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Jean William Fritz Piaget
Full name Jean William Fritz Piaget
Born 9 August 1896(1896-08-09)
Died 16 September 1980 (aged 84)
Era 20th-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Developmental
Main interests Natural Sciences
Notable ideas Genetic Epistemology, Theory of cognitive development, Object permanence, Egocentrism
Jean Piaget (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃ pjaʒɛ]; born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and philosopher, well known for his pedagogical studies. His theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "Genetic Epistemology."
He laid great importance to the education of children, which made him declare in 1934 in his role as Director of the International Bureau of Education that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual."[1]
In 1955, he created the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and directed it until 1980. According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."[2]

Contents

Biography

.Piaget was born in 1896 in the French-speaking part of Switzerland called Neuchâtel.^ Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel, a town in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, in 1896.
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^ (The French, to this day, rarely speak of Piagetian theory; they call his conception la théorie opératoire.
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^ Influential Protestant thinkers in the French-speaking area of Switzerland during the second half of the 19th century were completely immersed in Kantian moral philosophy.
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His father, Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel. .Piaget was a precocious child who developed an interest in biology and the natural world.^ There are multitudinous empirical claims about child development in Piaget's writings.
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He was educated at the University of Neuchâtel, and also studied briefly at the University of Zürich. .During this time, he published two philosophical papers which showed the direction of his thinking at the time, but which he later dismissed as adolescent thought.^ For instance, if Piaget is correct about the way babies think during the first two sensorimotor substages, young babies don't experience physical objects.
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^ He published two books on children's causal thinking in the 1920s, but grew progressively dissatisfied with them over the years.
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^ Piaget absorbed a number of beliefs during his school days that influenced his later thinking.
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[3] .His interest in psychoanalysis, at the time a burgeoning strain of psychology, can also be dated to this period.^ In Fall 1918, he enrolled at the University of Zürich, where German experimental psychology didn't interest him all that much--but psychoanalysis (of the Carl Jung variety) did.
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Piaget moved from Switzerland to Paris, France after his graduation and he taught at the Grange-Aux-Belles street school for boys. .The school was run by Alfred Binet, the developer of the Binet intelligence test, and Piaget assisted in the marking of Binet's intelligence tests.^ Then in 1919, he moved to Paris for work as a research associate under Théodore Simon, the intelligence tester who inherited Alfred Binet's laboratory.
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It was while he was helping to mark some of these tests that Piaget noticed that young children consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions. Piaget did not focus so much on the fact of the children's answers being wrong, but that young children consistently made identical mistakes that older children and adults did not. .This led him to the theory that young children's cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults.^ This led him to the theory that young children's thought or cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Young children think differently than adults.

^ Sources of cognitive inflexibility in children and adults.
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.Ultimately, he was to propose a global theory of developmental stages stating that individuals exhibit certain distinctive common patterns of cognition in each period in their development.^ Structures, stages, and sequences in cognitive development.
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^ The stage question in cognitive-developmental theory.
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^ Stage» in Piaget's cognitive developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept.
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.In 1921, Piaget returned to Switzerland as director of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva.^ In 1921, Piaget was invited by Claparede to become the director of research at the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute in Geneva.
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^ In 1921, he became director of studies at the J.-J. Rousseau Institute in Geneva at the request of Sir Ed.
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  • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.psychology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On 1921, he became director of studies at the J.-J. Rousseau Institute in Geneva at the request of Sir Ed.
  • Archives Jean Piaget: Life 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC archivespiaget.ch [Source type: Academic]

.In 1923, he married Valentine Châtenay; together, the couple had three children, whom Piaget studied from infancy.^ In 1923 he married Valentine Chatenay and the couple had three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent.

^ In 1923, he and Valentine Châtenay were married.
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^ In the same year he married Valentine Châtenay.

.In 1929, Jean Piaget accepted the post of Director of the International Bureau of Education and remained the head of this international organization until 1968. Every year, he drafted his “Director's Speeches” for the IBE Council and for the International Conference on Public Education in which he explicitly addressed his educational credo.^ Because of the rift between academic psychology and academic education departments, and the even deeper rift between academics and practitioners, the Piaget-Montessori connection remains unknown to most contemporary Piagetians.
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.In 1964, Piaget was invited to serve as chief consultant at two conferences at Cornell University (March 11 to March 13) and University of California, Berkeley (March 16 to March 18).^ In 1964, Piaget was invited to serve as chief consultant at two conferences at Cornell University (March 11 to March 13) and University of California, Berkeley (March 16 to March 18).

^ Piaget , March 18, 2008 .
  • Amazon.com: Origins of Intelligence in Children (9780393002027): Jean Piaget: Books 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Invited Lecture to the Twenty-Fifth Annual Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society, Berkeley, June 13, 1995.
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.The conferences addressed the relationship of cognitive studies and curriculum development and strived to conceive implications of recent investigations of children's cognitive development for curricula.^ Historically, the cognitive development of children has been studied in a variety of ways.
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  • Cognitive development | Encyclopedia of Psychology | Find Articles at BNET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ The conferences addressed the relationship of cognitive studies and curriculum development and strived to conceive implications of recent investigations of children's cognitive development for curricula.

^ During cognitive development children ...
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[4] .In 1979 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Social and Political Sciences.^ (While empirical methodology that conforms strictly to the local customs is prized in the academic social sciences, scholarship frequently is not.
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Theoretical work

.Jean Piaget defined himself as an epistemologist, interested in the process of the qualitative development of knowledge.^ From 1965 onward (again, publications often lagged), Piaget shifted his concerns to the processes of development.
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^ Piaget believed that the development of knowledge was a biological process, a matter of adaptation by an organism to an environment.
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^ It is not nearly as important, in Piaget's view, and development would never happen if knowledge of static things were the only kind we had.
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As he says in the introduction of his book "Genetic Epistemology" (ISBN 978-0-393-00596-7): "What the genetic epistemology proposes is discovering the roots of the different varieties of knowledge, since its elementar forms, following to the next levels, including also the scientific knowledge."
He believed answers for the epistemological questions at his time could be answered, or better proposed, if one looked to the genetic aspect of it, hence his experimentations with children and adolescents. .Piaget considered cognitive structures development as a differentiation of biological regulations.^ For Piaget, development is what cognitive structures do.
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^ See also, Piaget re : Cognitive Development .
  • The Educational Theory of Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.newfoundations.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget and cognitive development.
  • Piaget's Constructivism - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]
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.In one of his last books, "Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development" (ISBN 978-022666781), he intends to explain knowledge development as a process of equilibration using two main concepts in his theory, assimilation and accommodation, as belonging not only to biological interactions but also to cognitive ones.^ L'équilibration des structures cognitives [The equilibration of cognitive structures].
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^ Social interaction and the development of knowledge.
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^ Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures.
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  • Biography 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.tc.umn.edu [Source type: Reference]

