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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号 nengō ?, lit. year name) and the year number within the era. For example, the year 2010 is Heisei 22. As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō, also known as "gengō" (元号 ?), was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike some of these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

Sometimes an era name is expressed with the first letter of the romanized name. For example, S55 means Shōwa 55 (i.e. AD 1980). At 64 years, Shōwa is the longest era to date.

Contents

Overview

External Timeline A graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of Japanese era names

The system on which the Japanese nengō are based originated in China in 140 BC, and was adopted by Japan in AD 645, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.

The first nengō to be assigned was "Taika" (大化 ?), celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新 ?). Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive nengō was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Mommu (697–707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.[1]

Historical nengō

Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new nengō was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. A new nengō was also often designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the sexagenary cycle, because they were inauspicious years in Onmyōdō. These three years are respectively known as kakurei, kakuun, and kakumei, and collectively known as sankaku. Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters.

In historical practice, the first day of a nengō (元年 gannen ?) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.[2]

Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the nengō Wadō (和銅 ?), during the Nara period was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most nengō are comprised of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. Tenpyō Kanpō (天平感宝 ?), Tenpyō Shōhō (天平勝宝 ?), Tenpyō Hōji (天平宝字 ?) and Tenpyō Jingo (天平神護 ?) are some famous nengō names that use four characters. Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as Daidō (大同 ?), Kōnin (弘仁 ?) and Tenchō (天長 ?). Although there currently exist a total of 247 Japanese era names, only 72 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 72 kanji, 30 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations.

Nengō in modern Japan

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the Keiō (慶応 ?) era. On October 23, 1868, the era name was changed to "Meiji" (明治 ?), and a "one reign, one era name" (一世一元 issei-ichigen ?) system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon imperial succession. This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming Dynasty. The Japanese nengō system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death.

In modern practice, the first year of a nengō (元年 gannen ?) starts immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne and ends on December 31. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar.

For example, the Meiji era lasted until July 30, 1912, when the emperor died and the Taishō (大正 ?) era was proclaimed. 1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and "Taishō 1" (大正元年 Taishō gannen ?), although Meiji technically ended on July 30 with Mutsuhito's death.

This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (元号法 gengō-hō ?). Thus, since 1868, there have only been four era names assigned: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa and Heisei, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji" (明治天皇 Meiji Tennō ?).

N.B.: It is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor should be referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, "His Majesty the Emperor") or Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇, "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Heisei", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is—and will be—his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Akihito") is rare in Japanese.

Non-nengō periods

The nengō system that was introduced by Emperor Kōtoku was abandoned after his death; no nengō were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Temmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death approximately two months later. In 701, Emperor Mommu once again reinstated the nengō system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.

Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates has become increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to nengō. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of nengō for the two periods above is resolved by referencing years of imperial reign. This is the same approach used when referencing periods that predate the introduction of the nengō system.

Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, the year 572—the year in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne — is properly written as "敏達天皇元年" (Bidatsu-Tennō Gannen, lit. "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "敏達元年" (Bidatsu Gannen, lit. "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such.[1] By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the nengō system to cover all dates from 660 through today.[2]

Unofficial nengō system

In addition to the official nengō system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes—primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples—unofficial era names called shinengō (私年号 ?), also known as ginengō (偽年号 ?) or inengō (異年号 ?). Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shinengō, most of them dating from the middle ages. Shinengō used prior to the reestablishment of the nengō system in 701 are usually called itsunengō (逸年号 ?). A list of shinengō and more information can be seen in the Japanese Wikipedia page ja:私年号.

Because official records of shinengō are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsunengō Hakuhō (白鳳 ?) is normally said to refer to AD 650–654; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era. However, alternate interpretations exist. For example, in the Nichūreki, Hakuhō refers to AD 661–683, and in some middle-age temple documents, Hakuhō refers to AD 672–685. Thus, shinengō may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name.

Other well-known itsunengō and shinengō include Hōkō (法興 ?) (AD 591–621+), Suzaku (朱雀 ?) (686), Fukutoku (福徳 ?) (1489–1492), Miroku (弥勒 ?) (1506–1507 or 1507–1508) and Meiroku (命禄 ?) (1540–1543).

The most recent shinengō is Seiro (征露 ?) (1904–1905), named for the Russo-Japanese war.

