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James Madison


In office
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
Vice President George Clinton (1809–1812),
None (1812–1813),
Elbridge Gerry (1813–1814)
None (1814–1817)
Preceded by Thomas Jefferson
Succeeded by James Monroe

In office
May 2, 1801 – March 3, 1809
President Thomas Jefferson
Preceded by John Marshall
Succeeded by Robert Smith

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia's 5th district
In office
March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1793
Preceded by New district; first Congress
Succeeded by George Hancock

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia's 15th district
In office
March 4, 1793 – March 3, 1797
Preceded by New district
Succeeded by John Dawson

Born March 16, 1751(1751-03-16)
Port Conway, Virginia
Died June 28, 1836 (aged 85)
Montpelier, Virginia
Nationality American
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse(s) Dolley Todd Madison
Children John Payne Todd (stepson)
Alma mater Princeton University
Occupation Lawyer
Religion unknown[1]
Signature
.James Madison[2] (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American politician and political philosopher who served as the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817) and is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.^ Documents which were sent by and to James Madison in his position as Secretary of State, and later, as President of the United States.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JAMES MADISON, "Father of the Constitution," and fourth President of the United States, was born March 16, 1757, and died at his home in Virginia June 28, 1836.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Father of the Constitution," he was the principal author of the document.^ Considered to be the "Father of the Constitution", he was the principal author of the document.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Considered the "Father of the Constitution ," Madison played a bigger role in designing the 1787 document than anyone else.
  • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers, still the most influential commentary on the Constitution.^ In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers , still the most influential commentary on the Constitution.
  • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers, still the most influential commentary on the Constitution.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton wrote all but five of the following 31 papers which appeared between November, 1787, and the first days of January, 1788 (numbers 6-36).
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The first president to have served in the United States Congress, he was a leader in the 1st United States Congress, drafting many basic laws, and was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution (said to be based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights) and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights".[3] As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to protect individual rights from the tyranny of the majority.^ As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to protect individual rights from the tyranny of the majority.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison was the 4th president of the United States.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first President to have served in the United States Congress, he was a leader in the 1st United States Congress, drafted many basic laws and was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution (said to be based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights), and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights".
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[4][5][6][7]
.As leader in the House of Representatives, Madison worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government.^ As leader in the House of Representatives, Madison worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He acted as one of President George Washington's chief advisors in inaugurating the new government.

^ Madison declared that the combination of federalism and republicanism had secured the nation against the tendency of every other form of government to either despotism or anarchy.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Breaking with Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton in 1791, Madison and Thomas Jefferson organized what they called the Republican Party (later called the Democratic-Republican Party)[8] in opposition to key policies of the Federalists, especially the national bank and the Jay Treaty.^ Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton built a nationwide network of supporters that became the Federalist Party and promoted a strong central government with a national bank.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson & Madison cofounded the 'Republicans', short for democratic republicans.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Madisons logical reduction was prophetic for the Revolution of 1800 when Jeffersons Democratic -Republican party wrested control of the national government from the Federalist party.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He secretly co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts.^ Virginia Resolutions Against the Alien and Sedition Acts, December 21, 1798.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson, April 2, 1798.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

.As Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801–1809), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the nation's size, and sponsored the ill-fated Embargo Act of 1807.^ As Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801–1809), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the nation's size, and sponsored the ill-fated Embargo Act of 1807.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Jefferson's Secretary of State (1801-1809), Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the nation's size, and sponsored the ill-fated Embargo Act of 1807.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1801, Madison was appointed Secretary of State by the new President, Jefferson.

.As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain.^ As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federalists had been against war with Great Britain from the start.

^ As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain in order to protect the United States' economic rights.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.During and after the war, Madison reversed many of his positions.^ During and after the war, Madison reversed many of his positions.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The primary concession Madison won was surrender by Britain of American territory captured during the war.

^ The national spirit that had inspired many American statesmen, including Madison, during the revolution and the formation of the new government was beginning to yield to regional allegiances.

.By 1815, he supported the creation of the second National Bank, a strong military, and a high tariff to protect the new factories opened during the war.^ By 1815, he supported the creation of the second National Bank, a strong military, and a high tariff to protect the new factories opened during the war.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1815, he supported the creation of the second National Bank, a strong military, and a high tariff to protect the new factories opened during the war .
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By late 1815, however, Madison asked Congress for a new bank, which had strong support from the younger, nationalistic republicans such as John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay, as well as Federalist Daniel Webster.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

Early life

.James Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia on March 16, 1751, (March 5, 1751, Old Style, Julian calendar).^ March 16, 1751 .
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia on March 16, 1751 (March 5, 1750 Old Style, Julian calender).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From ages 11–16, Madison studied under Donald Robertson, an instructor at the Innes plantation in King and Queen County, Virginia.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.He grew up as the oldest of twelve children, of whom nine survived.^ He grew up as the oldest of seven children to live to maturity.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

His father, James Madison, Sr., (1723–1801) was a tobacco planter who grew up on an estate in Orange County, Virginia, which he inherited on reaching maturity. .He later acquired still more property and became the largest landowner (5,000 acres) and leading citizen of Orange County.^ He later acquired still more property and became the largest landowner and leading citizen of Orange County.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.His mother, Nelly Conway (1731–1829), was born at Port Conway, Virginia, the daughter of a prominent planter and tobacco merchant.^ His mother, Eleanor "Nelly" Rose Conway (1731–1829), was born at Port Conway, Virginia, the daughter of a prominent planter and tobacco merchant.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Father: James MADISON b: 27 MAR 1723 in Port Conway, Prince George Co., VA Mother: Eleanor Rose CONWAY b: 9 JAN 1730/31 in Port Conway, Prince George Co., VA .
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison was born in Port Conway, Virginia on March 16, 1751 (March 5, 1750 Old Style, Julian calender).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Madison's parents married in 1743. Both parents had a significant influence over their most famous oldest son.^ Both parents had a significant influence over their most famous oldest son.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison's parents married in 1743.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison married Dolley Madison, a widow with one son on September 15, 1794 in what is now Jefferson County, West Virginia.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

Madison had three brothers and three sisters who lived to maturity (by whom he had more than 30 nieces and nephews):
  • Francis Madison (1753–1800): planter of Orange County, Virginia
  • Ambrose Madison (1755–1793): planter and captain in the Virginia militia, looked after the family interests in Orange County; named after his paternal grandfather.
  • Catlett Madison (1758–1758): died in infancy.
  • Nelly Madison Hite (1760–1802)
  • William Madison (1762–1843): veteran of the Revolution and a lawyer, he served in the Virginia legislature
  • Sarah Catlett Madison Macon (1764–1843)
  • Unnamed child (1766–1766)
  • Elizabeth Madison (1768–1775)
  • Unnamed child (1770–1770)
  • Reuben Madison (1771–1775)
  • Frances "Fanny" Madison Rose (1774–1823)

Education

.From ages 11–16, A young "Jemmy" Madison studied under Donald Robertson, an instructor at the Innes plantation in King and Queen County, Virginia.^ When he was about 12, he was enrolled in the school of Donald Robertson in King and Queen County.

^ After three or four years with Robertson, he studied for a year or two under the Reverend Thomas Martin and in 1769 enrolled in the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).

^ During his third term in Congress, at the age of 43, Madison married a young widow, Dolley Payne Todd.

Robertson was a Scottish teacher who flourished in the southern states. From Robertson, Madison learned mathematics, geography, and modern and ancient languages. He became especially proficient in Latin. Madison says he owes his bent for learning "largely to that man(Robertson)."
.At age 16, he began a two-year course of study under the Reverend Thomas Martin, who tutored Madison at Montpelier in preparation for college.^ After three or four years with Robertson, he studied for a year or two under the Reverend Thomas Martin and in 1769 enrolled in the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).

^ Filed Under: AFP.com Sports Tagged: College Basketball , james madison , james madison university , jmu , jmu basketball JMU joins regional economic-development consortium .
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

^ But Miss Floyd broke the engagement, and Madison returned to Montpelier for a solitary winter of reading and study.

.Unlike most college-bound Virginians of his day, Madison did not choose the College of William and Mary because the lowland climate of Williamsburg might have strained his delicate health.^ James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) .
  • James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tribeathletics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individual Statistics (Final) 2004 William and Mary Football #8 James Madison vs #6 William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004 at Williamsburg, VA) .
  • James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tribeathletics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Filed Under: AFP.com Sports Tagged: caa , College Football , james madison university , william & mary Dukes fifth in preseason CAA hoops picks .
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, in 1769 he enrolled at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).^ A new scholarship endowed by Food City will help connect top graduates from western Virginia community colleges to the James Madison University College of Business.
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

^ With the addition of JMU, Butler University, The College of Saint Benedict - Saint John’s University and Elon University, Phi Beta Kappa now has 280 chapters nationwide.
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

^ College of New Jersey Lions .
  • James Madison Dukes Merchandise, James Madison University Apparel and Gifts - Yahoo! Sports Shop 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC yahoosports.teamfanshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ShopNCAASports - James Madison University Dukes Shop & James Madison University Dukes Store and Gear - The Official Store of NCAA Sports 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.shopncaasports.com [Source type: Original source]

.Through diligence and long hours of study that may have damaged his health,[9] Madison graduated in 1771. His studies there included Latin, Greek, science, geography, mathematics, rhetoric, and philosophy.^ They read Greek & Latin (Madison also knew Hebrew).
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Great emphasis also was placed on speech and debate.^ Even though he placed great emphasis upon maintaining the Constitution as it was understood by the generation that created it, he was conscious of the right of succeeding generations to change It to fit their aspirations.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After graduation, Madison remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under university president John Witherspoon before returning to Montpelier in the spring of 1772. Madison studied law sporadically but never gained admission to the bar.^ Filed Under: AFP.com Sports Tagged: College Basketball , james madison , james madison university , jmu , jmu basketball JMU joins regional economic-development consortium .
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filed Under: AFP.com Sports Tagged: caa , colonial athletic association , james madison , james madison university , jmu JMU drops third straight .
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

Marriage and family

.James Madison married Dolley Payne Todd, a widow on September 15, 1794, in what is now Jefferson County, West Virginia.^ Son of James Madison and Eleanor (Conway) Madison; married, September 15, 1794 , to Dolly (Payne) Todd (brother-in-law of John George Jackson ); second cousin of George Madison and Zachary Taylor ; second cousin thrice removed of Elliot Woolfolk Major and Edgar Bailey Woolfolk .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collection consists of manuscripts, correspondence, documents, and other related material of both James (Class of 1771) and Dolley Madison, collected by Jasper E. Crane (Class of 1901).
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new scholarship endowed by Food City will help connect top graduates from western Virginia community colleges to the James Madison University College of Business.
  • James Madison University | Augusta Free Press 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC augustafreepress.com [Source type: General]

.Madison adopted Todd's one surviving son, John Payne Todd after the marriage.^ (A single volume, Selections from the Private Correspondence of James Madison from 1813 to 1836 , was published in 1853 by James C. McGuire, the administrator of the Madison estate and a major creditor of his stepson John Payne Todd.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Routine letters of James Madison, one written while he was secretary of state, and letters from Julia Maria Dickinson Tayloe to Dorothea Payne Todd Madison, probably written after 1837.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collection also includes a complete copy, made by Madison’s brother in-law, John C. Payne, of Thomas Jefferson’s notes from the Continental Congress of 1776.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dolley Payne was born on May 20, 1768, at the New Garden Quaker settlement in North Carolina, where her parents, John Payne and Mary Coles Payne, lived briefly.^ Also included: 3 letters, 1812, 1816 and n.d., from Dolley Madison to Mrs. Stevenson, Edward Coles, and John Payne Todd; 3 letters, 1815, from John Payne Todd to David Bailie Warden concerning garden seeds for Jefferson and other matters; and 2 letters, 1842, from Eli Hawley Canfield to W.S. Canfield and Zadlock H. Canfield.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dolley's sister (Lucy Payne) had married George Steptoe Washington, a nephew of President Washington.^ Notable correspondents include Dolley Payne Madison, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Edmund Randolph, Noah Webster, and Secretary of War James Armstrong, whose correspondence with Madison fills an entire series.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The essence of the debate is over whether Congress or the President would have the power to fire people employed below the level of a Cabinet officer in the George Washington and future administrations.
  • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

As a member of Congress, Madison had doubtless met the widow Todd at social functions in Philadelphia, then the nation's capital. In May 1794, he took formal notice of her by asking their mutual friend Aaron Burr to arrange a meeting. The encounter apparently went smoothly for a brisk courtship followed, and by August she had accepted his proposal of marriage. For marrying Madison, a non-Quaker, she was expelled from the Society of Friends.

Early political career

As a young lawyer, Madison defended Baptist preachers arrested for preaching without a license from the established Anglican Church. In addition, he worked with the preacher Elijah Craig on constitutional guarantees for religious liberty in Virginia.[10] .Working on such cases helped form his ideas about religious freedom.^ Freedom for such people takes the inevitable form of submission to those who are advanced of them.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Madison served in the Virginia state legislature (1776–79) and became known as a protégé of Thomas Jefferson.^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written on October 9, 1824.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written around October 1818.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written on April 26, 1802.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He attained prominence in Virginia politics, helping to draft the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. It disestablished the Church of England, and disclaimed any power of state compulsion in religious matters. He excluded Patrick Henry's plan to compel citizens to pay for a congregation of their own choice.
.Madison's cousin, the Right Reverend James Madison (1749–1812), became president of the College of William & Mary in 1777. Working closely with Madison and Jefferson, Bishop Madison helped lead the College through the difficult changes involving separation from both Great Britain and the Church of England.^ Correspondents include President James Madison.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) .
  • James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tribeathletics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Second cousin of James Madison .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also led college and state actions that resulted in the formation of the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia after the Revolution.
.James Madison persuaded Virginia to give up its claims to northwestern territories consisting of most of modern-day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota - to the Continental Congress, which created the Northwest Territory in 1783. These land claims overlapped partially with other claims by Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and maybe others.^ Other authors include James Madison.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning with a selection of his father’s letters, the series moves through Madison’s years as a student, and as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and include extensive notes of the debates during his three-year term in the Continental Congress (1779-82).
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M arch 16 is the birthday of James Madison (1751-1836), known since his day as "the father of the constitution" for getting it thru the 1787 constitutional convention.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.All of these states ceded their westernmost lands, with the understanding that new states could be formed from the land, as they were.^ Madison’s virtue was still nurtured by aspects of his received traditions, but only in so far as they could be transformed and actualized in a revolutionary New World.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the ideological founders of the 1st modern republic, they could not understand the implications of the fact that they compromised with slavery, even if for the most realistic reasons, to maintain its unity.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.As a delegate to the Continental Congress (1780–83), Madison was considered a legislative workhorse and a master of parliamentary coalition building.^ Beginning with a selection of his father’s letters, the series moves through Madison’s years as a student, and as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and include extensive notes of the debates during his three-year term in the Continental Congress (1779-82).
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The collection also includes a complete copy, made by Madison’s brother in-law, John C. Payne, of Thomas Jefferson’s notes from the Continental Congress of 1776.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for a second time from 1784 to 1786.

Father of the Constitution

.Madison returned to the Virginia state legislature at the close of the war.^ Madison met Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) in October 1776, when the author of the Declaration of Independence returned to Virginia's House of Delegates.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kentucky legislature regarding the close of Madison’s administration.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He soon grew alarmed at the fragility of the Articles of Confederation, particularly the divisiveness of state governments, and strongly advocated a new constitution.^ In Madison's version of the new constitutional structure, the states were to the general federal authority as the three branches of the federal government were to one another.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison asserted the oxymoronic but essential claim of revolutionary legitimacy for the new constitution and for the unexpected direct appeal to the people (rather than to the state legislators) for its ratification.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison was careful to refute those who feared the new constitution would undermine state sovereignty and create a leviathan.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At the Philadelphia Convention in 1787, Madison's draft of the Virginia Plan and his revolutionary three-branch federal system became the basis for the American Constitution of today.^ He also began to retain copies and drafts of letters he sent and, with the assistance of his wife Dolley and his brother-in-law John Coles Payne, to arrange and edit the notes he had made on the debates in the Continental Congress and in the Federal Convention of 1787.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the letter, Washington explains to Madison that he may be unable to accept appointment as a Virginia delegate to the Constitutional Convention, because hehas already announced that he will not be attending the annual meeting of the Society of the Cincinnati which will be held in Philadelphia at the same time and it would be politically awkward for him to appear at another meeting.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eighty-five original numbers of The Federalist Papers were op/ed pieces in the form of political manifestoes, written in defense of the constitutional draft offered the American people by the Philadelphia Convention in the fall of 1787.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Though Madison was a shy man, he was one of the more outspoken members of the Continental Congress.^ Beginning with a selection of his father’s letters, the series moves through Madison’s years as a student, and as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and include extensive notes of the debates during his three-year term in the Continental Congress (1779-82).
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collection also includes a complete copy, made by Madison’s brother in-law, John C. Payne, of Thomas Jefferson’s notes from the Continental Congress of 1776.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He envisioned a strong federal government that could overrule actions of the states when they were deemed mistaken; later in life he came to admire the US Supreme Court as it started filling that role.^ They are diverse because life in all its complexity shapes us differently.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Vigorous state governments in federal relationship to one another must build structures that restrain the natural tendency toward factional strife.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Speech in the Federal Convention on the General and State Governments, June 21, 1787.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

[12]

Federalist Papers

To encourage ratification of the Constitution, Madison joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write the Federalist Papers in 1787 and 1788.[13] Among other contributions, Madison wrote paper #10, in which he explained how a large country with many different interests and factions could support republican values better than a small country dominated by a few special interests. .His interpretation was largely ignored at the time, but in the twentieth century became a central part of the pluralist interpretation of American politics.^ Russians have been given a Twentieth-century American establishmentarian nationalist (i.e., anti-federalist) abridgment of the debates.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.In Virginia in 1788, Madison led the fight for ratification at the Virginia Ratifying Convention, debating with Patrick Henry and others who sought revisions (such as the United States Bill of Rights) before its ratification.^ I can hardly bring myself to imagine the wisdom of the convention who framed the constitution, contemplated such incongruity.
  • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A letter from James Madison to Martin Van Buren, the Vice President of the United States, written on January 22, 1836.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Madison is often referred to as the "Father of the Constitution" for his role in its drafting and ratification.^ Bracketed editorial insertions used in the Hunt edition to identify persons, clarify meaning, and supply passages from the Constitution referred to by Madison have been deleted in this volume.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ M arch 16 is the birthday of James Madison (1751-1836), known since his day as "the father of the constitution" for getting it thru the 1787 constitutional convention.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the letter, Madison announces the ratification of the Constitution in the Virginia convention by a vote of 89-79 and adds that the convention will recommend some amendments.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, he protested the title as being "a credit to which I have no claim... The Constitution was not, like the fabled Goddess of Wisdom, the offspring of a single brain. It ought to be regarded as the work of many heads and many hands".[15]
.He wrote Hamilton at the New York ratifying convention, stating his opinion that "ratification was in toto and 'for ever'". The Virginia convention had considered conditional ratification worse than a rejection.^ Magee, William — of Cazenovia, Madison County , N.Y. Member of New York state assembly 111th District, 1991-.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Candidate for New York state senate 19th District, 1940.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, Madison announces the ratification of the Constitution in the Virginia convention by a vote of 89-79 and adds that the convention will recommend some amendments.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Author of Bill of Rights

