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James Lowell Oakes (February 21, 1924 – October 13, 2007) was a senior circuit judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

Born in Springfield, Illinois, Oakes attended Harvard College and Harvard Law School, from which he graduated cum laude and served as editor of the law review. After graduating, he served two terms as law clerk for Second Circuit Judge Harrie B. Chase. Oakes then went into private practice as a lawyer in Brattleboro, Vermont. He served as a member of the Vermont State Senate from 1961 to 1965, and as Attorney General of Vermont from 1967 to 1969.

In 1970, President Richard Nixon nominated Oakes to fill the seat on the United States District Court for the District of Vermont vacated by the death of Ernest W. Gibson, Jr.. A year later, in 1971, Nixon elevated Oakes to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. He was quickly confirmed, and served as a judge for 35 years, including as Chief Judge of the Second Circuit from 1988 to 1992. Oakes assumed senior status in 1992.

Judge Oakes served as a member of the Vermont Law School Board of Trustees from 1976 until 1994. His many incisive opinions have helped to shape Vermont's singular role in the development of environmental law, including his ruling in Conservation Society of Southern Vermont v. Volpe (the Route 7 Case) and Southview Associates v. Bongartz (the Deeryard Case).

He was married three times. His third wife, Mara A. Williams, was present at and reported the death, which followed a short illness.

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