally the natives visited the British vessles at Resolution Cove instead of the British visiting the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.[22]
.After leaving Nootka Sound, Cook explored and mapped the coast all the way to the Bering Strait, on the way identifying what came to be known as Cook Inlet in Alaska.^ Russian explorer Vitus Bering makes his first voyage up the Siberian coast and passes through Bering Strait.
  • James Cook timeline: Alaskana | adn.com 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

^ James Cook at Prince William Sound, May 1778 http://www.alaska.net/~awss/HBeringCook.html .

^ Club collected by Cook in Nootka Sound, 1778 http://www.umma.lsa.umich.edu/ethnology/Pounder/Cook_Pounder.html .

.It has been said that, in a single visit, Cook charted the majority of the North American northwest coastline on world maps for the first time, determined the extent of Alaska and closed the gaps in Russian (from the West) and Spanish (from the South) exploratory probes of the Northern limits of the Pacific.^ This was James Cook's first known chart.

^ Wind at South, a Gentle breeze, and stood away to the North-West, between the Outermost range of Islands* (* The Keppel Islands.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The farthest part of the Main in sight, on the other side of the inlet, bore North-West; our Latitude by Observation was 21 degrees 53 minutes South.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.The Bering Strait proved to be impassable, although he made several attempts to sail through it.^ The fact was not positively known until Dr. Bass sailed through the Strait in a whale-boat in 1797.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

He became increasingly frustrated on this voyage, and perhaps began to suffer from a stomach ailment; it has been speculated that this led to irrational behaviour towards his crew, such as forcing them to eat walrus meat, which they found inedible.[23]
.Cook returned to Hawaiʻi in 1779. After sailing around the archipelago for some eight weeks, he made landfall at Kealakekua Bay, on 'Hawaiʻi Island', largest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago.^ There is a memorial to Cook on Crow Hill overlooking the Humber River in the Bay of Islands.

^ Pointe Ferolle was reached in the August and Cook made his way back to the Bay of Islands, where he stayed for a month.

^ John's was quickly retaken and Cook began making surveys and charts around the Southeast of the island at Placentia, St. Mary's, Trinity, Carbonnear and around St. John's.

Cook's arrival coincided with the Makahiki, a Hawaiian harvest festival of worship for the Polynesian god Lono. .Indeed the form of Cook's ship, HMS Resolution, or more particularly the mast formation, sails and rigging, resembled certain significant artifacts that formed part of the season of worship.^ Marine surveys of James Cook in North America, 1758-1768, particularly the survey of Newfoundland : a bibliography of printed charts and sailing-directions / by R.A. Skelton and R.V. Tooley.

^ Houghton Mifflin Encyclopedia entry on HMS Resolution http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/ships/html/sh_076200_hmsresolutio.htm .

^ The Royal Naval Dockyard at Deptford, down river from Tower Bridge, fitted out all of Cook's ships and they all sailed from here.

[2][23] .Similarly, Cook's clockwise route around the island of Hawai'i before making landfall resembled the processions that took place in a clockwise direction around the island during the Lono festivals.^ At the Burgeo Islands an auspicious event took place for Cook.

^ John's was quickly retaken and Cook began making surveys and charts around the Southeast of the island at Placentia, St. Mary's, Trinity, Carbonnear and around St. John's.

^ Graves was aware of a strong French presence around Petit-Nord (the Northern Peninsula), part of an area known as the French Shore and Cook was dispatched to make surveys.

.It has been argued (most extensively by Marshall Sahlins) that such coincidences were the reasons for Cook's (and to a limited extent, his crew's) initial deification by some Hawaiians who treated Cook as an incarnation of Lono.^ How "natives" think : about Captain Cook, for example / Marshall Sahlins.

[24] Though this view was first suggested by members of Cook's expedition, the idea that any Hawaiians understood Cook to be Lono, and the evidence presented in support of it was challenged in 1992.[23]
.
Waimea on the island of Kauai, as seen from the ocean.
^ Captain Cook Monument, Waimea, Kauai Island, Hawaii, USA. .
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

Waimea was Cook's first landing point in Hawaiʻi in 1778.
.After a month's stay, Cook got under sail again to resume his exploration of the Northern Pacific.^ Pointe Ferolle was reached in the August and Cook made his way back to the Bay of Islands, where he stayed for a month.

^ Voyage to the Pacific Ocean [electronic resource] : undertaken by the command of His Majesty, for making discoveries in the northern hemisphere : performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, 1780 / .

^ James Cook, 1766 and The original astronomical observations made in the course of a voyage to the Northern Pacific Ocean...

.However, shortly after leaving Hawaiʻi Island, the foremast of the Resolution broke and the ships returned to Kealakekua Bay for repairs.^ At 2 P.M. I left Lizard Island in order to return to the Ship, and in my way landed upon the low sandy Isle mentioned in coming out.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Bays, Harbours, Rivers, and Islands, situated upon the said Coast; after which we fired 3 Volleys of small Arms, which were answer’d by the like number from the Ship.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.It has been hypothesised that the return to the islands by Cook's expedition was not just unexpected by the Hawaiians, but also unwelcome because the season of Lono had recently ended (presuming that they associated Cook with Lono and Makahiki).^ After Cook's death Elizabeth Cook left Mile End in 1788 to live in Clapham on the High Street just north of the Common.

