Jasper: Wikis

  
  

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2.5 cm) long

Jasper, a form of chalcedony,[1] is an opaque,[2] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color. Blue is rare. This mineral breaks with a smooth surface, and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and at one time for snuff boxes. When the colors are in stripes or bands, it is called striped or banded jasper. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper.Jasper is basically chert which owes its red color to iron(III) inclusions. The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9.[3] The jasper is also a stone in the Jewish High Priest's breastplate, described in Exodus 28.

Contents

Etymology and history

The name means "spotted or speckled stone", and is derived via Old French jasrpe (variant of Anglo-Norman jaspe) and Latin iaspidem (nom. iaspis)) from Greek ἴασπις iaspis, (feminine noun)[4] from a Semitic language (cf. Hebrew ישפה yashepheh, Akkadian ܝܫܦܗ yashupu), ultimately from Persian یشپ yašp.[5]

Green jasper

Green jasper was used to make bow drills in Mehrgarh between 4th-5th millennium BC.[6] Jasper is known to have been a favorite gem in the ancient world; its name can be traced back in Hebrew, Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Latin.[7] On Minoan Crete within present day Greece jasper was carved to produce seals circa 1800 BC based upon archaeological recoveries at the palace of Knossos.[8]

Types

Yellow jasper

Jasper is an opaque rock of virtually any color stemming from the mineral content of the original sediments or ash. Patterns arise during the consolidation process forming flow and depositional patterns in the original silica rich sediment or volcanic ash. Hydrothermal circulation is generally thought to be required in the formation of jasper.[citation needed]

Jasper can be modified by the diffusion of minerals along discontinuities providing the appearance of vegetative growth, i.e., dendritic. The original materials are often fractured and/or distorted, after deposition, into myriad beautiful patterns which are to be later filled with other colorful minerals. Weathering, with time, will create intensely colored superficial rinds.

The classification and naming of jasper presents an enormous challenge. Terms attributed to various well-defined materials includes the geographic locality where it is found, sometimes quite restricted such as "Bruneau" (a canyon) and "Lahontan" (a lake), rivers and even individual mountains, many are fanciful such as "Forest Fire" or "Rainbow", while others are descriptive such as "Autumn", "Porcelain" or "Dalmatian". A few are designated by the country of origin such as a Brown Egyptian or Red African leaving tremendous latitude as to what is called what.

Picture jaspers exhibit combinations of patterns (such as banding from flow or depositional patterns (from water or wind), dendritic or color variations) resulting in what appear to be scenes or images, on a cut section. Diffusion from a center produces a distinctive orbicular appearance, i.e., Leopard Skin Jasper, or linear banding from a fracture as seen in Leisegang Jasper. Healed, fragmented rock produces brecciated (broken) jasper. Examples of this can be seen at Llanddwyn Island in Wales.

See also

References

  1. ^ "U.S. Geological Survey, Chalcedony Site". www.USGS.gov. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/gemstones/sp14-95/chalcedony.html. 
  2. ^ "Jasper". Mindat.org. http://www.mindat.org/min-2082.html. 
  3. ^ Dietrich, R. V. (2005-05-23). "Jasper". GemRocks. Central Michigan University. http://www.cst.cmich.edu/users/dietr1rv/jasper.htm. 
  4. ^ "Strong's G2393-iaspis". Lexicon. Blue Letter Bible. http://cf.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2393&t=KJV. 
  5. ^ [1] etymonline.com
  6. ^ Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0415329205. 
  7. ^ "Jasper". Gem by Gem. International Colored Gemstone Association. http://www.gemstone.org/gem-by-gem/english/jasper.html. 
  8. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2008-04-14). "Knossos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian. http://www.themodernantiquarian.com/site/10854/knossos.html#fieldnotes. 

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Jasper [1] is a town in Jasper National Park in the Alberta Rockies region of Alberta, Canada.

Get in

Located in the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, Jasper is the shy cousin to bold, brassy Banff and offers a more serene experience. Approximately four hours north of Banff and four hours west of Edmonton, capital of the province of Alberta. Most people enter the park via Edmonton.

It can be reached by road or train. Highway 16, the Yellowhead Highway, connects Jasper to Edmonton, which has an international airport and is served by many major airlines. Highway 93, the Icefields Parkway, connects south through the Rockies to Lake Louise and onto Banff. Drivers will have to pay for a park admission pass as the town of Jasper is located within Jasper National Park. There are bus and train connections from Edmonton, Banff and Vancouver.

Those driving to the park should be aware that a park fee of $7/adult per night (max $14/carload per night) applies. Annual passes are available for $89.

Get around

There is no public transit. A few taxis and rental cars are available, and bikes can be rented in the summer.

Hitchhikers report that getting a lift in Jasper is very easy.

