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United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on the day after the shooting.
Location United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.
Date Wednesday, June 10, 2009
12:50 p.m.[1] (EST)
Weapon(s) .22 caliber rifle[2]
Death(s) 1[3]
Injured 2 (including the perpetrator)[4][5]
Perpetrator James Wenneker von Brunn (alleged)[3]

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting was a shooting at that nation's memorial to The Holocaust in Washington, D.C. on June 10, 2009, at 12:50 p.m.[1][4][5] Shooting suspect James Wenneker von Brunn was charged in federal court on June 11, 2009, with first-degree murder and firearms violations.[6] On July 29, 2009, von Brunn was indicted on seven counts, including four which made him eligible for the death penalty.[7] In September of 2009, a judge ordered von Brunn to undergo a competency evaluation to determine whether or not he could stand trial.[8] While awaiting his trial, von Brunn died on January 6, 2010.[9]

According to the six-page indictment, von Brunn entered the building and shot security guard Stephen Tyrone Johns, who died from his injuries.[10] Von Brunn was a white supremacist and Holocaust denier who had previously been arrested and convicted for entering a federal building with various weapons in 1981 while trying to place the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, which he considered to be treasonous, under citizens arrest.[11]

Contents

Timeline of events

About 12:49 p.m., 88-year-old von Brunn[12][13][14] drove his car to the 14th Street entrance of the museum.[1][6] Von Brunn entered the museum when security guard Stephen Tyrone Johns opened the door for him.[15] Authorities said he raised a .22-caliber rifle[2] and shot Johns,[4][5] who later died of his injuries at the George Washington University Hospital.[3] Two security guards, Harry Weeks and Jason "Mac" McCuiston, returned fire, wounding von Brunn.[16] According to police officers at the scene, a third person was injured by broken glass but refused treatment at the hospital.[3]

The Washington Post reported that "if it weren't for the quick response of the private guards on duty, more people could have been killed or wounded." Mayor Adrian Fenty stated that the officers' efforts "to bring this gunman down so quickly literally saved the lives of countless people... This could have been much, much worse."[17] Inside, the museum was crowded with visiting schoolchildren.[4]

The Washington, D.C. Police, United States Park Police and the FBI Terrorism Task Force immediately surrounded the museum.[18] After the shooting, the nearby U.S. Department of Agriculture Administration Building, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and the USDA's Sidney R. Yates Federal Building were closed.[19] Portions of 14th Street and Independence Avenue in the Southwest quadrant were closed until later in the night.[20] The car driven by von Brunn was found double parked in front of the museum and tested for explosives.[21]

Police said they found a notebook on von Brunn that contained a list of District locations, including the Washington National Cathedral; they dispatched bomb squads to at least 10 sites. [22] The notebook also contained this passage, signed by von Brunn: "You want my weapons — this is how you'll get them. The Holocaust is a lie. Obama was created by Jews. Obama does what his Jew owners tell him to do. Jews captured America's money. Jews control the mass media. The 1st Amendment is abrogated henceforth...."[6]

The FBI and Washington, D.C. police chief Cathy L. Lanier said it appears von Brunn was acting alone at the time of the shooting, and the FBI said it had no knowledge of any threat against the museum.[23][24] The museum's director of security said they receive threats, but "nothing this significant recently".[25]

The Holocaust museum has been a focal point of antisemitism and Holocaust denial since it was established in 1993. In 2002, federal prosecutors said two white supremacists plotted to blow up the museum with a fertilizer bomb, as was used to blow up a federal building in Oklahoma in 1995.[25]

Possible motives

Several news agencies have noted the timing of the June 10 shooting came shortly after Obama's June 5 visit to and speech at the Buchenwald concentration camp[26], and that "President Obama’s recent visit to the Buchenwald Concentration Camp, in Germany, may have set off the shooter."[27]

On his website, von Brunn stated that his conviction in the 1980s was by "a Negro jury, Jew/Negro attorneys" and that he was "sentenced to prison for eleven years by a Jew judge. A Jew/Negro/White Court of Appeals" denied his appeal.[13]