^ At 8 o’clock the Pinnace, in which was one of the Mates, return’d on board, and reported that they had found a good Harbour* (* Cook Harbour, Endeavour River.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

In any case, tensions rose and a number of quarrels broke out between the Europeans and Hawaiians. .On 14 February at Kealakekua Bay, some Hawaiians took one of Cook's small boats.^ Two boats in the sea, Captain Cook s Monument, Kealakekua Bay ...
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ About one P.M. the pinnace having got ahead, and the Yawl we took in Tow, we fill’d and Steer’d North by West, for some small Islands we had in that direction.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Palliser, who would feature often in Cook's life, took the Eagle out to resume patrolling, this time in the Channel's Western Approaches and the Bay of Biscay.

.Normally, as thefts were quite common in Tahiti and the other islands, Cook would have taken hostages until the stolen articles were returned.^ Theft they will not commit to get this Article, and I may say the same of the common Seamen when in these parts.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cook was about to begin an acquaintance with Newfoundland that would last until 1767.

^ I've seen historical records of one family where some would spell it Koch and others would spell it Cook.
  • Descendants of Daniel Cook b. 1808 - The Cook Genealogy Wiki 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC daniel.cook.name [Source type: General]

[2] Indeed, he attempted to take hostage the King of Hawaiʻi, Kalaniʻōpuʻu. The Hawaiians prevented this, and Cook's men had to retreat to the beach. .As Cook turned his back to help launch the boats, he was struck on the head by the villagers and then stabbed to death as he fell on his face in the surf.^ Cook helped in a back-up role by ferrying troops and charting the river.

^ In August Cook had an accident at Unfortunate Cove when a powderhorn exploded damaging his hand (it was the scars from this injury that helped identify his remains after his death in Hawaii in 1779).

^ Cook then helped take a captured prize, the Triton , back to London via Plymouth.

[25] The Hawaiians dragged his body away. .Four of the Marines with Cook were also killed and two wounded in the confrontation.^ Two others were unfortunately drowned, and one killed by a fall; so of the whole number with which I set out from England I lost only four, .
  • EMM News Explorer: James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC emm.newsexplorer.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Death of Cook painted by John Cleveley in 1784
Some scholars suggest that Cook's return to Hawaiʻi outside the season of worship for Lono, which was synonymous with 'peace', and thus in the season of 'war' (being dedicated to Kū, god of war) may have upset the equilibrium and fostered an atmosphere of resentment and aggression from the local population. .Coupled with a jaded grasp of native diplomacy and a burgeoning but limited understanding of local politics, Cook may have inadvertently contributed to the tensions that ultimately brought about his demise.^ About 9 o’Clock in the evening Webb, the Marine, was brought in by some of the natives and sent on board.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Natives gathered about us to the Number of about 30 or 40, and brought us Cocoa Nuts, etc., and seemed as friendly as ever.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

The esteem in which he was nevertheless held by the Hawaiians resulted in his body being retained by their chiefs and elders. .Following the practice of the time, Cook's body underwent funerary rituals similar to those reserved for the chiefs and highest elders of the society.^ This fruit, from what I can find, remains in Season only 8 or 9 months in the year, and as it is the Chief support of the inhabitants a reserve of food must be made for those months when they are without it.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way Cook's name was brought to the attention of the Royal Society, the body that would be involved with sending the expedition to the South Pacific in 1768.

The body was disembowelled, baked to facilitate removal of the flesh, and the bones were carefully cleaned for preservation as religious icons in a fashion somewhat reminiscent of the treatment of European saints in the Middle Ages. .Some of Cook's remains, disclosing some corroborating evidence to this effect, were eventually returned to the British for a formal burial at sea following an appeal by the crew.^ Cook did not return to Newfoundland and his assistant, Matthew Lane, completed what remained to be surveyed.

[26]
.Clerke took over the expedition and made a final attempt to pass through the Bering Strait.^ He afterwards passed through the Strait separating New Guinea from Australia, which now bears his name.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Following the death of Clerke, Resolution and Discovery returned home in October 1780 commanded by John Gore, a veteran of Cook's first voyage, and Captain James King.^ Narrative of the voyages round the world, performed by Captain James Cook.

^ Cook's voyages of discovery / edited by John Barrow ; with four illus.

^ Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) .
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Cook's account of his third and final voyage was completed upon their return by King.^ Pacific images : views from Captain Cook's third voyage : engravings and descriptions from A voyage to the Pacific Ocean, volumes I, II, and III, and the Atlas by Captain James Cook and Captain James King, published as the official edition of the Lords Co .

^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Cook in his first voyage, 1768-1771 [electronic resource] : also of prints published in Hawksworth's voyages of Biron, Wallis and Cook, 1773 ; as well as in Cook's second and third voyages, 177 .