The four development stages are described in Piaget's theory as:
  • Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2. Children experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to explore the world). .During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric, meaning they cannot perceive the world from others' viewpoints.^ During the sensorimotor stage th .
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    ^ During the Sensori-Motor Stage , 0 to 2 years, the child relies on touching, feeling, and using his or her senses to find out about the world.
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    ^ The conventional stage is based on the children's ability to "decenter" their moral universe and take the moral perspective of their parents and other important members of society into account.
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    .The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: "(1) simple reflexes; (2) first habits and primary circular reactions; (3) secondary circular reactions; (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions; (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity; and (6) internalization of schemes."^ Piaget’s conclusion on this stage is that “the child is tied to the immediate environment and motor-action schemes, lacking the cognitive ability to represent objects symbolically.” The main task during the sensorimotor stage is for the child to control and coordinate his or her body.
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    ^ For example spiders attain the circular sensory motor stage, coordinating actions and perceptions.
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    ^ Primary circular reaction - This happens between one and four months of age.
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    [5]
.Simple reflexes is from birth to 1 month old.^ Birth - 1 month Reflexes become more efficient and voluntary .
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^ Simple reflexes - This occurs during the first month of life.
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.At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking.^ The infant learns by the exercise and utilization of reflexes in nexus with seeing, touching, sucking, feeling, and using their senses to learn things about themselves and the environment.
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^ Every time an infant does any action such as holding a bottle or learning to turn over, they are learning more about their bodies and how it relates to them and their environment.
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^ As the name implies, the infant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world, beginning with reflexes and ending with complex combinations of sensorimotor skills.
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.First habits and primary circular reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old.^ Piaget divides the growth of intelligence into six sequential stages: the use o reflexes; the first acquired adaptations and primary circular reaction; secondary circular reactions and the child's procedures for prolonging spectacles interesting to him.
  • Amazon.com: Origins of Intelligence in Children (9780393002027): Jean Piaget: Books 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Secondary circular reactions (4-12 month) Involve an act that extends out to the environment Things begin to show out well & have the ability to recognize e.g.
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^ This stage consists of the reflexive schemes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, and mental combinations.
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.During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme (habit and circular reactions).^ Through these two modes of learning, experienced both separately and in combination, infants gradually learn to control their own bodies and objects in the external world.
  • Cognitive development | Encyclopedia of Psychology | Find Articles at BNET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ This stage consists of the reflexive schemes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, and mental combinations.
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^ Infants cannot predict reaction, and therefore must constantly experiment and learn through trial and error.
  • Piaget's Stages - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb).^ Between one and four months, the child works on primary circular reactions - just an action of his own which serves as a stimulus to which it responds with the same action, and around and around we go.
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^ This stage consists of the reflexive schemes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, and mental combinations.
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^ Subsequently, policies for coordinating multiple sensory and motor modalities appear as primary circular reactions [12] which are practiced until the infant nds it possible to prolong certain interactions with the world.
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.The third stage, secondary circular reactions, occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old.^ The third sub-stage occurs when the infant is between five and nine months old.
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^ Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months) .
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^ The Visible Embryo - Learn about the 23 stages occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy and every two weeks of the second and third trimesters.
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.At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body; they are more object oriented.^ The concept of time becomes more differentiated.

^ Through these two modes of learning, experienced both separately and in combination, infants gradually learn to control their own bodies and objects in the external world.
  • Cognitive development | Encyclopedia of Psychology | Find Articles at BNET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ For instance they may grasp the concept that they will in time have to move from their parent’s house into a new life of their own at one point in their life.
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.At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction.^ Such exploration might include shaking a rattle or putting objects in the mouth.
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.Coordination of secondary circular reactions is from 8 months to 12 months old.^ Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) .
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^ Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months) .
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^ Secondary circular reactions (4-12 month) Involve an act that extends out to the environment Things begin to show out well & have the ability to recognize e.g.
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.During this stage they can do things intentionally.^ During the Preoperational Stage , 2 to 7 years, the child relies on using the senses, but is increasingly able to use language and words to represent things not visible.
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^ Learners can always go back and think at earlier stages; but during each stage they become increasingly free of constraints that would have been imposed on them at the previous stage.

^ During the earliest stages the child perceives things like a solipsist who is unaware of himself as subject and is familiar only with his own actions.
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.They can now combine and recombine schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach something).^ Once a child reaches the concrete operational stage, they will be in possession of a completely new set of strategies, allowing problem solving using logical rules.
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^ Instead of using dollies essentially as something to sit at, suck on, or throw, now the child will sing to it, tuck it into bed, and so on.
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^ Now n is no longer the number of 'packets' that had to be assembled to reach the goal, but rather the number of operations that constituted these classes" [ note 17 ].
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.They also understand object permanence during this stage.^ During this stage the infant also develops object permanence.
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^ And they begin to develop object permanence.
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^ The idea that an object continues to exist even though it can't be perceived Develops gradually, in stages Basic to an understanding of space, time, causality .
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.That is, they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can't see them.^ You understand that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see it.
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^ Object permanence is the awareness that objects and people continue to exist even if they are out of sight.
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^ Object permanence is the awareness that an object continues to exist even when it is not in view.
  • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fifth stage occurs from 12 months old to 18 months old.^ He saw these transitions as taking place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11 or 12 years.
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^ He developed a theory for childhood development which is used to a large degree as a basis for our curriculum framework, as it outlines transition ages at which children move from one stage of understanding and learning to another, namely: 18 months, 7 years and 12 years.
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^ She noted significant increases in competence on the same task between, for example, 18- and 24-month-olds.
  • Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects; they try different things to get different results.^ During this stage the infant also develops object permanence.
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^ The infant will purposely explore new possibilities with objects and make changes continually.
  • Parent Child Relations - Online Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC gozips.uakron.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Preoperational Stage , 2 to 7 years, the child relies on using the senses, but is increasingly able to use language and words to represent things not visible.
  • Piaget & Vygotsky: Brief introductions 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC thinsan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the last stage they are 18 to 24 months old.^ Learners can always go back and think at earlier stages; but during each stage they become increasingly free of constraints that would have been imposed on them at the previous stage.

^ This theory is a four-stage ladder up which Piaget thought children climbed as they gathered knowledge about the world: Sensorimotor (birth to 18-24 months) : infants are aware only of their sensations, fascinated by all the strange new experiences their bodies are having.
  • Jean Piaget’s Four-Stage Theory: How Children Acquire Knowledge | PsyBlog 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this stage there is “the existence of an intelligence before language.” While age does not determine the stage of growth, the average age of children in this stage is birth to two years old.
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.During this stage they shift to symbolic thinking.^ Learners can always go back and think at earlier stages; but during each stage they become increasingly free of constraints that would have been imposed on them at the previous stage.

^ Concrete operations (7 to 12 years) : at this stage children gain the ability to manipulate symbols and objects, but only if they are concrete - abstract operations are still a challenge.
  • Jean Piaget’s Four-Stage Theory: How Children Acquire Knowledge | PsyBlog 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.spring.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He proposed the existence of four major stages, or "periods," during which children and adolescents master the ability to use symbols and to reason in abstract ways.
  • Theories of Human Development 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.teach12.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[5] Some followers of Piaget's studies of infancy, such as Kenneth Kaye[6] argue that his contribution was as an observer of countless phenomena not previously described, but that he didn't offer explanation of the processes in real time that cause those developments, beyond analogizing them to broad concepts about biological adaptation generally.^ Piaget believed that the development of knowledge was a biological process, a matter of adaptation by an organism to an environment.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although made possible by Piaget's ambiguity about some of his key concepts (e.g., stage and structure), such an interpretation is greatly due to its focus on Piaget's structural-stage theory at the expense of his equilibration theory, and also to its emphasis on factual investigations at the cost of conceptual investigations.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Beyond one-dimensional change: Parallel, concurrent, socially distributed processes in learning and development.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

  • Concrete operational stage: from ages 7 to 12 (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking).^ [Are there stages in the development of concrete operational intelligence?
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Logical capacity of very young children: Number invariance rules.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Le développement opératoire de l'enfant entre 6 et 12 ans [The operational development of the child from 6 to 12 years of age].
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    .Children can now conceive and think logically but only with practical aids.^ Therefore, children's logic and modes of thinking are initially entirely different from those of adults.
    • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.piaget.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.cas.buffalo.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.psychology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
    • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Until children construct a certain level of logic from the inside, they are nonconservers because they can only base their judgement on what they can see (C: p.
    • The Educational Theory of Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.newfoundations.com [Source type: Academic]

    .They are no longer egocentric.
  • Formal operational stage: from age 12 onwards (development of abstract reasoning).^ From age 12 or so, we move into formal operations.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See Campbell and Bickhard, Knowing levels and developmental stages (Basel: S. Karger, 1986), Chapter 7, for a discussion of egocentrism as a recurring problem in development.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Textbooks nearly always say that formal operations are universal--that is, every normal person acquires them--and that they are the final stage of development.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind.