James von Brunn

James von Brunn

The perpetrator of the shooting was 88-year-old James Wenneker von Brunn (July 11, 1920 – January 6, 2010), white supremacist[4] and Holocaust denier.[4][28] He had written many antisemitic essays, created an antisemitic website called The Holy Western Empire,[29] and is the author of a 1999 self published book, Kill the Best Gentiles, which praises Adolf Hitler and denies the Holocaust.[30] He was also a Obama citizenship conspiracy theorist.[31][32] After the shooting, traces of his personal writings and works online were deleted from many websites, including AskArt.com, FreeRepublic and his personal user page on Wikipedia where he was indefinitely blocked,[33] the latter said to constitute "a violation of policy of hate speech".[33] He also made posts expressing his opposition to the Iraq War, and felt that the September 11 attacks were an "inside job".[34][35]

Von Brunn was born in 1920 in St. Louis, Missouri, to Elmer von Brunn and Hope Grossemutter Wenneker,[36] and had a younger sister named Alice.[36] His father was a native of Houston, Texas, and a superintendent at the Scullin Steel Mill in Houston during World War II.[36] Hope von Brunn was an accomplished pianist, piano teacher, and homemaker. The family spent summer months with Hope's family in Piasa, Illinois, as well as road trips to Texas when James was a teenager.[36] During his childhood, James was noted by elementary school teachers and family for his artistic talents, and asked for an oil paint set for his seventh birthday.[36]

Von Brunn enrolled in Washington University in St. Louis in 1938 and received his Bachelor of Science in journalism in 1943. During his time at the university, von Brunn was said to have been president of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapter and a varsity football player.[37] He served in the United States Navy for 14 years, and was a commanding officer of PT boat 159 during World War II in the Pacific Theater, receiving a commendation and three battle stars.[38][39][40] Von Brunn had worked as an advertising executive and producer in New York City for 20 years. In the late 1960s he moved to the Eastern Shore of Maryland where he continued to do advertising work and began painting. In 2004 and 2005 he lived in Hayden Lake, Idaho, the town where Aryan Nations, a neo-Nazi organization led by Richard Butler, was based until 2001.[39] He was living in Annapolis, Maryland at the time of the 2009 incident.[39] After the shooting, federal authorities raided his apartment and seized a rifle, ammunition, computers, a handwritten will, and a painting of Jesus and Hitler.[41] The FBI discovered child pornography on one of the seized computers.[42]

Von Brunn's arrest history dates back at least as far as the 1960s. In 1968, he received a six-month jail sentence in Maryland for fighting with a sheriff during an incident at the county jail.[43] He had earlier been arrested for driving under the influence following an altercation at a local restaurant.[44]

Von Brunn was arrested in 1981 for attempted kidnapping[45] and hostage-taking,[29] of members of the Federal Reserve Board, after approaching the Federal Reserve's Eccles Building armed with a revolver, knife, and sawed-off shotgun.[13][46] Von Brunn later described his actions as a "citizen's arrest for treason."[29][45] He reportedly complained of "high interest rates" during the incident and was disarmed without any shots being fired, after threatening a security guard with a .38 caliber pistol.[11] He reportedly claimed he had a bomb, which was found to be only a device designed to look like a bomb.[47] He was convicted in 1983 for burglary, assault, weapons charges, and attempted kidnapping.[29] Von Brunn's sentence was completed by September 15, 1989,[48] having served six and a half years in prison.[49]

Von Brunn was a member of the now-defunct American Friends of the British National Party, a group that raised funds in the United States for the far right and "rights for whites" British National Party (BNP). The group had been addressed on at least two occasions by Nick Griffin, an ex-member of the British National Front and chairman of the BNP.[50] A BNP spokesperson claimed after the shooting that the party had "never heard of" von Brunn.[51]

In a statement, von Brunn's son, Erik, expressed sorrow and horror about the shooting, and said his father's beliefs:

