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James Henry Hammond


In office
December 8, 1842 – December 7, 1844
Lieutenant Isaac Donnom Witherspoon
Preceded by John Peter Richardson II
Succeeded by William Aiken

Born November 15, 1807(1807-11-15)
Newberry County, South Carolina
Died November 13, 1864 (aged 56)
Beech Island, South Carolina
Political party Democratic, Nullifier
Spouse(s) Catherine Fitzsimmons Hammond
Profession Politician, Lawyer, Publisher, Teacher

James Henry Hammond (November 15, 1807 – November 13, 1864) was a politician from South Carolina. He served as a United States Representative from 1835 to 1836, Governor of South Carolina from 1842 to 1844, and United States Senator from 1857 to 1860. He was the brother-in-law of Wade Hampton II and uncle of Wade Hampton III.

Contents

Biography

Hammond graduated from South Carolina College in 1825, going on to teach school, write for a newspaper and study law. He was admitted to the bar in 1828 and started a practice in Columbia, South Carolina. He established a newspaper in South Carolina in support of nullification and was also a planter. He served in the United States House of Representatives as a member of the Nullifier Party from 1835 until his resignation the next year due to ill health. After spending two years in Europe, he returned to South Carolina and engaged in agricultural pursuits. He served as Governor of South Carolina from 1842 to 1844 and in the United States Senate, following the death of Andrew P. Butler, from 1857 until his resignation in 1860 in light of South Carolina's secession from the Union.

A Democrat, Hammond was perhaps best known during his lifetime as an outspoken defender of slavery and states' rights. It was Hammond who popularized the phrase that "Cotton is King" in an 1858 speech to the Senate.

In 1839, he purchased a young female slave with an infant daughter. He took the woman as his mistress and fathered several of her children before replacing her with her twelve-year-old daughter. His other slaves fared no better. It was reported, in 1841, that seventy-eight of his chattel died in a ten-year period.

His Secret and Sacred Diaries reveal that his appetites did not end there. He describes, without embarrassment, his 'familiarities and dalliances' with four teenage nieces - the daughters of Wade Hampton II. Blaming the seductiveness of the “extremely affectionate” young women, his political career was crushed for a decade to come, and the girls with their tarnished social reputations never married. His father, Elisha Hammond, pushed him hard, regarding him as a genius. Possibly the main lesson he learned from his father was not to marry a woman with a large potential inheritance. That proved to be an undependable way to acquire wealth for his father. Instead, James found himself a young, unattractive woman named Catherine Fitzsimmons with a considerable dowry. Fitzsimmons' sister, Ann, was the wife of Wade Hampton II.

His mansion in Beech Island, South Carolina, Redcliffe [1], represents his ideal of the perfectly run plantation. [2]

Hammond School in Columbia, South Carolina is named after him. Founded in 1966, originally as a white-flight school, it was originally named James H. Hammond Academy.

See also

Further reading

  • Faust, Drew Gilpin, 'James Henry Hammond and the Old South,' Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London, 1982, ISBN 0-8071-1048-5
  • Bleser, Carol, Editor, 'Secret and Sacred, The Diaries of James Henry Hammond, a Southern Slaveholder,' Oxford University Press, New York, 1988, ISBN 0-19-505308-7

External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
John M. Felder
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from South Carolina's 4th congressional district

March 4, 1835 – February 26, 1836
Succeeded by
Franklin H. Elmore
Political offices
Preceded by
John Peter Richardson II
Governor of South Carolina
1842 – 1844
Succeeded by
William Aiken
United States Senate
Preceded by
Andrew P. Butler
United States Senator (Class 3) from South Carolina
December 7, 1857 – November 11, 1860
Served alongside: Josiah J. Evans, Arthur P. Hayne and James Chesnut, Jr.
Succeeded by
vacant[1]
  1. ^ Note: South Carolina seceded from the Union in 1860. Seat declared vacant until Frederick A. Sawyer was elected after South Carolina's readmission into the Union in 1870.
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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

James Henry Hammond (November 15, 1807November 13, 1864) was a politician from South Carolina. He served as a United States Representative from 1835 to 1836, Governor of South Carolina from 1842 to 1842, and United States Senator from 1857 to 1860.

Sourced

  • The very mudsills of society…. We call them slaves…. But I will not characterize that class at the North with that term; but you have it. It is there, it is everywhere; it is eternal.
    • Speech in the U. S. Senate, March, 1858.

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English

James Henry Hammond

60th Governor of South Carolina
In office
December 8, 1842 – December 7, 1844
Lieutenant Isaac Donnom Witherspoon
Preceded by John Peter Richardson II
Succeeded by William Aiken

Born November 15, 1807(1807-11-15)
Newberry County, South Carolina
Died November 13, 1864 (aged 56)
Beech Island, South Carolina
Political party Democratic, Nullifier
Spouse Catherine Fitzsimmons Hammond
Profession Politician, Lawyer, Publisher, Teacher

James Henry Hammond (November 15, 1807 – November 13, 1864) was from South Carolina. He served as a United States Representative from 1835 to 1836, Governor of South Carolina from 1842 to 1844, and United States Senator from 1857 to 1860. He had a son. He was also a slave owner; his plantation is in Redcliffe Park in South Carolina. The stables at Redcliffe Park were either built by him or his son.

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