Kyūshū nengō

Edo period scholar Tsurumine Shikenobu proposed that Kyūshū nengō (九州年号 ?), said to have been used in ancient Kumaso, should also be considered a form of shinengō. This claim is not generally recognized by the academic community. Lists of the proposed Kyūshū nengō can be seen in the Japanese Wikipedia pages ja:鶴峯戊申 and ja:九州王朝説.

Imperial year

The imperial year (皇紀 kōki ?) is an epoch used before WW2. Kōki 1 is the year when legendary Emperor Jimmu founded Japan, 660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar. This epoch system was adopted in 1872. In terms of nationalism, Kōki emphasizes the long history of Japan and the imperial family because it is a larger number than the Anno Domini year (AD).

Kōki 2600 (1940) was a special year. The 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but were canceled due to the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese aircraft Zero Fighter was named after this year.

After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, and stopped the use of Kōki by officials. Today, Kōki is rarely used, except on some judicial occasions.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p.32.
  2. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869, p. 321. [Example: Hōreki (1751–1761), meaning "Valuable Calendar, is proclaimed retroactively by Emperor Momozono in 1754.]

References

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the Japanese era name (年号 nengō?, lit. year name)

and the year number within the era. For example, the year 2006 is Heisei 18, and 2007 is Heisei 19.

As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō, also known as "gengō" (元号?) , was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

Sometimes an era name is expressed with the first letter of the romanized name. For example, S55 means Shōwa 55. At 64 years, Shōwa is the longest era to date.

Contents

Overview

The system on which the Japanese nengō are based originated in China in 140 BCE, and was adopted by Japan in 645 CE, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.

The first nengō to be assigned was "Taika" (大化?) , celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great Taika reform (大化の改新?) . Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive nengō was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Mommu (697-707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.[1]

Historical nengō

Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new nengō was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. Besides changes in imperial reign, a new nengō was also normally designated at two points in each sexagenary cycle (the first and the 58th years), because these years were considered to be auspicious according to the Chinese astrological principles. Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters.

In historical practice, the first day of nengō (元年 gannen) starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.[2]

Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the nengō Wadō (和銅?) , during the Nara period was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most nengō are comprised of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. Tenpyō Kanpō (天平感宝?) , Tenpyō Shōhō (天平勝宝?) , Tenpyō Hōji (天平宝字?)

and Tenpyō Jingo (天平神護?)
are some famous nengō names that use four characters.  Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as Daidō (大同?)

, Kōnin (弘仁?)

and Tenchō (天長?)

. Although there currently exist a total of 247 Japanese era names, only 72 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 72 kanji, 30 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations.

Nengō in modern Japan

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the Keiō (慶応?)

era.  On Sept. 8, 1868, the era name was changed to "Meiji" (明治?)

, and a "one reign, one era name" (一世一元 issei-ichigen?)

system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon imperial succession.  This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming Dynasty.  The Japanese nengō system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death.

In modern practice, the first year of a reign (元年 gannen) starts immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne and ends on December 31st. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar.

For example, the Meiji era lasted until July 30th, 1912, when the emperor died and the Taishō (大正?)

era was proclaimed.  1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and "Taishō 1" (大正元年 Taishō gannen?)

, although Meiji technically ended on Jul. 30th with Mutsuhito's death.

This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the Era Name Law (元号法 gengō-hō?) . Thus, since 1868, there have only been four era names assigned: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa and Heisei, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as "Emperor Meiji" (明治天皇 Meiji Tennō?) .

NB: It is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor should be referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, "His Majesty the Emperor") or Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇, "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Heisei", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is—and will be—his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Akihito") is rare in Japanese.

Conversion table from nengō to Gregorian calendar years

To convert a Japanese year to a Western or Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the nengō (the nengō = the era name, see list below). When found, subtract 1, and add the number of the Japanese year. For example, the 23rd year of the Showa Era (Showa 23) would be 1948:

ILLUSTRATION: 1926 1 = 1925 ..., and then 1925 + 23 = 1948 ... or Showa 23.

Non-nengō periods

The nengō system that was introduced by Emperor Kōtoku was abandoned after his death; no nengō were designated between 654 and 686 CE. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Temmu in 686 CE, but was again abandoned upon his death approximately two months later. In 701 CE, Emperor Mommu once again reinstated the nengō system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.

Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates has become increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to nengō. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of nengō for the two periods above is resolved by referencing years of imperial reign. This is the same approach used when referencing periods that predate the introduction of the nengō system.

Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, 572 CE—in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne—is properly written as "敏達天皇元年" (Bidatsu-Tennō Gannen, lit. "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "敏達元年" (Bidatsu Gannen, lit. "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such.[1] By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the nengō system to cover all dates from 660 BCE through today.[2]

The following is an example of such an extension of the nengō system to include the post-Taika years not covered by a proper era name:

Imperial year

Kōki (皇紀), or Imperial year, is an epoch used before WW2. Kōki 1 is the year when Emperor Jimmu founded Japan, that is 660 BC. This epoch system was adopted in 1872. In terms of nationalism, Kōki emphasizes the long history of Japan and imperial family because it is a bigger number than Anno Domini.

Kōki 2600 (AD 1940) was a special year. 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planed as anniversary events, but canceled due to Second Sino-Japanese War.

After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, and stopped the use of Kōki by officials. Today, Kōki is rarely used.

Unofficial nengō system

In addition to the official nengō system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes—primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples—unofficial era names called shinengō (私年号?) , also known as ginengō (偽年号?)

or inengō (異年号?)

. Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shinengō, mostly seen in Nichūreki(二中歴), a 12th century work. most of them dating from the middle ages. Shinengō used prior to the reestablishment of the nengō system in 701 CE are usually called itsunengō (逸年号?) . A list of shinengō and more information can be seen in the Japanese wikipedia page ja:私年号. Some of the shinengō were proposed to be the Kyūshū nengō(九州年号), a controversial hypothesis of an official era name system used by another kingdom in the Kyushu island in old time. Lists of the proposed Kyūshū nengō can be seen in the Japanese wikipedia pages ja:鶴峯戊申 and ja:九州王朝説.

Because official records of shinengō are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsunengō Hakuhō (白鳳?)

is normally said to refer to 650-654 CE; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era.  However, alternate interpretations exist.  For example, in the Nichūreki, Hakuhō refers to 661-683 CE, and in some middle-age temple documents, Hakuhō refers to 672-685 CE.  Thus, shinengō may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name.

Other well-known itsunengō and shinengō include Hōkō (法興?)

(591-621+ CE), Suzaku (朱雀?)
(686 CE), Fukutoku (福徳?)
(1489-1492 CE), Miroku (弥勒?)
(1506-1507 CE or 1507-1508 CE) and Meiroku (命禄?)
(1540-1543 CE).

The most recent shinengō is Seiro (征露?)

(1904-1905 CE), named for the Russo-Japanese war.

References

  1. ^ Brown, Delmer. (1979). Gukanshō, p.32.
  2. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 321. [Example: Hōreki (1751-1761), meaning "Valuable Calendar, is proclaimed retroactively by Emperor Momozono in 1754.]

See also

External Timeline
A graphical timeline is available here:
Timeline of Japanese era names

External links


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Japanese era name. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about Japanese era nameRDF feed

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Simple English

The List of Japanese era names is a traditional calendar system which began during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku in the 7th century. This calendar has been in use in Japan since the beginning of the 8th century.[1]

Contents

Usage

Each new Japanese era (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") was usually started soon after the beginning of the reign of a new emperor. Era names were also changed due to other events.

The first day of the first year of a nengō (元年 gannen?) started whenever the emperor decided. This first year continued until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.[2]

To change a Japanese year to a Western or Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the nengō (see list below). When found, subtract 1, and add the number of the Japanese year. For example, the 23rd year of the Shōwa era (Shōwa 23) would be 1948:

ILLUSTRATION: 1926 − 1 = 1925 ..., and then 1925 + 23 = 1948 ... or Shōwa 23.
CONVERSION TABLE: Gregorian calendar years / nengō
Year 1 Kanji Romanization Meaning Notes
Asuka period
645 大化 Taika "Great Reform"[3] Emperor Kōtoku, 645-654.[4] Also known as "Great Development"[5]
650 白雉 Hakuchi "White Pheasant"[6]
654 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 654-686
686 朱鳥 Shuchō - also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Temmu, 672-686.[7]
686 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 686-701
701 大宝 Taihō "Great Law"[3] also Daihō; Emperor Mommu, 697-707.[8] Also known as "Great Treasure"[9]
704 慶雲 Keiun - also Kyōun; Empress Gemmei, 707-715.[10]
708 和銅 Wadō "Japanese Copper"[11]
Nara period
715 霊亀 Reiki - Empress Genshō, 715-724.[12]
717 養老 Yōrō -
724 神亀 Jinki - also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724-749.[13]
729 天平 Tenpyō - also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō "Gratitude for Treasure"[14] also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō "Heavenly Peace and Victorious Buddhism"[15] also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749-758.[16]
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji "Lucky Inscription"[17] also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758-764;[18] Empress Shōtoku, 764-770.[19]
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo - also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun -
770 宝亀 Hōki - Emperor Kōnin, 770-781.[20]
781 天応 Ten'ō - Emperor Kammu, 781-806.[21]
782 延暦 Enryaku -
Heian period
806 大同 Daidō - Emperor Heizei, 806-809;[22] Emperor Saga, 809-823.[23]
810 弘仁 Kōnin - Emperor Junna, 823-833.[24]
824 天長 Tenchō - Emperor Ninmyō, 833-850.[25]
834 承和 Jōwa "Flourishing Treasure"[26] also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō "Good Augury"[27] also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850-858.[28]
851 仁寿 Ninju -
854 斉衡 Saikō -
857 天安 Ten'an - also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858-876.[29]
859 貞観 Jōgan - Emperor Yōzei, 876-884.[30]
877 元慶 Gangyō - also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884-887.[31]
885 仁和 Ninna - also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887-897.[32]
889 寛平 Kanpyō - also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887-930.[33]
898 昌泰 Shōtai -
901 延喜 Engi -
923 延長 Enchō - Emperor Suzaku, 930-946.[34]
931 承平 Jōhei - also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō - also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946-967.[35]
947 天暦 Tenryaku - also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku -
961 応和 Ōwa -
964 康保 Kōhō - Emperor Reizei, 967-969.[36]
968 安和 Anna - also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969-984.[37]
970 天禄 Tenroku -
973 天延 Ten'en -
976 貞元 Jōgen - also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen
983 永観 Eikan - also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984-986.[38]
985 寛和 Kanna - also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986-1011.[39]
987 永延 Eien - also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso - also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku - also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku -
999 長保 Chōhō -
1004 寛弘 Kankō - Emperor Sanjō, 1011-1016.[40]
1012 長和 Chōwa - Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016-1036.[41]
1017 寛仁 Kannin -
1021 治安 Jian - also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju -
1028 長元 Chōgen - Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036-1045.[42]
1037 長暦 Chōryaku - also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū -
1044 寛徳 Kantoku - Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045-1068.[43]
1046 永承 Eishō - also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi - also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei -
1065 治暦 Jiryaku - also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū - Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068-1073.[44]
1074 承保 Jōhō - also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073-1086.[45]
1077 承暦 Jōryaku - also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō - also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku -
1087 寛治 Kanji - Emperor Horikawa, 1087-1107.[46]
1094 嘉保 Kahō -
1096 永長 Eichō - also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku - also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa -
1104 長治 Chōji -
1106 嘉承 Kajō - also Kashō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107-1123.[47]
1108 天仁 Tennin -
1110 天永 Ten'ei - also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū - also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei -
1120 保安 Hōan - Emperor Sutoku, 1123-1142.[48]
1124 天治 Tenji - also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji - also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō - also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō - also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen -
1141 永治 Eiji -
1142 康治 Kōji - Emperor Konoe, 1142-1155.[49]
1144 天養 Ten'yō - also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan -
1151 仁平 Ninpei - also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju - Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155-1158.[50]
1156 保元 Hōgen - also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158-1165.[51]
1159 平治 Heiji - also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku - also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō -
1163 長寛 Chōkan - also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman - also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165-1168.[52]
1166 仁安 Nin'an - also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168-1180.[52]
1169 嘉応 Kaō -
1171 承安 Jōan - also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen -
1177 治承 Jishō - also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180-1185.[53]
1181 養和 Yōwa -
1182 寿永 Juei - Emperor Go-Toba, 1183-1198.[54]
1184 元暦 Genryaku -
1185 文治 Bunji - also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū - Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198-1210.[55]
Kamakura period
1199 正治 Shōji -
1201 建仁 Kennin -
1204 元久 Genkyū -
1206 建永 Ken'ei - also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen - also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210-1221.[56]
1211 建暦 Kenryaku -
1213 建保 Kenpō - also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū - also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221;.[57] Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221-1232.[58]
1222 貞応 Jōō - also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin -
1225 嘉禄 Karoku -
1227 安貞 Antei - also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi - also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei - also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232-1242.[59]
1233 天福 Tenpuku - also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku - also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei -
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin - also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō - also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji - also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242-1246.[60]
1243 寛元 Kangen - Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246-1260.[61]
1247 宝治 Hōji -
1249 建長 Kenchō -
1256 康元 Kōgen - Emperor Kameyama, 1260-1274.[62]
1257 正嘉 Shōka -
1259 正元 Shōgen -
1260 文応 Bun'ō - also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō -
1264 文永 Bun'ei - Emperor Go-Uda, 1274-1287.[63]
1275 建治 Kenji -
1278 弘安 Kōan ... Emperor Fushimi, 1287-1298.[64]
1288 正応 Shōō - also Shō-ō
1293 永仁 Einin - Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298-1301.[65]
1299 正安 Shōan - Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301-1308.[66]
1302 乾元 Kengen -
1303 嘉元 Kagen ...
1306 徳治 Tokuji -
1308 延慶 Enkyō - also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308-1318.[67]
1311 応長 Ōchō -
1312 正和 Shōwa -
1317 文保 Bunpō - also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318-1339.[68]
1319 元応 Gen'ō - also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkō -
1324 正中 Shōchū -
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku -
1329 元徳 Gentoku -
1331 元弘 Genkō -
1334 建武 Kenmu - also Kenbu
Nanboku-chō period
*Nanboku-chō Southern Court
1336 延元 Engen ...
1340 興国 Kōkoku ...
1346 正平 Shōhei ...