...have been a constant source of verbal and mental abuse my family has had to suffer with for many years. His views consumed him, and in doing so, not only destroyed his life, but destroyed our family and ruined our lives as well...For the extremists who believe my father is a hero: it is imperative you understand what he did was an act of cowardice. To physically force your beliefs onto others with violence is not brave, but bullying. Doing so only serves to prove how weak those beliefs are...[52]

The younger von Brunn, who was 32 at the time of the 2009 shooting, did not meet his father until he was nearly 11 years old, after the elder von Brunn completed his prison term for the Federal Reserve incident.[49]

Von Brunn had the Federal Bureau of Prisons ID# 07128-016 and was incarcerated at the Federal Correctional Complex in Butner, North Carolina.[53] On January 6, 2010, von Brunn died in a hospital located near the prison.[54]

Witnesses and events at the museum

Present at the museum during the shooting was former United States Secretary of Defense William Cohen, awaiting his wife Janet Langhart, for the premiere of Langhart's one-act play, Anne and Emmett. The play imagines a conversation between two teenagers, Nazi victim Anne Frank and Jim Crow victim Emmett Till. Her play was to be presented in honor of the eightieth anniversary of Anne Frank's birth.[55]

Reaction

The day after the shooting, the Holocaust Museum's flag flew at half-staff in memory of the murdered guard.

The Israeli embassy in Washington, D.C. condemned the attack. U.S. President Barack Obama said, "This outrageous act reminds us that we must remain vigilant against anti-Semitism and prejudice in all its forms".[56][57]

On the white nationalist internet forum Stormfront, some users criticized von Brunn's actions, saying they hurt the forum's cause. Others supported him in threads that were later removed.[58]

The Southern Poverty Law Center, Anti-Defamation League, and FBI stated they had been monitoring von Brunn's internet postings, but were unable to take action because his comments had not crossed the line from free speech into advocating violence.[59][60][61]

On June 11, 2009, the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington and the InterFaith Conference of Metropolitan Washington led a prayer vigil which took place in front of the museum. Organizers said the vigil was a time to honor Stephen Johns, the slain officer, as well as a time to reflect upon the motivations which led to the shooting spree.[62] Approximately 100 people attended the event, including officials from the Israeli and German embassies.[63]The Council on American-Islamic Relations condemned the attack as well.[22] When the museum reopened on June 12, 2009, Director Sara Bloomfield said attendance was normal or even higher than usual. Many visitors said their attendance was a statement against hate and intolerance. A 17-year-old girl who was in the museum the day of the shooting stated, "It's important to come back, because if you don't, they win. It's a form of terrorism."[64]

