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জন গণ মন
English: Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
Jôno Gôno Mono
Janaganamana-score.png
Sheet music for Jana Gana Mana.
National anthem of  India
Lyrics Rabindranath Tagore
Music Rabindranath Tagore/Ram Singh Thakur
Adopted 1950
Music sample
Jana Gana Mana (Instrumental)

Jana Gana Mana (Bengali: জন গণ মন Jôno Gôno Mono) is the national anthem of India. Written in highly Sanskritized Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911. Jana Gana Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950.[1][2][3] [4][5][6][7]

An earlier poem by Tagore (Amar Shonar Bangla) was later selected as the national anthem of Bangladesh. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty-two seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally.[1] Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Cousins' wife, Margaret (an expert in European music), set down the notation which is followed till this day.[8]

Contents

Lyrics

Although written in Bengali, the pronunciation of the anthem varies considerably across India due to the country's extensive linguistic diversity. The transcription below reflects the original Bengali pronunciation, in both the Bengali script and romanization. Many of the silent letters found in the lyrics are pronounced by speakers of other Indian languages, reflecting a spelling pronunciation of the Bengali text, and often matching the pronunciation of the cognate words in the speaker's native language.

Bengali script Bengali phonemic transcription NLK transliteration

জনগণমন-অধিনায়ক জয় হে.
ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা
দ্রাবিড় উৎ‍‌কল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা
উচ্ছল জলধি তরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে
তব শুভ আশিস মাগে
গাহে তব জয়গাথা
জনগণমঙ্গলদায়ক জয় হে
ভারতভাগ্যবিধাতা
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে,
জয় জয় জয়, জয় হে॥

Jônogônomono-odhinaeoko jôeô he
Bharotobhaggobidhata
Pônjabo Shindhu Gujoraṭo Môraṭha
Drabiṛo Utkôlo Bônggo
Bindho Himachôlo Jomuna Gôngga
Uchchhôlo jôlodhi toronggo
Tôbo shubho name jage
Tôbo shubho ashish mage
Gahe tôbo jôeogatha
Jônogônomonggolodaeoko jôeô he
Bharotobhaggobidhata
Jôeo he, jôeo he, jôeo he,
jôeo jôeo jôeo, jôeo he

Jana gaṇa mana adhināyaka jaya he
Bhārata bhāgya vidhātā
Punjāba Sindha Gujarāta Marāṭhā
Drāviḍa Utkala Banga
Vindhya Himāchala Yamunā Gangā
Ucchala jaladhi taranga
Tava śubha nāme jāge
Tava śubha āśiṣa māge
Gāhe tava jaya gāthā
Jana gaṇa mangala dāyaka jaya he
Bhārata bhāgya vidhāta
Jaya he jaya he jaya he
Jaya jaya jaya jaya he!

Translation into English

The following translation, attributed to Tagore, is provided by the Government of India's national portal:[9]

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee.

Controversies

Controversy exists regarding the appropriateness of Jana Gana Mana as the national anthem of an independent India. The poem was composed in December 1911, precisely at the time of the Coronation Durbar of George V, and is considered by some to be a paean in praise of "the overlord of India's destiny". The composition was first sung during a convention of the then loyalist Indian National Congress in Calcutta on Dec. 16, 1911.[10] It was sung on the second day of the convention, and the agenda of that day devoted itself to a loyal welcome of George V on his visit to India. The event was reported thus in the British Indian press:

"The Bengali poet Babu Rabindranath Tagore sang a song composed by him specially to welcome the Emperor." (Statesman, Dec. 28, 1911)
"The proceedings began with the singing by Babu Rabindranath Tagore of a song specially composed by him in honour of the Emperor." (Englishman, Dec. 28, 1911)
"When the proceedings of the Indian National Congress began on Wednesday 27th December 1911, a Bengali song in welcome of the Emperor was sung. A resolution welcoming the Emperor and Empress was also adopted unanimously." (Indian, Dec. 29, 1911)

The belief gained ground that the poem had been written in honour of the visiting monarch. Others aver that the newspaper reports cited above were misguided, the confusion arising since a different song, written in Hindi by Rambhuj Chaudhary, was sung[11] on the same occasion in praise of the monarch. However, the two poems were written in different languages; Tagore already enjoyed much fame in India, and newspaper reports are both consistent and categorical on the point of Tagore having himself sung his composition on the occasion.