Legacy

A statue of James Cook in Greenwich, London, England
A number of the junior officers who served under Cook went on to distinctive accomplishments of their own. .William Bligh, Cook's sailing master, was given command of HMS Bounty in 1787 to sail to Tahiti and return with breadfruit.^ In 1789 Captain Bligh called at Tahiti in the Bounty, to export young bread-fruit trees to the West Indies.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ William Peckover, who sailed with Cook on all Three Voyages http://www.aynho.net/gunnerp1.htm .

.Bligh is most known for the mutiny of his crew which resulted in his being set adrift in 1789. He later became governor of New South Wales, where he was subject of another mutiny — the only successful armed takeover of an Australian colonial government.^ This interesting evidence was brought to light by Sir Alfred Stephen, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, and puts an end to the legend which was long current, that Port Jackson was named after a sailor who first saw it.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cook's Voyages of Discovery at the Mitchell Library, part of the State Library of New South Wales http://www.atmitchell.com/journeys/history/voyages/voya_voyages.cfm .

^ Book with directions on how to reach nearly 200 exploration sites (including Cook's) along the 4000 kilometre coast of Victoria and New South Wales.

.George Vancouver, one of Cook's midshipmen, later led a voyage of exploration to the Pacific Coast of North America from 1791 to 1794. George Dixon sailed under Cook on his third expedition, and later commanded an expedition of his own.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Captain Cook s third Pacific voyage, 1779 (1832).
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Yorkshireman Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook was a meticulous navigator who sailed his barque Endeavour into the Pacific to observe the passage of Venus across the sun.

.Cook's 12 years sailing around the Pacific Ocean contributed much to European knowledge of the area.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Captain Cook's three voyages to the Pacific Ocean.

^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, [microform] : in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 & 1780: : Together with an account of his death.

.Several islands such as Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) were encountered for the first time by Europeans, and his more accurate navigational charting of large areas of the Pacific was a major achievement.^ To ensure even roasting, stir and baste several times with the pan juices, doing so more frequently toward the end of roasting.

^ On Wallis’s appearance the warlike Tahitians at once attacked the Dolphin, but were easily defeated, and the guns and small arms with which they then for the first time made acquaintance had such an effect upon them that they speedily made peace, and recognised the superiority of Europeans.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The superior women are in every respect as large as Europeans, but the inferior sort are in General small, owing possibly to their early Amours, which they are more addicted to than their superiors.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.To create accurate maps, latitude and longitude need to be known.^ Latitude : -19.329500 & Longitude : 146.758300, Google Map .
  • OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.opendoar.org [Source type: Academic]

Navigators had been able to work out latitude accurately for centuries by measuring the angle of the sun or a star above the horizon with an instrument such as a backstaff or quadrant. .Longitude was more difficult to measure accurately because it requires precise knowledge of the time difference between points on the surface of the earth.^ Solander observed as well as Mr. Green and myself, and we differ’d from one another in Observing the times of the Contact much more than could be expected.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Land which lies North by West 1/2 West, 11 Miles from Point Hillick; the Land between them is very high, and of a craggy, barren surface.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Earth turns a full 360 degrees relative to the sun each day.^ It was nearly calm the whole day, and the Thermometer Exposed to the Sun about the Middle of the day rose to a degree of heat we have not before met with.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Thus longitude corresponds to time: 15 degrees every hour, or 1 degree every 4 minutes.^ Longitude 209 degrees 0 minutes West.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time we were in the Longitude of 213 degrees 57 minutes.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ (Latitude 20 degrees 30 minutes, Longitude 211 degrees 28 minutes), and the bay, Repulse Bay, which is formed by these 2 Capes.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Cook gathered accurate longitude measurements during his first voyage due to his navigational skills, the help of astronomer Charles Green and by using the newly published Nautical Almanac tables, via the lunar distance method — measuring the angular distance from the moon to either the sun during daytime or one of eight bright stars during night-time to determine the time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and comparing that to his local time determined via the altitude of the sun, moon, or stars.^ Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world .
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Would Sea Officers once apply themselves to the making and calculating these Observations they would not find them so very difficult as they at first imagine, especially with the Assistance of the Nautical Almanack and Astronomical Ephemeris, by the help of which the Calculation for finding the Longitude takes up but little more time than that of an Azimuth for finding the Variation of the Compass; but unless this Ephemeris is Published for some time to come, more than either one or 2 Years, it can never be of general use in long Voyages, and in short Voyages it’s not so much wanted.* (* The “Nautical Almanac” was first published for 1767.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cook in his first voyage, 1768-1771 [electronic resource] : also of prints published in Hawksworth's voyages of Biron, Wallis and Cook, 1773 ; as well as in Cook's second and third voyages, 177 .

.On his second voyage Cook used the K1 chronometer made by Larcum Kendall, which was the shape of a large pocket watch, 13 cm (5 inches) in diameter.^ Cook in his first voyage, 1768-1771 [electronic resource] : also of prints published in Hawksworth's voyages of Biron, Wallis and Cook, 1773 ; as well as in Cook's second and third voyages, 177 .