Initially Madison "adamantly maintained ... that a specific bill of rights remained unnecessary because the .Constitution itself was a bill of rights."^ Madison, James (1751-1836) — also known as "Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights" — of Virginia.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] Madison had three main objections to a specific bill of rights:
.
  1. It was unnecessary, since it purported to protect against powers that the federal government had not been granted;
  2. It was dangerous, since enumeration of some rights might be taken to imply the absence of other rights; and
  3. At the state level, bills of rights had proven to be useless paper barriers against government powers.^ And the very peculiarity which gives pre-eminent value to that of the United States, the partition of power between different governments, opens a new door for controversies and parties.
    • Online Library of Liberty - TO HENRY LEE. mad. mss. - The Writings, vol. 9 (1819-1836) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1787, Madison wanted the 1st Amendment to apply to the states, but was forced to drop the issue in the interest of getting support for separation at the federal level.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In its current & controversial application it means a destruction of the States, by transfusing their powers into the government of the Union.
    • Online Library of Liberty - TO HENRY LEE. mad. mss. - The Writings, vol. 9 (1819-1836) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [3]
.However, the anti-Federalists demanded a bill of rights in exchange for their support for ratification.^ The Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights .
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia legislature not to elect Madison as one of their first Senators; but Madison was directly elected to the new United States House of Representatives and became an important leader from the First Congress (1789) through the Fourth Congress (1797).^ Served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; member of Virginia state legislature, 1776; Delegate to Continental Congress from Virginia , 1780-83, 1787-88; member, U.S. Constitutional Convention , 1787; U.S. Representative from Virginia , 1789-97 (at-large 1789-91, 5th District 1791-93, 15th District 1793-97); U.S. Secretary of State , 1801-09; President of the United States , 1809-17.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning with a selection of his father’s letters, the series moves through Madison’s years as a student, and as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and include extensive notes of the debates during his three-year term in the Continental Congress (1779-82).
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, Randolph informs Madison of the results of the U.S. Senate elections in the Virginia general assembly and stating that Patrick Henry had engineered Madison’s defeat and the election of Richard Henry Lee and William Grayson as Virginia’s first two U.S. Senators.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People submitted more than 200 proposals from across the new nation.^ Madison asserted the oxymoronic but essential claim of revolutionary legitimacy for the new constitution and for the unexpected direct appeal to the people (rather than to the state legislators) for its ratification.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Madison ignored proposals that called for structural change to the government and synthesized the remainder into a list for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus.^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Madison's version of the new constitutional structure, the states were to the general federal authority as the three branches of the federal government were to one another.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Let's keep our focus on Bush's immoral war of aggression, and blatant violations of the Bill of Rights with illegal wiretaps and suspension of habeas corpus.
  • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

.Still ambiguous as late as 1788 in his support for a bill of rights,[18] in June 1789 Madison offered a package of twelve proposed amendments to the Constitution.^ Remarks in Congress on Proposed Constitutional Amendments, August 15, 1789.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the letter, Madison announces the ratification of the Constitution in the Virginia convention by a vote of 89-79 and adds that the convention will recommend some amendments.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] Madison completed his change in position and "hounded his colleagues relentlessly" to accept the proposed amendments.[3]
.By 1791, the last ten of Madison's proposed amendments were ratified and became the Bill of Rights.^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Speech in the Virginia Ratifying Convention on Taxation, a Bill of Rights, and the Mississippi, June 12, 1788.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Madison, James (1751-1836) — also known as "Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights" — of Virginia.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contrary to his wishes, the Bill of Rights was not integrated into the main body of the Constitution, and it did not apply to the states until the passages of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments restricted the powers of the states.^ Indeed the 1st Amendment wasn't judicially declared binding on the states until 1925.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He finally saw the need to spell out the degree of particulated sovereignty that had to be reserved to individuals, just as the constitution addressed those powers reserved to the states.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was in fact the main author of these first amendments to the US Constitution.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Second Amendment originally proposed by Madison (but not then ratified: see United States Bill of Rights) was later ratified in 1992 as the Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.^ Well, we've voided the warranty on the Constitution of the United States of America.
  • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A letter from James Madison to Martin Van Buren, the Vice President of the United States, written on January 22, 1836.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining proposal was intended to accommodate future increase in members of the House of Representatives.^ Member of Alaska territorial House of Representatives 2nd District, 1951-52.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Opposition to Hamilton

.The chief characteristic of Madison's time in Congress was his work to limit the power of the federal government.^ Hamilton leaned toward a powerful national government; here Madison leaned slightly in the other direction, toward an efficient and effective union of states.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Madison's version of the new constitutional structure, the states were to the general federal authority as the three branches of the federal government were to one another.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We continue to ask if Russians are ready for the market economy, when we should first ask if Russians, and other peoples within the sphere of Russian power, are ready for democratic, federal, representational government.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wood (2006a) argued that Madison never wanted a national government that took an active role.^ Hamilton leaned toward a powerful national government; here Madison leaned slightly in the other direction, toward an efficient and effective union of states.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most influential and interesting historians of the constitutional era, Gordon Wood, has argued that Madison’s main opposition, the anti-federalists, were the real federalists.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

He was horrified to discover that Alexander Hamilton and George Washington were creating "a real modern European type of government with a bureaucracy, a standing army, and a powerful independent executive".[20]
When Britain and France went to war in 1793 the U.S. was caught in the middle. The 1778 treaty of alliance with France was still in effect, yet most of the new country's trade was with Britain. .War with Britain seemed imminent in 1794, as the British seized hundreds of American ships that were trading with French colonies.^ In a letter, 1814, he discusses an incident during the War of 1812 involving the French ship ”Olivier.” Papers: In the Madison and Randolph Letters, 1828-1831, 1 item.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Madison (in collaboration with Jefferson, who had temporarily returned to private life), believed that Britain was weak and America was strong, and that a trade war with Britain, although risking retaliation by the British government, probably would succeed, and would allow Americans to assert their independence fully.^ The letter consists of instructions from Madison to America’s Minister to Great Britain covering American rights to the Mississippi, Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France, President Jefferson’s consequent appointment of a Commission Extraordinary to negotiate with France, and James Madison’s negotiations with the British Government.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Garry Wills , perhaps America’s most creative political scholar-pundit, identified three main trends among those who seek to interpret Madison.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the letter, also signed by Theodore Bland, Madison describes the threat posed by Benedict Arnold, who had defected to the British.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Great Britain, he charged, "has bound us in commercial manacles, and very nearly defeated the object of our independence."^ Let us keep judiciary independence by our side lest reversion to the rule of tyranny.
  • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

As Varg explains, Madison had no fear of British recriminations for "her interests can be wounded almost mortally, while ours are invulnerable." The British West Indies, he maintained, could not live without American foodstuffs, but Americans could easily do without British manufactures. .This faith led him to the conclusion "that it is in our power, in a very short time, to supply all the tonnage necessary for our own commerce".[21] However, George Washington avoided a trade war and instead secured friendly trade relations with Britain through the Jay Treaty of 1794, a treaty that Madison tried but failed to defeat.^ The papers include a letter from George S. Washington to James Madison written on December 18, 1800, regarding the impact of the Hessian fly on wheat crops.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from George Washington to James Madison written around September 8, 1789.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Papers: In the George Washington Letters to James Madison and Col. Elias Dayton, 1777 and 1793, 2 items.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All across the country, voters divided for and against the Treaty and other key issues, and thus became either Federalists or Democratic-Republicans.
.Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton built a nationwide network of supporters that became the Federalist Party and promoted a strong central government with a national bank.^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton leaned toward a powerful national government; here Madison leaned slightly in the other direction, toward an efficient and effective union of states.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ State (see copies of these papers on the files of J. M.) in the hand writing of Mr Hamilton the Secretary of the Treasury.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.To oppose the Federalists, Madison and Jefferson organized the Democratic-Republican Party.^ Jefferson & Madison cofounded the 'Republicans', short for democratic republicans.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The country is dotted with Democratic Party James Madison Clubs.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison led the unsuccessful attempt to block Hamilton's proposed Bank of the United States, arguing the new Constitution did not explicitly allow the federal government to form a bank.^ The number that follows the colon is the page number in this particular edition = Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist: A Commentary on the Constitution of the United States; being a Collection of Essays written in Support of the Constitution agreed upon September 17, 1787, by the Federal Convention (NYC: Modern Library).
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From number 52 to the end, Madison and Hamilton traded off the task of describing and defending the three main branches of government proposed by the new constitution (the House of Representatives in numbers 52-56, Congress in general:57-61, Senate:62-66, the Presidency:67-77, and the Supreme Court:78-83).
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Magee, William — of Cazenovia, Madison County , N.Y. Member of New York state assembly 111th District, 1991-.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.Many historians argue that Madison changed radically from a nationally oriented ally of Hamilton in 1787–88 to a states'-rights–oriented opponent of a strong national government by 1795 and then back to his original view while president.^ Both "invisible hand" and "government off our backs" are expressions of utopian anarchism from the Madisonian point of view.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly thereafter, Mr. Madison yielded the floor to Mr. Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who argued against impeaching a President for firing an honorable man.
  • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Deftly threading his way among several political paradoxes, dilemmas or antinomies, Madison addressed the problem of how to guarantee "states rights" in their relationship with a strong national government.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Madison started the first transition by opposing Hamilton;[23] by 1793 he was opposing Washington as well.^ Papers: In the George Washington Letters to James Madison and Col. Elias Dayton, 1777 and 1793, 2 items.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a letter marked “Private,” George Washington writes to James Madison from Mount Vernon, 1793 October 14, concerning “the calamitious situation of Philadelphia,” i.e.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Madison usually lost and Hamilton usually achieved passage of his legislation, including the National Bank, funding of state and national debts, and support of the Jay Treaty.^ The number that follows the colon is the page number in this particular edition = Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist: A Commentary on the Constitution of the United States; being a Collection of Essays written in Support of the Constitution agreed upon September 17, 1787, by the Federal Convention (NYC: Modern Library).
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton’s statist views on standing militias and navies, on taxes and the general problem of raising state revenue to support vital centralized national functions, particularly in numbers 30-36 [ excerpts ], are excluded from the Rossiter abridgment.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1787, Madison wanted the 1st Amendment to apply to the states, but was forced to drop the issue in the interest of getting support for separation at the federal level.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

(Madison did block the proposal for high tariffs.)
.Madison's politics remained closely aligned with Jefferson's until the experience of a weak national government during the War of 1812 caused Madison to appreciate the need for a strong central government to aid national defense.^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deftly threading his way among several political paradoxes, dilemmas or antinomies, Madison addressed the problem of how to guarantee "states rights" in their relationship with a strong national government.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The contradiction hinted in the two words "invigoration" and "restraint" brings us close to the heart of Madison's political thought.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He then began to support a national bank, a stronger navy, and a standing army.^ Hamilton’s statist views on standing militias and navies, on taxes and the general problem of raising state revenue to support vital centralized national functions, particularly in numbers 30-36 [ excerpts ], are excluded from the Rossiter abridgment.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the meantime, Hamilton shifted from standing militias and navies to taxes, to the problem of raising revenue to support vital centralized national functions, particularly in numbers 30-36.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

However, other historians, led by Lance Banning and Gordon S. Wood, see more continuity in Madison's views and do not see a sharp break in 1792.

United States Secretary of State 1801–1809

The main challenge which faced the Jefferson Administration was navigating between the two great empires of Britain and France, which were almost constantly at war. The first great triumph was the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, made possible when Napoleon realized he could not defend that vast territory, and it was to France's advantage that Britain not seize it. .Madison and President Jefferson reversed party policy to negotiate for the Purchase and then win Congressional approval.^ Madison served (1809-17) as Jefferson's successor as President & even succeeded him on the University of Virginia board.
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A document signed by President James Madison in November 1809, giving his approval to the granting of specified lands on the St. Clair River to various Indian tribes as negotiated by a treaty with the Indians in 1807.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, Madison writes regarding preparation for negotiations preceding the Louisiana Purchase.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Madison tried to maintain neutrality between Britain and France, but at the same time insisted on the legal rights of the U.S. under international law.^ In the letter, Madison instructs Livingston to negotiate with French government on right of deposit at New Orleans, for satisfaction in the matter of Captain Rodgers and Davidson, and on the French navigation laws.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, Madison writes concerning Great Britain’s breach of maritime neutrality laws in its attacks on U.S. merchant vessels, and desire of Pres.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The correspondence includes a letter, 1801 May 17, from James Monroe to Madison concerning James Thomson Callender, arrested under the Alien and Sedition laws, and his release by Thomas Jefferson; and a letter, 1818 December 23, from Monroe to Madison concerning the Convention of 1818 between Great Britain and the United States.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Neither London nor Paris showed much respect, however. .Madison and Jefferson decided on an embargo to punish Britain and France, forbidding Americans to trade with any foreign nation.^ In letters, 1803 and 1804 James Madison discusses the spoilation claims of American citizens against England and France.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letter consists of instructions from Madison to America’s Minister to Great Britain covering American rights to the Mississippi, Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France, President Jefferson’s consequent appointment of a Commission Extraordinary to negotiate with France, and James Madison’s negotiations with the British Government.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The embargo failed as foreign policy, and instead caused massive hardships in the southern seaboard, which depended on foreign trade.
During his term as Secretary of State he was a party to the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison, in which the doctrine of judicial review was asserted by the high Court.
.The party's Congressional Caucus chose presidential candidates, and Madison was selected in the election of 1808, easily defeating Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, riding on the coattails of Jefferson's popularity.^ A letter from Charles Pinckney to James Madison written on July 8, 1801.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, Washington asks Madison’s advice on several matters, including candidates for judicial appointments and the propriety of his using the veto on a bill for Congressional salaries.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Congress repealed the failed embargo as Madison took office.

Presidency 1809–1817

James Madison engraving from between 1809 and 1817

Bank of the United States

.The twenty-year charter of the first Bank of the United States was scheduled to expire in 1811, the second year of Madison's administration.^ A letter from James Madison to Martin Van Buren, the Vice President of the United States, written on January 22, 1836.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence and notes trace his two terms as the fourth president of the United States, illuminating the origins and course of the War of 1812 and the post-war years of his presidency and subsequent retirement.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documents which were sent by and to James Madison in his position as Secretary of State, and later, as President of the United States.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Madison failed in blocking the Bank in 1791, and waited for its charter to expire. .Secretary of the Treasury Gallatin wanted the bank rechartered, and when the War of 1812 broke out, he discovered how difficult it was to finance the war without the Bank.^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gallatin's successor as Treasury Secretary Alexander J. Dallas proposed a replacement in 1814, but Madison vetoed the bill in 1815. By late 1815, however, Madison asked Congress for a new bank, which had strong support from the younger, nationalistic republicans such as John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay, as well as Federalist Daniel Webster.^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from James Madison to Henry Clay written on May 24, 1828.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider how Madison's concept of property and interests infused his original proposals before Congress that led to the adoption of the USA "Bill of Rights".
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Madison signed it into law in 1816 and appointed William Jones as its president.^ Original manuscript of James Madison’s inaugural speech made on March 4, 1809, when he was inducted into office as President of the United States.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from James Madison to William Jones written on February 28, 1803.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

War of 1812

British insults continued, especially the practice of using the Royal Navy to intercept unarmed American merchant ships and "impress" (conscript) all sailors who might be British subjects for service in the British navy. .Madison's protests were ignored by the British, so he helped the nationalist Republicans to stir up public opinion in the west and south for war.^ In the letter, James Madison thanks the statesmen from South Carolina for kind words about his public service.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One argument by the so-called "war hawks" was that an American invasion of British Canada would be easy and would provide a good bargaining chip. Madison carefully prepared public opinion for what everyone at the time called "Mr. Madison's War", but much less time and money was spent building up the army, navy, forts, and state militias. .After he persuaded Congress to declare war, Madison was reelected President over DeWitt Clinton but by a smaller margin than in 1808 (see U.S. presidential election, 1812).^ War Message to Congress, June 1, 1812.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Papers: In the DeWitt Clinton Collection, 1803-1808, 43 official letters.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some historians in 2006 ranked Madison's failure to avoid war as the sixth worst presidential mistake ever made.[24][25]
.In the ensuing War of 1812, the British, Canadians, and First Nations[citation needed] allies won numerous victories, including the capture of Detroit after the American general there surrendered to a smaller force without a fight, and the occupation of Washington, D.C. which forced Madison to flee the city and watch as the White House was set on fire by British troops.^ The Writings of James Madison, comprising his Public Papers and his Private Correspondence, including his numerous letters and documents now for the first time printed, ed.
  • Online Library of Liberty - TO HENRY LEE. mad. mss. - The Writings, vol. 9 (1819-1836) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General correspondence, 1781-1839, of James Madison concerns the American Revolution, intelligence reports, political events, slavery, and domestic and family affairs.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a letter, 1814, he discusses an incident during the War of 1812 involving the French ship ”Olivier.” Papers: In the Madison and Randolph Letters, 1828-1831, 1 item.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The attack was in retaliation for a U.S. invasion of York, Upper Canada (now Toronto, Ontario), in which U.S. forces twice occupied the city, burning the Parliament Buildings of Upper Canada. The British also armed American Indians in the West, most notably followers of Tecumseh who were defeat at the Battle of the Thames. The Americans built warships on the Great Lakes faster than the British and Oliver Hazard Perry defeated the British fleet to avert a major invasion of New York in 1814[citation needed]. At sea, the British blockaded the entire coastline, cutting off both foreign trade and domestic trade between ports. Economic hardship was severe in New England, but entrepreneurs built factories that soon became the basis of the industrial revolution in America.
.Madison faced formidable obstacles—a divided cabinet, a factious party, a recalcitrant Congress, obstructionist governors, and incompetent generals, together with militia who refused to fight outside their states.^ Madison writes to Monroe, who served as secretary of state during Madison’s presidency, seeking further information about questions raised by Lee concerning delays in delivering the order to General Jackson.
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Most serious was lack of unified popular support. There were serious threats of disunion from New England, which engaged in massive smuggling to Canada and refused to provide financial support or soldiers.[26] However Andrew Jackson in the South and William Henry Harrison in the West destroyed the main Indian threats by 1813.
War-weariness led to the end of conflict after the apparent defeat of Napoleon in 1814. Both the British and American will to continue were exhausted, the causes of the war were forgotten, the Indian issue was resolved for the time being, and it was time for peace. New England Federalists, however, set up a defeatist Hartford Convention that discussed secession. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in 1815. There were no territorial gains on either side as both sides returned to status quo ante bellum, that is, the previous boundaries. .The Battle of New Orleans, in which Andrew Jackson defeated the British regulars, was fought fifteen days after the treaty was signed but before the news of the signing reached New Orleans.^ James Madison writes to James Monroe about Andrew Jackson’s criticism of Monroe’s efforts to supply him during the New Orleans campaign, 1827; Tench Ringgold writes to Monroe about Jackson and New Orleans.
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Postwar

With peace finally established, the U.S. was swept by a sense that it had secured solid independence from Britain. .The Federalist Party collapsed and eventually disappeared from politics, as an Era of Good Feeling emerged with a much lower level of political fear and vituperation, although political contention certainly continued.^ In the emerging era of multiparty democracy in the USA, e.g., Nader-style Green Party activism, it is time to re-read Maurice Duverger’s Political Parties: Their Organization and Activity in the Modern State (1959, a translation of the 1951 French original).
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although Madison had accepted the necessity of a Hamiltonian national bank, an effective taxation system based on tariffs, a standing professional army and a strong navy, he drew the line at internal improvements as advocated by his Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin.^ A letter from James Madison to Albert Gallatin written around September 1819.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political and official correspondence between President Madison and Alexander James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury and, in spring and summer of 1815, Secretary of War.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton leaned toward a powerful national government; here Madison leaned slightly in the other direction, toward an efficient and effective union of states.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

In his last act before leaving office, Madison vetoed on states' rights grounds a bill for "internal improvements," including roads, bridges, and canals:
Having considered the bill ... I am constrained by the insuperable difficulty I feel in reconciling this bill with the Constitution of the United States.... The legislative powers vested in Congress are specified ... in the ... Constitution, and it does not appear that the power proposed to be exercised by the bill is among the enumerated powers.[27]
Madison rejected the view of Congress that the General Welfare provision of the Taxing and Spending Clause justified the bill, stating:
.Such a view of the Constitution would have the effect of giving to Congress a general power of legislation instead of the defined and limited one hitherto understood to belong to them, the terms "common defense and general welfare" embracing every object and act within the purview of a legislative trust.^ You would not gather from this story that the Coup Committee was at that moment aiming to overthrow the constitutional authority of one of the world's great nations .
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For one thing, Madison understood that he who would seek to suppress faction would be, in this act, a faction unto himself.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He warned that powerful colonial empires threatened the new Union, but he also promised that a strong general government would allow the USA to do some profitable threatening of its own.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Madison urged a variety of measures that he felt were "best executed under the national authority," including federal support for roads and canals that would "bind more closely together the various parts of our extended confederacy."^ In Madison's version of the new constitutional structure, the states were to the general federal authority as the three branches of the federal government were to one another.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You would not gather from this story that the Coup Committee was at that moment aiming to overthrow the constitutional authority of one of the world's great nations .
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

International

The Second Barbary War brought to a conclusive end the American practice of paying tribute to the pirate states in the Mediterranean and marked the beginning of the end of the age of piracy in that region.

