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Jan Kochanowski
Noble Family Kochanowski.
Coat of Arms
Herb Korwin.jpg

Korwin

Parents Piotr Kochanowski;

Anna, née Białaczowska.

Consorts Dorota, née Podlodowska.
Children Urszula, Hanna, Ewa, Poliksena, Halszka, Krystyna, Jan (posthumous) [1]
Date of Birth 1530
Place of Birth Sycyna
Date of Death August 22, 1584
Place of Death Lublin

Jan Kochanowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjan kɔxaˈnɔfskʲi]; 1530 – August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to Polish literary language. [1]

He is commonly regarded as the greatest Polish poet as well as the greatest Slavic poet prior to the 19th century.[2]

Contents

Life

Kochanowski

Kochanowski was born at Sycyna, near Radom, Poland. Little is known of his early education. At fourteen, fluent in Latin, he was sent to the Kraków Academy. After graduation in 1547 at age seventeen, he attended the University of Königsberg (Królewiec), in Ducal Prussia, and Padua University in Italy. At Padua, Kochanowski came in contact with the great humanist scholar Francis Robortello. Kochanowski closed his fifteen-year period of studies and travels with a final visit to France, where he met the poet Pierre Ronsard.

In 1559 Kochanowski returned to Poland for good, where he remained active as a humanist and Renaissance poet. He spent the next fifteen years close to the court of King Sigismund II Augustus, serving for a time as royal secretary. In 1574, following the decampment of Poland's recently elected King Henry of Valois (whose candidacy to the Polish throne Kochanowski had supported), Kochanowski settled on a family estate at Czarnolas ("Blackwood") to lead the life of a country squire. In 1575 he married Dorota Podlodowska, with whom he had seven children.

Kochanowski is sometimes referred to in Polish as "Jan z Czarnolasu" ("John of Blackwood"). It was there that he wrote his most memorable works, including The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys and the Laments.

Kochanowski died, probably of a heart attack, in Lublin on 22 August 1584.

Works

Dismissal of the Greek Envoys (1578)

Kochanowski never ceased to write in Latin; however, his main achievement was the creation of Polish-language verse forms that made him a classic for his contemporaries and posterity.

Kochanowski's first major masterpiece was Odprawa posłów greckich (The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys, 1578; recently translated into English by Indiana University's Bill Johnston). This was a blank-verse tragedy that recounted an incident leading up to the Trojan War. It was the first tragedy written in Polish, and its theme of the responsibilities of statesmanship continues to resonate to this day. The play was performed at the wedding of Jan Zamoyski and Krystyna Radziwiłł at Ujazdów Castle in Warsaw on January 12, 1578.[3]

Kochanowski with dead Urszulka. Matejko painting inspired by 1580 Laments

The masterpiece for which Kochanowski is best remembered is Treny (Threnodies, 1580, translated into English in 1995 by Stanisław Barańczak and Seamus Heaney as Laments). It is a series of nineteen elegies upon the death of his beloved two-and-a-half-year-old daughter Urszula.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jan Kochanowski - życiorys
  2. ^ Paul Murray, "The Fourth Friend: Poetry in a Time of Affliction," Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture, vol. 8, no. 3 (Summer 2005), pp. 19-39.
  3. ^ Stefan Kieniewicz, ed., Warszawa w latach 1526-1795 (Warsaw in the Years 1526-1795), vol. II, Warsaw, 1984, ISBN 8301033231, pp. 157-58.

References

Kochanowski family epitaphs at Zwoleń church. The poet's is at center.

External links

Further reading

  • David J. Welsh, Jan Kochanowski, New York, Twayne Publishers, 1974, ISBN 0-8057-2490-7. Reviewed by Harold B. Segel in The Slavic Review, vol. 35, no. 3. (Sept. 1976), pp. 583–84. [2]
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