^ John Harrison, inventor of chronometers used by Cook http://www.harrisonclocks.co.uk .

^ Containing a complete historical account of Captain Cook's first, second, third and last voyages, undertaken for making new discoveries, &c.

It was a copy of the H4 clock made by John Harrison, which proved to be the first to keep accurate time at sea when used on the ship Deptford's journey to Jamaica, 1761–1762.
.Ever the observer, Cook was the first European to have extensive contact with various people of the Pacific.^ Apotheosis of Captain Cook : European mythmaking in the Pacific / Gananath Obeyesekere ; with a new [preface and] afterword by the author.

^ Apotheosis of Captain Cook : European mythmaking in the Pacific / Gananath Obeyesekere.

^ Cook's First Voyage, 1768-1771 http://www.muffley.net/pacific/cook/cook1.htm Formerly at http://pacific.vita.org/pacific/cook/cook1.htm .

He correctly concluded there was a relationship among all the people in the Pacific, despite their being separated by thousands of miles of ocean (see Malayo-Polynesian languages). .In New Zealand the coming of Cook is often used to signify the onset of colonisation.^ New Zealand National Parks, including Egmont and Mount Cook http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/2331/npark.html .

^ Captain Cook Motor Lodge, Gisborne, New Zealand http://www.captaincook.co.nz/ .

^ James Cook and New Zealand, the voyage of the Endeavour, 1768-1771, the voyage of the Resolution and Adventure, 1772-1775, the voyage of the Resolution and Discovery, 1776-1780 / [by] A. Charles Begg and Neil C. Begg.

[2][5]
.Cook succeeded in circumnavigating the world on his first voyage without losing a single man to scurvy, an unusual accomplishment at the time.^ Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world .
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : illustrated with maps and numerous engravings on wood and steel.

^ Captain Cook's three voyages round the world, with a sketch of his life, edited by Charles R. Low.

He tested several preventive measures but the most important was frequent replenishment of fresh food.[27]
.James Cook also came up with the theory that Polynesians originated from Asia, which was later proved to be correct by scientist Bryan Sykes.^ James Cook, 1766 and The original astronomical observations made in the course of a voyage to the Northern Pacific Ocean...

^ Captain James Cook : seaman and scientist / Bill Finnis.

^ In the Asia-Pacific region, James Cook University is ranked in the 42-68 grouping of the top 100 and nationally it is ranked in the 10 to 14 grouping.
  • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Cook was accompanied by many scientists, whose observations and discoveries added to the importance of the voyages.^ Captain Cook's voyages of discovery.

^ Cook's Voyages of Discovery at the Mitchell Library, part of the State Library of New South Wales http://www.atmitchell.com/journeys/history/voyages/voya_voyages.cfm .

^ Containing a complete historical account of Captain Cook's first, second, third and last voyages, undertaken for making new discoveries, &c.

.Joseph Banks, a botanist, went on the first voyage along with fellow botanist Daniel Solander from Sweden.^ Daniel Solander, botanical collector on the First Voyage http://www.anbg.gov.au/biography/solander-daniel.html .

^ Banks and some of the Natives of this Island went along with them.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Banks Collection - A Previously Unknown Collection from Cook's First Voyage http://www.prm.ox.ac.uk/bankscollection.html .

Between them they collected over 3,000 plant species. Banks became one of the strongest promoters of the settlement of Australia by the British, based on his own personal observations.
.There were several artists on the first voyage.^ Sydney Parkinson, artist on the First Voyage http://www.anbg.gov.au/biography/parkinson-sydney.html .

.Sydney Parkinson was involved in many of the drawings, completing 264 drawings before his death near the end of the voyage.^ Book about Sydney Parkinson's journal made during Cook's First Voyage http://www.calibanbooks.co.uk/htmlpages/southseas.html .

^ Journal of a voyage to the South Seas in HMS Endeavour / by Sydney Parkinson.

^ Sydney Parkinson, artist on the First Voyage http://www.anbg.gov.au/biography/parkinson-sydney.html .

They were of immense scientific value to British botanists.[2] .Cook's second expedition included the artist William Hodges, who produced notable landscape paintings of Tahiti, Easter Island, and other locations.^ [Tahiti: Expedition round Island.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ William Peckover, who sailed with Cook on all Three Voyages http://www.aynho.net/gunnerp1.htm .

^ The missionaries who came to Tahiti in 1797, in the missionary ship Duff, and settled at Matavai, gathered many details of the history and economy of the islands.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

His contributions were recognised during this era. In 1779, when the American colonies were at war with Britain in their war for independence, Benjamin Franklin wrote to captains of American warships at sea,[29] recommending that if they came into contact with Cook's vessel, to:
...not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in her, nor obstruct her immediate return to .England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness, .^ It occurs in all parts of the world, but is inconspicuous on the coasts of Europe.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ CCS - Other Internet Resources about Captain Cook Other Internet Resources about Captain Cook .