See also


References

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  6. ^ a b c "Criminal Complaint (U.S v. James Wenneker von Brunn)". FindLaw. 2009-06-11. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/crim/us-von-brunn61109cmp.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11.  
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  8. ^ "North Carolina: Shooting Defendant Is Transferred". Associated Press (The New York Times): pp. A23. 2009-09-28. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/29/us/29brfs-SHOOTINGSUSP_BRF.html. Retrieved 2009-09-29.  
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  35. ^ Breitbart, Andrew (June 15, 2009). "Left cries 'racist' in crowded country". The Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/jun/15/the-left-cries-racist-in-a-crowded-country/. Retrieved January 7, 2010.  
  36. ^ a b c d e James von Brunn biography
  37. ^ Zhao, Kat; Stein, Perry (2009-06-11). "Holocaust Museum gunman a WU graduate, University confirms". Student Life. http://www.studlife.com/news/holocaust-museum-gunman-a-wu-graduate-university-confirms-1.1761705. Retrieved 2009-06-11.  
  38. ^ "James von Brunn Military Records". Lyon Research. http://www.lyonresearch.com/html/james_von_brunn_military_recor.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13.  
  39. ^ a b c Woodward, Calvin; Syeed, Nafeesa (2009-06-11). "Holocaust museum closed for day to mark shooting". Associated Press. Yahoo! News. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090611/ap_on_re_us/us_holocaust_museum_shooting. Retrieved 2009-06-11.  
  40. ^ Ewing, Phillip (2009-06-11). "Museum shooting suspect was WWII PT boat CO". Navy Times. http://www.navytimes.com/news/2009/06/navy_shooting_suspect_061109w/. Retrieved 2009-06-11.  
  41. ^ "Hitler, Jesus art in alleged museum shooter's home". Associated Press. 2009-06-15. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hj8VA_NP5iYth3QbXrhNX3Fzp3JwD98S2O9O4. Retrieved 2009-06-15.  
  42. ^ Wilber, Del Quintin (2009-06-19). "Child Porn Found on Computer Of Shooting Suspect, Court Told". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/18/AR2009061802237.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2009-06-19.  
  43. ^ "6-Month Term Imposed For Hitting Md. Sherrif". The Washington Post. 1968-10-12. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/metro/articles/vonbrunn101268.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  44. ^ Ruane, Michael E.; Paul Duggan, Clarence Williams (2009-06-11). "At a Monument of Sorrow, A Burst of Deadly Violence". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/10/AR2009061001768.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13.  
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  47. ^ "Interest rate has man ready to blast Fed". Associated Press (The Ledger): pp. 5A. 1981-12-08. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=AeoTAAAAIBAJ&sjid=O_sDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6019,2918849&dq=james+brunn+federal+reserve. Retrieved 2009-06-10.  
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  51. ^ Burgess, Kaya (12 June 2009). "White supremacist gunman James W. von Brunn had links to BNP". Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6481475.ece. Retrieved 12 June 2009.  
  52. ^ Von Brunn, Erik (2009-06-12). "Statement by Erik von Brunn". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=7826614&page=1. Retrieved 2009-06-14.  
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James von Brunn
File:James von
mug shot of von Brunn taken in 2009
Born July 11, 1920(1920-07-11)
St. Louis, Missouri
Died January 6, 2010 (aged 89)
Butner, North Carolina, United States
Conviction(s) burglary, assault, weapons charges, and attempted kidnapping
Penalty imprisonment of six and half years
Status Deceased
Occupation advertising executive and producer, author
Parents Elmer von Brunn and Hope Grossemutter Wenneker

James Wenneker von Brunn (July 11, 1920 – January 6, 2010) was a white supremacist[1] and Holocaust denier[1][2] who perpetrated the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum shooting in Washington, D.C. on June 10, 2009. Security guard Stephen Tyrone Johns was killed in the shooting, and von Brunn was wounded by two security guards whom returned fire. Von Brunn was named the prime suspect in the shooting, and was charged with first-degree murder and firearms violations. While awaiting trial, von Brunn died on January 6, 2010.

Von Brunn had written numerous antisemitic essays, created an antisemitic website called The Holy Western Empire,[3] and is the author of a 1999 self published book, Kill the Best Gentiles, which praises Adolf Hitler and denies the Holocaust.[4] He was also a Obama citizenship conspiracy theorist.[5][6] After the shooting, traces of his personal writings and works online were deleted from many websites, including AskArt.com, FreeRepublic and his personal user page on Wikipedia where he was indefinitely blocked,[7] the latter said to constitute "a violation of policy of hate speech".[7] He also made posts expressing his opposition to the Iraq War, and felt that the September 11 attacks were an "inside job".[8][9]

Contents

Life

Von Brunn was born in St. Louis, Missouri, to Elmer von Brunn and Hope Grossemutter Wenneker,[10] and had a younger sister named Alice.[10] His father was a native of Houston, Texas, and a superintendent at the Scullin Steel Mill in Houston during World War II.[10] Hope von Brunn was an accomplished pianist, piano teacher, and homemaker. The family spent summer months with Hope's family in Piasa Township, Illinois, as well as road trips to Houston when James was an adolescent.[10] During his childhood, James was noted by school teachers and family for his artistic talents, and asked for an oil paint set for his seventh birthday.[10] His first aspiration was to become a famous painter.[10]

Von Brunn enrolled in Washington University in St. Louis in August 1938, and received his Bachelor of Science degree in journalism in April 1943. During his time at the university, von Brunn was said to have been president of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapter, and a varsity football player.[11] He served in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1957, and was the commanding officer of PT boat 159 during the Pacific Theatre of World War II, receiving a commendation and three battle stars.[12][13][14] Von Brunn had worked as an advertising executive and producer in New York City for twenty years. In the late 1960s, he relocated to the Eastern Shore of Maryland where he continued to do advertising work and resumed painting.