Jasper is small enough that most places can be easily walked to. Tour companies offer bus service to most of the major tourist destination including Maligne Lake, The Columbia Icefields and Miette Hot Springs. The two major companies in town are Brewster and SunDog. Both these companies offer similar tours at the same price. The only difference is the size of the tour group: Brewster uses large buses (seating approx. 50) and SunDog has smaller vehicles (seating approx. 12).

  • Maligne Lake, which has regular boat trips to see the wonder of a lake with water two different colours in different parts. Spirit Island, made famous by a photography competition, is in the middle of Maligne Lake. The only way to see it is to take the boat cruise (1.5 hours round trip).
  • Excellent camping in the summer. Cross Country and downhill skiing [2] in winter.
  • Rent a bike. Plenty of sport shops offer bikes, which are a great way to see the area.
  • Miette Hot Springs, [3], are an excellent place to go and relax after a day of hiking.
  • Jasper Tramway, [4].
  • Maligne Canyon, [5]. The river, up near Maligne Lake, flows in a mighty torrent. When it enters Medicine Lake (named in reference to bad medicine) it does so with great volumes. It does not, however, appear to flow out. Indeed, through the summer months Medicine Lake disappears until, in mid autumn all that is left is a thin channel that itself disappears into the shoreline. In Winter, walk on the canyon bottom to see masses of blue ice where waterfalls flow in the summertime!
  • Athabasca Falls - The Athabasca River thunders through a narrow gorge where the walls have been smoothed and potholes are created by the sheer force of the rushing water carrying sand and rock. Parking and restroom facilities. Paved trail and picnic sites available.
  • Columbia Ice Field [6]
  • Mount Robson (The park's namesake peak is the highest in the Canadian Rockies at 3954 metres. Mount Robson Provincial Park is 217,200 hectares of stunning mountains, valleys, and waterways. Forests of spruce, fir, balsam, cedar and alder are home to an abundant array of wildlife including mountain goats, moose, deer, elk, marmot and squirrels and chipmunks. The Rearguard Falls of the Fraser River is the furthest migration point of the Pacific salmon.
  • GyPSy Guide, Take a guided tour in your own car. The GyPSy Guide is a small electronic device that uses GPS technology to automatically trigger commentary about history, geology, directions and quirky Canadian stories, through your car stereo.
  • Connaught Dr.. The major shopping area in the area is full of souvenir shops, clothing stores, and jewelery stores.  edit

Eat

Most of the hotels in or near Jasper have restaurants that will meet or beat your expectations for dining in a small community. Some are higher-toned than others, but across the board food is generally very good and portions tend to be hearty. In addition to the hotel restaurants, the town has several noteworthy dining spots as well as numerous restaurants catering to the hungry but penny-pinching skiers and other visiting outdoors-folk.