Administration and cabinet

The Madison Cabinet
Office Name Term
President James Madison 1809–1817
Vice President George Clinton 1809–1812
Elbridge Gerry 1813–1814
Secretary of State Robert Smith 1809–1811
James Monroe 1811–1814
1815–1817
Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin 1809–1814
George W. Campbell 1814
Alexander J. Dallas 1814–1816
William H. Crawford 1816–1817
Secretary of War William Eustis 1809–1813
John Armstrong, Jr. 1813–1814
James Monroe 1814–1815
William H. Crawford 1815–1816
Attorney General Caesar A. Rodney 1809–1811
William Pinkney 1811–1814
Richard Rush 1814–1817
Secretary of the Navy Paul Hamilton 1809–1813
William Jones 1813–1814
Benjamin W. Crowninshield 1814–1817

  • Madison is the only president to have had two vice-presidents die while in office.

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Madison appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Other courts

.Madison appointed eleven other federal judges, two to the United States Circuit Court of the District of Columbia, and nine to the various United States district courts.^ Magee, William — of Cazenovia, Madison County , N.Y. Member of New York state assembly 111th District, 1991-.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documents which were sent by and to James Madison in his position as Secretary of State, and later, as President of the United States.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton leaned toward a powerful national government; here Madison leaned slightly in the other direction, toward an efficient and effective union of states.
  • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

One of those judges was appointed twice, to different seats on the same court.

States admitted to the Union

Later life

James Madison c. 1821
.When Madison left office in 1817, he retired to Montpelier, his tobacco plantation in Virginia; not far from Jefferson's Monticello.^ In the letter, Randolph writes concerning Madison’s preface to Jefferson’s memoirs and noting that the insolvency of Jefferson’s estate requires him to reclaim and sell the library Jefferson left to the University of Virginia.
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^ The 1818 letter refers to business affairs at Madison’s plantation, Montpelier.
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^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written in March 1790, about a debt; and two letters, 1817 Mar.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Madison was then 65 years old. .Dolley, who thought they would finally have a chance to travel to Paris, was 49. As with both Washington and Jefferson, Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when he entered, due to the steady financial collapse of his plantation.^ They document the life of the man who came to be known as the “Father of the Constitution” through correspondence, personal notes, drafts of letters and legislation, an autobiography, legal and financial documents, and miscellaneous manuscripts.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collection consists of manuscripts, correspondence, documents, and other related material of both James (Class of 1771) and Dolley Madison, collected by Jasper E. Crane (Class of 1901).
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, James Madison writes to Gerry, who would serve as his Vice President when Madison became President in 1809, with world affairs, after first discussing at some length the application of “Mr.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some historians speculate that his mounting debt was one of the chief reasons why he refused to allow his notes on the Constitutional Convention, or its official records which he possessed, to be published in his lifetime "He knew the value of his notes, and wanted them to bring money to his estate for Dolley's use as his plantation failed—he was hoping for one hundred thousand dollars from the sale of his papers, of which the notes were the gem."^ In the letter, Madison announces the ratification of the Constitution in the Virginia convention by a vote of 89-79 and adds that the convention will recommend some amendments.
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^ In the letters, George Mason asks on 6 July 1826 if James Madison is the author of a certain political paper he has in his possession and would like to publish.
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^ Notes and a memoranda document Madison’s pivotal role in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 and the Virginia ratification convention of 1788.
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[28] Madison's financial troubles and deteriorating mental and physical health would continue to consume him.
In his later years Madison also became extremely concerned about his legacy. .He took to modifying letters and other documents in his possessions: changing days and dates, adding and deleting words and sentences, and shifting characters.^ A collection of letters, commissions, and other documents relating to the public life of James Madison.
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By the time he had reached his late seventies, this "straightening out" had become almost an obsession. .This can be seen by his editing of a letter he had written to Jefferson criticizing Lafayette: Madison not only inked out original passages, but went so far as to imitate Jefferson's handwriting as well.^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written on October 9, 1824.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison written on November 1, 1824.
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^ A letter from James Madison to Henry Clay written on May 24, 1828.
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[29] .In Madison's mind, this may have represented an effort to make himself clear, to justify his actions both to history and to himself.^ Randolph also alerted Madison to efforts to defeat the latter as a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives by placing Orange County, Virginia, in a tough district for Madison to win.
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^ Madison instructs Armstrong to make the U.S. position clear to the French government.
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During the final six years of his life, amid a sea of personal [financial] troubles that were threatening to engulf him...At times mental agitation issued in physical collapse. For the better part of a year in 1831 and 1832 he was bedridden, if not silenced...Literally sick with anxiety, he began to despair of his ability to make himself understood by his fellow citizens.[30]
.In 1826, after the death of Jefferson, Madison followed Jefferson as the second Rector ("President") of the University of Virginia.^ In the letter, Randolph writes concerning Madison’s preface to Jefferson’s memoirs and noting that the insolvency of Jefferson’s estate requires him to reclaim and sell the library Jefferson left to the University of Virginia.
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^ In the letter, Madison writes concerning the Classical Professorship at the University of Virginia.
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^ In the letter, Madison writes to Dunglison to introduce John Chapman, a student at the University of Virginia.
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It would be his last occupation. He retained the position as college chancellor for ten years, until his death in 1836.
.In 1829, at the age of seventy-eight, Madison was chosen as a representative to the constitutional convention in Richmond for the revising of the Virginia state constitution; this was to be Madison's last appearance as a legislator and constitutional drafter.^ Delegate to Florida state constitutional convention from Wakulla County, 1865.
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^ Lawyer ; delegate to Mississippi state constitutional convention , 1832; member of Mississippi state senate , 1833-34.
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^ Served in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; U.S. Representative from New York 28th District, 1827-31; delegate to New York state constitutional convention , 1867.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The issue of greatest importance at this convention was apportionment. .The western districts of Virginia complained that they were underrepresented because the state constitution apportioned voting districts by population, and the count included slaves even though slaves could not vote.^ In the letter, Madison announces the ratification of the Constitution in the Virginia convention by a vote of 89-79 and adds that the convention will recommend some amendments.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; U.S. Representative from New York 28th District, 1827-31; delegate to New York state constitutional convention , 1867.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Westerners had few slaves, while the Eastern planters had many, and thus the vote of a white easterner outweighed the vote of a white westerner. .Madison, who in his prime was known as "the Great Legislator," tried to effect a compromise, such as the three-fifths ratio for a slave then used by the U.S. Constitution, but to no avail.^ They document the life of the man who came to be known as the “Father of the Constitution” through correspondence, personal notes, drafts of letters and legislation, an autobiography, legal and financial documents, and miscellaneous manuscripts.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Madison, James (1751-1836) — also known as "Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights" — of Virginia.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eventually, the eastern planters prevailed. Slaves would continue to be counted toward their masters' districts. Madison was crushed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equitably. ."The Convention of 1829, we might say, pushed Madison steadily to the brink of self-delusion, if not despair.^ James Madison writes to Monroe,1828 February 5, concerning the Virginia Convention of 1829 and the role of ex-Presidents in politics.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The dilemma of slavery undid him."[31]
A portrait of Madison, at age 82
.Although his health had now almost failed, he managed to produce several memoranda on political subjects, including an essay against the appointment of chaplains for Congress and the armed forces, because this produced religious exclusion, but not political harmony.^ In the letter, Washington asks Madison’s advice on several matters, including candidates for judicial appointments and the propriety of his using the veto on a bill for Congressional salaries.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
Madison lived on until 1836, increasingly ignored by the new leaders of the American polity. .He died at Montpelier on June 28, the last Founding Father to die.^ Died in Montpelier, Orange County , Va., June 28, 1836 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] He is buried in the Madison Family Cemetery at Montpelier.

Legacy

Presidential Dollar of James Madison
As historian Garry Wills wrote:
.
Madison's claim on our admiration does not rest on a perfect consistency, any more than it rests on his presidency. He has other virtues.... As a framer and defender of the Constitution he had no peer.... .The finest part of Madison's performance as president was his concern for the preserving of the Constitution....^ James Madison writes to Monroe,1828 February 5, concerning the Virginia Convention of 1829 and the role of ex-Presidents in politics.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the letter, Madison writes concerning the part played by William Livingston of New Jersey in the federal Constitutional Convention of 1787.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

No man could do everything for the country – not even Washington. Madison did more than most, and did some things better than any. That was quite enough.[34]
  • Many counties, several towns, cities, educational institutions, a mountain range and a river are named after Madison.^ Madison, Edmond Haggard (1865-1911) — also known as Edmond H. Madison — of Dodge City, Ford County , Kan.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Madison County - lists counties named for him
    • Cities: e.g. .Madison, Wisconsin
    • The James Madison College of public policy at Michigan State University; James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia - its athletic teams are called the James Madison Dukes; the James Madison Institute was named in honor of his contributions to the Constitution.
    • The Madison Range was named in honor of the future President then U.S. Secretary of State by Meriwether Lewis as the Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled through Montana in 1805. The Madison River in southwestern Montana, named in 1805 by Lewis & Clark.^ A letter from Tobias Lear to James Madison, Secretary of State, written on July 5, 1805.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Documents which were sent by and to James Madison in his position as Secretary of State, and later, as President of the United States.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In the letter, Secretary of State Madison gives authority for use of the militia to prevent any armed expeditions against the possessions of Spain, such as a recent attempt by American citizens to gain control of Baton Rouge.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [35]
    • .
    • Mount Madison in the Presidential Range of the White Mountains in New Hampshire is named after Madison.
    • Two U.S. Navy ships have been named USS James Madison and three USS Madison.
    • Madison's portrait was on the U.S. $5000 bill.^ Among the documents are an Ohio land grant, a passport, ship’s papers, and a Pittsburgh deed—the latter two are counter-signed by James Monroe.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Two letters from James Madison, one addressed to Rufus King and one addressed to William Hulings of New Orleans.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Consist of two letters (1780, 1818), three partly printed documents, an addressed envelope in James Madison’s hand, four engravings of Madison, an autograph quotation signed by Dolley Madison, and two engravings of Mrs. Madison.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [36]

Madison Square Gardens and Madison Cycle Racing

"Madison Cottage" on the site of the Fifth Avenue Hotel at Madison Square, NYC, 1852
.A lodge was built three years after Madison's death in a critical spot at the then-northernmost departure and arrival point in New York City — and named Madison Cottage in honor of the recently deceased fourth president.^ Magee, William — of Cazenovia, Madison County , N.Y. Member of New York state assembly 111th District, 1991-.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Member of New York Democratic State Committee , 1945; borough president of Queens, New York , 1951; delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1952 , 1956 , 1960 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry L. Clinton, Apollo Hall, New York City, February 3, 1872 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The site of Madison Cottage would remain a critical crossroads throughout the city's history — after its demise the site became a park, in turn named Madison Square,[37] which remains today. Madison Square in turn, lead to the naming of Madison Avenue and Madison Square Garden, the latter taking the name of its original location: next to Madison Square. Madison Square Gardens, a prominent bicycling venue, gave rise to a popular form of track cycle racing named after the arena, Madison Racing, which remains an Olympic Sport today.

See also


Notes

  1. ^ James Hutson (May 31, 2001). "James Madison and the Social Utility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards". The Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/loc/madison/hutson-paper.html. Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  2. ^ See "MADISON, James, Jr., (1751 - 1836)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. US Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000043. Retrieved 2009-08-24. , "James Madison Jr.". teachingamericanhistory.org. http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/delegates/madison.html. Retrieved 2009-08-24.  and "Madison, James, Jr.,". Princeton University. http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/madison_james.html. Retrieved 2009-08-24. 
  3. ^ a b c Wood, 2006b.
  4. ^ Madison Debates in Convention - Tuesday June 26, 1787 "There will be particularly the distinction of rich & poor. ***....In framing a system which we wish to last for ages, we should not lose sight of the changes which ages will produce. An increase of population will of necessity increase the proportion of those who will labor under all the hardships of life, and secretly sigh for a more equal distribution of its blessings. These may in time outnumber those who are placed above the feelings of indigence. According to the equal laws of suffrage, the power will slide into the hands of the former."
  5. ^ Notes of the Secret Debates of the Federal Convention of 1787, TUESDAY JUNE 26TH "The man who is possessed of wealth, who lolls on his sofa, or rolls in his carriage, cannot judge of the wants or feelings of the day laborer. The government we mean to erect is intended to last for ages. The landed interest, at present, is prevalent; but in process of time, when we approximate to the states and kingdoms of Europe; when the number of landholders shall be comparatively small, through the various means of trade and manufactures, will not the landed interest be overbalanced in future elections, and unless wisely provided against, what will become of your government? In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of the landed proprietors would be insecure. An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other. The checks and balances ought to be so constituted as to protect the [privatized property of the] minority of the opulent against the [will of the] majority."
  6. ^ Jerry Fresia, "Toward an American Revolution - Exposing the Constitution and other Illusions" (South End Press, 1988)
  7. ^ Fresia (1988) Chapter 3: The Constitution: Resurrection of an Imperial System
  8. ^ James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, March 2, 1794.) "I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican Party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose."
    *Thomas Jefferson to President Washington, May 23, 1792 "The republican party, who wish to preserve the government in its present form, are fewer in number. They are fewer even when joined by the two, three, or half dozen anti-federalists,..."
    *Thomas Jefferson to John Melish, January 13, 1813. "The party called republican is steadily for the support of the present constitution"
  9. ^ Brennan, Daniel. "Did James Madison suffer a nervous collapse due to the intensity of his studies?" Mudd Manuscript Library Blog, Princeton University Archives and Public Policy Papers Collection, Princeton University.
  10. ^ Ralph Louis Ketcham, James Madison: A Biography, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1971; paperback, 1990, p. 57, accessed 2009-02-06
  11. ^ James Madison Biography, American-Presidents.com, Accessed on July 29 2009.
  12. ^ Wood, 2006, pp. 163–64.
  13. ^ "Selected summaries of The Federalist Papers". http://wikisum.com/w/Hamilton%2C_Jay%2C_and_Madison:_The_Federalist. 
  14. ^ Larry D. Kramer, "Madison's Audience," Harvard Law Review 112,3 (1999), pp. 611+ online version.
  15. ^ Lance Banning, "James Madison: Federalist," note 1, [1].
  16. ^ Madison to Hamilton Letter, July 20, 1788, American Memory, Library of Congress, accessed 2 Feb 2008
  17. ^ Matthews, 1995, p. 130.
  18. ^ Matthews, 1995, p. 142.
  19. ^ "The Constitution of the United States". http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_documents&docid=f:sd011.105. 
  20. ^ Wood, 2006a, p. 165.
  21. ^ Paul A. Varg, Foreign Policies of the Founding Fathers (Michigan State Univ. Press, 1963), p. 74.
  22. ^ As early as May 26, 1792, Hamilton complained, "Mr. Madison cooperating with Mr. Jefferson is at the head of a faction decidedly hostile to me and my administration." Hamilton, Writings (Library of America, 2001), p. 738. On May 5, 1792, Madison told Washington, "with respect to the spirit of party that was taking place ...I was sensible of its existence". Madison Letters 1 (1865), p. 554.
  23. ^ "definition of Madison, James". Free Online Encyclopedia. http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Madison%2c+James. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  24. ^ "U.S. historians pick top 10 presidential errors". Associated Press article in CTV. February 18, 2006. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20060218/presidential_errors_060218/20060218?hub=World. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  25. ^ "Results of Presidential Mistakes Survey". McConnell Center, University of Louisville. February 18 and 19, 2006. http://louisville.edu/mcconnellcenter/news/presidentialmoments/results.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  26. ^ Stagg, 1983.
  27. ^ Tax Foundation
  28. ^ Garry Wills, James Madison (Times Books, 2002), p. 163.
  29. ^ Ibid., p. 162.
  30. ^ Drew R. McCoy, The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989), p.151.
  31. ^ Ibid., p. 252.
  32. ^ He was tempted to admit chaplains for the navy, which might well have no other opportunity for worship.The text of the memoranda
  33. ^ "The Founding Fathers: A Brief Overview". The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_founding_fathers_overview.html. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 
  34. ^ Wills 2002, p. 164.
  35. ^ Allan H. Keith, Historical Stories: About Greenville and Bond County, IL. Consulted on August 15, 2007.
  36. ^ "Five Thousand Green Seal". The United States Treasury Bureau of Engraving and Printing. http://www.moneyfactory.gov/document.cfm/5/42/159. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  37. ^ Jackson, Kenneth T. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of New York City (1995) ISBN 0-300-05536-6
Primary sources
Secondary sources
Biographies
  • Brant, Irving. "James Madison and His Times," American Historical Review. 57,4 (July, 1952), 853–870.
  • Brant, Irving. James Madison, 6 vols., (Bobbs-Merrill, 1941–1961)
  • Brant, Irving. The Fourth President; a Life of James Madison (Bobbs-Merrill, 1970). Single volume condensation of his series.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography (Macmillan, 1971).
  • Rakove, Jack. James Madison and the Creation of the American Republic, 2nd ed., (Longman, 2002).
  • Riemer, Neal. .James Madison (Washington Square Press, 1968).
  • Wills, Garry.^ Books about James Madison: Ralph Louis Ketcham, James Madison : A Biography ; Garry Wills, James Madison ; Robert Allen Rutland, The Presidency of James Madison ; Charles Cerami, Young Patriots: The Remarkable Story of Two Men.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    James Madison (Times Books, 2002). Short bio.
Analytic studies
  • Adams, Henry. History of the United States during the Administrations of James Madison (C. Scribners's Sons, 1890–91; Library of America, 1986). ISBN 0940450356
    • Wills, Garry. Henry Adams and the Making of America (Houghton Mifflin, 2005). a close reading.
  • Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic (Cornell Univ. Press, 1995). online ACLS History e-Book. Available only to subscribing institutions.
  • Brant, Irving. James Madison and American Nationalism. (Van Nostrand Co., 1968).
  • Elkins, Stanley M.; McKitrick, Eric. The Age of Federalism (Oxford Univ. Press, 1995). most detailed analysis of the politics of the 1790s.
  • Kernell, Samuel, ed. .James Madison: the Theory and Practice of Republican Government (Stanford Univ.^ Their Impossible Plan and The Revolution That Created The Constitution ; Samuel Kernell, ed., James Madison: The Theory and Practice of Republican Government Madison, Lorenzo — of Clinton, Hinds County , Miss.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Press, 2003).
  • Matthews, Richard K., If Men Were Angels : James Madison and the Heartless Empire of Reason (Univ. Press of Kansas, 1995).
  • McCoy, Drew R. The Elusive Republic: Political Economy in Jeffersonian America (W.W. Norton, 1980). mostly economic issues. .
    • McCoy, The Last of the Fathers: James Madison and the Republican Legacy (Cambridge Univ.^ Madison, James (1751-1836) — also known as "Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights" — of Virginia.
      • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      Press, 1989). JM after 1816.
  • Muñoz, Vincent Phillip. "James Madison's Principle of Religious Liberty," American Political Science Review 97,1(2003), 17–32. SSRN 512922 in JSTOR.
  • Riemer, Neal. "The Republicanism of James Madison," Political Science Quarterly, 69,1(1954), 45–64 in JSTOR.
    • Riemer, James Madison : Creating the American Constitution (Congressional Quarterly, 1986).
  • Rutland, Robert A. The Presidency of James Madison (Univ. Press of Kansas, 1990). scholarly overview of his two terms.
    • Rutland, ed. .James Madison and the American Nation, 1751–1836: An Encyclopedia (Simon & Schuster, 1994).
  • Scarberry, Mark S. "John Leland and James Madison: Religious Influence on the Ratification of the Constitution and on the Proposal of the Bill of Rights," Penn State Law Review, Vol.^ Madison, James (1751-1836) — also known as "Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights" — of Virginia.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    113, No. 3 (April 2009), 733-800. SSRN 1262520
  • Sheehan, Colleen A. "The Politics of Public Opinion: James Madison's 'Notes on Government'," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 49,3(1992), 609–627. in JSTOR.
    • Sheehan, "Madison and the French Enlightenment," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 59,4(Oct. 2002), 925–956. in JSTOR.
    • Sheehan, "Madison v. .Hamilton: The Battle Over Republicanism and the Role of Public Opinion," American Political Science Review 98,3(2004), 405–424. in JSTOR.
    • Sheehan, "Madison Avenues," Claremont Review of Books (Spring 2004), online.
    • Sheehan, "Public Opinion and the Formation of Civic Character in Madison's Republican Theory," Review of Politics 67,1(Winter 2005), 37–48.
  • Stagg, John C.A., "James Madison and the 'Malcontents': The Political Origins of the War of 1812," William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser.^ Their Impossible Plan and The Revolution That Created The Constitution ; Samuel Kernell, ed., James Madison: The Theory and Practice of Republican Government Madison, Lorenzo — of Clinton, Hinds County , Miss.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War; Kentucky auditor of public accounts , 1796-1816; major in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812; Governor of Kentucky , 1816; died in office 1816.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    33,4(Oct. 1976), 557–585.
    • Stagg, "James Madison and the Coercion of Great Britain: Canada, the West Indies, and the War of 1812," in William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. 38,1(Jan., 1981), 3–34.
    • Stagg, Mr. Madison's War: Politics, Diplomacy, and Warfare in the Early American republic, 1783–1830 (Princeton, 1983).
  • Wood, Gordon S., "Is There a 'James Madison Problem'?" in Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different (Penguin Press, 2006a), 141–72.
    • Wood, "Without Him, No Bill of Rights : James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights by Richard Labunski", The New York Review of Books (November 30, 2006b).

