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James Ellroy

Ellroy at the LA Times Festival of Books, April 2009
Born March 4, 1948 (1948-03-04) (age 62)
Los Angeles, California,
United States
Occupation novelist
Nationality American
Genres crime fiction, historical, mystery, noir

James Ellroy (born Lee Earle Ellroy; March 4, 1948) is an American crime writer and essayist.

Ellroy has become known for a so-called "telegraphic" prose style of his most recent work, wherein he frequently omits connecting words and uses only short, staccato sentences.[1] For instance:

They sent him to Dallas to kill a nigger pimp named Wendell Durfee. He wasn't sure he could do it. The Casino Operators Council flew him. They supplied first-class fare. They tapped their slush fund. They greased him. They fed him six cold.[2]

Other hallmarks of his work include dense plotting and a relentlessly pessimistic—albeit moral—worldview.[3][4] His work has earned Ellroy the nickname the "Demon Dog of American crime fiction."[5]

Contents

Early life

Ellroy was born in Los Angeles, California, the son of Geneva Odelia (née Hilliker), a nurse, and Armand Ellroy.[6] After his parents' divorce, Ellroy and his mother relocated to El Monte, California.[7] In 1958, Ellroy's mother was murdered. The police never arrested the perpetrator, and the case remains unsolved. The murder, along with The Badge by Jack Webb (a book composed of sensational cases from the files of the Los Angeles Police Department, a birthday gift from his father), were important events of Ellroy's youth.[7][8]

Ellroy's inability to come to terms with the emotions surrounding his mother's murder led him to transfer them onto another murder victim, Elizabeth Short, the "Black Dahlia"; throughout his youth, Ellroy used Short as a surrogate for his conflicting emotions and desires.[7][9] These confusions led to a period of intense clinical depression, from which he recovered only gradually.[7][8]

Ellroy dropped out of school without graduating. He joined the Army for a short while. During his teens and twenties, he drank heavily and abused Benzedrex inhalers.[10] He was engaged in minor crimes (especially shoplifting, house-breaking and burglary), and was often homeless. After serving some time in jail and suffering a bout of pneumonia, during which he developed an abscess on his lung "the size of a large man's fist", Ellroy stopped drinking and began working as a golf caddy while pursuing writing.[8][10] He later said, "Caddying was good tax-free cash and allowed me to get home by 2 p.m. and write books... I caddied right up to the sale of my fifth book."[11]

Career

In 1981, Ellroy published his first novel, Brown's Requiem, a detective story drawing on his experiences as a caddy.[12] He then published Clandestine and Silent Terror (which was later published under the title Killer on the Road). Ellroy followed these three novels with the Lloyd Hopkins Trilogy, three novels following the eponymous character.

The L.A. Quartet

While his early novels earned him a "cult" following, Ellroy earned much greater success and critical acclaim with the L.A. QuartetThe Black Dahlia, The Big Nowhere, L.A. Confidential, and White Jazz.[4] The four novels represent Ellroy's change of style from the tradition of classic modernist noir fiction of his earlier novels to so-called postmodern historiographic metafiction.[13] The Black Dahlia, for example, fused the real-life murder of Elizabeth Short with a fictional story of two police officers investigating the crime.[14]

Underworld USA Trilogy

In 1995, Ellroy published American Tabloid, the first novel in a series informally dubbed the "Underworld USA Trilogy",[3] which Ellroy describes as a "secret history" of the mid-to-late twentieth century.[4] Tabloid was named TIME's fiction book of year for 1995. Its follow-up, The Cold Six Thousand, became a bestseller.[3] The final novel, Blood's a Rover, was released on September 22, 2009.

My Dark Places

After publishing American Tabloid, Ellroy began a memoir, My Dark Places based on his memories of his mother's murder and his investigation of the crime.[8] In the memoir, Ellroy mentions that his mother's murder received little news coverage, and the media was still fixated on Johnny Stompanato's murder. Frank C. Girardot, a reporter for The San Gabriel Valley Tribune, accessed files on Geneva Hilliker Ellroy's murder from detectives with Los Angeles Police Department.[8] Based on the cold case file, Ellroy and investigator Bill Stoner worked the case, but gave up after fifteen months, believing any suspects to be dead.[8] In 2008, The Library of America selected the essay "My Mother's Killer" from My Dark Places for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American True Crime.