1370 建徳 Kentoku ...
1372 文中 Bunchū ...
1375 天授 Tenju ...
1381 弘和 Kōwa ...
1384 元中 Genchū ... Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
*Nanboku-chō Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkei ... also Shōkyō
1333 Northern court not in existence between 1333 and 1336; no era names apply from 1333 to 1338.
1338 暦応 Ryakuō ... also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei ...
1345 貞和 Jōwa ... also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō ... also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna ... also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun ...
1361 康安 Kōan ...
1362 貞治 Jōji ... also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan ...
1375 永和 Eiwa ...
1379 康暦 Kōryaku ...
1381 永徳 Eitoku ...
1384 至徳 Shitoku ...
1387 嘉慶 Kakei ... also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō ...
1390 明徳 Meitoku - Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period
1394 応永 Ōei ... Emperor Shōkō, 1412-1428. [69]
1428 正長 Shōchō ... Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428-1464.[70]
1429 永享 Eikyō ... also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu ... also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an ... also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku ...
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku ...
1455 康正 Kōshō ...
1457 長禄 Chōroku ...
1460 寛正 Kanshō ... Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464-1500.[71]
1466 文正 Bunshō ... also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin ...
1469 文明 Bunmei ...
1487 長享 Chōkyō ...
1489 延徳 Entoku ...
1492 明応 Meiō ... Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500-1526.[72]
1501 文亀 Bunki ...
1504 永正 Eishō ...
1521 大永 Daiei ... Emperor Go-Nara, 1526-1557.[73]
1528 享禄 Kyōroku -
1532 天文 Tenbun - also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji - Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557-1586.[74]
1558 永禄 Eiroku -
1570 元亀 Genki -
1573 天正 Tenshō - Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586-1611.[75]
1592 文禄 Bunroku -
1596 慶長 Keichō - also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611-1629.[76]
Edo period
1615 元和 Genna "Commencement of Concord"[9] also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei - Empress Meishō, 1629-1643;[77] Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643-1654.[78]
1644 正保 Shōhō - -
1648 慶安 Keian "Peaceful Gladness"[79] also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō - also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655-1663.[80]
1655 明暦 Meireki - also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji - -
1661 寛文 Kanbun - Emperor Reigen, 1663-1687.[81]
1673 延宝 Enpō - also Enhō
1681 天和 Tenna - also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō - Emperor Higashiyama, 1687-1709.[82]
1688 元禄 Genroku - -
1704 宝永 Hōei - Emperor Nakamikado, 1709-1735.[83]
1711 正徳 Shōtoku - -
1716 享保 Kyōhō "Receiving, Holding"[84] Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735-1747.[85]
1736 元文 Genbun - -
1741 寛保 Kanpō - also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō - Emperor Momozono, 1747-1762.[86]
1748 寛延 Kan'en - -
1751 宝暦 Hōreki "valuable calendar" or "valuable almanac"[2] also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762-1771.[87]
1764 明和 Meiwa - Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771-1779.[88]
1772 安永 An'ei - Emperor Kōkaku, 1780-1817.[89]
1781 天明 Tenmei "dawn" -
1789 寛政 Kansei - -
1801 享和 Kyōwa - -
1804 文化 Bunka - Emperor Ninkō, 1817-1846.[90]
1818 文政 Bunsei - -
1830 天保 Tenpō "heavenly Imperial protection"[91] also Tenhō
1844 弘化 Kōka - Emperor Kōmei, 1846-1867.
1848 嘉永 Kaei "Celebration of Eternity"[92] "eternal felicity"[93]
1854 安政 Ansei "tranquil government"[93]
1860 万延 Man'en -
1861 文久 Bunkyū -
1864 元治 Genji -
1865 慶応 Keiō "Joyous Concord"[94]
Modern Japan
1868 明治 Meiji "Enlightened Rule"[95] Emperor Meiji, 1868-1912. Also known as "Enlightened Government" or "Brilliant Rule"[94]
1912 大正 Taishō - Emperor Taishō, 1912-1926.
1926 昭和 Shōwa "Brilliant Harmony"[95] Emperor Shōwa, 1926-1989.
1989 平成 Heisei "Achieving Peace"[95] Akihito, 1989-present [the reigning emperor].
Timeline of Japanese era names