^ Captain G. Edgcumbe commanded the Lancaster in the fleet in North America in 1758 in which Cook served.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

. . as common friends to mankind.
Captain Cook memorial statue at the Catani Gardens St Kilda, Victoria, Australia
.The site where he was killed in Hawaii is marked by a white obelisk and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it is chained off.^ In the P.M. stood off Shore until 2, then Tackt and Stood in till 6, at which time we tack’d and stood off, being then in 54 fathoms and about 4 or 5 miles from the land, the Extreams of which bore from South, 28 degrees West to North 25 degrees 30 minutes East.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time we saw Islands at a good distance off extending from North by West to West-North-West, and behind them another chain of high land, which we likewise judged to be Islands.* (* The islands around Thursday Island.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At 1/2 past 4 P.M., being about 5 Miles from the Land, we Tack’d and stood off South-East and East until 4 A.M., at which time we Tack’d and stood in, being then about 9 or 10 Leagues from the land.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

This land, though in Hawaii, has been given to the United Kingdom. .Therefore, the site is officially a part of the UK.[5] With the jurisdictions reversed exactly the same sort of situation exists at Runnymede where the U.S. has extraterritorial jurisdiction over a monument to John F. Kennedy.^ Here are but few sorts of Trees besides the Gum tree, which is the most numerous, and is the same that we found on the Southern Part of the Coast, only here they do not grow near so large.
  • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.A nearby town is named Captain Cook, Hawaii as well as several businesses.^ We take our name from the eighteenth-century British navigator and explorer Captain James Cook, whose epic voyages contributed to the world of science.
  • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Locations and physical features named after Captain Cook http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~cookgaz.html .

^ Captain James Cook taking possession of New South Wales in the name ...
  • Captain cook Images and Stock Photos. 82 Captain cook photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 11 September 2009 17:37 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.Cook appeared on a United States coin, the 1928 Hawaiian Sesquicentennial half dollar.^ Jamie Cooke - United States Postal Service .
  • James Cook - Jeff Cookston in Jigsaw's Business Contact Directory 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.jigsaw.com [Source type: General]

^ James W Cook - United States Department of Health and Human Ser...
  • James Cook - Jeff Cookston in Jigsaw's Business Contact Directory 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.jigsaw.com [Source type: General]

^ Janet Cook - United States Department of Agriculture .
  • James Cook - Jeff Cookston in Jigsaw's Business Contact Directory 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.jigsaw.com [Source type: General]

Minted during the celebration marking the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage (10,008) has made this example of Early United States commemorative coins both scarce and expensive.
.The first tertiary education institution in North Queensland, Australia was named after him, with James Cook University opening in Townsville in 1970. Numerous other institutions, landmarks and place names reflect the importance of Cook's contribution to knowledge of geography.^ James Cook University ePrints (JCU ePrints) .
  • OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.opendoar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ James Cook: the opening of the Pacific.

^ OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints .
  • OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.opendoar.org [Source type: Academic]

These also include the Cook Islands, the Cook Strait, Cook Inlet, and the Cook crater on the Moon.
.Tributes also abound in post-industrial Middlesbrough, and include a primary school,[30] shopping square[31] and the Bottle 'O Notes a public artwork by Claes Oldenburg erected in the town's Central Gardens in 1993. His nearby birthplace of Marton is the location of both the James Cook University Hospital, a teaching hospital, and the Captain Cook Birthplace Museum.^ James Cook University ePrints (JCU ePrints) .
  • OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.opendoar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints .
  • OpenDOAR - James Cook University ePrints 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.opendoar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We take our name from the eighteenth-century British navigator and explorer Captain James Cook, whose epic voyages contributed to the world of science.
  • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Royal Research Ship RRS James Cook was built in 2006 to replace the RRS Charles Darwin in the UK's Royal Research Fleet.^ James Cook - Starblanket Research .
  • James Cook - Jeff Cookston in Jigsaw's Business Contact Directory 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.jigsaw.com [Source type: General]

^ Captain James Cook, who lived in London between voyages http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConFactFile.66/Captain-James-Cook.html .

^ Royal Copenhagen plate of Captain James Cook, 1978 http://www.allensinc.com/copenhagen/hist78.htm .

.Mount Cook, aka Aoraki, the highest summit in New Zealand, is named for him.^ New Zealand National Parks, including Egmont and Mount Cook http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/2331/npark.html .

^ Captain Cook's Spruce Beer - a modern brew from New Zealand http://www.heritagefoods.co.nz/harringtons.html .

^ Captain Cook Motor Lodge, Gisborne, New Zealand http://www.captaincook.co.nz/ .