Personal life

After a second marriage in the mid-90s to Helen Knode (author of the 2003 novel The Ticket Out),[15] the couple moved from California to Kansas City in 1995.[16] In 2006, after their divorce, Ellroy returned to Los Angeles.[17] He is a self-described hermit who possesses very few technological amenities, including television, and (Ellroy is probably joking about this part, based on the joking persona in "Public life and opinions" section below.) never reads books by other authors, aside from Joseph Wambaugh's The Onion Field, for fear that they might influence his own.[18]

Public life and opinions

In media appearances, Ellroy has adopted an outsized, stylized public persona of hard-boiled nihilism and self-reflexive subversiveness.[4] He frequently begins public appearances with a monologue such as:

Good evening peepers, prowlers, pederasts, panty-sniffers, punks and pimps. I'm James Ellroy, the demon dog, the foul owl with the death growl, the white knight of the far right, and the slick trick with the donkey dick. I'm the author of 16 books, masterpieces all; they precede all my future masterpieces. These books will leave you reamed, steamed and drycleaned, tie-dyed, swept to the side, true-blued, tattooed and bah fongooed. These are books for the whole fuckin' family, if the name of your family is the Manson Family.[19]

Another aspect of his public persona involves an almost comically grand assessment of his work and his place in literature. For example, he told the New York Times, "I am a master of fiction. I am also the greatest crime novelist who ever lived. I am to the crime novel in specific what Tolstoy is to the Russian novel and what Beethoven is to music."[20]

Ellroy frequently has espoused conservative political views, which have ranged from a vague anti-liberalism to authoritarianism.[4] In an October 15, 2009, Rolling Stone interview, Ellroy said that in the sixties and seventies "I was never a peacemaker; I was a fuck-you right-winger." He has also been an outspoken and unquestioning admirer of the Los Angeles Police Department, and he dismisses the department's flaws as aberrations, telling the National Review that the coverage of the Rodney King beating and Rampart police scandals were overblown by a biased media.[21] Nevertheless, like other aspects of his persona, he often deliberately obscures where his public persona ends and his actual views begin. When asked about his "right-wing tendencies," he told an interviewer, "Right-wing tendencies? I do that to fuck with people."[22] Similarly, in the film Feast of Death, his (now ex-) wife describes his politics as "bullshit," an assessment to which Ellroy responds only with a knowing smile.[16] Privately, Ellroy opposes the death penalty and favors gun control.[23] Of the current political environment, Ellroy told Rolling Stone in 2009:

I thought Bush was a slimeball and the most disastrous American president in recent times. I voted for Obama. He's a lot like Jack Kennedy—they both have big ears and infectious smiles. But Obama is a deeper guy. Kennedy was an appetite guy. He wanted pussy, hamburgers, booze. Jack did a lot of dope.[22]

Methods, style and themes

Ellroy writes longhand on legal pads, rather than on a computer,[24] and prepares elaborate outlines for his books, most of which are several hundred pages long.[4]

Dialog and narration in Ellroy novels often consists of a "heightened pastiche of jazz slang, cop patois, creative profanity and drug vernacular", with a particular use of period-appropriate, but now anachronistic, slang.[25] He often employs stripped-down staccato sentence structures, a style that reaches its apex in The Cold Six Thousand, and which Ellroy describes as a "direct, shorter-rather-than-longer sentence style that's declarative and ugly and right there, punching you in the nards."[4] While each sentence on its own is simple, the cumulative effect is a dense, baroque style.[25]

Structurally, several of Ellroy's books, such as The Big Nowhere, L.A. Confidential, American Tabloid, and The Cold Six Thousand, have three disparate points of view through different characters, with chapters alternating between them. Starting with The Black Dahlia, Ellroy's novels have mostly been historical dramas about the relationship between corruption and law enforcement.[14]

A predominant theme of Ellroy's work is the myth of "closure." "Closure is bullshit," Ellroy often remarks, "and I would love to find the man who invented closure and shove a giant closure plaque up his ass."[26]

Ellroy has claimed that he is done with noir crime novels. "I write big political books now," he says. "I want to write about LA exclusively for the rest of my career. I don't know where and when."[27]

Film adaptations and screenplays

Several of Ellroy's works have been adapted to film, including Blood on the Moon (adapted as Cop), L.A. Confidential, Brown's Requiem, Killer on the Road/Silent Terror (adapted as Stay Clean), and The Black Dahlia. In each instance, screenplays based on Ellroy's work have been penned by other screenwriters.