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Notes

  1. Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p.32.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 321. [Example: Hōreki (1751-1761), meaning "Valuable Calendar, is created retroactively by Emperor Momozono in 1754.]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Beasley, William. (1999). The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan, p. 24.
  4. Brown, pp. 266-267; Varley, Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 132-133; Titsingh, pp. 47-50.Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 47]-50.
  5. Lane-Poole, Stanley. (1894). The Life of Sir Harry Parkes, p. 461.
  6. Titsing, p. 49.
  7. Brown, pp. 268-269; Varley, pp. 135-136; Titsingh, pp. 58-59.
  8. Brown, pp. 270-271; Varley, pp. 137-140; Titsingh, pp. 60-63.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Munro, Neil. (1904). Coins of Japan, p. ix.
  10. Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63-65.
  11. Titsingh, p. 63.
  12. Brown, pp. 271-272; Varley, pp. 140-141; Titsingh, pp. 65-67.
  13. Brown, pp. 272-273; Varley, pp. 141-143; Titsingh, pp. 67-73.
  14. Keene, Donald. (1999). Seeds in the Heart: Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century, p. 153.
  15. Bowman, John. (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, p. 127
  16. Brown, pp. 274-275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73-75.
  17. David, Percival. (1932). The Shōsō-in, p. 32.
  18. Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143-144; Titsingh, pp. 75-78.
  19. Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144-147; Titsingh, pp. 78-81.
  20. Brown, p. 276-277; Varley, pp. 147-148; Titsingh, pp. 81-85.
  21. Brown, pp. 277-279; Varley, pp. 148-150; Titsingh, pp. 86-95.
  22. Brown, pp. 279-280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96-97.
  23. Brown, pp. 280-282; Varley, pp. 151-164; Titsingh, pp. 97-102.
  24. Brown, p. 282-283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103-106.
  25. Brown, pp. 283-284; Varley, pp. 164-165; Titsingh, pp. 106-112.
  26. Munro, p. 63.
  27. Titsingh, p. 111.
  28. Brown, pp. 285-286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112-115.
  29. Brown, pp. 286-288; Varley, pp. 166-170; Titsingh, pp. 115-121.
  30. Brown, pp. 288-289; Varley, pp. 170-171; Titsingh, pp. 121-124.
  31. Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171-175; Titsingh, pp. 124-125.
  32. Brown, p. 289-290; Varley, pp. 175-179; Titsingh, pp. 125-129.
  33. Brown, pp. 290-293; Varley, pp. 179-181; Titsingh, pp. 129-134.
  34. Brown, pp. 294-295; Varley, pp. 181-183; Titsingh, pp. 134-138.
  35. Brown, pp. 295-298; Varley, pp. 183-190; pp. 139-142.
  36. Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190-191; Titsingh, pp. 142-143.
  37. Brown, pp. 299-300; Varley, pp. 191-192; Titsingh, pp. 144-148.
  38. Brown, pp. 300-302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148-149.
  39. Brown, pp. 302-307; Varley, pp. 192-195; Titsingh, pp. 150-154.
  40. Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; pp. 154-155.
  41. Brown, pp. 307-310; Varley, pp. 195-196; Titsingh, pp. 156-160.
  42. Brown, pp. 310-311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160-162.
  43. Brown, pp. 311-314; Varley, pp. 197-198; Titsingh, pp. 162-166.
  44. Brown, pp. 314-315; Varley, pp. 198-199; Titsingh, pp. 166-168.
  45. Brown, pp. 315-317; Varley, pp. 199-202; Titsingh, pp. 169-171.
  46. Brown, pp. 317-320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172-178.
  47. Brown, pp. 320-322; Varley, pp. 203-204; Titsingh, pp. 178-181.
  48. Brown, pp. 322-324; Varley, pp. 204-205; Titsingh, pp. 181-185.
  49. Brown, pp. 324-326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186-188.
  50. Brown, p. 326-327; Varley, pp. 205-208; Titsingh, pp. 188-190.
  51. Brown, pp. 327-329; Varley, pp. 208-212; Titsingh, pp. 191-194.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Brown, pp. 329-330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194-195.
  53. Brown, pp. 333-334; Varley, pp. 214-215; Titsingh, pp. 200-207.
  54. Brown, pp. 334-339; Varley, pp. 215-220; Titsingh, pp. 207-221.
  55. Brown, pp. 339-341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221-230.
  56. Brown, pp. 341-343, Varley, pp. 221-223; Titsingh, pp 230-238.
  57. Brown, pp. 343-344; Varley, pp. 223-226; Titsingh, pp. 236-238.
  58. Brown, pp. 344-349; Varley, pp. 226-227; Titsingh, pp. 238-241.
  59. Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242-245.
  60. Varley, pp. 228-231; Titsingh, pp. 245-247.
  61. Varley, pp. 231-232; Titsingh, pp. 248-253.
  62. Varley, pp. 232-233; Titsingh, pp. 253-261.
  63. Varley, pp. 233-237; Titsingh, pp. 262-269.
  64. Varley, pp. 237-238; Titsingh, pp. 269-274.
  65. Varley, pp. 238-239; Titsingh, pp. 274-275.
  66. Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275-278.
  67. Varley, pp. 239-241; Titsingh, pp. 278-281.
  68. Varley, pp. 241-269; Titsingh, pp. 281-286, and p. 290-294.
  69. Titsingh, pp. 327-331.
  70. Titsingh, pp. 331-351.
  71. Titsingh, pp. 352-364.
  72. Titsingh, pp. 364-372.
  73. Titsingh, pp. 372-382.
  74. Titsingh, pp. 382-402.
  75. Titsingh, pp. 402-409.
  76. Titsingh, pp. 410-411.
  77. Titsingh, pp. 411-412.
  78. Titsingh, pp. 412-413.
  79. Munro, p. 216.
  80. Titsingh, p. 413.
  81. Titsingh, pp. 414-415.
  82. Titsingh, pp. 415-416.
  83. Titsingh, pp. 416-417.
  84. Munro, p. 217.
  85. Titsingh, pp. 417-418.
  86. Titsingh, pp. 418-419.
  87. Titsingh, p. 419.
  88. Titsingh, pp. 419-420.
  89. Titsingh, pp. 420-421.
  90. Titsingh, p. 421.
  91. Beasley, William G. (1972). The Meiji Restoration, p. 64 n*.
  92. Keene, Donald. (1999). "Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era; Poetry, Drama, Criticsm, p. 393.
  93. 93.0 93.1 Satow, Ernest Mason. (1905). Japan 1853-1864, Or, Genji Yume Monogatari, p. 11.
  94. 94.0 94.1 Lane-Poole, p. 97.
  95. 95.0 95.1 95.2 Dean, Meryll. (2002). Japanese Legal System, p. 55.

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