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Of all the enemies to public liberty war, is, perhaps, the most to be dreaded because it comprises and develops the germ of every other.
.James Madison (1751-03-161836-06-28) was the fourth (1809–1817) President of the United States.^ JAMES MADISON, "Father of the Constitution," and fourth President of the United States, was born March 16, 1757, and died at his home in Virginia June 28, 1836.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison was the 4th president of the United States.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the fourth president, James Monroe.
  • Madison and Religious Freedom - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.He was co-author, with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton, of the Federalist Papers, and is traditionally regarded as the Father of the United States Constitution.^ To aid the push for quick ratification, he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write The Federalist Papers .
  • James Madison at AllExperts 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To encourage ratification of the Constitution, Madison joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write the Federalist Papers in 1787 and 1788.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with his co-authors, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, Madison wrote as a partisan defender of the Constitution against the attacks of the Anti-Federalists.
  • Center for Civic Education 2000 James Madison Supplemental Lesson 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.civiced.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

.
I believe there are more instances of the abridgement of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power than by violent and sudden usurpations.
  • The man who is possessed of wealth, who lolls on his sofa or rolls in his carriage, cannot judge the wants or feelings of the day-laborer.^ In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness.
    • WallBuilders - Issues and Articles - James Madison and Religion in Public 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.wallbuilders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ James Madison is more responsible than any other single American for one of the nation's greatest characteristics -- religious freedom.
    • Madison and Religious Freedom - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ There is more that might be said about a wise man who would later turn against some of the notions of centralized federal government that he had earlier espoused in the light of the post-constitutional experience.

    .The government we mean to erect is intended to last for ages.
    The landed interest, at present, is prevalent; but in process of time, when we approximate to the states and kingdoms of Europe, — when the number of landholders shall be comparatively small, through the various means of trade and manufactures, will not the landed interest be overbalanced in future elections, and unless wisely provided against, what will become of your government?^ Strained relations between the United States and Europe, chiefly England, France and Spain, occupied much of Madisons time, making his presidency somewhat ineffective.
    • Founder of the Month - James Madison - by Monty Rainey 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That act stipulated that for a territory to become a State, the "schools and the means of education" in that territory must encourage the "religion, morality, and knowledge" that was "necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind."
    • WallBuilders - Issues and Articles - James Madison and Religion in Public 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.wallbuilders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The decision that is at this time made will become the permanent exposition of the constitution; and on a permanent exposition of the constitution will depend the genius and character of the whole government.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.^ This produces a better class of legislators, more stable and predictable owing to their likely interest in maintaining property rights above all else.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Constitution, in its language and in its spirit, welcomes the black man to all the rights which it was intended to guarantee to any class of the American people.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Portraying rights as powers reserved meant that one had to enumerate all rights, or otherwise it could be inferred that they were powers granted, and it would be impossible to enumerate all of the rights of the people.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .An agrarian law would soon take place.^ He left Philadelphia shortly after the Constitution was signed to take his place in the Continental Congress in New York that now would determine its fate.

    .If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation.^ Madison declared that the combination of federalism and republicanism had secured the nation against the tendency of every other form of government to either despotism or anarchy.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Maybe these traditions are eroding in our time, both in the USA and Russia, so the topic is not just historical and theoretical.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Union was committed to me, has comprized vicissitudes and struggles deeply interesting to the fortunes of our Country ...
    • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other.^ As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to limit the powers of special interests, which Madison called factions .
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that the new republic needed checks and balances to limit the powers of special interests, which Madison called factions.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]
    • James Madison | 4th US President | Constitutional Convention Father 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In this letter, Madison not only exhibits an understanding of the self-interest that motivates these sects, but also the good that can come when they are in a constant state of conflict with each other.
    • James Madison "Godfather of the Constitution" - The Early America Review, Summer 1997 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority.
    The senate, therefore, ought to be this body; and to answer these purposes, they ought to have permanency and stability.^ They were meant to be short-lived and purpose driven, as opposed to being the semi-permanent profit-driven bodies that they are now.
    • The American Spectator : Obama vs. James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He later characterized his forebears in these terms: In both the paternal and maternal line of ancestry [they were] planters and among the respectable though not the most opulent class.

    ^ And I am confident that when I have heard the reasons against it, something will be said to answer those reasons — insomuch that I should doubt whether he was an Englishman or no that should doubt of these things.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • In time of actual war, great discretionary powers are constantly given to the Executive Magistrate.^ Speech in the Federal Convention on Electing the Executive, July 19, 1787.
    • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Speech in the Federal Convention on Electing the Executive, July 17, 1787.
    • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 .
    • James Madison at AllExperts 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    Constant apprehension of War, has the same tendency to render the head too large for the body. A standing military force, with an overgrown Executive will not long be safe companions to liberty. The means of defence agst. foreign danger, have been always the instruments of tyranny at home. Among the Romans it was a standing maxim to excite a war, whenever a revolt was apprehended. Throughout all Europe, the armies kept up under the pretext of defending, have enslaved the people. .
    • Speech, Constitutional Convention (1787-06-29), from Max Farrand's Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, vol.^ Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 .
      • James Madison at AllExperts 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Forrest McDonald, Novus Ordo Seclorum: The Intellectual Origins of the Constitution 208-209 (Lawrence, Kansas, 1985), compiled from The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (Max Farrand, ed., New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911), Vol.
      • WallBuilders - Issues and Articles - James Madison and Religion in Public 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.wallbuilders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ James Madison, The Papers of James Madison 1566 ( Henry D. Gilpin, ed., Washington: Langress and O'Sullivan, 1840) (Wednesday, September 12, 1787); see also 2 George Bancroft, Bancroft's History of the Formation of the Constitution 209-210 (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1882), and 2 Farrand's Records of The Federal Convention 588 ( September 12, 1787) and 637 (September 15, 1787).
      • WallBuilders - Issues and Articles - James Madison and Religion in Public 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.wallbuilders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      I [1] (1911), p. .465
  • Since the general civilization of mankind, I believe there are more instances of the abridgment of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power, than by violent and sudden usurpations; but, on a candid examination of history, we shall find that turbulence, violence, and abuse of power, by the majority trampling on the rights of the minority, have produced factions and commotions, which, in republics, have, more frequently than any other cause, produced despotism.^ James Madison is more responsible than any other single American for one of the nation's greatest characteristics -- religious freedom.
    • Madison and Religious Freedom - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ In some instances they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the civil authority; in many instances they have been seen upholding the thrones of political tyranny; in no instance have they been the guardians of the liberties of the people.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I think it the duty of farmers who are wealthier than others to give those less so the benefit of any improvements they can introduce, gratis."
    • The American Spectator : Obama vs. James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If we go over the whole history of ancient and modern republics, we shall find their destruction to have generally resulted from those causes.^ The result was a document titled "Notes on Ancient and Modern Confederacies."
    • James Madison "Godfather of the Constitution" - The Early America Review, Summer 1997 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The contest between the supporters of the general assessment and Madison was not, however, another skirmish in the battle between ancients and moderns, for Henry and his counterparts in the other states were innovators.
    • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Speech at the Virginia Convention to ratify the Federal Constitution (1788-06-06) [2]
  • Wherever the real power in a Government lies, there is the danger of oppression. In our Governments, the real power lies in the majority of the Community, and the invasion of private rights is chiefly to be apprehended, not from the acts of Government contrary to the sense of its constituents, but from acts in which the Government is the mere instrument of the major number of the constituents.^ "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined.
    • Is This What James Madison Had in Mind? -- Politics Daily 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.politicsdaily.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Speech in the Virginia Constitutional Convention, December 2, 1829.
    • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Speech in the Virginia Ratifying Convention on Control of the Military, June 16, 1788.
    • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

    .
  • Man who preys both on the vegetable and animal species, is himself a prey to neither.^ Thomas Jefferson to President Washington, May 23, 1792 said, "The republican party, who wish to preserve the government in its present form, are fewer in number.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But as with both Washington and Jefferson, Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when he entered, due to the steady financial collapse of his plantation.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was made a member of the Governor's Council when Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were governors, and both these great men had a high regard for him.
    • James Madison - Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.all-biographies.com [Source type: Original source]

    He too possesses the reproductive principle far beyond the degree requisite for the bare continuance of his species. What becomes of the surplus of human life to which this principle is competent?
    It is either, 1st. destroyed by infanticide, as among the Chinese and Lacedemonians; or 2d. it is stifled or starved, as among other nations whose population is commensurate to its food; or 3d. it is consumed by wars and endemic diseases; or 4th. it overflows, by emigration, to places where a surplus of food is attainable. .
    • "Population and Emigration" in National Gazette (1791-11-21); also quoted in If Men Were Angels: James Madison & the Heartless Empire of Reason (1995) by Richard K. Matthews.^ Towson 16, James Madison 11   .
      • 2009 James Madison University Baseball 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.jmusports.com [Source type: General]

      ^ JAMES MADISON 21, WILLIAM & MARY 0 ================================== Paul Wantuck kickoff 59 yards to the WM6, Stephen Cason return 19 yards to the WM25 (Akeem Jordan).
      • James Madison vs William & Mary (Dec 10, 2004) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tribeathletics.com [Source type: Academic]

      ^ James Madison Dukes 17" x 11" Padded Stadium Seat .
      • James Madison Dukes Fan Shop 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.unleash.com [Source type: General]

      p. .44
  • I cannot undertake to lay my finger on that article of the Constitution which granted a right to Congress of expending, on objects of benevolence, the money of their constituents.^ Working with other proponents of a strong central government, Madison was largely instrumental in persuading Congress to summon a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation , or federal constitution.

    ^ That each state in the union shall respectively retain every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by the Constitution delegated to the Congress of the United States, or to the departments of the federal government.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a leader in the first Congresses, he drafted many basic laws and was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution, and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights".
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Annals of Congress, House of Representatives, 3rd Congress, 1st Session, page 170 (1794-01-10) [3].^ When the Constitution was ratified, Madison was elected to the United States House of Representatives from his home state of Virginia and served from the First Congress through the Fourth Congress .
      • James Madison at AllExperts 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The actual amendments went into effect in 1791, by which time Madison was representing Virginia in the First Congress of the United States House of Representatives .
      • James Madison@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
      • James Madison (person)@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Madison was elected to the House of Representatives in the first Congress, and soon became the avowed leader of the Republican party.
      • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

      The Annals summarize speeches in the third person, with the actual text of Madison's quote as follows: "Mr. Madison wished to relieve the sufferers, but was afraid of establishing a dangerous precedent, which might hereafter be perverted to the countenance of purposes very different from those of charity. .He acknowledged, for his own part, that he could not undertake to lay his finger on that article in the Federal Constitution which granted a right of Congress of expending, on objects of benevolence, the money of their constituents."^ Allowing for the overlap of nineteen individuals who were both at the Constitutional Convention and a part of the first Congress, [10] there were one hundred and twenty-six individual participants in the framing of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
      • WallBuilders - Issues and Articles - James Madison and Religion in Public 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.wallbuilders.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ He also played a key part in guiding the Constitution through the Continental Congress.
      • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Working with other proponents of a strong central government, Madison was largely instrumental in persuading Congress to summon a convention to revise the Articles of Confederation , or federal constitution.

      .The expense in question was for French refugees from the Haitian Revolution.
  • The government of the United States is a definite government, confined to specified objects.^ He asked Congress to decide whether the United States should remain at peace under these circumstances as a solemn question which the Constitution wisely confides to the legislative department of the government.

    ^ Madison also fought Hamiltons proposal that the federal government assume the states debts incurred during the revolution.

    ^ That each state in the union shall respectively retain every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by the Constitution delegated to the Congress of the United States, or to the departments of the federal government.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It is not like the state governments, whose powers are more general.^ The more adequate, indeed, the federal powers may be rendered to the national defense, the less frequent will be those scenes of danger which might favor their ascendancy over the governments of the particular States.
    • Is This What James Madison Had in Mind? -- Politics Daily 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.politicsdaily.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In Madison's version of the new constitutional structure, the states were to the general federal authority as the three branches of the federal government were to one another.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lesson Three: Raising an Army: Balancing the Power of the States and the Federal Government : One or two class periods.
    • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

    Charity is no part of the legislative duty of the government.
    • Speech, House of Representatives, during the debate "On the Memorial of the Relief Committee of Baltimore, for the Relief of St. Domingo Refugees" (1794-01-10) [4]
  • Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps, the most to be dreaded, because it comprises and develops the germ of every other. War is the parent of armies; from these proceed debts and taxes; and armies, and debts, and taxes are the known instruments for bringing the many under the domination of the few. .In war, too, the discretionary power of the Executive is extended; its influence in dealing out offices, honors, and emoluments is multiplied; and all the means of seducing the minds, are added to those of subduing the force, of the people.^ If the president should possess alone the power of removal from office, those who are employed in the execution of the law will be in their proper situation, and the chain of dependence be preserved; the lowest officers, the middle grade, and the highest, will depend, as they ought, on the president, and the president on the community.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Translation: "I've figured out a way to secure a degree of influence for myself by wining and dining 24 power brokers on the taxpayer's dime ("all public officials" who can bury it in their taxpayer funded travel budget.
    • Is This What James Madison Had in Mind? -- Politics Daily 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.politicsdaily.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Perhaps the great danger, as has been observed, of abuse in the executive power, lies in the improper continuance of bad men in office.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The same malignant aspect in republicanism may be traced in the inequality of fortunes, and the opportunities of fraud, growing out of a state of war, and in the degeneracy of manners and of morals engendered by both.^ Whatever opinion may be held as to the character of the war and its results, there is a general agreement that its management, on the part of the United States, was feeble.

    ^ "For the same reason, we may leave out of consideration those backward states of society in which the race itself may be considered as in its nonage.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even worse, border skirmishes and minor wars broke out between some of the states.
    • James Madison@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
    • James Madison (person)@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    .No nation could preserve its freedom in the midst of continual warfare.
    • "Political Observations" (1795-04-20); also in Letters and Other Writings of James Madison (1865), Vol.^ See all of James Madison , no other writeups in this node.
      • James Madison (person)@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Primary sources Madison, James (1865).
      • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ James Madison 20, Virginia Military 2   .
      • 2009 James Madison University Baseball 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.jmusports.com [Source type: General]

      IV, p. 491
  • Perhaps it is a universal truth that the loss of liberty at home is to be charged against provisions against danger, real or pretended from abroad. .
    • Letter to Thomas Jefferson (1798-05-13); published in Letters and Other Writings of James Madison (1865), Vol.^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written on October 9, 1824.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written around October 1818.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ A letter from James Madison to Thomas Jefferson written on April 26, 1802.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      II, p. .141
  • Resolved, That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocally express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support the Government of the United States in all measures warranted by the former.^ The Virginia resolutions asserted with truth that, in adopting the Federal constitution, the states had surrendered only a limited portion of their powers; and went on to declare that, whenever the Federal government should exceed its constitutional authority, it was the business of the state governments to interfere and pronounce such action unconstitutional.

    ^ The first President to have served in the United States Congress , he was a leader in the 1st United States Congress , drafted many basic laws and was responsible for the first ten amendments to the Constitution (said to be based on the Virginia Declaration of Rights ), and thus is also known as the "Father of the Bill of Rights ".
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even though he placed great emphasis upon maintaining the Constitution as it was understood by the generation that created it, he was conscious of the right of succeeding generations to change It to fit their aspirations.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Resolutions proposed to the Legislature of Virginia on 1798-12-21, passed on 1798-12-24 and published on 1800-01-20 as the "Report of the Committee to whom were referred the Communications of various States, relative to the Resolutions of the last General Assembly of this State, concerning the Alien and Sedition Laws"
  • This Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact, to which the states are parties, as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting the compact; as no further valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that in case of deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose, for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them.^ Only limited powers were assigned to the federal government.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They declared that our Federal constitution was a compact, to which the several states were the one party and the Federal government was the other, and each party must decide for itself as to when the compact was infringed, and as to the proper remedy to be adopted.

    ^ "The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined.
    • Is This What James Madison Had in Mind? -- Politics Daily 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.politicsdaily.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • "Virginia Resolution of 1798" (December 1798)
  • Some degree of abuse is inseparable from the proper use of every thing; and in no instance is this more true than in that of the press.^ Madison did more than most, and did some things better than any.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He secretly co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Laws.
    • James Madison | 4th US President | Constitutional Convention Father 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In some instances they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the civil authority; in many instances they have been seen upholding the thrones of political tyranny; in no instance have they been the guardians of the liberties of the people.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It has accordingly been decided, by the practice of the states, that it is better to leave a few of its noxious branches to their luxuriant growth, than, by pruning them away, to injure the vigor of those yielding the proper fruits.^ It's in the constitution and we need more than just a few states and cities to make it happen.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madison's religious practice is better documented than his religious principles.
    • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only states, not individuals, were represented in the Continental congress, which accordingly resembled a European congress rather than an English parliament.

    .And can the wisdom of this policy be doubted by any one who reflects that to the press alone, checkered as it is with abuses, the world is indebted for all the triumphs which have been gained by reason and humanity over error and oppression?^ Seeing these acts as a severe threat to free government, Madison subsequently argued that a free press was responsible "for all the triumphs which have been gained by reason and humanity over error and oppression."

    ^ Have everyone who supports impeaching the tyrant in the white House call in sick for one day, the same day for all.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He spoke, Noonan concluded, "as a believer in Christianity's special light," as one who "looks to the evangelization of the world."
    • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Report on the Virginia Resolutions, House of Representatives: Report of the Committee to whom were referred the Communications of the various States, relative to the Resolutions of the Last General Assembly of the State, concerning the Alien and Sedition Laws (1800-01-20) [5], p.^ In January, 1786, Mr. Madison carried a resolution through the General Assembly of Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commissioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss this subject.
      • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ He secretly co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Laws.
      • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]
      • James Madison | 4th US President | Constitutional Convention Father 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      ^ He quickly became a legislative leader, steering through the assembly much of the revision of the Virginia law code proposed by Jefferson and defeating Patrick Henry's attempt to support an established Church in the State of Virginia.