The developmental process

.Piaget provided no concise description of the development process as a whole.^ Piaget provided no concise (or clear) description of the development process as a whole.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Jean Piaget believed that exploring ones physical surroundings was an extremely important process in a childs growth and development...
  • jean piaget - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ BACKGROUND Jean Piaget (1896-1980), considered to be the most influential theorist on intellectual development in children, emphasizes that children's thought processes are different from those of adults.
  • Status Julie Piaget et Vygotsky 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Broadly speaking it consisted of a cycle:
.
  • The child performs an action which has an effect on or organizes objects, and the child is able to note the characteristics of the action and its effects.
  • Through repeated actions, perhaps with variations or in different contexts or on different kinds of objects, the child is able to differentiate and integrate its elements and effects.^ Broadly speaking it consisted of a cycle: The child performs an action which has an effect on or organizes objects, and the child is able to note the characteristics of the action and its effects.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Through repeated actions, perhaps with variations or in different contexts or on different kinds of objects, the child is able to differentiate and integrate its elements and effects.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Differentiates self from objects Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g.
    • Piaget's developmental psychology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is the process of "reflecting abstraction" (described in detail in Piaget 2001).
  • At the same time, the child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affect them.^ At the same time, the child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affect them.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This is what Piaget called reflecting abstraction.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.cas.buffalo.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is the process of reflecting abstraction (described in detail in Piaget 2001).
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    .This is the process of "empirical abstraction".
  • By repeating this process across a wide range of objects and actions, the child establishes a new level of knowledge and insight.^ This is the process of empirical abstraction .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ By repeating this process across a wide range of objects and actions, the child establishes a new level of knowledge and insight.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Each new stage emerges only because the child can take for granted the achievements of its predecessors, and yet there are still more sophisticated forms of knowledge and action that are capable of being developed.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    .This is the process of forming a new "cognitive stage". This dual process allows the child to construct new ways of dealing with objects and new knowledge about objects themselves.
  • However, once the child has constructed these new kinds of knowledge, he or she starts to use them to create still more complex objects and to carry out still more complex actions.^ A child's cognitive development is about a child developing or constructing a mental model of the world.

    ^ This way, the child erects more and more adequate cognitive structures.

    ^ This stage begins when the child starts to use symbols and language.
    • Piaget and the development of intelligence 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.teachingexpertise.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .As a result, the child starts to recognize still more complex patterns and to construct still more complex objects.^ As a result, the child starts to recognize still more complex patterns and to construct still more complex objects.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, to reach this stage the child must increase the speed of his or her manipulations, and become involved with more complex tasks.
    • TermPapers-TermPapers.com - Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.termpapers-termpapers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Essays.cc - Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.essays.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piaget proposed that each child, starting from birth, constructs and reconstructs his very own model of reality, of the world about him, in a regular sequence.
    • Jean Piaget Dies in Geneva at 84 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Thus a new stage begins, which will only be completed when all the child's activity and experience have been re-organized on this still higher level.
.This process is not wholly gradual, however.^ This process is not wholly gradual, however.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.Once a new level of organization, knowledge and insight proves to be effective, it will quickly be generalized to other areas.^ Once a new level of organization, knowledge and insight proves to be effective, it will quickly be generalized to other areas.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It concerns the generation of new knowledge, which in Platoís theory was God-given and accessible only through the mystical pipeline of reincarnation.

^ Thus a new stage begins, which will only be completed when all the child’s activity and experience have been re-organized on this still higher level.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, transitions between stages tend to be rapid and radical, and the bulk of the time spent in a new stage consists of refining this new cognitive level.^ This is the process of forming a new cognitive stage .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, transitions between stages tend to be rapid and radical, and the bulk of the time spent in a new stage consists of refining this new cognitive level.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ At the center of Piaget's theory is the principle that cognitive development occurs in a series of four distinct, universal stages, each characterized by increasingly sophisticated and abstract levels of thought.
  • Cognitive development | Encyclopedia of Psychology | Find Articles at BNET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

When the knowledge that has been gained at one stage of study and experience leads rapidly and radically to a new higher stage of insight, a gestalt  is said to have occurred.
.It is because this process takes this dialectical form, in which each new stage is created through the further differentiation, integration, and synthesis of new structures out of the old, that the sequence of cognitive stages are logically necessary rather than simply empirically correct.^ Structures, stages, and sequences in cognitive development.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ The new structuralism in cognitive development.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Nor do human beings get their cognitive structures by passively absorbing structures that are already out in the environment.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each new stage emerges only because the child can take for granted the achievements of its predecessors, and yet there are still more sophisticated forms of knowledge and action that are capable of being developed.^ During the course of development, new knowledge emerges.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each new stage emerges only because the child can take for granted the achievements of its predecessors, and yet there are still more sophisticated forms of knowledge and action that are capable of being developed.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the process of forming a new cognitive stage .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.Because it covers both how we gain knowledge about objects and our reflections on our own actions, Piaget's model of development explains a number of features of human knowledge that had never previously been accounted for.^ Development as learning: The Piaget model and alternatives.

^ How does knowledge develop in humans?
  • Parent Child Relations - Online Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC gozips.uakron.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is this really how knowledge is developed?
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC home.gwu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, by showing how children progressively enrich their understanding of things by acting on and reflecting on the effects of their own previous knowledge, they are able to organize their knowledge in increasingly complex structures.^ For example, by showing how children progressively enrich their understanding of things by acting on and reflecting on the effects of their own previous knowledge, they are able to organize their knowledge in increasingly complex structures.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Children do progress from concrete knowledge to more abstract understandings.
  • Curriculum*Technology Quarterly:Technology for the Math Classroom:Piaget Was Right! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ascd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is to help us to understand why children act and reason as they do.

