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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the U.S. Senator. For the pitcher, see James Shields (baseball). For the U.S. representative from Ohio, see James Shields (1762-1831). For the American poet, see Shaemas O'Sheel
James Shields


In office
October 27, 1849 – March 3, 1855
Preceded by Sidney Breese
Succeeded by Lyman Trumbull

In office
May 11, 1858 – March 3, 1859
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Morton Wilkinson

In office
January 27, 1879 – March 3, 1879
Preceded by David Armstrong
Succeeded by George Vest

Born May 10, 1810(1810-05-10)
Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland
Died June 1, 1879 (aged 69)
Ottumwa, Iowa
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 1846 - 1848; 1861 - 1862
Rank Brigadier General
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
American Civil War

James Shields (May 10, 1810 – June 1, 1879) was an American politician and United States Army officer who was born in Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland. Shields, a Democrat, is the only person in United States history to serve as a U.S. Senator for three different states. Shields was a senator from Illinois 1849 to 1855, in the 31st, 32nd, and 33rd congresses, from Minnesota from May 11, 1858 to March 3, 1859, in the 35th congress, and from Missouri from January 27, 1879 to March 3, 1879, in the 45th congress.

Contents

Early life and career

Shields was the nephew of another James Shields, also born in Ireland, who was a Congressman from Ohio. The younger Shields immigrated to the United States around 1826 and settled in Kaskaskia, Randolph County, Illinois where he studied and later practiced law.[1] He served as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives, beginning to serve in 1836, and then as an Illinois Supreme Court justice and in 1839 as the state auditor. (He was elected when not yet a citizen; Illinois then required only that a legislator have been resident in the state for six months.)

Shields nearly fought a duel with Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1842. Lincoln had published an inflammatory letter in a Springfield, Illinois, newspaper, the Sagamon Journal that poked fun at Shields, the State Auditor. Lincoln's wife and her close friend, continued writing letters about Shields without his knowledge. Taking offense to the articles, Shields demanded "satisfaction" and the incident escalated to the two parties meeting on a Missouri island called Sunflower Island, near Alton, Illinois to participate in a duel. Lincoln took responsibility for the articles and accepted the duel. Just prior to engaging in combat, Lincoln made it a point to demonstrate his advantage by easily cutting a branch just above Shields' head, the two participants' seconds intervened and were able to convince the two men to cease hostilities, on the grounds that Lincoln had not written the letters. [2]

Shields as brigadier general during the Mexican-American War

In 1846, Shields was selected as a brigadier general of volunteers to fight in the Mexican-American War. He served under Zachary Taylor along the Rio Grande River. He commanded the 3rd Brigade, Volunteer Division, at the battles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, where he was wounded. He returned to fight at the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, his brigade now part of the 4th Division. He was again wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec.

Following the war, on August 14, 1848, he was nominated by President Polk, and confirmed by the United States Senate to serve as governor of Oregon Territory that was created that same day.[3] However, he declined the position and Joseph Lane was nominated and became the first governor of the new territory.[4] He resigned to run for the Senate from Illinois. His election was voided by the Senate on the grounds that he had not been a United States citizen for the nine years required by the United States Constitution; having been naturalized October 21, 1840. He returned to Illinois and campaigned for re-election, and won the special election to replace himself, and was then seated.

In 1855, he was defeated for re-election, so he moved to Minnesota. He was elected as one of the two first Senators from that state, but his term was only from 1858 to 1859, and he was again not re-elected.

Civil War and later career

Statue of Shields at the Minnesota State Capital

Shields then moved to California and served as a brigadier general of volunteers from that state during the American Civil War. He commanded the 2nd Division of the V Corps, Army of the Potomac (subsequently part of the Army of the Shenandoah), during the Valley Campaign of 1862. He was wounded at the Battle of Kernstown on March 22, 1862, but his troops inflicted the only tactical defeat of General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson during the campaign (or the war). The day after Kernstown, he was promoted to major general, but the promotion was withdrawn, reconsidered, and then finally rejected. His overall performance in the rest of the Valley Campaign was poor enough that he resigned his commission, and his departure was not resisted by the War Department.

In 1863 he moved to Mexico and operated mines, and then to Wisconsin, but in 1866 moved to Missouri, where he served as member of the Missouri State House of Representatives, and as railroad commissioner. In 1879, he was elected to fill the seat left vacant by the death of Senator Lewis V. Bogy. He served only three months and declined to run for re-election.

Shields died in Ottumwa, Iowa. He is buried in St. Mary's Cemetery, Carrollton, Missouri. He was the editor of A History of Illinois, from its Commencement as a State in 1818 to 1847 (1854). He represents Illinois in the National Statuary Hall.

See also

References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.

Notes

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "James Shields". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/James_Shields.  
  2. ^ Carnegie, Dale (1982). How to Win Friends & Influence People. New York, NY: POCKET BOOKS. pp. 9. ISBN 0-671-72365-0.  
  3. ^ Senate Executive Journal: Monday, August 14, 1848. Library of Congress, retrieved September 13, 2007.
  4. ^ Senate Executive Journal: Tuesday, December 12, 1848. Library of Congress, retrieved September 13, 2007.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Levi Davis
Illinois Auditor of Public Accounts
1841 – 1843
Succeeded by
William Lee D. Ewing
United States Senate
Preceded by
Sidney Breese
United States Senator (Class 3) from Illinois
1849 – 1855
Served alongside: Stephen A. Douglas
Succeeded by
Lyman Trumbull
Preceded by
None
United States Senator (Class 2) from Minnesota
1858 – 1859
Served alongside: Henry Mower Rice
Succeeded by
Morton S. Wilkinson
Preceded by
David H. Armstrong
United States Senator (Class 3) from Missouri
1879
Served alongside: Francis M. Cockrell
Succeeded by
George G. Vest
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

SHIELDS, JAMES (1810-1879), American soldier, was born in Dungannon, county Tyrone, Ireland, in 1810. He emigrated to the United States in 1826, and in 1832 began to practice law in Kaskaskia, Illinois. He was prominent in Democratic politics, was a member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1836-1838, was state auditor in 1841-1843, was judge of the supreme court of the state in 1843-1845, and was commissioner of the U.S. General Land Office in 1845-1847. In the Mexican War he served as a brigadier-general of volunteers under General Zachary Taylor on the Rio Grande, under General John E. Wool in Chihuahua, and under General Winfield Scott in the southern campaign; he was breveted major-general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, where he was severely wounded, and he was again wounded at Chapultepec. In1849-1855he was a United States senator from Illinois; and in1858-1859was a senator from Minnesota. In 1860 he removed to California. In August 1861, soon after the outbreak of the Civil War, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers; in March 1862 he succeeded to the command of General Frederick W. Lander's division; he was in command on the Federal side at Winchester (23 March 1862) and at Port Republic (9 June); and in March 1863 he resigned his commission. He then settled in Carrollton, Missouri, and in 1875 was a member of the State House of Representatives; in 1879 he was United States senator from Missouri for six weeks to fill an unexpired term. He died at Ottumwa, Iowa, on the 1st of June 1879.


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