Other explanations for the motivations that informed the creation of the poem have been proposed. On a visit to India, the poet Yeats received a visit from an Indian admirer who was also, in Yeats' words, "an Indian devotee" of Tagore. In a letter to a lady friend, Yeats quoted this unnamed devotee as giving him a 'strictly off the records' version of events dealing with the writing of Jana Gana Mana. Thus, Tagore is said to have written the poem in honour of God. In a letter to Pulin Behari Sen, Tagore himself wrote:[12]

"A certain high official in His Majesty's service, who was also my friend, had requested that I write a song of felicitation towards the Emperor. The request simply amazed me. It caused a great stir in my heart. In response to that great mental turmoil, I pronounced the victory in Jana Gana Mana of that Bhagya Vidhata [ed. God of Destiny] of India who has from age after age held steadfast the reins of India's chariot through rise and fall, through the straight path and the curved. That Lord of Destiny, that Reader of the Collective Mind of India, that Perennial Guide, could never be George V, George VI, or any other George. Even my official friend understood this about the song. After all, even if his admiration for the crown was excessive, he was not lacking in simple common sense."

In 2005, there were calls to delete the word "Sindh" and substitute it with the word Kashmir. The argument was that Sindh was no longer a part of India, having become part of Pakistan as a result of the Partition of 1947. Opponents of this proposal hold that the word "Sindh" refers to the Indus and to Sindhi culture and people which are an integral part of India's cultural fabric. The Supreme Court of India refused to tamper with the national anthem and the wording remains unchanged.

In July 1985 in the state of Kerala, some of the Jehovah's Witnesses' children were expelled from school under the instructions of Deputy Inspector of Schools for having refused to sing the national anthem, Jana Gana Mana. A parent, V. J. Emmanuel, appealed to the Supreme Court of India for legal remedy. On August 11, 1986, the Supreme Court overruled the Kerala High Court, and directed the respondent authorities to re-admit the children into the school. The decision went on to add: "Our tradition teaches tolerance, our philosophy teaches tolerance, our Constitution practices tolerance, let us not dilute it".[13]

English composition in Madanapalle

Rabindranath Tagore translated Jana Gana Mana from Bengali to English and also set it to music in Madanapalle, a town in Andhra Pradesh.

Though the Bengali song had been written in 1911, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Brahmo Samaj journal, "Tatva Bodha Prakasika", of which Tagore was the editor.

During 1918-19, Tagore accepted an invitation from friend and controversial Irish poet James H. Cousins to spend a few days at the Besant Theosophical College, of which Cousins was the principal. On the evening of February 28, he joined a gathering of students and upon Cousins' request, sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali. In the days that followed, enchanted by the dreamy hills of Madanapalle, Tagore wrote down the English translation of the song and along with Cousins' wife, Margaret (an expert in Western music), set down the notation which is followed till this day.[8]

Today, in the library of Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, the framed original English translation is displayed.

Media

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See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b National Anthem - Know India. Nation Portal of India. Government of India.
  2. ^ Bhatt, P.C., ed (1999). Constituent Assembly Debates. XII. Lok Sabha Secretariat.  
  3. ^ Volume XII. Tuesday, the 24th January 1950. Online Transcript, Constituent Assembly Debates
  4. ^ Ganpuley's Memoirs.1983. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.p204
  5. ^ Rajendra Rajan (May 4, 2002). "A tribute to the legendary composer of National Anthem". The Tribune. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020504/windows/main2.htm.  
  6. ^ "Controversy over Jana Gana Mana takes a new turn". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/news/apr/26anthem.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  
  7. ^ "Who composed the score for Jana Gana Mana? Gurudev or the Gorkha?". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/news/feb/22anthem.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-08.  
  8. ^ a b Vani Doraisamy. "India beats: A Song for the Nation". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/mag/2006/03/19/stories/2006031900120400.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-25.  
  9. ^ "National Anthem - Know India: National Portal of India". Governament of India. http://india.gov.in/knowindia/national_anthem.php. Retrieved 2009-12-10.  
  10. ^ "Tagore and Jana Gana Mana". Monish R. Chatterjee. http://www.countercurrents.org/comm-chatterjee310803.htm.  
  11. ^ "India: Are we still singing for the Empire?". Pradip Kumar Datta. http://www.sacw.net/DC/CommunalismCollection/ArticlesArchive/pkDatta092004.html.  
  12. ^ Tagore and Jana Gana Mana, Monish R. Chatterjee, University of Dayton.
  13. ^ "Bijoe Emmanuel & Ors V. State of Kerala & Ors [1986 INSC 167"]. World Legal Information Institute. August 11, 1986. http://www.worldlii.org/in/cases/INSC/1986/167.html.  