Von Brunn's arrest history dates back at least as far as the middle 1960s. In 1968, he received a six-month jail sentence in Maryland for fighting with a sheriff during an incident at the county jail.[15] He had earlier been arrested for driving under the influence following an altercation at a local restaurant in 1966.[16]

Von Brunn was arrested in 1981 for attempted kidnapping[17] and hostage-taking,[3] of members of the Federal Reserve Board, after approaching the Federal Reserve's Eccles Building armed with a revolver, knife, and sawed-off shotgun.[18][19] Von Brunn later described his actions as a "citizen's arrest for treason."[3][17] He reportedly complained of "high interest rates" during the incident and was disarmed without any shots being fired, after threatening a security guard with a .38 caliber pistol.[20] He reportedly claimed he had a bomb, which was found to be only a device designed to look like a bomb.[21] He was convicted in 1983 for burglary, assault, weapons charges, and attempted kidnapping.[3] Von Brunn's sentence was completed by September 15, 1989,[22] after he had served six and a half years in prison.[23]

Von Brunn was a member of the now-defunct American Friends of the British National Party, a group that raised funds in the United States for the far right and "rights for whites" British National Party (BNP). The group had been addressed on at least two occasions by Nick Griffin, an ex-member of the British National Front and chairman of the BNP.[24] A BNP spokesperson claimed after the shooting that the party had "never heard of" von Brunn.[25]

In 2004 and 2005 he lived in Hayden Lake, Idaho, the town where Aryan Nations, a neo-Nazi organization led by Richard Girnt Butler, was based until 2001.[13] He was living in Annapolis, Maryland at the time of the 2009 incident.[13]

The shooting

Imprisonment and death

After the shooting, federal authorities raided his apartment and seized a rifle, ammunition, computers, a handwritten will, and a painting of Jesus Christ standing adjacent to Adolf Hitler.[26] The FBI also claimed it discovered child pornography on one of the seized computers.[27]

Shooting suspect von Brunn was charged in federal court on June 11, 2009, with first-degree murder and firearms violations.[28] On July 29, 2009, von Brunn was indicted on seven counts, including four which made him eligible for the death penalty.[29] In September 2009, a judge ordered von Brunn to undergo a competency evaluation to determine whether or not he could stand trial.[30]

Von Brunn had the Federal Bureau of Prisons ID# 07128-016 and was incarcerated at the Federal Correctional Complex in Butner, North Carolina.[31] On January 6, 2010, von Brunn died in a hospital located near the prison.[32]

Reaction

The Israeli embassy in Washington, D.C. condemned the attack. U.S. President Barack Obama said, "This outrageous act reminds us that we must remain vigilant against anti-Semitism and prejudice in all its forms".[33][34]

On the white nationalist internet forum Stormfront, some users criticized von Brunn's actions, saying they hurt the forum's cause. Others supported him in threads that were later removed.[35]

The Southern Poverty Law Center, Anti-Defamation League, and FBI stated they had been monitoring von Brunn's internet postings, but were unable to take action because his comments had not crossed the line from free speech into advocating violence.[36][37][38]

On June 11, 2009, the Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington and the InterFaith Conference of Metropolitan Washington led a prayer vigil which took place in front of the museum. Organizers said the vigil was a time to honor Stephen Johns, the slain officer, as well as a time to reflect upon the motivations which led to the shooting spree.[39] Approximately 100 people attended the event, including officials from the Israeli and German embassies.[40] The Council on American-Islamic Relations condemned the attack as well. When the museum reopened on June 12, 2009, Director Sara Bloomfield said attendance was normal or even higher than usual. Many visitors said their attendance was a statement against hate and intolerance. A 17-year-old girl who was in the museum the day of the shooting stated, "It's important to come back, because if you don't, they win. It's a form of terrorism."[41]