.Another Mount Cook is on the border between the US state of Alaska and the Canadian Yukon Territory, and is designated Boundary Peak 182 as one of the official Boundary Peaks of the Alaska Boundary Treaty.^ The United States of America and Spain signed the Treaty of Madrid , which established the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the USA. .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | October 27| Thurkill�s Vision purgatory Japan UFO flying saucer Captain James CookSylvia Plath Dylan Thomas teetotal jazz origins 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Janet Cook - State of Alaska .
  • James Cook - Jeff Cookston in Jigsaw's Business Contact Directory 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.jigsaw.com [Source type: General]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b James Cook at the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k per Collingridge (2002)
  3. ^ a b c Rigby & van der Merwe 2002, p25.
  4. ^ Collingridge 2003, p15.
  5. ^ a b c d per Horwitz (2003)
  6. ^ a b c Rigby & van der Merwe, p27.
  7. ^ Famous 18th century people of Barking and Dagenham Info Sheet #22, LB Barking & Dagenham
  8. ^ a b c G. Williams (2002)
  9. ^ Life in the Royal Navy (1755-1767), The Captain Cook Society: Cook's Log, by Paul Capper 1985–1996
  10. ^ Dean & Kemp, Oxford Companion of Ships and the Sea (Oxford U Press, 2005)
  11. ^ Williams, Glyn (2002-08-01). "Captain Cook: Explorer, Navigator and Pioneer". Empire and Seapower. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/captaincook_01.shtml. Retrieved 2007-01-25. 
  12. ^ Rigby and van der Merwe 2002, p. 30
  13. ^ At this time, the International Date Line had yet to be agreed, and so, the dates in Cook's journal are a day earlier than those accepted today.
  14. ^ Cook's journal: daily entry for 22 April 1770 National Library of Australia
  15. ^ "Once were warriors". smh.com.au. 2002-11-11. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/11/10/1036308574533.html. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  16. ^ Captain Cook: Obsession and Discovery TV documentary, Part 2
  17. ^ Hough 1994, page 217
  18. ^ Captain James Cook: His voyages of exploration and the men that accompanied him (National Maritime Museum) accessed 10 Oct 2007
  19. ^ Beaglehole (1974: 444)
  20. ^ Hayes, Derek (1999). Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. pp. 42-43. ISBN 1-57061-215-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=sl57oHrVXGoC. 
  21. ^ Resolution Cove in the BC Geographical Names Information System
  22. ^ Fisher, Robert; Hugh Johnston (1979). Captain James Cook and his Times. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81, 86, 90, 96. ISBN 9780709900504. http://books.google.com/books?id=dhsOAAAAQAAJ. 
  23. ^ a b c G. Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook (1992)
  24. ^ M. Sahlins, Islands of History (1985), University of Chicago Press.
  25. ^ V. Collingridge (2003) page 410 et seq. Obsession and Betrayal
  26. ^ V. Collingridge (2003) page 413 Obsession and Betrayal
  27. ^ Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2006). Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 297. ISBN 0-393-06259-7. 
  28. ^ Sykes, Bryan (2001). The Seven Daughters of Eve. Norton Publishing: New York City, NY and London, England. ISBN 0-393-02018-5. 
  29. ^ "Worldly Ways, Cook Islands". Benjamin Franklin. Twin Cities Public Television. 2002. http://www.pbs.org/benfranklin/exp_worldly_cook.html. Retrieved 2007-06-11.  Unknown to Franklin, Cook had met his death a month before this "passport" was written.
  30. ^ Profile of Captain Cook Primary School at BBC News
  31. ^ "Captain Cook Shopping Square". Captaincookshopping.com. http://www.captaincookshopping.com/. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 

References

  • Aughton, Peter. .2002, Endeavour: The Story of Captain Cook's First Great Epic Voyage.^ We take our name from the eighteenth-century British navigator and explorer Captain James Cook, whose epic voyages contributed to the world of science.
    • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Narrative of the Voyages Round The World, Performed by Captain James Cook by Kippis, 1898 http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/c/cook/james/c77n/ Formerly at http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/c/c77n/ .

    ^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

    .Cassell & Co., London.
  • Beaglehole, John, biographer of Cook and editor of his Journals.
  • Collingridge, Vanessa.^ Albert John Cook , born March 22, 1883 in Carthage, Dallas Co., Missouri; died December 27, 1957 in Sacramento, California.
    • Descendants of Daniel Cook b. 1808 - The Cook Genealogy Wiki 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC daniel.cook.name [Source type: General]

    ^ John Harrison, inventor of chronometers used by Cook http://www.harrisonclocks.co.uk .

    ^ Captain Cook's second voyage : the journals of Lieutenants Elliott and Pickersgill / by John Elliott and Richard Pickersgill ; edited and introduced by Christine Holmes.

    Feb. .2003 Captain Cook: The Life, Death and Legacy of History's Greatest Explorer, Ebury Press, ISBN 0-09-188898-0
  • Edwards, Philip, ed.^ The Great Explorers - Captain James Cook Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.tidalpassages.com/culthis/grtexpl1.html .

    ^ Captain Cook's three voyages round the world, with a sketch of his life, edited by Charles R. Low.

    ^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean, [microform] : in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779 & 1780: : Together with an account of his death.

    .2003, James Cook: The Journals.^ Voyages of Captain James Cook round the world / selected from his journals and edited by Christopher Lloyd.

    ^ Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) .
    • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Facsimile of the Journal of HMS Resolution 1772-75 by James Cook http://www.genesis-publications.com/voyages/resolution.html .

    Prepared from the original manuscripts by J. C. Beaglehole 1955–67. Penguin Books, London.
  • Forster, Georg. .A Voyage Round the World, ed.^ Voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : illustrated with maps and numerous engravings on wood and steel.