      571
  • I repair to the post assigned me with no other discouragement than what springs from my own inadequacy to its high duties. .If I do not sink under the weight of this deep conviction it is because I find some support in a consciousness of the purposes and a confidence in the principles which I bring with me into this arduous service.^ Under the Sedition Act it was a penal offense to publish any false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the government with the Intent of bringing it into disrepute.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]


    .To cherish peace and friendly intercourse with all nations having correspondent dispositions; to maintain sincere neutrality toward belligerent nations; to prefer in all cases amicable discussion and reasonable accommodation of differences to a decision of them by an appeal to arms; to exclude foreign intrigues and foreign partialities, so degrading to all countries and so baneful to free ones; to foster a spirit of independence too just to invade the rights of others, too proud to surrender our own, too liberal to indulge unworthy prejudices ourselves and too elevated not to look down upon them in others; to hold the union of the States as the basis of their peace and happiness; to support the Constitution, which is the cement of the Union, as well in its limitations as in its authorities; to respect the rights and authorities reserved to the States and to the people as equally incorporated with and essential to the success of the general system; to avoid the slightest interference with the right of conscience or the functions of religion, so wisely exempted from civil jurisdiction; to preserve in their full energy the other salutary provisions in behalf of private and personal rights, and of the freedom of the press; to observe economy in public expenditures; to liberate the public resources by an honorable discharge of the public debts; to keep within the requisite limits a standing military force, always remembering that an armed and trained militia is the firmest bulwark of republics — that without standing armies their liberty can never be in danger, nor with large ones safe; to promote by authorized means improvements friendly to agriculture, to manufactures, and to external as well as internal commerce; to favor in like manner the advancement of science and the diffusion of information as the best aliment to true liberty; to carry on the benevolent plans which have been so meritoriously applied to the conversion of our aboriginal neighbors from the degradation and wretchedness of savage life to a participation of the improvements of which the human mind and manners are susceptible in a civilized state — as far as sentiments and intentions such as these can aid the fulfillment of my duty, they will be a resource which can not fail me.^ A large zippered pocket keeps all of your essentials within reach.
    • James Madison Dukes Fan Shop 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.unleash.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That's right kids, we're on our own.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This, I perceive, is pressed as that which is so essential and due: the right of the people of this kingdom, and as they are the people of this kingdom, distinct and divided from other people; and that we must for this right lay aside all other considerations; this is so just, this is so due, this is so right to them.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

  • A popular Government without popular information, or the means of acquiring it, is but a Prologue to a Farce or a Tragedy, or perhaps both.^ Edward Livingston, July 10, 1822.
    • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ James Madison , letter to Edward Livingston, July 10, 1822 ( more complete excerpt given below) .
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Elections, and constitutional amendments, are the only legal means that the popular sovereign can indirectly use In order to modify the usurpation of state powers by the federal government.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Knowledge will forever govern ignorance: And a people who mean to be their own Governors, must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives.^ Since the central government under the Constitution would act directly on the people, It would be national In its operation; but In terms of Its powers It would be federal.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jefferson was the chief spokesman for those who opposed friendship with Britain and sought to limit the power of the federal government.

    ^ "The sincere friends of liberty," he added, "who give themselves up to the extravagancies of this passion are not aware of the injury they do to their own cause."
    • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The belief in a God All Powerful wise and good, is so essential to the moral order of the world and to the happiness of man, that arguments which enforce it cannot be drawn from too many sources nor adapted with too much solicitude to the different characters and capacities to be impressed with it.^ But that by a man's being born here he shall have a share in that power that shall dispose of the lands here, and of all things here, I do not think it a sufficient ground.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But his work was of a kind that will be powerful for good in the world long after the work of the men of Jacksons type shall have been forgotten.

    ^ "More than any single thing," it created, "good order, good morals, and happiness public and private.
    • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to Rev. Frederick Beasley (1825-11-20)
  • With respect to the words "general welfare," I have always regarded them as qualified by the detail of powers connected with them. .To take them in a literal and unlimited sense would be a metamorphosis of the Constitution into a character which there is a host of proofs was not contemplated by its creators.^ But there is another part of the constitution which inclines in my judgment, to favor the construction I put upon it; the president is required to take care that the laws be faithfully executed.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madison was careful to refute those who feared the new constitution would undermine state sovereignty and create a leviathan.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ While it gave legitimacy to the new regime, the political institutions created under the Constitution precluded that the public would directly operate the government.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Besides the danger of a direct mixture of religion and civil government, there is an evil which ought to be guarded against in the indefinite accumulation of property from the capacity of holding it in perpetuity by ecclesiastical corporations.^ Besides the danger of a direct mixture of religion and civil government, there is an evil which ought to be guarded against in the indefinite accumulation of property from the capacity of holding it in perpetuity by ecclesiastical corporations.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But besides the danger of a direct mixture of Religion & civil Government, there is an evil which ought to be guarded agst in the indefinite accumulation of property from the capacity of holding it in perpetuity by ecclesiastical corporations.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We hold it for a fundamental and undeniable truth "that religion, or the duty which we owe our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence."
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The establishment of the chaplainship in Congress is a palpable violation of equal rights as well as of Constitutional principles.^ The establishment of the chaplainship in Congress is a palpable violation of equal rights as well as of Constitutional principles.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The establishment of the chaplainship to Congs is a palpable violation of equal rights, as well as of Constitutional principles."
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The establishment of the chaplainship to Congs is a palpable violation of equal rights, as well as of Constitutional principles: The tenets of the chaplains elected [by the majority] shut the door of worship agst the members whose creeds & consciences forbid a participation in that of the majority.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The danger of silent accumulations and encroachments by ecclesiastical bodies has not sufficiently engaged attention in the U.S.
    • "Monopolies, Perpetuities, Corporations, Ecclesiastical Endowments" an essay probably written sometime between 1817 and 1832. It has sometimes been incorrectly portrayed as having been uncompleted notes written sometime around 1789 while opposing the bill to establish the office of Congressional Chaplain.^ The danger of silent accumulations & encroachments by Ecclesiastical Bodies have not sufficiently engaged attention in the U.S. They have the noble merit of first unshackling the conscience from persecuting laws, and of establishing among religious Sects a legal equality.
      • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The danger of silent accumulations and encroachments by ecclesiastical bodies has not sufficiently engaged attention in the US -- James Madison , being outvoted in the bill to establish the office of Congressional Chaplain, from the "Detached Memoranda," Elizabeth Fleet, "Madison's Detached Memoranda."
      • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Besides the danger of a direct mixture of religion and civil government, there is an evil which ought to be guarded against in the indefinite accumulation of property from the capacity of holding it in perpetuity by ecclesiastical corporations.
      • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

      .It was first published as "Aspects of Monopoly One Hundred Years Ago" in 1914 by Harper's Magazine and later in "Madison's Detached Memoranda" by Elizabeth Fleet in William and Mary Quarterly (1946).^ The document was recovered in 1946 by Elizabeth Fleet, working on a biography of Rives, & published in the October 1946 issue of The William and Mary Quarterly.
      • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ William and Mary Quarterly (1946): 554-62.
      • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The danger of silent accumulations and encroachments by ecclesiastical bodies has not sufficiently engaged attention in the US -- James Madison , being outvoted in the bill to establish the office of Congressional Chaplain, from the "Detached Memoranda," Elizabeth Fleet, "Madison's Detached Memoranda."
      • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

      More information on this essay is available in "James Madison and Tax-Supported Chaplains" by Chris Rodda

Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments (1785)

"Memorial and Remonstrance Against Religious Assessments" (1785), opposing a "Bill establishing a provision for Teachers of the Christian Religion"
.
  • The free men of America did not wait till usurped power had strengthened itself by exercise, and entangled the question in precedents.^ "But when I consider the checks under which he lies in the exercise of this power, I own to you I feel no apprehensions but what arise from the dangers incidental to the power itself; for dangers will be incidental to it, vest it where you please.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But when I consider the checks under which he lies in the exercise of this power, I own to you I feel no apprehensions but what arise from the dangers incidental to the power itself; for dangers will be incidental to it, vest it where you please.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although not averse to exercising presidential power, he respected the role of Congress and did not infringe upon its prerogatives.
    • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

    They saw all the consequences in the principle, and they avoided the consequences by denying the principle. We revere this lesson too much soon to forget it. .Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity, in exclusion of all other Religions, may establish with the same ease any particular sect of Christians, in exclusion of all other Sects?^ Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity in exclusion of all other religions may establish, with the same ease, any particular sect of Christians in exclusion of all other sects?
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The nature of the threat was conveyed by a question Madison posed in article three of the Memorial: "Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity, in exclusion of all other Religions, may establish with the same ease any particular sect of Christians, in exclusion of all other sects."
    • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See all of James Madison , no other writeups in this node.
    • James Madison (person)@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    that the same authority which can force a citizen to contribute three pence only of his property for the support of any one establishment, may force him to conform to any other establishment in all cases whatsoever?
  • .
  • It is moreover to weaken in those who profess this Religion a pious confidence in its innate excellence and the patronage of its Author; and to foster in those who still reject it, a suspicion that its friends are too conscious of its fallacies to trust it to its own merits.
  • During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial.^ During almost fifteen centuries has the legal establishment of Christianity been on trial.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Congress should not establish a religion, and enforce the legal observation of it by law, nor compel men to worship God in any Manner contrary to their conscience.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The danger of silent accumulations & encroachments by Ecclesiastical Bodies have not sufficiently engaged attention in the U.S. They have the noble merit of first unshackling the conscience from persecuting laws, and of establishing among religious Sects a legal equality.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    What have been its fruits? .More or less in all places, pride and indolence in the Clergy, ignorance and servility in the laity, in both, superstition, bigotry and persecution.
  • What influence in fact have ecclesiastical establishments had on Civil Society?^ Among those whose influence in bringing about the ratification of the constitution was felt all over the country, he shares with Hamilton the foremost place.

    ^ In the place of the unity some seek in unlikely and primitive concepts of uniformity, Madison and Hamilton both employed the phrase "civil society" [ID] .
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madison (or Hamilton) referred to "all the variations which may be required by the various situations and circumstances of civil society" [53:347].
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .In some instances they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny on the ruins of the Civil authority; in many instances they have been seen upholding the thrones of political tyranny: in no instance have they been seen the guardians of the liberties of the people.^ And that is without considering the many, many ways that people are ruined despite their reasonable efforts to avoid it in what has become a complicated world for a person to navigate.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President Grover Cleveland vetoed many congressional appropriations, often saying there was no constitutional authority for such an appropriation.
    • Walter E. Williams : Constitution day - Townhall.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC townhall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Altho' recommendations only, they imply a religious agency, making no part of the trust delegated to political rulers.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Rulers who wished to subvert the public liberty, may have found an established Clergy convenient auxiliaries.^ Rulers who wish to subvert the public liberty may have found an established clergy convenient allies.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rulers who wished to subvert the public liberty, may have found an established Clergy convenient auxiliaries.
    • Positive Atheism's Big List of James Madison Quotations 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.positiveatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Jefferson to President Washington, May 23, 1792 said, "The republican party, who wish to preserve the government in its present form, are fewer in number.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    A just Government instituted to secure & perpetuate it needs them not.

Federalist Papers (1787-1788)

.
  • By a faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.^ In Federalist 10 he defined a faction as a "number of citizens...united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community."
    • Center for Civic Education 2000 James Madison Supplemental Lesson 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.civiced.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To say that his religious principles are obnoxious or that his sect is small, is to lift the evil at once and exhibit in its naked deformity the doctrine that religious truth is to be tested by numbers or that the major sects have a right to govern the minor.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In Virginia in 1788, after the Revolutionary War , Madison led the fight for ratification of the Constitution at the Virginia Ratifying Convention , oratorically dueling with Patrick Henry and others who sought revisions (such as the United States Bill of Rights ) before its ratification.
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

  • A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of speculation as of practice; an attachment to different leaders ambitiously contending for pre-eminence and power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good. So strong is this propensity of mankind to fall into mutual animosities, that where no substantial occasion presents itself, the most frivolous and fanciful distinctions have been sufficient to kindle their unfriendly passions and excite their most violent conflicts.^ Or others who have fallen into many more categories.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With equal, nay with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties, at the same time; yet what are many of the most important acts of legislation but so many judicial determinations, not indeed concerning the rights of single persons, but indeed concerning the rights of large bodies of citizens; and what are the different classes of legislators, but advocates and parties to the causes which they determine?

    ^ On November 24, 1787 Madison's first entry was published, the essay that would become in the twentieth century 'the most famous of all the Federalist papers and one of a handful of the most important documents in American history: Federalist 10: The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them every where brought into different degrees of activity....So strong is this propensity of mankind to fall into mutual animosities, that where no substantial occasion presents itself, the most frivolous and fanciful distinctions have been sufficient to kindle their unfriendly passions, and excite their most violent conflict' In Federalist 10, Madison publicly summarized the argument that a large republic was not a contradictory concept He contended that Aristotle, Montesquieu and others had been wrong on this issue.

    .But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property.^ "But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although the potential divisions in society were many, Madison suggested that 'the most common and durable source of factions, has been the various and unequal distribution of property'.

    ^ And he understood that property and interests, however much they might be thought "natural" or "inalienable", were nonetheless the source of factional conflict.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Federalist No. .10
  • To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiries are directed.^ Great Britain, he charged, "has bound us in commercial manacles, and very nearly defeated the object of our independence".
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Writings of James Madison, comprising his Public Papers and his Private Correspondence, including his numerous letters and documents now for the first time printed, ed.
    • Online Library of Liberty - TO HENRY LEE. mad. mss. - The Writings, vol. 9 (1819-1836) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This same faith led him to the conclusion "that it is in our power, in a very short time, to supply all the tonnage necessary for our own commerce".
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Federalist No. .10
  • Hence it is that such democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.^ Are the U. S. duly awake to the tendency of the precedents they are establishing, in the multiplied incorporations of Religious Congregations with the faculty of acquiring & holding property real as well as personal?
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But as there is no such clause, I contend that there should be a bill of rights, ascertaining and securing the great rights of the states and the people.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The papers don’t return to the high realm of political-theoretical generalization, such as in number 10, until two dozen or so issues later.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Theoretic politicians, who have patronized this species of government, have erroneously supposed that by reducing mankind to a perfect equality in their political rights, they would, at the same time, be perfectly equalized and assimilated in their possessions, their opinions, and their passions.^ With equal, nay with greater reason, a body of men are unfit to be both judges and parties, at the same time; yet what are many of the most important acts of legislation but so many judicial determinations, not indeed concerning the rights of single persons, but indeed concerning the rights of large bodies of citizens; and what are the different classes of legislators, but advocates and parties to the causes which they determine?

    ^ Madison's citizens would be alert to their personal interests, but at the same time they would be active in the promotion of larger community interests, and they worked to make sure that individual and community interests were kept in optimum harmony with one another.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was they who were promoting the Federalist Papers it was the States that demanded a Bill of Rights.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Federalist No. .10
  • Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached, and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of.^ Madison ignored the proposals for structural change of the government, and synthesized the others into a list of proposals for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus .
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madison declared that the combination of federalism and republicanism had secured the nation against the tendency of every other form of government to either despotism or anarchy.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And so he and others produced a truly remarkable, living document to define our form of government.
    • James Madison - "Impeach Bush Over Purgegate!" | CommonDreams.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Notwithstanding the military establishments in the several kingdoms of Europe, which are carried as far as the public resources will bear, the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms.^ Madison ignored proposals that called for structural change to the government and synthesized the remainder into a list for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The United States rests on a compact not between states as governments, but between the people of the several states in their sovereign capacity.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Tenth permitted states to continue to exercise their powers based on the residual sovereignty of the people to establish government.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • The legislative department is everywhere extending the sphere of its activity and drawing all power into its impetuous vortex.^ They divided the powers of the government into two spheres, therefore the state and federal constitutions were of equal authority.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.^ If men were angels, no government would be necessary.
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary [51:337].
    • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They might deliberate and advise, but had no means of enforcing their will upon the several state governments; and hence they could neither raise a revenue nor preserve order.

    In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.
  • I always talk better lying down.
    • Last words-Secret Lives of the U.S. Presidents: What Your Teachers Never Told You about ...^ Think about Madison every time you hear the words "bi-partisanship" and "disinterested politics".
      • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ You may not have a monument on the National Mall in Washington, but your spirit and ideas live in every house of worship in America.
      • Madison and Religious Freedom - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

      ^ Don't get cheeky too fast about your history, especially if you want to bring up Indians.
      • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

      By Cormac O'Brien, Monika Suteski, pg 271

Unsourced

.
  • A people armed and free forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition and is a bulwark for the nation against foreign invasion and domestic oppression.^ Madison declared that the combination of federalism and republicanism had secured the nation against the tendency of every other form of government to either despotism or anarchy.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • See Federalist Paper #46 above, which also contains the phrase "barrier against the enterprises of ambition."
  • Americans need never fear their government because of the advantage of (the States) being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation.^ Madison had three main objections to a specific bill of rights: (a) it was unnecessary, since it purported to protect against powers that the federal government had not been granted; (b) it was dangerous, since enumeration of some rights might be taken to imply the absence of other rights; and (c) at the state level, bills of rights had proven to be useless paper barriers against government powers.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the letter, Secretary of State Madison gives authority for use of the militia to prevent any armed expeditions against the possessions of Spain, such as a recent attempt by American citizens to gain control of Baton Rouge.
    • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the instance of Col: George Nicholas, Col: George Mason & others, the memorial & remonstrance agst it was drawn up, (which see) and printed Copies of it circulated thro' the State, to be signed by the people at large.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    • See Federalist Paper #46 above, which also contains the phrase "the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation."
  • If Tyranny and Oppression come to this land, it will be in the guise of fighting a foreign enemy.
[Appears to be an inaccurate and out of context paraphrase of the "pretended from abroad" or "The means of defence agst. foreign danger," quotes above.]
.
  • All men having power ought to be mistrusted.
  • If man is not fit to govern himself, how can he be fit to govern someone else?
  • Crisis is the rallying cry of the tyrant.
  • The right of the people to keep and bear...arms shall not be infringed.^ Madison ignored proposals that called for structural change to the government and synthesized the remainder into a list for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madison ignored the proposals for structural change of the government, and synthesized the others into a list of proposals for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus .
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For really I think that the poorest he that is in England has a life to live as the greatest he; and therefore truly, sir, I think it's clear that every man that is to live under a government ought first by his own consent to put himself under that government; and I do think that the poorest man in England is not at all bound in a strict sense to that government that he has not had a voice to put himself under.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    A well regulated militia, composed of the people, trained to arms, is the best and most natural defense of a free country... -- .I Annals of Congress 434 (June 8, 1789).
  • Oppressors can tyrannize only when they achieve a standing army, an enslaved press, and a disarmed populace.
  • It is a settled policy of America, that as peace is better than war, war is better than tribute.^ After he convinced Congress to declare war, Madison was re-elected President over DeWitt Clinton but by a smaller margin than in 1808.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After he convinced Congress to declare war, Madison was re-elected President over DeWitt Clinton but by a smaller margin than in 1808 (see U.S. presidential election, 1812 ).
    • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the 18th of June, 1812, President Madison gave his approval to an act of Congress declaring war against Great Britain.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The United States, while they wish for war with no nation, will buy peace with none.^ But they took no action on them, and no similar action was taken by other states.

    ^ Whatever opinion may be held as to the character of the war and its results, there is a general agreement that its management, on the part of the United States, was feeble.

    ^ To the extent of that compact or Constitution therefore, the people of the several States must be as sovereign as they are a united people.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [10]
  • Conscience is the most sacred of all property.

Misattributed

  • Congress shall never disarm any citizen unless such as are or have been in actual rebellion. .
    • Delegates of the People of the State of New Hampshire, Ratification of the Federal Constitution, Article XII of "alterations and provisions" to the Constitution (1788-06-21) [11]
  • The purpose of separation of church and state is to keep forever from these shores the ceaseless strife that has soaked the soil of Europe in blood for centuries.^ In 1787, Madison wanted the 1st Amendment to apply to the states, but was forced to drop the issue in the interest of getting support for separation at the federal level.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But opposition to the new Constitution had mounted in the state, and Madisons friends urged him to assist in the fight for adoption.