While he has frequently been disappointed by these adaptations (such as Cop), he was very complimentary of Curtis Hanson and Brian Helgeland's screenplay for L.A. Confidential at the time of its release.[28] In succeeding years, however, his comments have been more reserved:

L.A. Confidential, the movie, is the best thing that happened to me in my career that I had absolutely nothing to do with. It was a fluke—and a wonderful one—and it is never going to happen again—a movie of that quality. Here’s my final comment on L.A. Confidential, the movie: I go to a video store in Prairie Village, Kansas. The youngsters who work there know me as the guy who wrote L.A. Confidential. They tell all the little old ladies who come in there to get their G-rated family flick. They come up to me, they say, “OOOO… you wrote L.A. Confidential.... Oh, what a wonderful, wonderful movie. I saw it four times. You don’t see storytelling like that on the screen anymore.” I smile, I say, “Yes, it’s a wonderful movie, and a salutary adaptation of my wonderful novel. But listen, granny: You love the movie. Did you go out and buy the book?” And granny invariably says, “Well, no, I didn’t.” And I say to granny, “Then what the fuck good are you to me?”[16]

Shortly after viewing three hours of unedited footage[29] for Brian De Palma's adaptation of The Black Dahlia, Ellroy wrote an essay, "Hillikers," praising De Palma and his film.[30] Ultimately, nearly an hour was removed from the final cut, and the film was a commercial and critical disappointment. Of the released film, Ellroy told the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, "Look, you’re not going to get me to say anything negative about the movie, so you might as well give up."[25]

In 2008, Daily Variety reported that HBO, along with Tom Hanks's production company, Playtone, were developing American Tabloid and The Cold Six Thousand for either a mini-series or ongoing series.[31]

Ellroy co-wrote the original screenplay for the 2008 film Street Kings, but refused to do any publicity for the finished film.[25]

In a 2009 interview, Ellroy himself stated "All movie adaptations of my books are dead."[32]

Bibliography

Lloyd Hopkins Trilogy

L.A. Quartet

Underworld USA Trilogy

Short stories and essays

Autobiography

Guest editor

  • The Best American Mystery Stories 2002 (2002)

Documentaries

  • 1993 James Ellroy: Demon Dog of American Crime Fiction
  • 2001 James Ellroy's Feast of Death
  • 2006 Murder By The Book: James Ellroy
  • 2010 Ellroy appeared on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, talking about his life and influences.[33]