    ^ Captain Cook's three voyages round the world, with a sketch of his life, edited by Charles R. Low.

    ^ Narrative of the voyages round the world, performed by Captain James Cook.

    .1986 (published first 1777 as: A Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty's Sloop Resolution, Commanded by Capt.^ Voyage round the world, in His Britannic Majesty's sloop, Resolution, commanded by Capt.

    ^ Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world .
    • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter8) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
    • Captain Cook's Journal during his first voyage round the world, by James Cook (chapter3) 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : illustrated with maps and numerous engravings on wood and steel.

    .James Cook, during the Years, 1772, 3, 4, and 5), Wiley-VCH (1 January 1986).^ James Cook, during the years 1772, 3, 4, and 5.

    ^ James Mitchell5 Cook (Rual Calvin "Dusty"4, Albert John3, Joseph S. "Dutch"2, Daniel1) was born January 28, 1972 in Old Kaiser Hosp.
    • Descendants of Daniel Cook b. 1808 - The Cook Genealogy Wiki 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC daniel.cook.name [Source type: General]

    ^ Captain James Cook--after two hundred years, a commemorative address delivered before the Hakluyt Society / by R. A. Skelton.

    ISBN 978-3050001807
  • Horwitz, Tony. Oct. .2003, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-6455-8
  • Hough, Richard (1994).^ Murder of Captain James Cook / [by] Richard Hough.

    ^ Captain James Cook : / Richard Hough.

    ^ Captain James Cook; a bibliography of literature printed in Sweden before 1819.

    .Captain James Cook.^ The Great Explorers - Captain James Cook Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.tidalpassages.com/culthis/grtexpl1.html .

    ^ Captain James Cook monument, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada http://www.clevermag.com/essays/cook2.htm .

    ^ Captain James Cook in OCEANIA by Jane Resture http://www.janeresture.com/captcook/ .

    Hodder and Stoughton. .ISBN 0340825561. 
  • Andrew Kippis, The Life and Voyages of Captain James Cook, Westminster 1788, George Newnes, London/Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1904.
  • Obeyesekere, Gananath.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

    ^ The Great Explorers - Captain James Cook Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.tidalpassages.com/culthis/grtexpl1.html .

    ^ By Captain James Cook, F.R.S. and Captai .

    .1992, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific Princeton University Press.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

    ^ The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow: Captain Cook Voyages of Discovery http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/collections/museum/cook/cook.shtml Formerly at http://www.gla.ac.uk/Museum/HuntMus/cook and then at http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/HuntMus/cook and then at http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/museum/cook/cook.html .

    ^ Captain Cook's three voyages to the Pacific Ocean.

    .ISBN 0-691-05752-4.
  • Rae, Julie, 1997 "Captain James Cook Endeavours" Stepney Historical Trust London
  • Richardson, Brian.^ The Great Explorers - Captain James Cook Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.tidalpassages.com/culthis/grtexpl1.html .

    ^ Captain James Cook monument, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada http://www.clevermag.com/essays/cook2.htm .

    ^ Voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : illustrated with maps and numerous engravings on wood and steel.

    .2005. Longitude and Empire: How Captain Cook's Voyages Changed the World University of British Columbia Press.^ Captain Cook's third and last voyage to the Pacific Ocean.

    ^ Captain James Cook monument, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada http://www.clevermag.com/essays/cook2.htm .

    ^ The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow: Captain Cook Voyages of Discovery http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/collections/museum/cook/cook.shtml Formerly at http://www.gla.ac.uk/Museum/HuntMus/cook and then at http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/HuntMus/cook and then at http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/museum/cook/cook.html .

    ISBN 0-7748-1190-0.
  • Rigby, Nigel; van der Merwe, Pieter (2002). .Captain Cook in the Pacific.^ Captain Cook's 1777 Landing at Tongatapu http://www.tonga.pictures-pacific.com/tongatapu/north-captaincook.html .

    ^ Captain Cook at the Museum of Ethnology, Vienna Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.ethno-museum.ac.at/en/collections/pacific/cook-i.html and then at http://www.ethno-museum.ac.at/en/collections/pacific/cook.html .

    .National Maritime Museum, London UK. ISBN 0948065435. 
  • Sydney Daily Telegraph.^ Charts by Cook at the National Maritime Museum, London http://www.nmm.ac.uk/collections/unicorn/chartList.cfm?maker=Cook%2C%20James .

    ^ National Maritime Museum's shopping gallery Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.nmm.ac.uk/shop/cook/list.html and then at http://www.nmm.ac.uk/shop/cook/list.htm and then at http://www.nmm.ac.uk/shop/cook/ .

    ^ Images of people and places associated with Cook at the National Maritime Museum, London http://www.nmm.ac.uk/searchbin/searchs.pl?exhibit=thumbs&axis=ic0108z&flash=false&dev= .

    .1970, Captain Cook: His Artists — His Voyages.^ Voyages of Captain James Cook round the world : illustrated with maps and numerous engravings on wood and steel.