.Thus, once a young child can consistently and accurately recognize different kinds of animals, he or she then acquires the ability to organize the different kinds into higher groupings such as "birds", "fish", and so on.^ Thus, once a young child can consistently and accurately recognize different kinds of animals, he or she then acquires the ability to organize the different kinds into higher groupings such as ‘birds’, ‘fish’, and so on.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ He theorized that as children interact with their physical and social environments, they organize information into groups of interrelated ideas called " schemes ".
  • Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www2.uni-wuppertal.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Human Intelligence: Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In summary, Clark believes that the child s nonlinguistic organizational preferences appear to play an important role in predetermining what words are more easily acquired by the child.
  • Citations: The Child's Conception of Space - Piaget, Inhelder (ResearchIndex) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This is significant because they are now able to know things about a new animal simply on the basis of the fact that it is a bird – for example, that it will lay eggs.^ This is significant because they are now able to know things about a new animal simply on the basis of the fact that it is a bird – for example, that it will lay eggs.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ I havn't been in a classroom in almost 10 years, but I do know that Pre-K and K are becoming much more structured, not that this is a bad thing but it is what is going on now...
  • What can you tell me about the Jean Piaget approach to schooling? - Authors Denise & Alan Fields / Windsor Peak Press Book Forums 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.windsorpeak.com [Source type: General]

^ The cognitive and communicative functions of language then become the basis of a new and superior form of activity in children, distinguishing them from animals.” (p.
  • I Am. Therefore, I Think -- American Camp Association 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.acacamps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time, by reflecting on their own actions, the child develops an increasingly sophisticated awareness of the "rules" that govern in various ways.^ At the same time, by reflecting on their own actions, the child develops an increasingly sophisticated awareness of the ‘rules’ that govern in various ways.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Each new stage emerges only because the child can take for granted the achievements of its predecessors, and yet there are still more sophisticated forms of knowledge and action that are capable of being developed.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There is remarkable concordance in the information given by children of 10-12 belonging to the same class at school, when they are questioned on the rules of the game and their possible variations.
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, it is by this route that Piaget explains this child's growing awareness of notions such as "right", "valid", "necessary", "proper", and so on.^ For example, the child confuses ' longer than' with ' goes further than ' - this Piaget derives from his results on experiments in the conservation of matter.
  • Piaget Vygotsky & Language 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.timothyjpmason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may call it awareness or consciousness, and then put a ëselfí in front of it, but this does not explain - we have no model of a mechanism that could produce such an effect.

^ Piaget’s theory could even accelerate learning certain skills by helping parents understand the right time to introduce new skills to maximize their child’s growing understanding of the world around them.
  • Piaget's Theory For Parents | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

.In other words, it is through the process of objectification, reflection and abstraction that the child constructs the principles on which action is not only effective or correct but also justified.^ We acquire it through equilibration and we acquire it through reflecting abstraction.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piagets third principle is that of reflective abstraction.

^ Piaget’s third principle is that of reflective abstraction.
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld - Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.oikos.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of Piaget's most famous studies focused purely on the discriminative abilities of children between the ages of two and a half years old, and four and a half years old.^ Children between 7-10 years of age are in transitions between the stages.
  • Child Development - Prism 2 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC academic.pg.cc.md.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one of his most famous experiments, Piaget asked children, "What makes the wind?"

^ Between the ages of zero and two years of age, the child is in the sensorimotor stage.
  • Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.education.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He began the study by taking children of different ages and placing two lines of sweets, one with the sweets in a line spread further apart, and one with the same number of sweets in a line placed more closely together.^ He began by studying his own children.
  • Piaget Vygotsky & Language 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.timothyjpmason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It takes place from birth to about two years of age.
  • Term-Papers.us - A Comparison Of Piaget, Freud, And Erikson 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two children can differ substantially in the ZPD's.

.He found that, “Children between 2 years, 6 months old and 3 years, 2 months old correctly discriminate the relative number of objects in two rows; between 3 years, 2 months and 4 years, 6 months they indicate a longer row with fewer objects to have "more"; after 4 years, 6 months they again discriminate correctly” (Cognitive Capacity of Very Young Children, p. 141).^ He found that young children were unsuccessful at this task.
  • Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He found that, “Children between 2 years, 6 months old and 3 years, 2 months old correctly discriminate the relative number of objects in two rows; between 3 years, 2 months and 4 years, 6 months they indicate a longer row with fewer objects to have "more"; after 4 years, 6 months they again discriminate correctly” (Cognitive Capacity of Very Young Children, p.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Logical capacity of very young children: Number invariance rules.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

.Initially younger children were not studied, because if at four years old a child could not conserve quantity, then a younger child presumably could not either.^ He told interviewers that he initially planned to spend just 10 years on child psychology, but that, too, became a lifelong endeavor.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The results show however that children that are younger than three years and two months have quantity conservation, but as they get older they lose this quality, and do not recover it until four and a half years old.^ Firstly, they found that older children did do significantly better than younger children on the conservation tasks.
  • AS Psychology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holah.karoo.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From birth to eighteen months/two years .
  • Piaget Vygotsky & Language 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.timothyjpmason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially younger children were not studied, because if at four years old a child couldn’t conserve quantity, how could a child that is younger?
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.This attribute may be lost due to a temporary inability to solve because of an overdependence on perceptual strategies, which correlates more candy with a longer line of candy, or due to the inability for a four year old to reverse situations.^ This attribute may be lost due to a temporary inability to solve because of an overdependence on perceptual strategies, which correlates more candy with a longer line of candy, or due to the inability for a four year old to reverse situations.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Einstein was especially intrigued by Piaget's finding that seven-year-olds insist that going faster can take more time--perhaps because Einstein's own theories of relativity ran so contrary to common sense.

^ One thing that I did not take into account beforehand is the short attention span of four, five, and six year olds.
  • Status Julie Piaget et Vygotsky 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.pierce.ctc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of this experiment several results were found.^ By the end of this experiment several results were found.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.First, younger children have a discriminative ability that shows the logical capacity for cognitive operations exists earlier than acknowledged.^ Children's logical and mathematical cognition (pp.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ First, younger children have a discriminative ability that shows the logical capacity for cognitive operations exists earlier than acknowledged.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]

.This study also reveals that young children can be equipped with certain qualities for cognitive operations, depending on how logical the structure of the task is.^ He found that young children were unsuccessful at this task.
  • Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This study also reveals that young children can be equipped with certain qualities for cognitive operations, depending on how logical the structure of the task is.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The importance of this for us is in his explanation of how cognitive structures gradually emerge from the accommodation of simple built in reflexes and some built in modes of functioning.
  • Citations: The Origins of Intelligence in Children - Piaget (ResearchIndex) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Research also shows that children develop explicit understanding at age 5 and as a result, the child will count the sweets to decide which has more.^ Child development • Youth development • Ageing & Senescence .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Research also shows that children develop explicit understanding at age 5 and as a result, the child will count the M & M’s to decide which has more.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Parents who have children under two years of age will understand both their children and Piaget more fully by reading such sources as Flavell (1963), Phillips (1975), Ginsburg & Opper (1979), and Wadsworth (1989).

.Finally the study found that overall quantity conservation is not a basic characteristic of humans' native inheritance.^ Without an explicit intention to do so, Piaget found himself studying, then becoming acknowledged as an expert in, human development.

^ The basic characteristics are the recognition of the logical stability of the physical world, the realization that elements can be changed or transformed and still conserve many of their original characteristics, and the understanding that these changes can be reversed.
  • http://academics.rmu.edu/%7Etomei/ed711psy/cognitive.htm 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC academics.rmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Challenges

.Piaget's theory, however vital in understanding child psychology, did not go without scrutiny.^ However, that’s just what Piaget did.
  • Jean Piaget: Child Psychology | A Moment of Science - Indiana Public Media 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC indianapublicmedia.org [Source type: General]

^ Piaget did not call what he was doing psychology.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When did Piaget become a professor of child psychology at the Univ.
  • Jean Piaget Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.A main figure in the ratification of Piaget's ideas was the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky.^ Piaget LEV S. VYGOTSKY 1896 - 1934 .

^ One is the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and the other is the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky.