Films

Television

References

  1. ^ Miller, Laura (May 20, 2001), "Beyond the Grassy Knoll", New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/books/01/05/20/reviews/010520.20millert.html 
  2. ^ "Book extract from The Cold Six Thousand". Random House. http://www.randomhouse.co.uk/catalog/extract.htm?command=search&db=main.txt&eqisbndata=0099893304. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  3. ^ a b c Barra, Allen (June 13, 2001), "The Cold Six Thousand by James Ellroy", Salon, http://archive.salon.com/books/review/2001/06/13/ellroy/index.html 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Phillips, Keith (Dec. 1, 2004), "James Ellroy", Onion A/V Club, http://www.avclub.com/articles/james-ellroy,13905/ 
  5. ^ Reinhard Jud (director). (1993). James Ellroy: Demon Dog of American Crime Fiction. [Film]. Fischer Film. 
  6. ^ "James Ellroy Biography (1948-)". Filmreference.com. http://www.filmreference.com/film/55/James-Ellroy.html. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d "James Ellroy". [by the Book]. November 13, 2006. No. 1, season 1.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Ellroy, James (1996). My Dark Places. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44185-9. 
  9. ^ Ellroy, James (Summer 2006). "My Mother and the Dahlia". The Virginia Quarterly Review. http://www.vqronline.org/articles/2006/summer/ellroy-mother-dahlia/. Retrieved 2007-05-07. 
  10. ^ a b Desert Island Discs Interview, BBC Radio 4, 17 January 2010
  11. ^ Marling, William (June 2007). "JamesEllroy". Hard-Boiled Fiction. Case Western Reserve University. http://www.detnovel.com/Ellroy.html. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  12. ^ Ellroy, James (1981). Brown's Requiem. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0380787415. 
  13. ^ Tibbetts, John C.; James M. Walsh (September 1999). Novels into Film: The Encyclopedia of Movies Adapted from Books. Checkmark Books. ISBN 0816039615. 
  14. ^ a b Ellroy, James (1987). The Black Dahlia. The Mysterious Press. ISBN 0892962062. 
  15. ^ Knode, Hellen (2003). The Ticket Out. New York: Harcourt. 
  16. ^ a b c Vikram Jayanti (Director). (2001). James Ellroy's Feast of Death. [Film]. Showtime / BBC Arena. 
  17. ^ Ellroy, James (July 30, 2006). "The Great Right Place: James Ellroy Comes Home". L.A. Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2006/jul/30/magazine/tm-ellroy31. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Guillen, Michael (January 28, 2008). "NOIR CITY 6—James Ellroy Intro to Dalton Trumbo Doublebill". The Evening Class. http://theeveningclass.blogspot.com/2008/01/noir-city-6james-ellroy-intro-to-dalton.html. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  20. ^ Solomon, Deborah (November 5, 2006), "The Mother Load: Questions for James Ellroy", New York Times Magazine, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/05/magazine/05wwln_q4.html?ex=1320382800&en=546bff83e542b4b7&ei=5090 
  21. ^ Dunphy, Jack (November 15, 2005). "Ellroy Confidential". National Review. http://www.nationalreview.com/dunphy/dunphy200511150827.asp. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  22. ^ a b Woods, Sean (October 15, 2009). ""James Ellroy's American apocalypse: The master of modern noir has completed an epic secret history of America — a trilogy so dark that he lost his mind writing it"". Rolling Stone: pp. 60–63. 
  23. ^ Duncan, Paul (editor) (1997). ""Call Me Dog"". The Third Degree: Crime Writers in Conversation (Harpenden, Great Britain: No Exit Press). 
  24. ^ Brantingham, Barney (October 1, 2008). "Barney Chats with James Ellroy". Santa Barbara Independent. http://www.independent.com/news/2008/oct/01/barney-chats-james-ellroy. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  25. ^ a b c d Timberg, Scott (April 6, 2008). "The Ellroy Enigma". L.A. Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/apr/06/entertainment/ca-ellroy6. 
  26. ^ McFarland, Melanie (January 11, 2006). "Why James Ellroy Will Never Be Asked to Host Masterpiece Theater". TV Gal. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. http://blog.seattlepi.nwsource.com/tv/archives/101072.asp. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  27. ^ Green, Hannah (September 15, 2006). "James Ellroy, I'm an LA Guy". GreenCine. http://www.greencine.com/article?action=view&articleID=332. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009. 
  28. ^ Curtis Hanson (Director). (1998). L.A. Confidential. Warner Home Video DVD. 
  29. ^ Seitz, Matt Zoller (January 15, 2006). ""F****** gorgeous"". The House Next Door. http://www.thehousenextdooronline.com/2006/01/f-gorgeous_15.html. Retrieved Mar. 29, 2009. 
  30. ^ Ellroy, James (August 16, 2006). "Hillikers: An Afterword to The Black Dahlia". Reprinted in The Black Dahlia (Mysterious Press (paperback, 6th ed.)). ISBN 0446698873. 
  31. ^ Fleming, Michael (September 18, 2008), "'Tabloid' news for HBO", Daily Variety, http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-186382844.html 
  32. ^ Conley, Stepen. "You're digging it, right? James Ellroy interview". Chuckpalahniuk.net. http://chuckpalahniuk.net/interviews/authors/james-ellroy. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  33. ^ Available until 2010-01-24 on the 'listen again' facility

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