    ^ Captain Cook's three voyages round the world, with a sketch of his life, edited by Charles R. Low.

    ^ Captain Cook's three voyages to the Pacific Ocean.

    .The Sydney Daily Telegraph Portfolio of Original Works by Artists who sailed with Captain Cook.^ June 24 , 1929 ), artist on the Sydney Bulletin (the one who 'discovered' the great cartoonist David Low ); he had a cartoon in the first edition in 1880 .
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | October 27| Thurkill�s Vision purgatory Japan UFO flying saucer Captain James CookSylvia Plath Dylan Thomas teetotal jazz origins 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Why Captain Cook always sailed with cabbage on board http://garden.blogware.com/blog/_archives/2007/3/16/2811074.html .

    ^ James Burney, who sailed with Cook and was the brother of Fanny Burney http://burneycentre.mcgill.ca/bio_james.html .

    Australian Consolidated Press, Sydney.
  • Thomas, Nicholas. .2003, The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook.^ Captain James Cook monument, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada http://www.clevermag.com/essays/cook2.htm .

    ^ Shop James Cook James Cook on stamps Cook's voyages More .
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | October 27| Thurkill�s Vision purgatory Japan UFO flying saucer Captain James CookSylvia Plath Dylan Thomas teetotal jazz origins 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Captain James Cook, One of the World's Greatest Explorers http://www.captainjamescook.com.au/ .

    Walker & Co., New York. ISBN 0-8027-1412-9
  • Villiers, Alan (Summer 1956–57). ."James Cook, Seaman". Quadrant 1 (1): 7–16. 
  • Villiers, Alan John, 1903–.^ MARY ABAGAIL 3 COOK (HENRY W. 2 , JAMES 1 ) 75 was born September 16, 1868 in Dahlgren, IL 76 , and died October 15, 1922 in Dahlgren, IL 77 .
    • Descendants of James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.carolyar.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ More About JOHN R. COOK: Burial: Richardson Hill Cemetery, Dahlgren Township, Hamilton County, Illinois 15 Occupation: Farmer 16 .
    • Descendants of James Cook 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.carolyar.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Captain James Cook / [by] Alan Villiers.

    .Captain James Cook.^ The Great Explorers - Captain James Cook Current location unknown Formerly at http://www.tidalpassages.com/culthis/grtexpl1.html .

    ^ By Captain James Cook, F.R.S. and Captai .

    ^ Captain James Cook monument, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada http://www.clevermag.com/essays/cook2.htm .

    Newport Beach, CA : Books on Tape, 1983.
  • Williams, Glyndwr, ed. .1997, Captain Cook's Voyages: 1768-1779.^ Music inspired by Captain Cook's voyages.

    ^ We take our name from the eighteenth-century British navigator and explorer Captain James Cook, whose epic voyages contributed to the world of science.
    • James Cook University School of Medicine, Australia - ValueMD Medical Schools Forum 15 January 2010 14:37 UTC www.valuemd.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some engravings of Captain Cook's Voyages at The Maritime Gallery http://www.themaritimegallery.co.uk/captain-cook-voyages.php .

    The Folio Society, London.
  • Williams, G (Prof.), 2002 Captain Cook: Explorer, Navigator and Pioneer, BBC History 2002

External links

.
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Nevil Maskelyne
Copley Medal
1776
Succeeded by
John Mudge

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. 1775, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich]] Captain James Cook, FRS (27 October 1728 (O.S.) – 14 February 1779) was an English explorer, navigator and cartographer. He made three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, mapping many areas and recording several islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He is most notable for the British finding the east coast of Australia, finding the Hawaiian Islands and the first mapping of Newfoundland and New Zealand.

During his lifetime, he sailed twice around the world. He crossed the Antarctic Circle and found new islands and landscapes in North America and the South Pacific. During his trips, he spent a lot of time on science experiments, and mapping new areas. He also wrote a lot of books about what he found.

Cook's Life

Cook was born on October 27, 1728 in Marton in (Yorkshire).[1] He was a son of a Scottish farmer. He was educated at the school in Great Ayton, and at 17 he began work in a shop at Staithes.[1] At 18, Cook became a sailor, and became an apprentice to John Walker of Whitby. Walker's business was transporting coal.[1] Cook learned mathematics and navigation from Walker. Cook was not just a normal seaman. He studied as much as he could. That is how he learned a lot of good knowledge about navigation and science. He was sent on three expeditions with the ship called Endeavour all over the world.

His goals on these missions were:

  • to find the Southern continent (terra australis incognita)
  • to make astronomical measures of Venus
  • to map new lands
  • to take over the land for the British King George III
  • to watch for good places for new military bases
  • to find new routes between the Pacific and the Atlantic.

At the beginning, it was an honour to be on these expeditions. After a while, money was the most important reason for doing his job.[needs proof] After his death, his wife inherited 70,000 gold coins.[needs proof]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Cook, James (1728-1779) Biographical Entry" (in English). Australian Dictionary of Biography On Line Edition. Australian National University. 1966. http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A010231b.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-28. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on James Cook, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message