^ Piaget is without doubt one of the most influential developmental psychologists, influencing not only the work of Lev Vygotsky and of Lawrence Kohlberg but whole generations of eminent academics.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.Vygotsky stressed the importance of a child's cultural background as an effect to the stages of development.^ Vygotsky's theory stressed the importance of culture and language on one's cognitive development.
  • Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.education.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget What piaget question and piaget vs vygotsky , piaget stage you child development piaget ...
  • jean piaget centennial conference ~ By Archmaille Designs ~ Sterling Silver Jewelry Store ~ Handmade Silver Chainmail Jewelry 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.archmailledesigns.com [Source type: General]

^ During this stage, the child's language develops.
  • Term-Papers.us - A Comparison Of Piaget, Freud, And Erikson 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because different cultures stress different social interactions, this challenged Piaget's theory that the hierarchy of learning development had to develop in succession.^ Learning and development in the theory of constructivism.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ NOTES: Piaget and his theory of cognitive development.
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development as learning: The Piaget model and alternatives.

.Vygotsky introduced the term Zone of proximal development as an overall task a child would have to develop that would be too difficult to develop alone.^ He called this concept, the Zone of Proximal Development.

^ A central concept in Vygotsky's model is the ' zone of proximal development : .
  • Piaget Vygotsky & Language 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.timothyjpmason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was the zone of proximal development.
  • I Am. Therefore, I Think - American Camp Association 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.campparents.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • I Am. Therefore, I Think -- American Camp Association 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.acacamps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, the so called neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development maintained that Piaget's theory does not do justice either to the underlying mechanisms of information processing that explain transition from stage to stage or individual differences in cognitive development.^ Structures, stages, and sequences in cognitive development.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ A fuzzy-trace theory of transitivity development.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage» in Piaget's cognitive developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

.According to these theories, changes in information processesing mechanisms, such as speed of processing and working memory, are responsible for ascension from stage to stage.^ In information-processing theory, for instance, knowledge takes the form of data structures; there are no data structures that are about other data structures.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a characterization would work for an observer that already knows the world and has theories about the organism's mind.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, differences between individuals in these processes explain why some individuals develop faster than other individuals (Demetriou, 1998).^ He was not satisfied with his attempts to explain how structures change, and concluded that the processes of development themselves needed to become the focus of his research.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the tides were turning against him in the English-speaking world; some of the process-oriented books were left untranslated, and others got a cool reception.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often Piaget had different ideas when it came time to write the conclusion than he'd had when he wrote the introduction (and other ideas might come and go in the middle).
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Curiously, Piaget had published a novel at the age of 20, before he'd begun any research in psychology, in which he stated what would later be the "conclusions" from decades of studying the development of intelligence in children.^ Piagets study of the development of morality .
  • Davidson Films, Inc : Classic Piaget Series 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.davidsonfilmsstore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book deals with the origins of intelligence in children and contains original observations on young children, novel experiments, brilliant in their simplicity,which the author describes in detail.
  • Amazon.com: Origins of Intelligence in Children (9780393002027): Jean Piaget: Books 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Piaget published more than 50 books and 500 papers as well as 37 volumes in the series "Etudes d'Epistémologie Génétique" (Studies in Genetic Epistemology).
  • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.piaget.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.psychology.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]

Genetic epistemology

.According to Jean Piaget, genetic epistemology "attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its sociogenesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based"[5].^ Based on Jean Piaget's theories.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to Piaget, his genetic epistemology was directly indebted to Immanuel Kant's epistemology.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget's Genetic Epistemology 1965-1980.
  • What is Interactivism? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Piaget believed he could test epistemological questions by studying the development of thought and action in children.^ Piaget was concerned with the development of thought in the child.
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget believes that the biggest development of children in this period is the ability to represent.
  • Piaget's Stages 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC frontpage.wiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vygotsky believed that Piaget had developed a clinical method that revolutionized the study of children's language and thought.
  • Free-TermPapers.com - Piaget & Vygotsky 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC free-termpapers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result Piaget created a field known as genetic epistemology with its own methods and problems.^ Genetic Epistemology Jean Piaget (1968) .
  • Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Genetic epistemology: Piaget's theory.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.piaget.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Jean Piaget Society - About Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.psychology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Source : Genetic Epistemology , a series of lectures delivered by Piaget at Columbia University, Published by Columbia Univesity Press, translated by Eleanor Duckworth.
  • Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.He defined this field as the study of child development as a means of answering epistemological questions.^ Secondly, research in child development has revitalized and reoriented the field, challenging it anew.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the second stage, the child may answer inaccurately, but with questions by the observer he can be made to see that the class of wooden beads includes the brown beads.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.math.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outline: The Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget 's Understanding Of the Mind of the Child The Developmental Process Influence Developmental Psychology Education Historical Studies of Thought and Cognition From the Paper "While helping to mark the results of the responses to various intelligence tests, Piaget noticed that on certain question, young children consistently answered wrongly.
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

His exploration of genetic epistemology is divided into four different stages:
  1. the sociological model of development,
  2. the biological model of intellectual development,
  3. the elaboration of the logical model of intellectual development,
  4. the study of figurative thought.
Stage 1
The Sociological Model of Development
.Piaget first developed this stage in the 1920’s.^ Piaget believes the first stage of development should be a cognitive one.
  • Term-Papers.us - A Comparison Of Piaget, Freud, And Erikson 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sensorimotor Stage is the first stage Piaget uses to define cognitive development.
  • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget's four stages of intellectual development are: .
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He investigated the hidden side of children’s minds. .Piaget proposed that children moved from a position of egocentrism to sociocentrism.^ Piaget - Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development During the 1920s, a biologist named Jean Piaget proposed a theory of cognitive development of children.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is thought that Piaget overestimated the levels of egocentrism in children.
  • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Piaget said that young children were egocentric, or thought egocentrically, he did not mean this primarily in a moral sense.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For this explanation he combined the use of psychological and clinical methods to create what he called a semiclinical interview.^ Other studies from this period used what he called the "clinical interview" (an open-ended series of questions, modeled after clinical practice and intended to diagnose the type of thinking the child was using).
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He began the interview by asking children standardized questions and depending on how they answered, he would ask them a series of nonstandard questions.^ In other words, he began asking how children reasoned.
  • Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry Markovits Abstract Macnamara and Austin argue that Piaget seriously misinterpreted the significance of childrens...they have made some basic errors in their analysis of the Piagetian position and that their alternative theory of how children...
  • jean piaget - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Piaget Jean: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is remarkable concordance in the information given by children of 10-12 belonging to the same class at school, when they are questioned on the rules of the game and their possible variations.
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Piaget was looking for what he called “spontaneous conviction” so he often asked questions the children neither expected nor anticipated.^ Piaget assumed that the newborn had a few basic biological capacities — like sucking and looking — and two major processes of acquiring knowledge, that he called assimilation and accommodation.
  • THE WORLD QUESTION CENTER 2008 — Page 1 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ VC 10472 Summary : Questions Piaget’s theory that children go though a universal development process and discusses new evidence about cultural influences.
  • Child Development 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC library.duke.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was while he was helping to mark some instances of these intelligence tests that Piaget noticed that young children consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

.In his studies, he noticed there was a gradual progression from intuitive to scientific and socially acceptable responses.^ Developmental psychology , also known as Human Development , is the scientific study of progressive psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ For the construction of the objective world and the elaboration of strict reasoning both consist in a gradual reduction of egocentricity in favor of the progressive socialization of thought.
  • The Principle Features of Child Logic - Excerpts from the works of Jean Piaget - Judgment and Reasoning in the Child | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jean Piaget: Encyclopedia - Developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific study of progressive psychological changes that occur in human beings as they age.