    ^ Delegate to Florida state constitutional convention from Wakulla County, 1865.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Though this had been cited as being from a letter objecting to the use of government land for churches in 1803, as quoted in 2000 Years of Disbelief: Famous People With the Courage to Doubt (1996) edited by James A Haught, no original source for this has yet been found, as stated at Positive Atheism.
  • We have staked the whole future of American civilization, not upon the power of government, far from it.^ The people allotted supreme power partly to a central government, and partly to the states.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Posted by: drip at September 30, 2009 07:27 AM As to the Founding Fathers, in the equally old-style words of James Monroe, President of the United States from 1817 to 1825, quoted in Richard Rosenblatt's American Aurora: .
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the letter, Secretary of State Madison gives authority for use of the militia to prevent any armed expeditions against the possessions of Spain, such as a recent attempt by American citizens to gain control of Baton Rouge.
    • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We have staked the future of all of our political institutions upon the capacity of mankind of self-government; upon the capacity of each and all of us to govern ourselves, to control ourselves, to sustain ourselves according to the Ten Commandments of God.^ Whatever our opinion of those documents & the US as it has evolved, he was one of humanity's most important political thinkers, & some of his writings are especially valid today.
    • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In this way, Madison was provided with a supreme emphasis upon the ends and not the means of government as a foundation for his political education.

    ^ Any government that does not control its own money supply has limited popular sovereignty, which unfortunately includes us because the Federal Reserve controls the money supply.
    • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • This statement appears nowhere in the writings or recorded utterances of James Madison.
  • History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling the money and its issuance.^ James Madison, James Madison: Writings 1772-1836.
    • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Madison wrote numerous essays for newspaper publication, and his contributions to The Federalist were also published contemporaneously in book form; many of his speeches in the Virginia ratifying convention and in the Federal Congress were recorded by shorthand reporters and published by them in book form or in newspapers; and some of his writings, such as his report to the Virginia assembly in 1800, were printed as official government documents.
    • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Madison declared that the combination of federalism and republicanism had secured the nation against the tendency of every other form of government to either despotism or anarchy.
    • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Dwinell, Olive Cushing (1946). The Story of Our Money. Boston, Massachusetts: Meador Publishing Company. pp. p. .71.   This is in an author's note following a quote by Alexander Hamilton.^ In number 1, Alexander Hamilton laid out the general arguments and outlined the papers to follow.
      • James Madison & Russia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC darkwing.uoregon.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .After the author's note there is the sentence "From Writings of Madison, previously quoted.^ Seeking evidence of his faith quickly leads to the conclusion that there is, in the words of the poet, no there there, that in the mature Madison's writings there is no trace, no clue as to his personal religious convictions.
      • Hutson Paper: James Madison and the Social Untility of Religion: Risks vs. Rewards (Library of Congress Exhibition) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The four-page manuscript consists essentially of autobiographical notes in which Madison discusses his ancestors, his education, and some of his writings.
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In 1828, March 15, Montpelier, he writes to William B. concerning funds mentioned in the previous letter (also in Dolley Madison’s hand).
      • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      Vol. 2, Page 14." This is apparently an editor's error since the note is clearly Dwinell's. See the talk page for more details.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.JAMES MADISON (1751-1836), fourth president of the United States, was born at Port Conway, in King George county, Virginia, on the 16th of March 1751. His first ancestor in America may possibly have been Captain Isaac Maddyson, a colonist of 1623 mentioned by John Smith as an excellent Indian fighter.^ James Madison was the fourth president of the [USA] .
  • EefyWiki - James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC eefy.editme.com [Source type: News]

^ James Madison died 28 Jun 1836 at Montpelier, Virginia.
  • James Madison - RoyalWeb 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC countyhistorian.com [Source type: Reference]

^ James Madison 1751-1836 .
  • USA: James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.let.rug.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His father, also named James Madison, was the owner of large estates in Orange county, Virginia.^ Death of his father, James Madison, Sr.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ James Madison was born to a prominent family in Orange County, Virginia in 1751.
  • James Madison Plaza : New York City Department of Parks & Recreation 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nycgovparks.org [Source type: General]

^ James Madison - name not printed .
  • Pictures of James Madison Picture of James Madison Pictures James Madison Portrait James Madison Painting 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC foundersofamerica.com [Source type: General]

In 1769 the son entered the college of New Jersey (nor Princeton University), where, in the same year, he founded the well-known literary club, "The American Whig Society." He graduated in 1771, but remained for another year at Princeton studying, apparently for the ministry, under the direction of John Witherspoon (1722-1794). .In 1772 he returned to Virginia, where he pursued his reading and studies, especially theology and Hebrew, and acted as a tutor to the younger children of the family.^ In 1772 he returned to Virginia, where he pursued his reading and studies, especially theology and Hebrew, and acted as a tutor to the younger children of the family.

^ Born March 16, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia, Madison was the first of 11 children in his family.
  • James Madison - Further Readings 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC law.jrank.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He attended the College of New Jersey, now known as Princeton University, graduated in 1772, and returned to Virginia.
  • James Madison Plaza : New York City Department of Parks & Recreation 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nycgovparks.org [Source type: General]

.In 1775 he became chairman of the committee of public safety for Orange county, and wrote its response to Patrick Henry's call for the arming of a colonial militia, and in the spring of 1776 he was chosen a delegate to the new Virginia convention, where he was on the committee which drafted the constitution for the state, and proposed an amendment (not adopted) which declared that "all men are equally entitled to the full and free exercise" of religion, and was more radical than the similar one offered by George Mason.^ Madison was then elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention in April, 1776.
  • The James Madison Research Library and Information Center 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC madisonbrigade.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All money for religion must be a free-will offering.
  • James Madison - Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.all-biographies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was elected to the Virginia convention in 1776, where he helped draft the state's new constitution.
  • Center for Civic Education 2000 James Madison Supplemental Lesson 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.civiced.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1777, largely, it seems, because he refused to treat the electors with rum and punch, after the custom of the time, he was not reelected, but in November of the same year he was chosen a member of the privy council or council of state, in which he acted as interpreter for a few months, as secretary prepared papers for the governor, and in general took a prominent part from the ,4th of January 1778 until the end of 1779, when he was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress.^ In the year 1780 he was elected a member of the Continental Congress.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After two years in this position, he was sent as a delegate to the Continental Congress.
  • Founder of the Month - James Madison - by Monty Rainey 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1779 Madison was elected to represent the state of Virginia to the Continental Congress.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was in Congress during the final stages of the War of Independence, and in 1780 drafted instructions to Jay, then representing the United States at Madrid, that in negotiations with Spain he should insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi and upon the principle that the United States succeeded to British rights affirmed by the treaty of Paris of 1763. When the confederation was almost in a state of collapse because of the failure of the states to respond to requisitions of Congress for supplies for the federal treasury, Madison was among the first to advocate the granting of additional powers to Congress, and urged that congress should forbid the states to issue more paper money.^ He was in Congress during the final stages of the War of Independence, and in 1780 drafted instructions to Jay , then representing the United States at Madrid , that in negotiations with Spain he should insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi and upon the principle that the United States succeeded to British rights affirmed by the treaty of Paris of 1763.

^ Madison continues his argument over balancing the powers of the federal and state governments.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1779 Madison was elected to represent the state of Virginia to the Continental Congress.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1781 he favoured an amendment 'of the Articles of Confederation giving Congress power to enforce its requisitions, and in 1783, in spite of the open opposition of the Virginia legislature, which considered the Virginian delegates wholly subject to its instructions, he advocated that the states should grant to Congress for twenty-five years authority to levy an import duty, and suggested a scheme to provide for the interest on the debt not raised by the import duty - apportioning it among the states on the basis of population, counting three-fifths of the slaves, a ratio suggested by Madison himself.^ In 1779 Madison was elected to represent the state of Virginia to the Continental Congress.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also under the Articles of Confederation, Congress had no power to tax.
  • James Madison - Further Readings 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC law.jrank.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1781 he favoured an amendment 'of the Articles of Confederation giving Congress power to enforce its requisitions, and in 1783, in spite of the open opposition of the Virginia legislature, which considered the Virginian delegates wholly subject to its instructions, he advocated that the states should grant to Congress for twenty-five years authority to levy an import duty, and suggested a scheme to provide for the interest on the debt not raised by the import duty - apportioning it among the states on the basis of population, counting three-fifths of the slaves, a ratio suggested by Madison himself.

.Accompanying this plan was an address to the states drawn up by Madison, and one of the ablest of his state papers.^ Accompanying this plan was an address to the states drawn up by Madison, and one of the ablest of his state papers.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, Madison wrote The Federalist Papers, a series of 85 essays that advocated the adoption of the United States Constitution.
  • The United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Program: Madison Dollar 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.usmint.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • James Madison Dollar.com - Information on the forth coin in The Presidential DOllar Coin Program! 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC jamesmadisondollar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you cannot find it in any extant manuscripts or collections of Madison's works, just how does one prove it will not turn up in someone's attic tomorrow?
  • Is it true that Madison said "Our future is staked on the 10 commandments?" 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC candst.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the same year, with Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts, Gunning Bedford of Delaware, and John Rutledge of South Carolina, he was a member of the committee which reported on the Virginia proposal as to the terms of cession to the Confederation of the "back lands," or unoccupied Western territory, held by several of the states; the report was a skilful compromise made by Madison, which secured the approval of the rather exigent Virginia legislature.^ After serving for one year in the Virginia legislature, Madison was appointed a member of the governors council.
  • Founder of the Month - James Madison - by Monty Rainey 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison entered the Virginia legislature in 1783.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-316&article_id=710&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Madison,_James_ 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same year, with Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut , Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts , Gunning Bedford of Delaware , and John Rutledge of South Carolina , he was a member of the committee which reported on the Virginia proposal as to the terms of cession to the Confederation of the "back lands," or unoccupied Western territory, held by several of the states; the report was a skilful compromise made by Madison, which secured the approval of the rather exigent Virginia legislature.

.In November r 78 Madison's term in Congress expired, and he returned to Virginia and took up the study of the law.^ In November r 78 Madison's term in Congress expired, and he returned to Virginia and took up the study of the law.

^ Madison returns to montpelier, virginia.
  • Madison, James Biography - S9.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.s9.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November 1783 Madison's term in Congress expired, and he returned to Virginia and took up the study of the law.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the following year he was elected to the House of Delegates.^ Elected to the house of delegates in Virginia.
  • Madison, James Biography - S9.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.s9.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the following year he was elected to the House of Delegates.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1809, the year after he was elected president and eight years after his father's death, Madison turned the house into a proper seat for a chief executive, his wife, and mother.
  • The Restoration of James Madison's Montpelier : The official site of Colonial Williamsburg 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.history.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a member of its committee on religion, he opposed the giving of special privileges to the Episcopal (or any other) church, and contended against a general assessment for the support of the churches of the state.^ As a member of its committee on religion, he opposed the giving of special privileges to the Episcopal (or any other) church, and contended against a general assessment for the support of the churches of the state.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They sought to disestablish the Church of England from the colony, which meant it would have to be supported only by its supporters, not everyone, and allow all other Christian religions equality.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This leaflet called for a separation of church and state, denounced government aid to religion, declared the equality of all religions, and articulated a general liberty to worship according to the dictates of one's conscience without fear of persecution.
  • James Madison - Further Readings 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC law.jrank.org [Source type: Original source]

.His petition of remonstrance against the proposed assessment, drawn up at the suggestion of George Nicholas (c. 1755-1799), was widely circulated and procured its defeat.^ "Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments" .
  • Selections from James Madison at conservativeforum.org 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.conservativeforum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments, c.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ His petition of remonstrance against the proposed assessment, drawn up at the suggestion of George Nicholas ( c.

.On the 26th of December 1785 Jefferson's Bill for establishing religious freedom in Virginia, which had been introduced by Madison, was passed.^ What contribution did Madison make to establishing the principles of religious freedom?
  • Center for Civic Education 2000 James Madison Supplemental Lesson 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.civiced.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 26th of December 1785 Jefferson's Bill for establishing religious freedom in Virginia, which had been introduced by Madison, was passed.

^ On the 26th of December 1785 Thomas Jefferson 's Bill for establishing religious freedom in Virginia, which had been introduced by Madison, was passed.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Viginia House of Delegates, as in the Continental Congress, he opposed the further issue of paper money; and he tried to induce the legislature to repeal the law confiscating British debts, but he did not lose sight of the interests of the Confederacy.^ He also served as an elected representative to the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress.
  • Biography | James Madison - James Madison's Montpelier... Restore Montpelier, Rediscover Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.montpelier.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Viginia House of Delegates, as in the Continental Congress, he opposed the further issue of paper money; and he tried to induce the legislature to repeal the law confiscating British debts, but he did not lose sight of the interests of the Confederacy.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He served in the Continental Congress (1780-83, 1787) and represented his county in the Virginia legislature (1784-86), where he played a prominent part in disestablishing the Anglican Church.
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The boundary between Virginia and Maryland, according to the Baltimore grant, was the south shore.^ The boundary between Virginia and Maryland, according to the Baltimore grant, was the south shore of the Potomac, a line to which Virginia had agreed on condition of free navigation of the river and the Chesapeake Bay.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The boundary between Virginia and Maryland , according to the Baltimore grant, was the south shore.

^ Washington & Madison organized the Alexandria Conference in order to settle commercial dispute between Virginia & Maryland concerning the use of the Potomac River.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

of the .Potomac, a line to which Virginia had agreed on condition of free navigation of the river and the Chesapeake Bay.^ The boundary between Virginia and Maryland, according to the Baltimore grant, was the south shore of the Potomac, a line to which Virginia had agreed on condition of free navigation of the river and the Chesapeake Bay.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Potomac, a line to which Virginia had agreed on condition of free navigation of the river and the Chesapeake Bay.

^ Master Builder of the Constitution Madison played important role in bringing about the conference between Maryland and Virginia concerning navigation of the Potomac.
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Virginia now feared that too much had been given up, and desired joint regulation of the navigation and commerce of the river by Maryland and Virginia.^ Virginia now feared that too much had been given up, and desired joint regulation of the navigation and commerce of the river by Maryland and Virginia.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Master Builder of the Constitution Madison played important role in bringing about the conference between Maryland and Virginia concerning navigation of the Potomac.
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington & Madison organized the Alexandria Conference in order to settle commercial dispute between Virginia & Maryland concerning the use of the Potomac River.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

.On Madison's proposal commissioners from the two states met at Alexandria and at Mount Vernon in March 1785. The Maryland legislature approved the Mount Vernon agreement and proposed to invite Pennsylvania and Delaware to join in the arrangement.^ On Madison's proposal commissioners from the two states met at Alexandria and at Mount Vernon in March 1785.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Maryland legislature approved the Mount Vernon agreement and proposed to invite Pennsylvania and Delaware to join in the arrangement.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1785 legislature of the State of Virginia removed the church tax completely and in its stead enacted the law that Thomas Jefferson had proposed a decade earlier, the Religious Freedom Act , which in turn was incorporated into our Bill of Rights .
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison, seeing an opportunity for more general concert in regard to commerce and trade (and possibly for the increase of the power of Congress), proposed that all the states should be invited to send commissioners to consider commercial questions, and a resolution to that effect was adopted (on Jan.^ It is not like the state governments, whose powers are more general.
  • James Madison - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison - Wikiquote 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison, seeing an opportunity for more general concert in regard to commerce and trade (and possibly for the increase of the power of Congress), proposed that all the states should be invited to send commissioners to consider commercial questions, and a resolution to that effect was adopted (on Jan.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison undertakes to discuss the powers of Congress.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

.21, 1786) by the Virginia legislature.^ Three years in the Virginia legislature, 1784 to 1786, convinced him that the Articles of Confederation were too weak to bind the states together in the face of domestic and foreign threats.

^ However, it was not until 1786 that, through Madisons leadership, the Virginia legislature enacted Jeffersons monumental Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom.

.This led to the Annapolis convention of 1786, and that in turn led to the Philadelphia convention of 1787. In April 1787 Madison had written a paper, The Vices of the Political System of the United States, and from his study of confederacies, ancient and modern, later summed up in numbers 17, 18, and 19 of The Federalist, he had concluded that no confederacy could long endure if it acted upon states only and not directly upon individuals.^ He summarized his conclusions in two papers, one on "Ancient and Modern Confederations," the other on "Vices of the Political System of the United States."
  • Center for Civic Education 2000 James Madison Supplemental Lesson 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.civiced.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison to Thomas Jefferson, March 19, 1787, Madison Papers.
  • Shays' Rebellion - Footnote: James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC shaysrebellion.stcc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Madison was sent as a delegate to the Annapolis Convention of 1786 and to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.
  • Founder of the Month - James Madison - by Monty Rainey 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the time for the convention of 1787 approached he drew up an outline of a new system of government, the basis of the "Virginia plan" presented in the convention by Edmund Jennings Randolph.^ As the time for the convention of 1787 approached he drew up an outline of a new system of government, the basis of the "Virginia plan" presented in the convention by Edmund Jennings Randolph.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He drafted the Virginia Plan (introduced by Edmund Randolph) that became the basis for the structure of the new government.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-316&article_id=710&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Madison,_James_ 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Four days after the opening of the federal convention in Philadelphia, on May 29, 1787, Edmund Randolph presented the Virginia Plan for creating a new government.
  • America's Founding Fathers - Delegates to the Constitutional Convention 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]

Madison's scheme, as expressed in a letter to Washington dated the 16th of April 1787, was that individual sovereignty of states was irreconcilable with aggregate sovereignty, but that the "consolidation of the whole into one simple republic would be as inexpedient as it is unattainable." He considered as a practical middle ground changing the basis of representation in Congress from states to population; giving the national government "positive and complete authority in all cases which require uniformity"; giving it a negative on all state laws, a power which might best be vested in the Senate, a comparatively permanent body; electing the lower house, and the more numerous, for a short term; providing for a national executive, for extending the national supremacy over the judiciary and the militia, for a council to revise all laws, and for an express statement of the right of coercion; and finally, obtaining the ratification of a new constitutional instrument from the people, and not merely from the legislatures. .The "Virginia plan" was the basis of the convention's deliberations which resulted in the constitution favourably voted on by the convention on the 17th of September 1787. Among the features of the plan which were not embodied in the constitution were the following: proportionate representation in the Senate and the election of its members by the lower house "out of a proper number of persons nominated by the individual legislatures"; the vesting in the national Congress of power to negative state acts; and the establishment of a council of revision (the executive and a convenient number of national judges) with veto power over all laws passed by the national Congress.^ Executive with rights in the States, to a centralized and powerful Executive...
  • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was also chief recorder at the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
  • FCMint - 24K GOLD PLATED JAMES MADISON PRESIDENTIAL DOLLAR 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.fcmint.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1829, Madison came out of retirement to attend a convention for revising Virginia's constitution.
  • James Madison, Fourth President (1809-1817) on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: General]

.Madison, always an opponent of slavery, disapproved of the compromise (in Art.^ Madison, always an opponent of slavery , disapproved of the compromise (in Art.

^ When Madison at last retired from public life in 1817, friends and opponents were able to agree that, while they had not always approved of his policies, Madison was devoted to upholding the Constitution he had been instrumental in creating.
  • Shays' Rebellion - Person: James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC shaysrebellion.stcc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison, always an opponent of slavery, disapproved of the compromise (in Article I Section 9 and Article V) postponing to 1808 (or later) the prohibition of the importation of slaves.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.I. § 9 and Art.V.) postponing to 1808 (or later) the prohibition of the importation of slaves.^ Madison, always an opponent of slavery, disapproved of the compromise (in Article I Section 9 and Article V) postponing to 1808 (or later) the prohibition of the importation of slaves.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I. § 9 and Art.V.) postponing to 1808 (or later) the prohibition of the importation of slaves.

.He took a leading part in the debates of the convention, of which he kept full and careful notes, afterwards published by order of Congress (3 vols., Washington, 1843).^ He took a leading part in the debates of the convention, of which he kept full and careful notes, afterwards published by order of Congress (3 vols., Washington, 1843).

^ H took active part in debates in Philadelphia.
  • WELCOME TO USA 4 KIDS - Presidents of The United States - James Madison 4tht President 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.usa4kids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He took a leading part in the debates of the convention, of which he kept full and careful notes, afterwards published by order of Congress (3 vols., Washington, 1843.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many minute and wise provisions are due to him, and he spoke before the convention more frequently than any delegate except James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris.^ Many minute and wise provisions are due to him, and he spoke before the convention more frequently than any delegate except James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris .
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe there are more instances of abridgement of freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachments of those in power than by violent and sudden usurpations.” — James Madison .

