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James Dwight Dana

James Dwight Dana
Born February 12, 1813(1813-02-12)
Utica, New York
Died April 14, 1895 (aged 82)
Nationality American
Fields geology, mineralogy, zoology
Influences Benjamin Silliman

James Dwight Dana (February 12, 1813 – April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist. He made important studies of mountain-building, volcanic activity, and the origin and structure of continents and oceans.

Contents

Early life and career

Dana was born in Utica, New York. He showed an early interest in science, which had been fostered by Fay Edgerton, a teacher in the Utica high school, and in 1830 he entered Yale College in order to study under Benjamin Silliman the elder. Graduating in 1833, for the next two years he was teacher of mathematics to midshipmen in the Navy, and sailed to the Mediterranean while engaged in his duties.

In 1836 and 1837 he was assistant to Professor Silliman in the chemical laboratory at Yale, and then, for four years, acted as mineralogist and geologist of the United States Exploring Expedition, commanded by Captain Charles Wilkes, in the Pacific Ocean. His labors in preparing the reports of his explorations occupied parts of thirteen years after his return to America in 1842. His notebooks from the four years of travel contained fifty sketches, maps, and diagrams, including views of both Mount Shasta and Castle Crags. Dana's sketch of Mount Shasta was engraved in 1849 for publication in the American Journal of Science and Arts (which Silliman had founded in 1818), along with a lengthy article based on Dana's 1841 geological notes. In the article he described in scientific terms the rocks, minerals, and geology of the Shasta region. As far as is known, his sketch of Mount Shasta became the second view of the mountain ever published.

In 1844 he again became a resident of New Haven, and married Professor Silliman's daughter, Henrietta Frances Silliman. In 1850, he was appointed as Silliman's successor, as Silliman Professor of Natural History and Geology in Yale College, a position which he held until 1892. In 1846 he became joint editor, and during the later years of his life was chief editor, of the American Journal of Science and Arts, to which he was a constant contributor, principally of articles on geology and mineralogy.

The 1849 publication of his geology of Mount Shasta was undoubtedly a response to the gold rush publicity. Dana was the pre-eminent U.S. geologist of his time, and he also was one of the few trained observers anywhere who had first hand knowledge of the northern California terrain. He had previously written that there was likelihood that gold was to be found all along the route between the Umpqua River in Oregon and the Sacramento Valley. He was probably deluged with inquiries about the Shasta region, and was forced to publish in more detail some advice to the would-be gold miners.

Dana was responsible for developing much of the early knowledge on Hawaiian volcanism. In 1880 and 1881 he led the first geological study of the volcanics of Hawaii island. Dana theorized that the volcanic chain consisted of two volcanic strands, dubbed the "Loa" and "Kea" trends. The Kea trend included Kilauea, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Haleakala, and West Maui. The Loa trend includes Loiʻhi, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kahoolawe, Lanai, and West Molokai.

Following another expedition by fellow geologist C. E. Dutton in 1884, Dana returned to the island once again and in 1890 he published a manuscript on the island that was the most detailed of its day, and would be the definite source upon the island's volcanics for decades.

Dana's son, Edward Salisbury Dana (1849-1935) was also a distinguished mineralogist.

Publications

Etisus dentatus, from Dana's 1855 work Crustacea

Dana's best known books were his System of Mineralogy (1837), his Manual of Mineralogy (1848)[1], and his Manual of Geology (1863)[2]. A bibliographical list of his writings shows 214 titles of books and papers, beginning in 1835 with a paper on the conditions of Vesuvius in 1834. His reports on Zoophytes, on the Geology of the Pacific Area, and on Crustacea, summarizing his work on the Wilkes Expedition, appeared from 1846 onwards. Other works included Manual of Mineralogy (1848), afterwards entitled Manual of Mineralogy and Lithology (ed. 4, 1887); and Corals and Coral Islands] (1872; revised ed. 1890)[3]. In 1887, Dana revisited the Hawaiian Islands, and the results of his further investigations were published in a quarto volume entitled Characteristics of Volcanoes (1890)[4].

The Manual of Mineralogy by J. D. Dana became a standard college text, and has been continuously revised and updated by a succession of editors including W. E. Ford (13th-14th eds., 1912-1929) and Cornelius S. Hurlbut (15th-21st eds., 1941-1999). The 22nd edition is now in print under the title of Manual of Mineral Science (2002), revised by Cornelis Klein.

Dana's System of Mineralogy has also been revised, the 6th edition (1892)[5] being edited by his son E. S. Dana. A 7th edition was published in 1944, and the 8th edition was published in 1997 under the title Dana's New Mineralogy, edited by R. V. Gaines et al.

