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Jatropha
Spicy jatropha (Jatropha integerrima)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Crotonoideae
Tribe: Jatropheae
Genus: Jatropha
L.
Species

Approximately 175, see Section Species.

Jatropha is a genus of approximately 175 succulent plants, shrubs and trees (some are deciduous, like Jatropha curcas L.), from the family Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from (Greek iatros = physician and trophe = nutrition), hence the common name physic nut. Jatropha is native to Central America[1] and has become naturalized in many tropical and subtropical areas, including India, Africa, and North America. Originating in the Caribbean, Jatropha was spread as a valuable hedge plant to Africa and Asia by Portuguese traders. The mature small trees bear separate male and female flowers, and do not grow very tall. As with many members of the family Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha contains compounds that are highly toxic.

The hardy Jatropha is resistant to drought and pests, and produces seeds containing 27-40% oil [2] (average: 34.4% [3]). The remaining press cake of jatropha seeds after oil extraction could also be considered for energy production[4].

Goldman Sachs recently cited Jatropha curcas as one of the best candidates for future biodiesel production.[5] However, despite its abundance and use as an oil and reclamation plant, none of the Jatropha species have been properly domesticated and, as a result, its productivity is variable, and the long-term impact of its large-scale use on soil quality and the environment is unknown.[1]

Contents

Oil and biodiesel

Jatropha curcas seedlings in a greenhouse in Nicaragua

Currently the oil from Jatropha curcas seeds is used for making biodiesel fuel in Philippines and in Brazil, where it grows naturally and in plantations in the Southeast, and the North/Northeast Brazil. Likewise, jatropha oil is being promoted as an easily grown biofuel crop in hundreds of projects throughout India and other developing countries.[1][6] The railway line between Mumbai and Delhi is planted with Jatropha and the train itself runs on 15-20% biodiesel.[1] In Africa, cultivation of Jatropha is being promoted and it is grown successfully in countries such as Mali.[7] In the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, where also a native variety (Jatropha matacensis) grows, studies have shown suitability of Jatropha cultivation[8] [9] and agro producers are starting to consider planting in the region.[10]

Estimates of Jatropha seed yield vary widely, due to a lack of research data, the genetic diversity of the crop, the range of environments in which it is grown, and Jatropha's perennial life cycle. Seed yields under cultivation can range from 1,500 to 2,000 kilograms per hectare, corresponding to extractable oil yields of 540 to 680 litres per hectare (58 to 73 US gallons per acre).[11] Time Magazine recently cited the potential for as much as 1,600 gallons of diesel fuel per acre per year. [12]

Jatropha can also be intercropped with other cash crops such as coffee, sugar, fruits and vegetables.[13]

On Dec. 30, 2008 Air New Zealand successfully completed a test flight from Auckland using a 50/50 mixture of jatropha oil -derived biofuel and Jet A1 in one of the four Rolls-Royce RB211 engines of a 747 jumbo jet.[14] Air New Zealand announced plans to use the new fuel for 10% of its needs by 2013. Jatropha oil is significantly cheaper than crude oil, costing an estimated $43 a barrel or about one-third of the June 4, 2008 closing price of $122.30 for a barrel of crude oil.[15] However, the falling cost of oil has changed the dynamic, with crude oil trading in the $34–$48 range per barrel between December 2008, and February 2009.[16]

On January 7, 2009 Continental Airlines successfully completed a test flight from Houston, Texas using a 50/50 mixture of algae/jatropha oil-derived biofuel and Jet A in one of the two CFM56 engines of a Boeing 737-800 New Generation jet. The two-hour test flight could mark another promising step for the airline industry to find cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuel.

Toxicity

Characteristic of many members of the family Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha plants contain several toxic compounds, including lectin, saponin, carcinogenic phorbol, and a trypsin inhibitor. Despite this, the seeds are occasionally eaten after roasting, which reduces some of the toxicity. Its sap is a skin irritant, and ingesting as few as three untreated seeds can be fatal to humans. In 2005 Western Australia banned Jatropha gossypifolia as invasive and highly toxic to people and animals.[17]

Species

Jatropha gossipifolia in Hyderabad, India.
Jatropha multifida

Species of Jatropha include:

  • Jatropha cuneata limberbush, whose stems are used for basketmaking by the Seri people in Sonora, Mexico, who call it haat (pronounced [ʔaːt]). The stems are roasted, split and soaked through an elaborate process. The reddish color dye that is often used is made from the root of another plant species, Krameria grayi.
  • Jatropha curcas, also known as physic nut, piñoncillo and Habb-El-Melúk, is used to produce the non-edible Jatropha oil, for making candles and soap, and as a feedstock for producing biodiesel. Prior to pressing, the seed can be shelled with the Universal Nut Sheller which reduces the arduous task of removing the seeds from the shell by hand. Once the seeds have been pressed, the remaining cake can be used as feed in digesters and gasifiers to produce biogas for cooking and in engines, or be used for fertilizing, and sometimes even as animal fodder. The whole seed (with oil) can also be used in digesters to produce biogas. Large plantings and nurseries have been undertaken in India by many research institutions, and by women's self-help groups who use a system of microcredit to ease poverty among semi-literate Indian women.
  • Jatropha gossypifolia, also called bellyache bush: its fruits and foliage are toxic to humans and animals. It is a major weed in Australia.
  • Jatropha integerrima Jacq., or spicy jatropha: ornamental in the tropics, continuously crimson, flowers almost all year.
  • Jatropha multifida L., or coral plant: bright red flowers, like red coral, charactertised by strongly incised leaves.
  • Jatropha podagrica or buddha belly plant or bottleplant shrub was used to tan leather and produce a red dye in Mexico and the Southwestern United States. It is also used as a house plant.