.Piaget theorized children did this because of the social interaction and the challenge to younger children’s ideas by the ideas of those children who were more advanced.^ Social interaction and cognitive development in children .
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Hence it is clear that Piaget did not ignore the role of social interaction.
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld - Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.oikos.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.cas.buffalo.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC arbeitsblaetter.stangl-taller.at [Source type: Original source]

^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
  • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

Stage 2
The Biological Model of Intellectual Development
.In this stage, Piaget described intelligence as having two closely interrelated parts.^ Piaget explains little Jacqueline's behavior like this: From birth to about two years, children are in the "sensorimotor stage" of cognitive development.
  • I Am. Therefore, I Think - American Camp Association 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.campparents.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: cognitive, development, intelligence, stages, genetic, constraints Jean Piaget A review of the life of Jean Piaget and his contribution to psychology.
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget eventually came to believe that intelligence is a form of adaptation, wherein knowledge is constructed by each individual through the two complimentary processes of assimilation and accommodation .

.The first part, which is from the first stage, was the content of children's thinking.^ Piaget's theory has two main strands: first, an account of the mechanisms by which cognitive development takes place; and second, an account of the four main stages of cognitive development through which children pass.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Piaget made the first effort to define stages of moral reasoning in children through actual interviews and through observations of children (in games with rules).
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The youngest children, in the first stage, generally identify the taller container or the more numerous containers as having more liquid.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.math.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The second part was the process of intellectual activity. .He believed this process of thinking could be regarded as an extension of the biological process of adaptation.^ Similar relationships could be established in regard to teleological thinking and participatory thinking.
  • On the Formation of Ontological Concepts: the Theories of Whitehead and Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.religion-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Already as a teenager he had been puzzled by the process of biological adaptation.
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld - Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.oikos.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC arbeitsblaetter.stangl-taller.at [Source type: Original source]

^ Piaget eventually came to believe that intelligence is a form of adaptation, wherein knowledge is constructed by each individual through the two complimentary processes of assimilation and accommodation .

.Adaptation has two pieces: assimilation and accommodation.^ Piaget assumed that the newborn had a few basic biological capacities — like sucking and looking — and two major processes of acquiring knowledge, that he called assimilation and accommodation.
  • THE WORLD QUESTION CENTER 2008 — Page 1 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the process of adaptation, we assimilate information through existing cognitive structures and sometimes accommodate these previous structures as a result of the newly assimilated information.

^ Schemas are continually being modified by two complementary processes that Piaget termed assimilation and accommodation.
  • Cognitive development | Encyclopedia of Psychology | Find Articles at BNET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

To test his theory, Piaget observed the habits in his own children. .He argued infants were engaging in an act of assimilation when they sucked on everything in their reach.^ An example of assimilation would be when an infant uses a sucking schema that was developed by sucking on a small bottle when attempting to suck on a larger bottle.

^ So, for example, when small children put everything they grasp into their mouth, or call all small animals "dogs," they are assimilating.
  • P540 - Learning and Cognition 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Piaget: Key ideas 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC homepage.ntlworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He claimed infants transform all objects into an object to be sucked.^ But there is a second possibility: when we are acting upon an object, we can also take into account the action itself, or operation if you will, since the transformation can be carried out mentally.
  • Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Piaget observed among his children, that as infants they all manipulated objects as a way in which to gain knowledge about them.
  • DUFFEY ON: JEAN PIAGET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.users.muohio.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The children were assimilating the objects to conform to their own mental structures.^ According to Wadsworth (1978), '..the child's active assimilation of objects and events results in the development of structures (schemata) that reflect the childs' concepts of the world or reality.

^ These children constantly assimilate new persons, objects, and ideas through their existing structures and modify these structures while they progress from a bundle of reflexes to the more sophisticated thinkers of the next stage.

^ Assimilation is said to reflect a quantitative change in mental structure (growth) while accommodation reflects a qualitative one (development).

.Piaget then made the assumption whenever one transforms the world to meet individual needs or conceptions; one is, in a way, assimilating it.^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coordinating one's own perspective with that of others means that what is right needs to be based on solutions that meet the requirements of fair reciprocity.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Wadsworth (1978), '..the child's active assimilation of objects and events results in the development of structures (schemata) that reflect the childs' concepts of the world or reality.

.Piaget also observed his children not only assimilating objects to fit their needs, but also modifying some of their mental structures to meet the demands of the environment.^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was while he was helping to mark some instances of these intelligence tests that Piaget noticed that young children consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget emphasized the functional quality of assimilation, where children and adults tend to apply any mental structure that is available to assimilate a new event, and actively seek to use this newly acquired mental structure.
  • Piaget's Constructivism - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

This is the second division of adaption known as accommodation. .To start out, the infants only engaged in primarily reflex actions such as sucking, but not long after, they would pick up actual objects and put them in their mouths.^ If you were to take something apart and put it back together they would not understand this action, because they cannot think inverse.
  • Piaget's Stages 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC frontpage.wiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the students may be at such diverse starting points that they have to be dealt with individually.

^ He would put children in front of a simple plaster mountain range and seat himself to the side, then ask them to pick from four pictures the view that he, Piaget, would see.
  • Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When they do this, they modify their reflex response to accommodate the external objects into reflex actions.^ They may be just household objects, like just a piece of cloth or a blanket, which the child will turn into a myriad of make-believe toys.
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they have figured out one way of “doing” they are likely to try and reapply that action with other objects in their environment.
  • Articles and Theory for Young Learners 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.englishraven.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freud's famous phrase "Where id was let ego be" reflects the view that only when id contents are integrated into the ego can they be modified to conform to current reality demands.
  • SEPI Documents 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.cyberpsych.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the two are often in conflict, they provide the impetus for intellectual development.^ He called this the sensorimotor stage of intellectual development, lasting from birth to two years old, because intelligence at that time is measured largely by the infant's deliberate motor actions, and the immediate sensory feedback they receive from those actions.
  • DUFFEY ON: JEAN PIAGET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.users.muohio.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children And Play In The First - Child’s Play: The First Two Years of Life In the first two years of life play is both a reflection of and an influence on all areas of infant development: intellectual, social, emotional and physical.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The more tools children have for learning in these first two years, the better students of concept and language development they will be.
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The constant need to balance the two, triggers intellectual growth.^ According to Piaget, two major principles guide intellectual growth and biological development: adaptation and organization.
  • Piaget's Constructivism - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC projects.coe.uga.edu [Source type: Academic]

Stage 3
The Elaboration of the Logical Model of Intellectual Development
.In the model Piaget developed in stage three, he argued the idea that intelligence develops in a series of stages that are related to age and are progressive because one stage must be accomplished before the next can occur.^ Each theorist developed ideas and stages for human development.
  • Term-Papers.us - A Comparison Of Piaget, Freud, And Erikson 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or does learning prompt movement from one stage of development to the next?
  • P540 - Learning and Cognition 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And so he developed the idea of stages of cognitive development.
  • Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC webspace.ship.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For each stage of development the child forms a view of reality for that age period.^ This week we look at Piagets conception of child development, considering his views of psychological structure and function, the well-known developmental stages he delineated, the constructions that underly these states, and the structuralist reconstructions of the childs competence.
  • Theories of Development 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.mathcs.duq.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the pre-operational period, the child begins to develop the use of symbols (but can not manipulate them), and the child is able to use language and words to represent things not visible.
  • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget emphasized the maturational development of the child through the stages of preoperational, operational, and formal operational thinking.
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the next stage, the child must keep up with earlier level of mental abilities to reconstruct concepts.^ However, the second stage of Level One engenders a moral behavior that is not so ethical nature but rather introvert, inducing actions wherein a child performs keeping mind his needs and desires rather than what is morally accurate or inaccurate."
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is recommended that parents and teachers challenge the child's abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level.