References

  • Dutta, K & A Robinson (1995), Rabindranath Tagore: The Myriad-Minded Man, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-14030-4.

External links

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Jana Gana Mana
National anthem of India

Contents

Sheet music

Janaganamana-score.png

Lyrics

Devanagari Text

जन गण मन अधिनायक जय हे
भारत भाग्य विधाता !
पंजाब सिंधु गुजरात मराठा
द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग
विंध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा
उच्छल जलधि तरंग
तव शुभ नामे जागे,
तव शुभ आशिस मागे,
गाहे तव जय गाथा ।
जन गण मंगलदायक जय हे
भारत भाग्य विधाता !
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे
जय जय जय जय हे ॥

Transliterated text

Jana-Gana-Mana-Adhinayaka, Jaya He
Bharata-Bhagya-Vidhata
Punjab-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga
Uchchhala-Jaladhi Taranga
Tava Subha Name Jage
Tava Subha Ashisa Mage
Gahe Tava Jaya Gatha.
Jana-Gana-Mangala Dayaka, Jaya He
Bharata-Bhagya-Vidhata,
Jaya He, Jaya He, Jaya He,
Jaya Jaya Jaya, Jaya He

Bengali Text

জন গণ মন অধিনায়ক জয় হে
ভারত ভাগ্য বিধাতা
পঞ্জাব সিন্ধু গুজরাট মরাঠা
দ্রাবিড় উৎ‍‌কল বঙ্গ
বিন্ধ্য হিমাচল যমুনা গঙ্গা
উচ্ছল জলধি তরঙ্গ
তব শুভ নামে জাগে
তব শুভ আশিস মাগে
গাহে তব জয়গাথা
জন গণ মঙ্গল দায়ক জয় হে
ভারত ভাগ্য বিধাতা
জয় হে, জয় হে, জয় হে,
জয় জয় জয়, জয় হে॥

English translation

Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people,
dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga
and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise.
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
thou dispenser of India's destiny,
Victory, victory, victory to thee.


Simple English

Jana Gana Mana written in Sanskritised Bengali is the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel Prize winner Rabindranath Tagore.

It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress,on 27 December 1911. Jana Gana Mana was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950. Every independence day, the billion people of the republic of India join together in singing this beautifully composed anthem with its amazing music. Its amazingly poetic verses make it one of best anthems in the world. The Bengali lyrics are transliterated below.

Bengali transliteration

Jana gana mana adhinaayaka, jaya he
Bharata bhaagya vidhata
Punjaba Sindhu Gujarata Maratha
Dravida Utkala Banga (places in India)
Vindhya Himachala Yamuna Ganga
Uchchhala jaladhi taranga
Tava shubha naame jaage
Tava shubha aashisha maage
Gaahe tava jaya gaatha
Jana gana mangala-daayaka jaya he
bhaarata bhaagya vidhata
Jaya he! Jaya he! Jaya he!
Jaya, jaya, jaya, jaya He...

English translation

You rule the minds of all people
and control India's future.
Your name brings joy to Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha;
and Dravida and Orissa and Bengal. (regions in India)
It echoes in the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
and mixes with the music of the Yamuna and Ganga rivers
and is also sung by waves of the sea.
We pray for your blessings
and sing your praise.
We look forward to your best wishes.
And we wish Victory, victory, victory for you!

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