  • Andy's Bistro, 606 Patricia St. This central-European restaurant is one of the best in a town of excellent dining choices. The room is not large, and - truth be told - not particularly enticing. But the food is an innovative take on the satisfying cuisine of Germany and Austria: hearty dishes cooked with notable flair and quality. Prices are moderately high, but not out of line for the finer restaurants in Jasper.
  • Dead Dog Bar & Grill, a favorite among locals, the $7.00 burger & fries deal is probably the cheapest meal in town. Happy hour is on Fridays. Located on Connaught Street.
  • Spooners, 610 Patricia St. Juice bar, gourmet coffees, teas, smoothies, homemade desserts and pastries, sandwiches, soups and salads.
  • Something Else, 621 Patricia St. A Greek restaurant that serves up a variety of cuisine, and pizza.
  • North Face Pizza, 618 Connaught Dr. Excellent pizza, great after a day at Marmot Basin!
  • Sorrentino's Bistro Bar, 96 Geike St. Italian restaurant, popular Canadian chain.
  • Denjiro Japanese Restaurant, 410 Connaught Dr. Japanese cuisine, sushi.
  • Becker's Gourmet Restaurant - French / Canadian cuisine
  • Kimchi House, 407 Patricia St, +1 780 852-5022. Korean cuisine.
  • Jasper Brewing Company, 624 Connaught Dr, +1 780 852-4111. Unique in Jasper, beer is brewed on-site.
  • Le Petit Marche, 96 Geikie St (at the Chateau Jasper). The elegant Brasserie features buffet, a la minute and carving stations, plus a la carte menu.
  • Earls, 600 Patricia St. Western Canadian cuisine. A restaurant and bar in one, this can get fairly packed out. The staff aren't fantastic, but the food more than makes up for the wait to be seated.
  • Walters Dining Room, 82 Connaught Drive (Located at east end of Jasper's main street (Connaught Drive)), 780-852-5111, [7]. Breakfast 7am to 10:30am - Dinner 5pm to 9:30pm. Nestled in the indoor atrium of the four star Sawridge Inn Jasper, the elegant Walters Dining Room offers an eclectic menu, highlighted by First Nation nuances, featuring local specialties and game dishes. Menus are developed seasonally, with special care given to freshness and ingredients availability. The value packed "Saturday Night Skiers Buffet is offered every Saturday night, from December to April. Breakfast $13 - dinner $25 to $45.  edit
  • Buckles Saloon, Maligne Lodge, W end Connaught Dr, +1 780 852-7074.
  • De'd Dog Bar & Grill, Bsmt, 620 Connaught Dr, +1 780 852-9449.
  • Villa Caruso, Corner, Connaught Dr and Hazel Ave, +1 780 852-3920.
  • The 'B' Ale House, 510 Patricia St, +1 780 852-3386.
  • Chateau Jasper, 96 Geikie St, +1 780 852-5644.
  • Nick's Bar, Juniper St between Connaught Dr and Geikie St, +1 780 852-4966.
  • The Hearthstone Lounge, 82 Connaught Drive, 780-852-5111, [8]. 10:30am to 10:00pm. Located in the four star Sawridge Inn Jasper, the all new Heartstone Lounge offers a warm and inviting setting, highlighted by unique furnishings, large flat screen televisions and a stone fireplace. The menu features a number of scrumptious appetizers & soups, and a wide selection of light meals. One can also enjoy a favourite cocktail, a fine selection of wines by the glass or a pint of fine draught beer. Lunch & Dinner $9.00 to $20.00.  edit
  • Champs Sports Lounge, 82 Connaught Drive (Located at east end of Connught Drive), 780-852-5111, [9]. 4:30pm to midnight. Champs Sports Lounge, located in the Sawridge Inn Jasper, is your location of choice for fun times with friends and colleagues. Be sure to drop in on Wednesday nights for Karaoke. UFC fight nights are always featured on their many large flat screen televisions. Champs is your natural choice for enjoying NHL games and playoffs. Drink specials and a hearty food selection are available nightly. Affordable.  edit

Sleep

Budget

In the summer, there is excellent camping in the campgrounds operated by Parks Canada. Throughout the year, it is possible to stay in private home accommodation - rooms or suites in residents' homes. Prices vary, but standards are high - full details of what is available can be found in the tourist office in town, or at [10].

  • HI: Maligne Canyon, Maligne Lake Rd (turn south off highway 16 just east of the townsite), +1 780 852-3215 or +1 877 852-0781, fax +1 780 852-5560, [11]. Closed Wednesdays Oct-Apr, open all other times. Check-in between 5PM and 11PM, checkout by 10AM. This small, 24 bed hostel, is an excellent place to get away from things for a while. Though it lacks running water, you'll not miss anything else...there's a good sized kitchen, a supply of drinking water, and a very friendly and relaxed atmosphere. $15/person for HI members, $20/person for non-members.

Mid-range

There are numerous motels and inns within the town, as well as in Hinton, just outside the eastern entrance to the park.