^ Objects and events can be mentally represented by the older child during this stage (sometimes called object permanence).
  • P540 - Learning and Cognition 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Piaget concluded intellectual development as an upward expanding spiral in which children must constantly reconstruct the ideas formed at earlier levels with new, higher order concepts acquired at the next level.^ Piaget's four stages of intellectual development are: .
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jean Piaget ( 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980 ) was a Swiss developmental psychologist, famous for his work with children and his theory of cognitive development .
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Piaget's theory has two main strands: first, an account of the mechanisms by which cognitive development takes place; and second, an account of the four main stages of cognitive development through which children pass.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

Stage 4
The Study of Figurative thought
Piaget studied areas of intelligence like perception and memory that aren’t entirely logical. .Logical concepts are described as being completely reversible because they can always get back to the starting point.^ Learners can always go back and think at earlier stages; but during each stage they become increasingly free of constraints that would have been imposed on them at the previous stage.

^ For the former this is because they can see that in a conservation task, for example, the change made could be reversed to regain the original properties.
  • Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This causes children trouble because they judge it by its appearance rather than using logic.
  • DUFFEY ON: JEAN PIAGET 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.users.muohio.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The perceptual concepts Piaget studied could not be manipulated.^ Visual and tactual representations of the concepts- such as those used by Piaget in his studies- will aid in comprehension.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.math.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the concept of equilibration is extremely important to Piagetian theorists, practitioners can benefit from a study of the other components of Piaget's theory without a deeper understanding of the concept of equilibration.

.To describe the figurative process, Piaget uses pictures as examples.^ Piaget's puzzling and unsatisfactory treatment of "figurative" knowledge (perception, imagery, and language) was driven by his rejection of the uses others wanted to make of it.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was described by Piaget, you remember, as a dying out of egocentric speech as the thought processes mature.
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget used the concepts of assimilation and accommodation to explain this continual process.
  • P540 - Learning and Cognition 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pictures can’t be separated because contours cannot be separated from the forms they outline. Memory is the same way. It is never completely reversible. .During this last period of work, Piaget and his colleague Inhelder also published books on perception, memory, and other figurative processes such as learning during this last period.^ During this period, he was introduced to the works of Freud, Jung, and others.
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^ Originally concerned with infants and children, and later other periods of great change such as adolescence and aging, it now encompases the entire life span.

^ Perhaps most important is a rejection of the widespread notion of figurative knowledge in Piaget, particularly, though far from exclusively, in perception.
  • What is Interactivism? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

[8][9][10]
.Recently, Jonathan Tsou argued that Piaget's later epistemological works could serve as a remedy for the flaws in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions.^ Jean Piaget ( 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980 ) was a Swiss developmental psychologist, famous for his work with children and his theory of cognitive development .
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jean Piaget , Michel Foucault, and Thomas Kuhn...as a school of thought, though Jean Piaget tried to make it into all three...between observation and perception.
  • Piaget Jean: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The philosopher Thomas Kuhn credited Piaget's work in helping him understand the transition between modes of thought which characterized his theory of paradigm shifts .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

[11] .However, this criticism missed some of the history between them, as well as the existence of a "lost manuscript" by Kuhn (currently held at the University of Chicago) that was to address his critics' concerns.^ Genetic epistemology (which, for Piaget, included the history of scientific ideas, as well as the study of development in individuals) is consistent with Objectivism in its biocentric concerns.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this regard, Kohlberg reconciled some of the differences in orientation that existed between the theories of moral growth held by Piaget and Durkheim.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .It is noted, however, that the implications of his later work remain largely unexamined.^ However, one can not consider this period of searching a waste, as it was productive in its own rights, and laid a basis for much of his later work.
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The physical microstructure of “schemes”

.In his “Biology and Knowledge” (1967+ / French 1965), Piaget tentatively hinted at possible physical embodiments for his abstract “scheme” entities.^ It is agreed that logical and mathematical structures are abstract, whereas physical knowledge - the knowledge based on experience in general - is concrete.
  • Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He also attempted a synthesis of physics, biology, psychology, and epistemology, published as Biology and Knowledge (1971).
  • Piaget Jean: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like Freud and Piaget before him, Skinner was chiefly concerned with developing an evolutionary theory of knowledge informed by, and consistent with, that of biology.

.At the time, there was much talk and research about RNA as such an agent of learning, and Piaget considered some of the evidence.^ Research, teaching, and learning with the Piaget model .

^ Although made possible by Piaget's ambiguity about some of his key concepts (e.g., stage and structure), such an interpretation is greatly due to its focus on Piaget's structural-stage theory at the expense of his equilibration theory, and also to its emphasis on factual investigations at the cost of conceptual investigations.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of the confusion which arises from the traditional way of talking about transference phenomena is a result of the cognitive and perceptual theory which underlay Freud's theorizing.
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However he did not offer any firm conclusions, and confessed that this was beyond his area of expertise.
.Piaget died in 1980, and by then the RNA theory had lost its appeal.^ Jean Piaget ( 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980 ) was a Swiss developmental psychologist, famous for his work with children and his theory of cognitive development .
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Main Features of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development - The Main Features of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss biologist turned Psychologist, has had perhaps the most influential development on the understanding and progression of Cognitive Development.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Critique of Piaget's Theories - The Critique of Piaget's Theories Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) was a constructivist theorist.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

.One key reason was this: Until recently, nearly all RNA was assumed to be wholly devoted to producing protein; and such protein did not fit in with the evidence about learning.^ Play is a central, all–encompassing characteristic of infant development, allowing children to learn about the world and themselves.
  • Free Jean Piaget Essays 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So there are all sorts of reasons, psychological reasons, that can explain why the crisis brought about by relativity theory was not a fatal one for physics.
  • Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometimes nearly all of the students may be at different starting points, but there is still a common pattern that can be followed in helping them learn.

However in about 2000 it became clear that only about 3% of RNA was thus employed, and the remaining “non-coding” RNA (ncRNA) — the 97% — was thus available for other tasks, including possible embodiments of Piaget’s “scheme” elements. (Traill, 2005b / 2008).
It has still not been established that this ncRNA scheme-basis is true. (There are methodological and other problems (Traill, 2000)). .However some interesting theoretical advances have been made possible because of that theoretical development, including some unexpected explanations in various disciplines.^ In social species, however, (and with caveats for various interesting phenomena that occur on evolutionary scales), it becomes possible for cognitive phenomena to occur at the social level, and strictly at the social level.
  • What is Interactivism? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So for each insight there is at least some explanation possible, but the same explanation may then be given for radically different insights.
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^ In the process of researching the cognitive development of children, I came across some interesting material on the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1978).
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In particular such molecular encoding easily explains: (i) the inheritance of stereotyped behavioural traits (capable of later modification or re-configuration); and (ii) Piagetian/Darwinian trial-and-error amongst massive populations of such entities.
.It also implies the need for a significant amount of organized short-range infra-red activity, and that also yields some unexpected explanations in its own right.^ Coordinating one's own perspective with that of others means that what is right needs to be based on solutions that meet the requirements of fair reciprocity.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, when an epistemologist needs to call on some psychological aspect, he does not refer to psychological research and he does not consult psychologists; he depends on his own reflections.
  • Genetic Epistemology 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some individuals can do it on their own while most others (my self included) need the direction offered by formal educators.
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E.g. .(iii) it possibly accounts for an anomaly in the capability of the optic nerve — which appears to carry much more information than it seems capable of (judged in terms of traditional mechanisms alone).^ For this reason, followers of Piaget do not put much stock in traditional IQ tests to obtain information about a child's mental processes.