In a statement, von Brunn's son, Erik, expressed sorrow and horror about the shooting. In an article he wrote for ABC news, he stated:
"My father's beliefs have been a constant source of verbal and mental abuse my family has had to suffer with for many years. His views consumed him, and in doing so, not only destroyed his life, but destroyed our family and ruined our lives as well. For a long time, I believed this was our family's cross to bear. Now, it is not only my families lives that are in shambles, but those who were directly affected by what he did; especially the family of Mr. Johns, who bravely sacrificed his life to stop my father. I cannot express enough how deeply sorry I am it was Mr. Johns, and not my father who lost their life yesterday. It was unjustified and unfair that he died, and while my condolences could never begin to offer appeasement, they, along with my remorse is all I have to give. While my father had every right to believe what he did, by imposing those beliefs on others he robbed them of their free will. His actions have taken opportunities away from many people and forced decisions unexpected, not warranted, to be made that otherwise would not have been necessary. For the extremists who believe my father is a hero: it is imperative you understand what he did was an act of cowardice. To physically force your beliefs onto others with violence is not brave, but bullying. Doing so only serves to prove how weak those beliefs are. It is simply desperation, reminiscent of a temper tantrum of a child that cannot get his way. Violence is a cop out; an easy answer for an ignorant problem. His actions have undermined your "movement", and strengthened the resistance against your cause. He should not be remembered as a brave man or as a hero, but a coward unable to come to grips with the fact he threw his and his families lives away for an ideology that fostered sadness and anguish".[42]

The younger von Brunn, who was 32 at the time of the 2009 shooting, did not meet his father until he was nearly 11 years old, after the elder von Brunn completed his prison term for the Federal Reserve incident.[23]