^ All of these convictions, and many more, found their way into the Virginia Plan, which Madison, in consultation with Edmund Randolph, James Wilson, Alexander Hamilton, and in his extended correspondence with Tom Jefferson in Paris, submitted to the convention as a basis for discussion.
  • James Madison "Godfather of the Constitution" - The Early America Review, Summer 1997 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.In spite of the opposition to the constitution of the Virginia leaders George Mason and E. J. Randolph, Madison induced the state's delegation to stand by the constitution in the convention.^ In 1776 and 1777 Madison served as a delegate to the Virginia Convention.

^ Madison was then elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention in April, 1776.
  • The James Madison Research Library and Information Center 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC madisonbrigade.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In spite of the opposition to the constitution of the Virginia leaders George Mason and E. J. Randolph, Madison induced the state's delegation to stand by the constitution in the convention.

.His influence largely shaped the form of the final draft of the constitution, but the labour was not finished with this draft; that the constitution was accepted by the people was due in an eminent degree to the efforts of Madison, who, to place the new constitution before the public in its true light, and to meet the objections brought against it, joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing The Federalist, a series of eighty-five papers, out of which twenty certainly, and nine others probably, were written by him.^ To aid the push for quick ratification, he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write The Federalist Papers .
  • James Madison at AllExperts 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His influence largely shaped the form of the final draft of the constitution, but the labor was not finished with this draft; that the constitution was accepted by the people was due in an eminent degree to the efforts of Madison, who, to place the new constitution before the public in its true light, and to meet the objections brought against it, joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing The Federalist , a series of eighty-five papers, out of which twenty certainly, and nine others probably, were written by him.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Suffice it to say that of the eighty five essays that comprise The Federalist, Hamilton wrote fifty one, Jay wrote five and Madison wrote twenty nine.

.In the Virginia convention for ratifying the constitution (June 1788), when eight states had ratified and it seemed that Virginia's vote would be needed to make the necessary nine (New Hampshire's favourable vote was cast only shortly before that of Virginia), and it appeared that New York would vote against the constitution if Virginia did not ratify it, Madison was called upon to defend that instrument again, and he appeared at his best against its opponents, Patrick Henry, George Mason, James Monroe, Benjamin Harrison, William Grayson and John Tyler.^ James Madison's Notes of the Constitutional Convention (June 25, 1787) .
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=530&groupid=3 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some say that without James Madison, the Constitution * would not have been written.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC gardenofpraise.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How would you describe what you did at james madison university ?
  • james madison university Jobs, People, Culture, and Opportunities | Jobster 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.jobster.com [Source type: General]

.He answered their objections in detail, calmly and with an intellectual power and earnestness that carried the convention.^ He answered their objections in detail, calmly and with an intellectual power and earnestness that carried the convention.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The result was a victory against an originally adverse public opinion and against the eloquence of the opponents of the constitution, for Madison and for his lieutenants, Edmund Pendleton, John Marshall, George Nicholas, Harry Innes and Henry Lee.^ The result was a victory against an originally adverse public opinion and against the eloquence of the opponents of the constitution, for Madison and for his lieutenants, Edmund Pendleton , John Marshall , George Nicholas, Harry Innes and Henry Lee .

^ Discuss Madison's opinions on the constitutional questions.
  • EDSITEment - Lesson Plan 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC edsitement.neh.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was a victory against an originally adverse public opinion and against the eloquence of the opponents of the constitution, for Madison and for his lieutenants, Edmund Pendleton, John Marshall , George Nicholas, Harry Innes and Henry Lee.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time Madison's labours in behalf of the constitution alienated from him valuable political support in Virginia.^ At the same time Madison's labors in behalf of the constitution alienated from him valuable political support in Virginia.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time Madison's labours in behalf of the constitution alienated from him valuable political support in Virginia.

^ Can we not believe the same of Madison's opinion of the Constitution?
  • James Madison "Godfather of the Constitution" - The Early America Review, Summer 1997 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was defeated by Richard Henry Lee and William Grayson in his candidacy for the United States Senate, but in his own district he was chosen a representative to Congress, defeating James Monroe, who seems to have had the powerful support of Patrick Henry.^ This agreement was the genesis of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate , respectively.
  • James Madison@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison (person)@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was defeated by Richard Henry Lee and William Grayson in his candidacy for the United States Senate, but in his own district he was chosen a representative to Congress, defeating James Monroe, who seems to have had the powerful support of Patrick Henry.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was defeated by Richard Henry Lee and William Grayson in his candidacy for the United States Senate, but in his own district he was chosen a representative to Congress, defeating James Monroe , who seems to have had the powerful support of Patrick Henry .

.Madison took his seat in the House of Representatives in April 1789, and assumed a leading part in the legislation necessary to the organization of the new government.^ Madison took his seat in the House of Representatives in April 1789, and assumed a leading part in the legislation necessary to the organization of the new government.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives (1789-1797) as a representative from Virginia.
  • James Madison - EnchantedLearning.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1789-1797, Madison was a Virginian Representative to the House.

.He drafted a Tariff Bill giving certain notable advantages to nations with which the United States had commercial treaties, hoping to force Great Britain into a similar treaty; but his policy of discrimination against England was rejected by Congress.^ As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain in order to protect the United States` economic rights.
  • James Madison - Dating, Gossip, News, James Madison Photos 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.whosdatedwho.com [Source type: General]

^ As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War is declared against Great Britain .
  • Pres_4_Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC schonwalder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was his belief that such a system of retaliation would remove the possibility of war arising from commercial quarrels.^ It was his belief that such a system of retaliation would remove the possibility of war arising from commercial quarrels.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This would move people away from an employer-based system and towards a system that resembles true insurance, such as fire, theft, or auto insurance.
  • James Madison vs. Harry Reid - HUMAN EVENTS 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.humanevents.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This collaboration was significant in that Madison and Hamilton would later quarrel and be the founders of the party system.
  • James Madison: Writings: Writings 1772-1836 (Library of America) by James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

.He introduced resolutions calling for the establishment of three executive departments, foreign affairs, treasury and war, the head of each removable by the president.^ He offered the resolutions for creating the executive departments of foreign affairs, of the treasury, and of war.

^ He introduced resolutions calling for the establishment of three executive departments, foreign affairs, treasury and war, the head of each removable by the president.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a trusted consultant to George Washington, Madison played a large part in forming the Departments of State, Treasury, & War.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most important of all, he proposed nine amendments to the constitution, embodying suggestions made by a number of the ratifying states, especially those made by Virginia at the instance of George Mason; and the essential principles of Madison's proposed amendments were included in a Bill of Rights, adopted by the states in the form of ten amendments.^ From 1789-1791, the states ratified 10 amendments to the Constitution (the articles numbered 3-12) as The Bill of Rights.
  • Madison, James - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ten of these were ratified by the states and became the Bill of Rights .
  • James Madison | Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www2.lucidcafe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Explanation of the proposed Constitution and arguments for adopting it.
  • Selected Works of James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.The absence of a Bill of Rights from the constitution as first adopted had been the point on which the opposition had made common cause, and the adoption of this now greatly weakened the same opposition.^ The leader of deliberations at the Constitutional Convention, he fought for the adoption of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
  • James Madison - Authors - Random House 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.randomhouse.com [Source type: General]

^ Constitution: lack of a Bill of Rights.

^ Constitution itself was a bill of rights.
  • James Madison encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although a staunch friend of the constitution, Madison believed, however, that the instrument should be interpreted conservatively and not be made the means of introducing radical innovations.^ Although a staunch friend of the constitution, Madison believed, however, that the instrument should be interpreted conservatively and not be made the means of introducing radical innovations.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison's work on the Constitution had not ended, however.
  • Shays' Rebellion - Person: James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC shaysrebellion.stcc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Can we not believe the same of Madison's opinion of the Constitution?
  • James Madison "Godfather of the Constitution" - The Early America Review, Summer 1997 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tide of strict construction was setting in strongly in his state, and he was borne along with the flood.^ The tide of strict construction was setting in strongly in his state, and he was borne along with the flood .

^ The tide of strict construction was setting in strongly in his state, and he was borne along with the flood.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is very probable that Jefferson's influence over Madison, which was greater than Hamilton's, contributed to this result.^ It is very probable that Jefferson's influence over Madison, which was greater than Hamilton's, contributed to this result.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1787 to 1788, Madison along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay wrote a series of essays that were a major contribution to the ratification of the Constitution.
  • James Madison's Montpelier--Presidents: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Washington sided with Hamilton, Madison left the Federalists and allied himself with Thomas Jefferson and formed the Democratic-Republican party.
  • The James Madison Research Library and Information Center 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC madisonbrigade.com [Source type: Original source]

.Madison now opposed Hamilton's measures for the funding of the debt, the assumption of state debts, and the establishment of a National Bank, and on other questions he sided more and more with the opposition, gradually assuming its leadership in the House of Representatives and labouring to confine the powers of the national government within the narrowest possible limits; his most important argument against Hamilton's Bank was that the constitution did not provide for it explicitly, and could not properly be construed into permitting its creation.^ That spring, Madison drafted a comprehensive plan for a more powerful national government.
  • Papers of James Madison, University of Virginia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison continues his argument over balancing the powers of the federal and state governments.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Earlier in his career, he had opposed the creation of a congressionally chartered national bank.
  • James Madison - Further Readings 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC law.jrank.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison, Jefferson and Randolph were consulted by Washington, and they advised him not to sign the bill providing for the Bank, but Hamilton's counterargument was successful.^ Madison, Jefferson and Randolph were consulted by Washington, and they advised him not to sign the bill providing for the Bank, but Hamilton's counterargument was successful.

^ Randolph were consulted by Washington, and they advised him not to sign the bill providing for the Bank, but Hamilton's counterargument was successful.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a trusted consultant to George Washington, Madison played a large part in forming the Departments of State, Treasury, & War.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the same constitutional grounds Madison objected to the carrying out of the recommendations in Hamilton's famous report on manufactures (Dec.^ On the same constitutional grounds Madison objected to the carrying out of the recommendations in Hamilton's famous report on manufactures (Dec.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Can we not believe the same of Madison's opinion of the Constitution?
  • James Madison "Godfather of the Constitution" - The Early America Review, Summer 1997 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.earlyamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison made a major contribution to the ratification of the constitution in the form of the Federalist Essays, which he wrote with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay.
  • The Life of James Madison: The Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC americanhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.5, 1791), which favoured a protective tariff.^ Before leaving office he signed a bill for a protective tariff and agreed to the chartering of a national bank (the Second Bank of the United States), a measure he had vehemently opposed in 1791.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.rebelswithavision.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-316&article_id=710&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Madison,_James_ 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the presidential campaign of 1792 Madison seems to have lent his influence to the determined efforts of the Jeffersonians to defeat John Adams by electing George Clinton vice-president.^ Vice President (1st term) George Clinton * .

^ In the presidential campaign of 1792 Madison seems to have lent his influence to the determined efforts of the Jeffersonians to defeat John Adams by electing George Clinton vice-president.

^ George Clinton, vice president under Jefferson, had 6 votes.

.In 1 7931 79 6 he strongly criticized the administration for maintaining a neutral position between Great Britain and France, writing for the public press five papers (signed "Helvidius"), attacking the "monarchical prerogative of the executive" as exercised in the proclamation of neutrality in 1793 and denying the president's right to recognize foreign states.^ Executive with rights in the States, to a centralized and powerful Executive...
  • A Tiny Revolution: Good Call, James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.tinyrevolution.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most difficult problem the administration faced was the attempt to maintain the rights of a neutral nation in the face of the provocations and aggressions of France and Great Britain.
  • Papers of James Madison, University of Virginia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1793-1796 he strongly criticized the administration for maintaining a neutral position between Great Britain and France, writing for the public press five papers (signed "Helvidius"), attacking the "monarchical prerogative of the executive" as exercised in the proclamation of neutrality in 1793 and denying the president's right to recognize foreign states.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.He found in Washington's attitude - as in Hamilton's failure to pay an instalment of the moneys due France - an "Anglified complexion," in direct opposition to the popular sympathy with France and French Republicanism.^ He found in Washington's attitude - as in Hamilton's failure to pay an instalment of the moneys due France - an "Anglified complexion," in direct opposition to the popular sympathy with France and French Republicanism.

^ He found in Washington's attitude -- as in Hamilton's failure to pay an installment of the monies due France -- an "Anglified complexion", in direct opposition to the popular sympathy with France and French Republicanism.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Washington sided with Hamilton, Madison left the Federalists and allied himself with Thomas Jefferson and formed the Democratic-Republican party.
  • The James Madison Research Library and Information Center 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC madisonbrigade.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1794 he tried again his commercial weapons, introducing in the House of Representatives resolutions based on Jefferson's report on commerce, advising retaliation against Great Britain and discrimination in commercial and navigation laws in favour of France; and he declared that the friends of Jay's treaty were "a British party systematically aiming at an exclusive connexion with the British government," and in 1796 strenuously but unsuccessfully opposed the appropriation of money to carry this treaty into effect.^ In 1794 he tried again his commercial weapons, introducing in the House of Representatives resolutions based on Jefferson's report on commerce, advising retaliation against Great Britain and discrimination in commercial and navigation laws in favour of France; and he declared that the friends of Jay's treaty were "a British party systematically aiming at an exclusive connexion with the British government," and in 1796 strenuously but unsuccessfully opposed the appropriation of money to carry this treaty into effect.

^ In 1794 he tried again his commercial weapons, introducing in the House of Representatives resolutions based on Jefferson's report on commerce, advising retaliation against Great Britain and discrimination in commercial and navigation laws in favor of France; and he declared that the friends of Jay's treaty were "a British party systematically aiming at an exclusive connection with the British government", and in 1796 strenuously but unsuccessfully opposed the appropriation of money to carry this treaty into effect.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Britain and France had declared a blockade against each others ports.

.Still thinking that foreign nations could be coerced through their commercial interests, he scouted as visionary the idea that Great Britain would go to war on a refusal to carry Jay's treaty into effect, thinking it inconceivable that Great Britain "would wantonly make war" upon a country which was the best market she had in the world for her manufactures, and one with which her export trade was so much larger than her import.^ As president, he led the nation into the War of 1812 against Great Britain.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1778 treaty of alliance with France was still in effect, yet most of the new country's trade was with Britain.
  • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still thinking that foreign nations could be coerced through their commercial interests, he scouted as visionary the idea that Great Britain would go to war on a refusal to carry Jay's treaty into effect, thinking it inconceivable that Great Britain "would wantonly make war" upon a country which was the best market she had in the world for her manufactures, and one with which her export trade was so much larger than her import.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1797 Madison retired from congress, but not to a life of inactivity.^ Madison retired from Congress in 1797.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-316&article_id=710&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Madison,_James_ 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison resolved to retire from Congress when his term ended in early 1797.
  • Papers of James Madison, University of Virginia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1797 Madison retired from Congress, but not to a life of inactivity.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1798 he joined Jefferson in opposing the Alien and Sedition Laws, and Madison himself wrote the resolutions of the Virginia legislature declaring that it viewed "the powers of the Federal government as resulting from the compact to which the states are parties, as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting that compact; as no further valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that, in case of a deliberate, palpable and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states, who are parties thereto, have the right and are in duty bound to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them." The Virginia resolutions and the Kentucky resolutions (the latter having been drafted by Jefferson) were met by dissenting resolutions from the New England states, from New York, and from Delaware. .In answer to these, Madison, who had become a member of the Virginia legislature in the autumn of 1799, wrote for the committee to which they were referred a report elaborating and sustaining in every point the phraseology of the Virginia resolutions.'^ In 1799-1800, he served in the Virginia legislature.

^ In answer to these, Madison, who had become a member of the Virginia legislature in the autumn of 1799, wrote for the committee to which they were referred a report elaborating and sustaining in every point the phraseology of the Virginia resolutions.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison entered the Virginia legislature in 1783.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=wwwwak-316&article_id=710&chapter_id=15&chapter_title=United_States&article_title=Madison,_James_ 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon the accession of the Republican party to power in 180 r, Madison became secretary of state in Jefferson's cabinet, a position for which he was well fitted both because he possessed to a remarkable degree the gifts of careful thinking and discreet and able speaking, and of large constructive ability; and because he was well versed in constitutional and international law and practised a fairness in discussion essential to a diplomat.^ Presidency When Jefferson triumphed in the election of 1800, Madison became (1801) his Secretary of State.
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1801, Madison was appointed secretary of state by the new president, Jefferson.

^ Upon the accession of the Republican party to power in 180 r, Madison became secretary of state in Jefferson's cabinet, a position for which he was well fitted both because he possessed to a remarkable degree the gifts of careful thinking and discreet and able speaking, and of large constructive ability; and because he was well versed in constitutional and international law and practised a fairness in discussion essential to a diplomat.

During the eight years that he held the portfolio of state, he had con s tinually to defend the neutral rights of the United States against the encroachments of European belligerents; in 1806 he published An Examination of the British Doctrine which subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade not open in Time of Peace, a careful argument - with a minute examination of authorities on international law - against the rule of war of 1756 extended by Great Britain in 1 793 and 1803.
.1 Thirty years later Madison's arguments for the Virginia resolutions and the resolutions themselves were freely used by Calhoun and his followers in support of his doctrine of nullification.^ Thirty years later Madison's arguments for the Virginia resolutions and the resolutions themselves were freely used by Calhoun and his followers in support of his doctrine of nullification .

^ After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, Madison attacked these measures and prepared the protesting Virginia resolutions (see Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions ).
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Never again leaving Virginia , Madison managed his 5,000-acre (2,000-hectare) farm for 19 years, cultivating the land by methods regarded today as modern innovations.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.But Madison insisted that the Resolutions of 1798 did not involve the principles of nullification.^ But Madison insisted that the Resolutions of 1798 did not involve the principles of nullification.

^ In 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Laws Madison secretly coauthored, along with Thomas Jefferson, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions that called for states to block federal laws.
  • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the proponents of nullification based their doctrine on the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Madison particularly disavowed any applicability of his own arguments in the Virginia Resolutions to the present situation.

.Nearly all his arguments, especially where he attempts to interpret Jefferson's writings on the point, notably the Kentucky resolutions, are rather strained and specious, but it does seem that the Virginia resolutions were based on a different idea from Calhoun's doctrine of nullification.^ That was all that was intended by the Virginia Resolutions.
  • James Madison on the Relationship Between Democratic Theory andFederalism 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.cjsocpols.armstrong.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly all his arguments, especially where he attempts to interpret Jefferson's writings on the point, notably the Kentucky resolutions, are rather strained and specious, but it does seem that the Virginia resolutions were based on a different idea from Calhoun's doctrine of nullification.

^ After the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, Madison attacked these measures and prepared the protesting Virginia resolutions (see Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions ).
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Madison's theory was that the legislature of Virginia, being one of the bodies which had chosen delegates to the constitutional convention, was legally capable of considering the question of the constitutionality of laws passed by the Federal government, and that the state of Virginia might invite other states to join her, but could not singly, as Calhoun argued, declare any law of the Federal legislature null and void.^ In 1776 and 1777 Madison served as a delegate to the Virginia Convention.

^ Madison was then elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention in April, 1776.
  • The James Madison Research Library and Information Center 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC madisonbrigade.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison's Constitution; the story behind the constitutional Convention, .
  • LINKcat 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.linkcat.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(It is to be noted the words "null and void" were in Madison's first draft of the Virginia resolutions, but that they were omitted by the Virginia legislature.^ They first met in the Virginia legislature in 1776.

^ (It is to be noted the words "null and void" were in Madison's first draft of the Virginia resolutions, but that they were omitted by the Virginia legislature.

^ Born March 16, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia, Madison was the first of 11 children in his family.
  • James Madison - Further Readings 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC law.jrank.org [Source type: Original source]

) .It is notable, besides, that Madison had always feared that the national congress would assume too great power, that he had approved of Supreme Court checks on the national legislature, and of veto power by a council of revision.^ It is notable, besides, that Madison had always feared that the national congress would assume too great power, that he had approved of Supreme Court checks on the national legislature, and of veto power by a council of revision.