  • Austrian Haven B&B Located at 812 Patricia Street, +1 780 852-4259. Owned and run by a very friendly and welcoming Austrian lady. There are only 2 rooms, which are beautifully decorated with the biggest most comfortable beds you will ever sleep in. Both the rooms have excellent views of the mountains around Jasper.
  • Mount Robson Inn 902 Connaught Drive, +1 780 852-3327. A comfortable well equipped two storey motel style inn. All rooms have air conditioning, cable television, and plenty of room. Reasonable prices.
  • Patricia Lake Bungalows, +1 780 852-3560.
  • Chateau Jasper Offers exceptional accommodations and amenities complemented by a young, personable staff who extend a warm and sincere welcome. Each guest room is beautifully appointed and retains the charm of the majestic Rockies. A restaurant and conference facilities are available on-site. CAD $140 - $462.
  • Sawridge Inn and Conference Centre 1-888-729-7343. Jasper's only four star property, located in the charming community of Jasper. On site services are very extensive and include renowned Walters Dining Room, the all new Hearthstone Lounge, Champs Sports Lounge, Mountain Wellness Spa, indoor pool, hot tubs, jacuzzi, sauna, fitness centre and business centre. The Inn's 153 rooms are well appointed and feature white goose down duvets, plush bathrobes, and in room climate controls. Over 100 units provide private balconies and mountain views. CAD $115 - $360
  • Maligne Lodge, +1 780 852-3143. Come and enjoy the warmth and hospitality of the Maligne Lodge. A stones throw away from the historical locations of the town centre. CAD $86 - $473
  • Mount Robson Inn, 902 Connaught Drive, +1 780 852-3327. Offers 80 luxurious, well appointed rooms and suites. CAD $94 - $325.
  • Jasper Inn Alpine Resort, 98 Geikie Street, +1 780 852-4461. Cozy and tastefully appointed fireside accommodation, comfortable amenities and casual fine dining amid the rugged beauty of the Canadian Rockies. Rates: CAD $93 - $413.
  • Marmot Lodge, 86 Connaught Drive, +1 780 852-4471 Distinctive rooms and suites reflect a commitment to quality and fine detail. Look out upon the beauty of the mountains rising above the park-like grounds and the forests beyond. Featuring heated indoor pool, sauna and whirlpool as well as kitchen suites. Rates: CAD 70 - 260.
  • Lobstick Lodge, 94 Geikie Street, A favourite among the skiing crowd, Lobstick Lodge features a restaurant onsite, as well as FIVE hot tubs and an indoor pool. Rates: varies with season; Fall has the cheapest rates (<$100 is common), while summer is high season (June - August).
  • Amethyst Lodge, Connaught Drive, An excellent motel 5 minutes walk from the centre of Jasper. The rooms are spacious, although rather dark, with clean bathrooms. Complimentary Fatport wireless internet is available throughout the motel. The buffet breakfast is extensive and tasty, with fruit, cereals, bagels, muffins, croissants, many types of bread, scrambled eggs, bacon, sausages, sauteed potatoes, french toast and pancakes. Rates: CAD $200.
  • Fairmont Jasper Park Lodge, Old Lodge Rd (turn south off highway 16 just east of the townsite, and make a quick right after crossing the river), +1 780 852-3301 or 800-257-7544 (jasperparklodge@fairmont.com, fax 780-852-5107), [12]. The Jasper Park Lodge is the premier hotel in Jasper, and one of the most famous and storied mountain resorts in the Canada. Started as a tenting site in conjunction with the Grand Trunk Railway in 1915, it has grown into a renowned destination resort. $400 and up.
Bear proof dumpster
Bear proof dumpster
Bear proof dumpster instructions
Bear proof dumpster instructions

Bears looking for food are a potential problem. The city has installed bear proof garbage cans and business use bear proof dumpsters.

It is a good solution until the bears learn how to read




Get out

VIA Rail [13] runs routes through Jasper, which you can often include as a free stop-over if heading between Vancouver and Edmonton.

It is also popluar to travel down to Lake Louise and Banff, making stops at Athabasca Falls, Peyto Lake, Crowfoot Glacier, and Bow Lake.

Routes through Jasper
Prince GeorgeMount Robson Provincial Park  W noframe E  HintonEdmonton
END  N noframe S  Lake Louise (in Banff NP) → Cranbrook
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JASPER, an opaque compact variety of quartz, variously coloured and often containing argillaceous matter. The colours are usually red, brown, yellow or green, and are due to admixture with compounds of iron, either oxides or silicates. Although the term jasper is now restricted to opaque quartz it is certain that the ancient jaspis or ia61rts was a stone of considerable translucency. The jasper of antiquity was in many cases distinctly green, for it is often compared with the emerald and other green objects. Jasper is referred to in the Niebelungenlied as being clear and green. Probably the jasper of the ancients included stones which would now be classed as chalcedony, and the emerald-like jasper may have been akin to our chrysoprase. The Hebrew word yashefeh may have designated a green jasper (cf. Assyrian yashpu). Professor Flinders Petrie has suggested that the odem, the first stone on the High Priest's breastplate, translated "sard," was a red jasper, whilst tarshish, the tenth stone, may have been a yellow jasper (Hastings's Dict. Bible,. 1902).

Many varieties of jasper are recognized. Riband jasper is a form in which the colours are disposed in bands, as in the well-known ornamental stone from Siberia, which shows a regular alternation of dark red and green stripes. Egyptian jasper is a brown jasper, occurring as nodules in the Lybian desert and in the Nile valley, and characterized by a zonal arrangement of light and dark shades of colour. Agate-jasper is a variety intermediate between true jasper and chalcedony. Basanite, lydite, or Lydian stone, is a velvet- black flinty jasper, used as a touchstone for testing the purity of precious metals by their streak. Porcelain jasper is a clay indurated by natural calcination. (F. W. R.*)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also jasper

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Jasper

Plural
-

Jasper

  1. A male given name, an English variant of Caspar.
  2. One of the Magi, also known as Caspar.

Quotations

  • 1920 St. John Greer Ervine, Changing Winds, Macmillan 1920, page 225:
    Her husband is...let me see...oh yes, he's Lord Jasper Jayne. His name sounds like the hero of a servant's novelette, but he doesn't look like that. He looks like a chucker-out in a back-street pub.

Translations

Anagrams


Finnish

Proper noun

Jasper

  1. A male given name recently borrowed from English.

Declension


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Ex. 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18, 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11). It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)








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