Dana published a number of manuscripts in an effort to reconcile scientific findings with the Bible between 1856 and 1857 and which are called Science and the Bible.[6]

Awards

Dana was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society in 1877, the Wollaston Medal by the Geological Society of London in 1874 and the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1882.

Things named in honor of Dana

Notes

  1. ^ Dana, James Dwight; Ford, William Ebenezer (1915). Dana's Manual of Mineralogy for the Student of Elementary Mineralogy, the Mining Engineer, the Geologist, the Prospector, the Collector, Etc. (13 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 299–300. http://www.archive.org/details/danasmanualmine00fordgoog. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  2. ^ Dana, James Dwight (1880). Manual of geology: Treating of the Principles of the Science with Special Reference to American geological history, for the use of colleges, academies, and schools of science (3 ed.). New York: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor and Co.. http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC59550973&id=QjwDAAAAQAAJ. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  3. ^ Dana, James Dwight (1875). Corals and coral islands (2 ed.). London, UK: Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle. http://www.archive.org/details/coralscoralislan00dana. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  4. ^ Dana, James Dwight (1891). Characteristics of volcanoes : with contributions of facts and principles from the Hawaiian Islands. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co.. http://www.archive.org/details/characteristicso00dana. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  5. ^ Dana, Edward Salisbury (1911). The system of mineralogy of James Dwight Dana (2 ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons. http://www.archive.org/details/mineralogyjames00danaric. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  6. ^ Dana, James Dwight (1856). Science and the Bible: a review of "the six days of creation" of Prof. Taylor Lewis. Andover: Warren F. Draper. http://www.farlang.com/gemstones/dana-science-bible/page_001. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 

References

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Frederick McCoy
Clarke Medal
1882
Succeeded by
Ferdinand von Mueller
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JAMES DWIGHT DANA (1813-1895), American geologist, mineralogist and zoologist, was born in Utica, New York, on the 12th of February 1813. He early displayed a taste for science, which had been fostered by Fay Edgerton, a teacher in theUtica high school, and in 1830 he entered Yale College, in order to study under Benjamin Silliman the elder. Graduating in 1833, for the next two years he was teacher of mathematics to midshipmen in the navy, and sailed to the Mediterranean while engaged in his duties. From 1835 to 1837 he was assistant to Professor Silliman in the chemical laboratory at Yale, and then, for five years, acted as mineralogist and geologist of a United States exploring expedition, commanded by Captain Charles Wilkes, in the Southern and Pacific oceans. His labours in preparing the reports of his explorations occupied parts of thirteen years after his return to America in 1842. In 1844 he again became a resident of New Haven, married the daughter of Professor Silliman, and in 1850, on the resignation of the latter, was appointed Silliman Professor of Natural History and Geology in Yale College, a position which he held till 1892. In 1846 he became joint editor and during the later years of his life he was chief editor of the American Journal of Science and Arts (founded in 1818 by Benjamin Silliman), to which he was a constant contributor, principally of articles on geology and mineralogy. A bibliographical list of his writings shows 214 titles of books and papers, beginning in 1835 with a paper on the conditions of Vesuvius in 1834, and ending with the fourth revised edition (finished in February 1895) of his Manual of Geology. His reports on Zoophytes, on the Geology of the Pacific Area, and on Crustacea, summarizing his work on the Wilkes expedition, appeared in 1846, 1849 and 1852-1854, in quarto volumes, with. copiously illustrated atlases; but as these were issued in small numbers, his reputation more largely rests upon his System of Mineralogy (1837 and many later editions in 1892); Manual of Geology (1862; ed. 4, 1895); Manual of Mineralogy (1848), afterwards entitled Manual of Mineralogy and Lithology (ed. 4, 1887); and Corals and Coral Islands (1872; ed. 2, 1890). In 1887 Dana revisited the Hawaiian Islands, and the results of his further investigations were published in a quarto volume in 1890, entitled Characteristics of Volcanoes. By the Royal Society of London he was awarded the Copley medal in 1877; and by the Geological Society the Wollaston medal in 1874. His powers of work were extraordinary, and in his 82nd year he was occupied in preparing a new edition of his Manual of Geology, the 4th edition being issued in 1895. He died in New Haven on the 14th of April 1895.

His son Edward Salisbury Dana, born at New Haven on the 16th of November 1849, is author of A Textbook of Mineralogy (1877). In 1880 he became professor of natural history in Yale College.

See Life of J. D. Dana, by Daniel C. Gilman (1899).


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