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jasmine
Jasminum sambac
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Tribe: Jasmineae
Genus: Jasminum
L. (1753)
Type species
Jasminum officinale L.
Species

More than 200 species, see List of Jasminum species Sources: ING,[1] CPN,[2] UniProt[3]

A double-flowered cultivar of Jasminum sambac in flower with an unopened bud. The flower smells like the tea as it opens.

Jasmine (Jasminum, pronounced /ˈdʒæzmɨnəm/,[4] from Old French[5] Jasmine which is from the Arabic yasmin, i.e. "gift from God",[6][7] [8]) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae), with about 200 species, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World. Most species grow as climbers on other plants or are trained in gardens on chicken wire, trellis gates or fences, or made to scramble through shrubs of open texture. The leaves can be either evergreen (green all year round) or deciduous (falling in autumn).

Contents

Species

Species include:

Cultivation and uses

Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as a house plant, and as cut flowers. The flowers are worn by women in their hair in southern and southeast Asia. The delicate jasmine flower opens only at night and may be plucked in the morning when the tiny petals are tightly closed, then stored in a cool place until night. The petals begin to open between six and eight in the evening, as the temperature lowers.

Jasmine Tea

Jasmine tea is consumed in China, where it is called jasmine-flower tea (茉莉花茶; pinyin: mò lì huā chá). Jasminum sambac flowers are also used to make so-called jasmine tea, which often has a base of green tea, but sometimes an Oolong base is used. Flowers and tea are "mated" in machines that control temperature and humidity. It takes four hours or so for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavour of the jasmine blossoms, and for the highest grades, this process may be repeated as many as seven times. Because the tea has absorbed moisture from the flowers, it must be refired to prevent spoilage. The spent flowers may or may not be removed from the final product, as the flowers are completely dry and contain no aroma. Giant fans are used to blow away and remove the petals from the denser tea leaves. If present, they simply add visual appeal and are no indication of the quality of the tea.

Jasmine Syrup

The French are known for their jasmine syrup, most commonly made from an extract of jasmine flowers. In the United States, this French jasmine syrup is used to make jasmine scones and marshmallows.

Jasmine Essential Oil

Jasmine essential oil is in common use. Its flowers are either extracted by the labour-intensive method of enfleurage or through chemical extraction. It is expensive due to the large number of flowers needed to produce a small amount of oil. The flowers have to be gathered at night because the odour of jasmine is more powerful after dark. The flowers are laid out on cotton cloths soaked in olive oil for several days and then extracted leaving the true jasmine essence. Some of the countries producing jasmine essential oil are India, Egypt, China and Morocco.

Jasmine Absolute used in Perfume and Incense

Its chemical constituents include methyl anthranilate, indole, benzyl alcohol, linalool, and skatole. Many species also yield an absolute, which is used in perfumes and incense.

Cultural importance and other information

The White Jasmine Branch, painting of ink and color on silk by Chinese artist Zhao Chang, early 12th century

Jasmine is the national flower of the following countries:

  • It is the Philippines’ national flower, where it is known as "Sampaguita", and is usually strung on garlands which are then used to adorn religious images.
  • Indonesia, where the variety Jasminum sambac is the "puspa bangsa" (national flower), and goes by the name "Melati". It is the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.
  • Pakistan, where Jasminum officinale is known as the "Chambeli" or "Yasmine" is the national flower.

In Syria, it is the symbolic flower of Damascus, which is called the City of Jasmines.

J. fluminense is an invasive species in Hawaii, where it is sometimes known by the inaccurate name "Brazilian Jasmine". J. dichotomum is also invasive in Florida.

In Thailand, jasmine flowers are used as a symbol of the mother.

In Okinawa, Japan, Jasmine Tea is known as Sanpin Cha (さんぴん茶).

Cultural importance of Jasmine in India

A Jasmine flower vendor in Chennai, India
  • Jasmine Flower, depending on variety, has different names in many languages in India, and is under one named in others; some of the names are
"Maalatie" or "Mallika" in Sanskrit
"Chameli", "Juhie", or "Motiyaa" in Hindi, the last being the thicker variety on smaller shrubs that might also grown as climber. The name "Motiyaa" refers to the flower being compared to pearls in looks and beauty, since it is white, round and beautiful, and "Moti" being pearl (from "Muktaa" or "Muktamani" or "Mauktika" in Sanskrt, Mukta also meaning free in the sense unbounded) in Hindi.
"Jaaie", "Juie", "Saayalie", "Chamelie" or "Mogaraa" in Marathi; the last is "Motiyaa" in Hindi. The first has smaller leaves and larger petals while the second reverses that, the third is creamy in texture (Saay meaning cream in Marathi), and the fourth is yet another variety.
"Malligai" in various southern languages including Tamil
  • In Tamil Nadu, Jasmine is mainly produced at Madurai District and the same is transported to Mumbai / Bombay for local use as well as it is exported to other countries from there.
  • The Madurai city is called as "Malligai Maanagar" (City of Jasmine)
  • Throughout most of India, especially in western and southern states, including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, etc, Jasmine (along with other popular flowers such as roses and many others) is cultivated in the home gardens or potted plants around homes, for regular worship at home as well as for wearing in hair (for girls and women of the house), and also in the Agricultural fields for sales, for the purposes above as well as other (such as perfume industry) purposes. It is called Malle in Telugu, while the double-flowered cultivar is called Gundu malle.
  • Jasmine Flower sellers (vendors) selling ready garlands, or bunches in case of the thicker variety (Motiyaa or Mogaraa, of Jasmine (and also flowers by weight) is a common site seen in most city streets, around entrances to Temples, and major business areas including bus stands, in many parts of India, majorly so beginning with Mumbai and generally from Maharashtra onwards in all of south India. In Kolkata too it is not a totally unfamiliar sight, though in north women and girls generally by tradition do not wear flowers in hair so the sales on roads are fewer.
  • Jasmine flower is mainly worn in the hair of ladies for its beauty and fragrance. Further it is used for flower decorations, in marriages and important functions.
  • Jasmine is cultivated at Pangala, in Karnataka, India, and exported to Middle Eastern countries.[citation needed]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Jasminum" (HTML). Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. http://botany.si.edu/ing/INGsearch.cfm?searchword=Jasminum. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  2. ^ "10. Jasminum Linnaeus" (HTML). Chinese Plant Names 15: 307. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=116771. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  3. ^ UniProt. "Jasminum" (HTML). http://beta.uniprot.org/taxonomy/4147. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  4. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607.
  5. ^ http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/0/Jasmin
  6. ^ "jasmine, -in, jessamine, -in", OED
  7. ^ "jasmine." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
  8. ^ Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
  9. ^ Bluegrape jasmine
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "GRIN Species Records of Jasminum accessdate=2008-12-13". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?6186. 
  11. ^ "Jasminum parkeri". NC State University. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/shrubs/jasminum_parkeri.html. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also jasmine

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Proper noun

Singular
Jasmine

Plural
-

Jasmine

  1. A female given name from the English noun jasmine, or from the corresponding Arabic given name Yasmin

Related terms

Translations


French

Proper noun

Jasmine

  1. A female given name of modern usage, cognate to Jasmine.

Swedish

Proper noun

Jasmine

  1. A female given name of modern usage, cognate to Jasmine.

Simple English

Jasmine
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Jasminum

Jasmine is a genus of plants. They are shrubs or vines that grow in moderately warm climates. There are about 200 different species of Jasmine. They are also quite liked in gardens. Tea can be made from the flowers. Some species are used to make special oil, perfumes or incense. Women, especially from Asia sometimes wear jasmine flowers in their hair.








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