References

  1. ^ a b "Guard Slain in Museum Shootout ID'd; Gunman Hospitalized". WJLA-TV. 2009-06-10. http://www.wjla.com/news/stories/0609/630674.html. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  2. ^ "Gunman, guard shot at Holocaust museum". MSNBC. 2009-06-10. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31208188//. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  3. ^ a b c d Iovino, Jim; Michael Clancy (2009-06-10). "Who is James Wenneker von Brunn?". NBC New York. http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/archive/Who-is-James-Wenneker-von-Brunn.html. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  4. ^ Hall, Mimi; Heath, Brad (2009-06-11). "Shooting suspect was on anti-hate groups' radar". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-06-10-shooter_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  5. ^ Smith, Ben (2009-06-10). "Shooter was a Birther". The Politico. http://www.politico.com/blogs/bensmith/0609/Shooter_was_a_Birther.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  6. ^ "James W. von Brunn: "Obama Is Missing"". Talking Points Memo. http://www.talkingpointsmemo.com/documents/2009/06/james-w-von-brunn-obama-is-missing.php?page=1&ref=fpblg. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  7. ^ a b Cohen, Noam (2009-06-11). "Traces of Gunman’s Online Life Begin to Vanish". The New York Times News Blog. http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/06/10/traces-of-shooters-online-life-begin-to-vanish/. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
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  10. ^ a b c d e f James von Brunn biography
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  14. ^ Ewing, Phillip (2009-06-11). "Museum shooting suspect was WWII PT boat CO". Navy Times. http://www.navytimes.com/news/2009/06/navy_shooting_suspect_061109w/. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  15. ^ "6-Month Term Imposed For Hitting Md. Sherrif". The Washington Post. 1968-10-12. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/metro/articles/vonbrunn101268.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
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  17. ^ a b Silverstein, Richard (2009-06-11). "Death and the Holocaust museum". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2009/jun/11/holocaust-museum-shooting-washington. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  18. ^ Reid, Tim (2009-06-10). "White supremacist James W Von Brunn opens fire at Holocaust museum". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6473316.ece. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  19. ^ Stout, David (2009-06-10). "Security Guard Is Killed in Shooting at Holocaust Museum in D.C.". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/11/us/11shoot.html?hpw. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  20. ^ "Suspect is seized in Capital in threat at Federal Reserve". United Press International (The New York Times). 1981-12-08. http://www.nytimes.com/1981/12/08/us/suspect-is-seized-in-capital-in-threat-at-federal-reserve.html?n=Top%2FReference%2FTimes%20Topics%2FSubjects%2FH%2FHostages. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  21. ^ "Interest rate has man ready to blast Fed". Associated Press (The Ledger): pp. 5A. 1981-12-08. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=AeoTAAAAIBAJ&sjid=O_sDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6019,2918849&dq=james+brunn+federal+reserve. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  22. ^ "Inmate Locator". Federal Bureau of Prisons. http://www.bop.gov/iloc2/LocateInmate.jsp. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  23. ^ a b Turque, Bill (2009-06-13). "Museum Shooter's Son Condemns Father's Violence". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/13/AR2009061301326.html?hpid=moreheadlines. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  24. ^ Taylor, Matthew (2009-06-12). "Suspect in US Holocaust museum guard killing has links to BNP". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/11/holocaust-museum-shooting-bnp-von-brunn. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  25. ^ Burgess, Kaya (12 June 2009). "White supremacist gunman James W. von Brunn had links to BNP". London: Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6481475.ece. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  26. ^ "Art of Hitler, Jesus in von Brunn's Home". myfoxdc.com. 2010-02-24. http://www.myfoxdc.com/dpp/news/061709_art_of_hitler_jesus_in_von_brunns_home. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 
  27. ^ Wilber, Del Quintin (2009-06-19). "Child Porn Found on Computer Of Shooting Suspect, Court Told". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/18/AR2009061802237.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 
  28. ^ "Criminal Complaint (U.S v. James Wenneker von Brunn)". FindLaw. 2009-06-11. http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/crim/us-von-brunn61109cmp.html. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  29. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin (2009-07-29). "Holocaust Museum Shooter Indicted on First-Degree Murder". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2009/07/29/ST2009072902450.html. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  30. ^ "North Carolina: Shooting Defendant Is Transferred". Associated Press (The New York Times): pp. A23. 2009-09-28. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/29/us/29brfs-SHOOTINGSUSP_BRF.html. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  31. ^ "James Wenneker Von Brunn." (Archive) Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on January 6, 2010.
  32. ^ "US Holocaust museum murder suspect dies aged 89". BBC News. January 6, 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8444654.stm. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  33. ^ "On the Holocaust Museum Shooting". whitehouse.gov. 2009-06-10. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/On-the-Holocaust-Museum-Shooting/. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
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  35. ^ Mitchell, Greg (2009-06-11). "What the Media Missed in Museum Shooting: Far-Right Reaction". Editor & Publisher. http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003982248. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  36. ^ Meyer, Josh (2009-06-11). "Investigators in Holocaust museum shooting continue to look for clues". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-holocaust-shooting12-2009jun12,0,7406829.story. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  37. ^ Weiss, Debra Cassens (2009-06-11). "Southern Poverty Law Center Had Monitored Museum Shooting Suspect". ABA Journal. http://www.abajournal.com/news/southern_poverty_law_center_had_monitored_holocaust_shooting_suspect/. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  38. ^ Zongker, Brett; Nuckols, Ben (2009-06-11). "Man accused of attack on Holocaust Museum spent years spewing hatred". Associated Press (Fort Worth Star-Telegram). http://www.star-telegram.com/nation/story/1429220.html. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  39. ^ Mathis, Sommer (2009-06-11). "Holocaust Museum Shooting Vigil Planned for 2 p.m.". DCist. http://dcist.com/2009/06/holocaust_vigil_planned_for_2_pm.php. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  40. ^ Giaimo, Melissa (2009-06-12). "Tourists shocked, but carrying on". The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/news/2009/jun/12/tourists-shocked-but-try-to-carry-on/. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  41. ^ Davenport, Christian (2009-06-13). "Stepping Up to Defy Intolerance". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2009/06/11/ST2009061101157.html?sid=ST2009061101157. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  42. ^ Von Brunn, Erik (2009-06-12). "Statement by Erik von Brunn". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=7826614&page=1. Retrieved 2009-06-14. 

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