Synonyms

This genus is also known as:

  • Adenorhopium Rchb.
  • Adenoropium Pohl
  • Aamanakku / Kaattaamanakku Tamil, India
  • Castiglionia Ruiz & Pav.
  • Collenucia Chiov.
  • Curcas Adans.
  • Jarak Indonesia
  • Jatropa Scop., orth. var.
  • Loureira Cav.
  • Mesandrinia Raf.
  • Mesandrinia Ortega
  • Zimapania Engl. & Pax
  • Nkran Dedua
  • Pourghère French term
  • Pulga
  • Tempate

Gallery of Jatropha gossipifolia

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Fairless D. (2007). "Biofuel: The little shrub that could - maybe". Nature 449: 652–655. doi:10.1038/449652a. 
  2. ^ Achten WMJ, Mathijs E, Verchot L, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B 2007. Jatropha biodiesel fueling sustainability?. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 1(4), 283-291.DOI: 10.1002/bbb.39The Jatropha Archives
  3. ^ Achten WMJ, Verchot L, Franken YJ, Mathijs E, Singh VP, Aerts R, Muys B 2008. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use. (a literature review) Biomass and Bioenergy 32(12), 1063-1084.DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.03.003The Jatropha Archives
  4. ^ Jongschaap REE, Blesgraaf RAR, Boogaard TA, Van Loo EN, Savenije HHG. The water footprint of bioenergy from Jatropha curcas L. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106(35)E92.DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0907272106
  5. ^ Jatropha Plant Gains Steam In Global Race for Biofuels
  6. ^ World Agroforestry Centre
  7. ^ "Mali's Farmers Discover a Weed's Potential Power". New York Times. September 9, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/09/world/africa/09biofuel.html?em&ex=1189483200&en=b8f0eb75c65f04f3&ei=5087%0A. Retrieved 2007-08-21. "But now that a plant called jatropha is being hailed by scientists and policy makers as a potentially ideal source of biofuel, a plant that can grow in marginal soil or beside food crops, that does not require a lot of fertilizer and yields many times as much biofuel per acre planted as corn and many other potential biofuels. By planting a row of jatropha for every seven rows of regular crops, Mr. Banani could double his income on the field in the first year and lose none of his usual yield from his field." 
  8. ^ "Jatropha en el Chaco" (in Spanish). Diario ABC Digital. http://www.abc.com.py/suplementos/rural/articulos.php?pid=424986. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  9. ^ "Jatropha Chaco" (in Spanish). Incorporación del cultivo Jatropha Curcas L en zonas marginales de la provincia de chaco. http://www.jatrophachaco.com/portal/index. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  10. ^ "Carlos Casado SA en el Chaco" (in Spanish). El Economista. 2 May 2008. http://www.eleconomista.es/economia/noticias/518424/05/08/Economia-Empresas-El-presidente-de-SanJose-asume-tambien-la-presidencia-de-su-participada-argentina-Carlos-Casado.htm. 
  11. ^ Dar, William D. (6 December 2007). "Research needed to cut risks to biofuel farmers". Science and Development Network. http://www.scidev.net/content/opinions/eng/research-needed-to-cut-risks-to-biofuel-farmers.cfm. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  12. ^ Padgett, Tim (February 6, 2009). "The Next Big Biofuel?". Time Magazine. 
  13. ^ Jatropha for biodiesel
  14. ^ "Air New Zealand jatropha flight, update 4". www.enviro.aero. http://www.enviro.aero/blog/2008/12/air-new-zealand-jatropha-fligh-4.html. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  15. ^ Ray, Lilley. "NZ Airline Flies Jetliner Partly Run on Veggie Oil". www.latimes.com. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20081230/ap_on_re_as/as_new_zealand_airplane_biofuel_6. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  16. ^ "Latest Trading Prices and Data from CNNMoney.com". www.cnnmoney.com. http://money.cnn.com/data/commodities/. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  17. ^ "Poison plant could help to cure the planet". London: The Times. 2007-07-08. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article2155351.ece. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Translingual

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Jatropha

  1. a taxonomic genus, within tribe Jatropheae - many tropical American plants including many whose fruits are purgative or poisonous
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Wikispecies


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales
Familia: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamilia: Crotonoideae
Tribus: Jatropheae
Genus: Jatropha
Species: J. acanthophylla - J. angustidens - J. cathartica - J. costaricensis - J. cuneata - J. curcas - J. dioica - J. elliptica - J. excisa - J. gossypiifolia - J. hastata - J. integerrima - J. macrorhiza - J. multifida - J. podagrica

Name

Jatropha L.

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Jatropha on Wikimedia Commons.

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