^ In the end, many of Madison's proposals were incorporated into the Constitution, including representation in Congress according to population, support for a strong national executive, the need for checks and balances among the three branches of government, and the idea of a federal system that assigned certain powers to the national government and reserved others for the states.
  • Biography | James Madison - James Madison's Montpelier... Restore Montpelier, Rediscover Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.montpelier.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Overcoming great odds, Madison won by a few hundred votes, allowing him to attend the First Congress and sponsor the Bill of Rights.
  • Oxford University Press: James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights: Richard Labunski 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.us.oup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During Jefferson's presidency and whilst Madison was secretary of state, by the purchase of Louisiana, Madison's campaign begun in i 780 for the free navigation of the Mississippi was brought to a successful close.^ Presidency When Jefferson triumphed in the election of 1800, Madison became (1801) his Secretary of State.
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Jefferson's presidency and whilst Madison was secretary of state, by the purchase of Louisiana, Madison's campaign begun in 1780 for the free navigation of the Mississippi was brought to a successful close.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson became president and appointed Madison to Secretary of State.
  • James_Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.The candidate in r808 of the Republican party, although bitterly opposed in the party by John Randolph and George Clinton, Madison was elected president, defeating C. C. Pinckney, the Federalist candidate, by 122 votes to 47. Madison had no false hopes of placating the Federalist opposition, but as.^ George Clinton, vice president under Jefferson, had 6 votes.

^ When John Adams was elected President, Madison retired to his home in Virginia.
  • The Federalist; Biography of Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.leftjustified.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The candidate in r808 of the Republican party, although bitterly opposed in the party by John Randolph and George Clinton , Madison was elected president, defeating C. C. Pinckney, the Federalist candidate, by 122 votes to 47.

the preceding administration was one with which he was in harmony, his position was different from that of .Jefferson in 1801, and he had less occasion for removing Federalists from office.^ Jefferson in 1801, and he had less occasion for removing Federalists from office.

^ Madison had no false hopes of placating the Federalist opposition, but as the preceding administration was one with which he was in harmony, his position was different from that of Jefferson in 1801, and he had less occasion for removing Federalists from office.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jefferson's peace policy - or, more correctly, Madison's peace policy - of commercial restrictions to coerce Great Britain and France he continued to follow until 1812, when he was forced to change these futile commercial weapons for a policy of war, which was very popular with the extreme French wing of his party.^ Throughout the wars between France and Great Britain, the Federalists sympathies were with Great Britain, while those of Jefferson and Madison were with France.

^ The war continued indecisively until 1815.
  • James Madison@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison (person)@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1812 he asked Congress for a declaration of war against Great Britain.
  • James_Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is a charge, which has never been proved or disproved, that Madison's real desire was for peace, but that in order to secure the renomination he yielded to that wing of his party which was resolved on war with Great Britain.^ War is declared against Great Britain .
  • Pres_4_Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC schonwalder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France and Great Britain were at war when James Madison was elected to the presidency.
  • James Madison Dollar.com - Information on the forth coin in The Presidential DOllar Coin Program! 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC jamesmadisondollar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a charge, which has never been proved or disproved, that Madison's real desire was for peace, but that in order to secure the renomination he yielded to that wing of his party which was resolved on war with Great Britain.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The only certain fact is that Madison, whatever were his personal feelings in this matter, acted according to the wishes of a majority of the Republicans; but whether in doing so he was influenced by the desire of another nomination is largely a matter of conjecture.^ The only certain fact is that Madison, whatever were his personal feelings in this matter, acted according to the wishes of a majority of the Republicans; but whether in doing so he was influenced by the desire of another nomination is largely a matter of conjecture.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a lifetime owner of slaves, Madison's lop-sided struggle between his morals and his search for personal wealth became a matter solely for a troubled conscience.

^ In doing so, Madison became one of the leading figures in the nascent Republican movement, which would eventually transform into the Republican Party.
  • The Life of James Madison: The Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC americanhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Madison was renominated on the 18th of May 1812, issued his war message on.^ Delivers war message to Congress ( War of 1812 ).
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

^ James Madison and the War of 1812 .
  • The Life of James Madison: The Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC americanhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War Message to Congress, June 1, 1812.
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

the .1st of June, and in the November elections he was re-elected, defeating De Witt Clinton by 128 votes to 89. His administration during the war was pitiably weak.^ His administration during the war was pitiably weak.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June, and in the November elections he was re-elected, defeating De Witt Clinton by 128 votes to 89.

^ Madison was re-elected by 128 electoral votes against 89 for DeWitt Clinton, of New York.

.His cabinet in great part Ad been dictated to him in r 809 by a senatorial clique, and it was hopelessly discordant; for two years he was to all intents and purposes his own secretary of state, Robert Smith being a mere figure-head of whom he gladly got rid in 181 r, giving Monroe the vacant place.^ His cabinet in great part had been dictated to him in 1809 by a senatorial clique, and it was hopelessly discordant; for two years he was to all intents and purposes his own secretary of state, Robert Smith being a mere figurehead of whom he gladly got rid in 1811, giving James Monroe the vacant place.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cabinet Members: Secretary of State: Robert Smith (1809-11); James Monroe (1811-17).

^ His cabinet in great part Ad been dictated to him in r 809 by a senatorial clique, and it was hopelessly discordant; for two years he was to all intents and purposes his own secretary of state, Robert Smith being a mere figure-head of whom he gladly got rid in 181 r, giving Monroe the vacant place.

.Madison himself had attempted alternately to prevent war by his "commercial weapons" and to prepare the country for war, but he had met with no success, because of the tricky diplomacy of Great Britain and of France, and because of the general distrust of him coupled with the particular opposition to the war of the prosperous New England Federalists, who suggested with the utmost seriousness that his resignation should be demanded.^ Throughout the wars between France and Great Britain, the Federalists sympathies were with Great Britain, while those of Jefferson and Madison were with France.

^ The Federalists had been against war with Great Britain from the start.

^ War is declared against Great Britain .
  • Pres_4_Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC schonwalder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In brief, Madison was too much the mere scholar to prove a strong leader in such a crisis.^ In brief, Madison was too much the mere scholar to prove a strong leader in such a crisis.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison combined the intellectual knowledge and creativity of the scholar with the practical savvy of the politician, a man of strong principles who also realized the value of compromise.
  • Center for Civic Education 2000 James Madison Supplemental Lesson 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.civiced.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elected to the Continental Congress in December 1779, Madison became a leader of the so-called nationalist group, which advocated a strong central government.

.The supreme disgrace of the administration was the capture and partial destruction in August 1814 of the city of Washington - this was due, however, to incompetence of the military and not to any lack of prudence on the cabinet's part.^ The supreme disgrace of the administration was the capture and partial destruction in August 1814 of the city of Washington -- this was due, however, to incompetence of the military and not to any lack of prudence on the cabinet's part.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The supreme disgrace of the administration was the capture and partial destruction in August 1814 of the city of Washington - this was due, however, to incompetence of the military and not to any lack of prudence on the cabinet's part.

^ In 1814, the British actually captured Washington and forced Madison to flee to Virginia.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0760589.html 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, congress was more blamable than either the president or his official family, or the army officers.^ In general, Congress was more blamable than either the president or his official family, or the army officers.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, congress was more blamable than either the president or his official family, or the army officers.

^ After he convinced Congress to declare war, Madison was re-elected President over DeWitt Clinton but by a smaller margin than in 1808.
  • James Madison - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the declaration of peace the president again gained a momentary popularity much like that he had won in 1809 by his apparent willingness at that time to fight France.^ With the declaration of peace the president again gained a momentary popularity much like that he had won in 1809 by his apparent willingness at that time to fight France.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Strained relations between the United States and Europe, chiefly England, France and Spain, occupied much of Madisons time, making his presidency somewhat ineffective.
  • Founder of the Month - James Madison - by Monty Rainey 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC juntosociety.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One-minute may not seem like a long time, but you would be surprised how much you can communicate.
  • James Madison University - Acting & Theatre James Madison University in Virginia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.collegeactingprograms.com [Source type: General]

.Retiring from the presidency in 1817, Madison returned to his home, Montpelier (in Orange county, Virginia), which he left in no official capacity save in 1829, when he was a delegate to the state constitutional convention and served on several of its committees.^ When Madison left office in 1817, he retired to Montpelier, his tobacco plantation in Virginia; not far from Jefferson's Monticello.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/President-James-Madison/4438583119100069835 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the notepaper has no watermark, Rives dated it as "subsequent to" Madison's "retirement from the presidency in 1817."
  • Lenni Brenner: James Madison, the Anti-Clerical Father of the Bill of Rights 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison was then elected to the Virginia Constitutional Convention in April, 1776.
  • The James Madison Research Library and Information Center 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC madisonbrigade.com [Source type: Original source]

.Montpelier, like Jefferson's Monticello and Monroe's Oak-Hill, was an expensive bit of "gentleman farming," which with his generous Virginia hospitality nearly ruined its owner financially.^ Montpelier, like Jefferson's Monticello and Monroe's Oak-Hill, was an expensive bit of "gentleman farming", which with his generous Virginia hospitality nearly ruined its owner financially.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Montpelier, like Jefferson's Monticello and Monroe's Oak -Hill, was an expensive bit of " gentleman farming," which with his generous Virginia hospitality nearly ruined its owner financially.

^ He was not a bit like Washington and Jefferson .
  • James Madison - Fourth President of the United States 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.all-biographies.com [Source type: Original source]

.Madison's home was peculiarly a centre for literary travellers in his last years; when he was eighty-three he was visited by Harriet Martineau, who reported her conversations with him in her Retrospect of Western Travel (1838).^ Madison's home was peculiarly a centre for literary travellers in his last years; when he was eighty-three he was visited by Harriet Martineau, who reported her conversations with him in her Retrospect of Western Travel (1838).
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During his last years, Madison was confined to his home, where he died in 1836.

^ Madison's home was peculiarly a centre for literary travellers in his last years; when he was eighty-three he was visited by Harriet Martineau , who reported her conversations with him in her Retrospect of Western Travel (1838).

.He took a great interest in education - his library was left to the university of Virginia, where it was burned in 1895 - in emancipation, and in agricultural questions, to the very last.^ He took a great interest in education -- his library was left, to the university of Virginia, where it was burned in 1895 -- in emancipation, and in agricultural questions, to the very last.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He took a great interest in education - his library was left to the university of Virginia , where it was burned in 1895 - in emancipation, and in agricultural questions, to the very last.

^ JamesMadisonUniversity JamesMadison University Harrisonburg university education college james madison harrisonburg virginia 800 S. Main St. Virginia va.
  • Hotels Near James Madison University, Hotel close to James Madison University Virginia - Harrisonburg 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.hotelplanner.com [Source type: General]

.He died at Montpelier on the 28th of June 1836. Madison married, in 1794, Dorothy Payne Todd (1772-1849), widow of John Todd, a Philadelphia lawyer.^ He died at his home on June 28, 1836.
  • Papers of James Madison, University of Virginia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.virginia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Died: June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Va.

^ June 28, 1836 at Montpelier he died.
  • James_Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.She had great social charm, and upon Madison's entering Jefferson's cabinet became "first lady" in Washington society.^ She had great social charm , and upon Madison's entering Jefferson's cabinet became "first lady" in Washington society.

^ She had great social charm, and upon Madison's entering Jefferson's cabinet became "first lady" in Washington society.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1803, President Thomas Jefferson secretly called upon his cabinet to help develop a plan for exploration beyond the muddy waters of the Mississippi.
  • Biography | James Madison - James Madison's Montpelier... Restore Montpelier, Rediscover Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.montpelier.org [Source type: Original source]

Her plump beauty was often remarked - notably by Washington Irving - in contrast to her husband's delicate and feeble figure and wizened face - for even in his prime Madison was, as Henry Adams says, "a small man, quiet, somewhat precise in manner, pleasant, fond of conversation, with a certain mixture of ease and dignity in his address." Her son, spoiled by his mother and his step-father, became a wild young fellow, and added his debts to the heavy burden of Montpelier upon Madison.
.Madison's portrait was painted by Gilbert Stuart and by Charles Wilson Peale; Giuseppe Ceracchi made a marble bust of him in 1792 and John H. J. Browere another in 1827, now in possession of the Virginia Historical Society at Richmond.^ Madison's portrait was painted by Gilbert Stuart and by Charles Willson Peale ; Giuseppe Ceracchi made a marble bust of him in 1792 and John H. J. Browere another in 1827, now in possession of the Virginia Historical Society at Richmond.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison's portrait was painted by Gilbert Stuart and by Charles Wilson Peale; Giuseppe Ceracchi made a marble bust of him in 1792 and John H. J. Browere another in 1827, now in possession of the Virginia Historical Society at Richmond .

^ John Kaminsky et al., Documentary History of the Ratification of the Constitution , Wisconsin Historical Society Press (2008).
  • Selected Works of James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Though commonly dignified and a little stiff he seems to have had a strong sense of humour and he was fond of telling a good story.^ Though commonly dignified and a little stiff he seems to have had a strong sense of humour and he was fond of telling a good story.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry Clay, contrasting him with Jefferson, said that Jefferson had more genius, Madison more judgment and common sense; that Jefferson was a visionary and a theorist; Madison cool, dispassionate, practical, and safe.'^ Henry Clay , contrasting him with Jefferson, said that Jefferson had more genius, Madison more judgment and common sense; that Jefferson was a visionary and a theorist; Madison cool, dispassionate, practical, and safe.'

^ Henry Clay , contrasting him with Jefferson, said that Jefferson had more genius, Madison more judgment and common sense; that Jefferson was a visionary and a theorist; Madison cool, dispassionate, practical, and safe.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clay regarded Jefferson as having greater genius; Madison, greater judgment and common sense.

.The broadest and most accurate scholar among the "founders and fathers," he was particularly an expert in constitutional history and theory.^ The broadest and most accurate scholar among the "founding fathers", he was particularly an expert in constitutional history and theory.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The broadest and most accurate scholar among the "founders and fathers," he was particularly an expert in constitutional history and theory.

^ His peers hailed him as the "Father of the Constitution," and scholars agree that no one had a greater role in shaping American Constitutional theory and in framing the particulars of representative government than James Madison.
  • Biography | James Madison - James Madison's Montpelier... Restore Montpelier, Rediscover Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.montpelier.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the great causes for which Madison fought in his earlier years - religious freedom and separation of church and state, the free navigation of the Mississippi, and the adoption of the constitution - he met with success.^ In the great causes for which Madison fought in his earlier years - religious freedom and separation of church and state, the free navigation of the Mississippi, and the adoption of the constitution - he met with success.

^ In the great causes for which Madison fought in his earlier years -- religious freedom and separation of church and state, the free navigation of the Mississippi, and the adoption of the constitution -- he met with success.
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His distinctive contribution to the colonial cause was a deep knowledge and understanding of government and political philosophy—resources that first proved their value in 1776 when Madison helped to draft a constitution for the new state of Virginia.
  • James Madison Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His greatest and truest fame is as the "father of the constitution."^ His greatest and truest fame is as the "father of the constitution."

^ His greatest and truest fame is as the "father of the Constitution."
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "commercial weapons" with which he wished to prevent armed conflict proved less useful in his day than they have since been in international disputes.^ The "commercial weapons" with which he wished to prevent armed conflict proved less useful in his day than they have since been in international disputes.
  • James Madison - LoveToKnow 1911 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James Madison 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If slaves were to be counted, the southern states would have to pay more than their equitable share into the treasury of the general government; if slaves were not to be counted, it was argued at the north that they would be paying less than their equitable share.

^ Restorations have often left important buildings less evocative than they were before the scraping.
  • The Restoration of James Madison's Montpelier : The official site of Colonial Williamsburg 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.history.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Authorities

- .Madison's personality is perplexingly vague; the biographies of him are little more than histories of the period, and the best history of the later period in which he was before the public, Henry Adams's History of the United States from r80r to 1817 (1889-1890), gives the clearest sketch and best criticism of him.^ Yet Madison was more than secretary of state to the president.

^ President of the United States 1809-1817 .
  • James Madison - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC mirror.uncyc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Madison biography and personal facts.
  • James Madison | 4th US President | Constitutional Convention Father 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The lives of Madison are: J. Q. Adams's (Boston, 1850); W. C. Rives's (Boston, 1859-1869, 3 vols.^ The lives of Madison are: J. Q. Adams's (Boston, 1850); W. C. Rives's (Boston, 1859-1869, 3 vols.

^ For biographies there is the cumbrous work of William C. Rives (3 vols., Boston, 1859-68) and the sketch by Sydney Howard Gay in the American Statesmen series (Boston, 1884).

), covering the period previous to .1797; S. H. Gay's (Boston, 1884) in the "American Statesmen Series"; and Gaillard Hunt's (New York, 1902).^ See also Mrs Madison's Memoirs and Letters (Boston, 1887) and Maud Wilder Goodwin, Dolly Madison (New York, 1897).

^ The most common sources are indicated by these abbreviations: Writings The Writings of James Madison , edited by Gaillard Hunt (9 vols., New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 190010).
  • James Madison: Writings : Note on the Texts (The Library of America) 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.loa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For biographies there is the cumbrous work of William C. Rives (3 vols., Boston, 1859-68) and the sketch by Sydney Howard Gay in the American Statesmen series (Boston, 1884).

.Madison's Writings (7 vols., New York, 1900-1906) were edited by Hunt, who also edited The Journal of the Debates in the Convention which framed the Constitution of the United States, as Recorded by James Madison (2 vols., New York, 1908).^ James Madison's Notes of the Constitutional Convention (June 25, 1787) .
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=530&groupid=3 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison's Notes of the Constitutional Convention (May 31, 1787) .
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=530&groupid=3 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Madison's Notes of the Constitutional Convention (July 16, 1787) .
  • http://www.consource.org/index.asp?bid=530&groupid=3 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC www.consource.org [Source type: Original source]

.See also Mrs Madison's Memoirs and Letters (Boston, 1887) and Maud Wilder Goodwin, Dolly Madison (New York, 1897).^ Magee, William — of Cazenovia, Madison County , N.Y. Member of New York state assembly 111th District, 1991-.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Maddin to Maggy 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Madison was opposed by Governor De Witt Clinton of New York.

^ In the letter, Madison instructs Livingston to negotiate with French government on right of deposit at New Orleans, for satisfaction in the matter of Captain Rodgers and Davidson, and on the French navigation laws.
  • MADISON, James, Jr. (1751-1836) Guide to Research Papers 14 January 2010 17:10 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


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James Madison
File:Jm4.gif


4th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1809 – March 3, 1817
Vice President George Clinton; Elbridge Gerry
Preceded by Thomas Jefferson
Succeeded by James Monroe

Born March 16, 1751
Port Conway, Virginia, U.S.
Died June 28, 1836
Montpelier, Virginia, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic-Republican
Spouse Dolley Todd Madison
Height 5 ft 4 in (1.63 m)

James Madison (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was the fourth President of the United States.

Contents

Family

He was the oldest of twelve children. His father and mother were James Madison Sr. and Nellie Conway.

Madison married Dolley Todd nee Payne in 1794.

Political life

Madison started his career in the Virginia state legislature. Madison learned many things from Thomas Jefferson. Madison wanted a strong federal government. He was a member of the meeting that formed the current United States Constitution. Madison is called the "Father of the Constitution" because he helped write a large part of it. Madison helped to get people to approve the Constitution.

Madison was elected to the United States House of Representatives. Madison helped write the first laws for the United States. Madison also was the main writer of the Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution.

Madison and Jefferson were good friends and helped create the Democratic-Republican Party who wanted a weak federal government.

Madison was selected by Jefferson to be his Secretary of State.

Presidency

Madison was selected by his political party to be the Democratic-Republican candidate for president in 1808. He won that election and the next election in 1812.

The War of 1812 started while Madison was president. Madison still hoped for peace, but Congress wanted war so he gave in and approved a declaration of war against Britain on June 18, 1812. The war caused Madison to want a stronger government than he had before.

While he originally opposed a national bank, Madison realized that it was necessary and it was impossible to fund a war without it. When the government's national bank expired, Madison renewed it.

Later life

Madison retired to Virginia after his second term. Madison died on June 28, 1836.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on James Madison, which are similar to those in the above article.








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