^ Vygotsky's assertion was that a child learns best among peers who are more skilled which provides the child with a scaffold comprised of intellect and experience and through this; the child is able to complete tasks much more complex than they would be capable of on their own.
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is when the child is accustomed to act from the point of view of those around him, when he tries to please rather than to obey, that he will judge in terms of intentions.
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

See optic nerve, appendix. — And (iv) it seems likely to explain the century-old mystery of how myelin geometry is controlled. (Traill, 2005a).

Influence

Despite ceasing to be a fashionable psychologist, the magnitude of Piaget's continuing influence can be measured by the global scale and activity of the Jean Piaget Society, which holds annual conferences and attracts very large numbers of participants. His theory of cognitive development has proved influential in many different areas:

Developmental psychology

.Piaget is without doubt one of the most influential developmental psychologists, influencing not only the work of Lev Vygotsky and of Lawrence Kohlberg but whole generations of eminent academics.^ One is the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and the other is the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky.

^ Jean Piaget ( 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980 ) was a Swiss developmental psychologist, famous for his work with children and his theory of cognitive development .
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Driscoll, Chapters 6 and 7 Optional: Gredler, Chapters 9 and 10 Optional readings on Vygotsky: Although Vygotsky's ideas can be difficult to understand, his work has been very influential in the U.S., especially in the past decade or so.
  • P540 - Learning and Cognition 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although subjecting his ideas to massive scrutiny led to innumerable improvements and qualifications of his original model and the emergence of a plethora of neo-Piagetian and post-Piagetian variants, Piaget's original model has proved to be remarkably robust (Lourenço and Machado 1996).^ Although subjecting his ideas to massive scrutiny led to innumerable improvements and qualifications of his original model and the emergence of a plethora of neo-Piagetian and post-Piagetian variants, Piaget’s original model has proved to be remarkably robust (Lourenço and Machado 1996).
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ On a more general level, Robinson’s Birth of Reason (2005) suggests a large-scale model for the emergence of a Piagetian intelligence.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ He emphasized the 'primacy of cognitive maturation, guided by various sorts of experience' JEAN PIAGET - Swiss psychologist originally trained in zoology but with philosophical interests.
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Education and development of morality

.During the 1970s and 1980s, Piaget's works also inspired the transformation of European and American education, including both theory and practice, leading to a more ‘child-centered’ approach.^ In this paper, I show that it is possible and important to go beyond the standard reading of Piaget's theory, and to extend or reinterpret it on the basis of the constructivist epistemology that lies at the heart of his work.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

.In Conversations with Jean Piaget, he says: "Education, for most people, means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society .^ In Conversations with Jean Piaget , he says: "Education, for most people, means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversations with Jean Piaget (1980) by Jean Claude Bringuier Education, for most people, means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society...
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Jean Piaget - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC cs.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be argued that although he was not an educator himself, Jean Piaget has had a more significant impact on educational psychology than any other psychologist in history.

. . but for me and no one else, education means making creators. . . . You have to make inventors, innovators—not conformists" (Bringuier, 1980, p. 132).
.Piaget's influence is strongest in early education and moral education.^ T his segment was designed to provide an overview of the major developmental theories currently influencing research on moral education.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outline: Introduction The Early Years Piaget 's Theory in Stages Piaget 's Influence on Education Criticisms of Piaget 's Model Conclusion From the Paper "In the past few decades, theories of cognitive psychology have been applied to many different aspects of modern life.
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The paper discusses his influence on education and notes criticisms of Piaget 's model.
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

.His theory of cognitive development can be used as a tool in the early childhood classroom.^ A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

.According to Piaget, children developed best in a classroom with interaction.^ Social interaction and cognitive development in children .
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Jean Piaget and Child Development Angela Oswalt, MSW Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1990), created a cognitive-developmental stage theory that described how children's ways of thinking developed as they interacted with the world around them.
  • Seabhs - Child & Adolescent Development Overview - Jean Piaget and Child Development 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.seabhs.org [Source type: General]

^ Tags: constructivism, child, development, multiple, intelligences, environment Psychological Development of Children An overview of Jean Piaget 's theories on the psychological development of children.
  • Term Papers on jean piaget | jean piaget essays | AcaDemon 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.academon.com [Source type: Academic]

.Piaget believed in two basic principles relating to moral education: that children develop moral ideas in stages and that children create their conceptions of the world.^ Stage» in Piaget's cognitive developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

.According to Piaget, "the child is someone who constructs his own moral world view, who forms ideas about right and wrong, and fair and unfair, that are not the direct product of adult teaching and that are often maintained in the face of adult wishes to the contrary" (Gallagher, 1978, p. 26).^ Piaget's view of the child's mind .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget and Plasticine: Who's Right about Conservation?
  • Piaget Jean: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget and Plasticine: Whos Right about Conservation?
  • Piaget Jean: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Piaget believed that children made moral judgments based on their own observations of the world.^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Essay Town - College Term Papers, Essays, Research Papers for Reference 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.ra-essaytown.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Piaget and his colleagues made careful attempts to train children in problem solving by teaching them new ways of talking about particular tasks and concepts.
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 1927 Piaget and his associates accumulated thousands of factual and theoretical observations on children's mental development.
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Piaget's theory of morality was radical when his book, The Moral Judgment of the Child, was published in 1932 for two reasons: his use of philosophical criteria to define morality (as universalizable, generalizable, and obligatory) and his rejection of equating cultural norms with moral norms.^ Le jugement moral chez l'enfant [The moral judgment of the child].
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Commentary on Vygotsky's criticisms of language and thought of the child and judgment and reasoning in the child.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Le jugement et le raisonnement chez l'enfant [Judgment and reasoning in the child].
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

Piaget, drawing on Kantian theory, proposed that morality developed out of peer interaction and that it was autonomous from authority mandates. .Peers, not parents, were a key source of moral concepts such as equality, reciprocity, and justice.^ In her view, the morality of caring and responsibility is premised in nonviolence, while the morality of justice and rights is based on equality.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, Vygotsky is relevant to instructional concepts such as "scaffolding" and "apprenticeship", in which a teacher or more advanced peer helps to structure or arrange a task so that a novice can work on it successfully.
  • P540 - Learning and Cognition 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within domain theory a distinction is drawn between the child's developing concepts of morality, and other domains of social knowledge, such as social convention.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Piaget attributed different types of psychosocial processes to different forms of social relationships, introducing a fundamental distinction between different types of said relationships.. Where there is constraint because one participant holds more power than the other the relationship is asymmetrical, and, importantly, the knowledge that can be acquired by the dominated participant takes on a fixed and inflexible form. .Piaget refers to this process as one of social transmission, illustrating it through reference to the way in which the elders of a tribe initiate younger members into the patterns of beliefs and practices of the group.^ Beyond one-dimensional change: Parallel, concurrent, socially distributed processes in learning and development.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

.Similarly, where adults exercise a dominating influence over the growing child, it is through social transmission that children can acquire knowledge.^ Similarly where adults exercise a dominating influence over the growing child, it is through social transmission that children can acquire knowledge.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In such circumstances, where children’s thinking is not limited by a dominant influence, the conditions exist for the emergence of constructive solutions to problems, or what Piaget refers to as the reconstruction of knowledge rather than social transmission.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because he identified child psychology as being limited to merely the study of the child, whereas his main focus was the study of the origins, characteristics, and limitations of knowledge, usually as seen in the development in children.
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By contrast, in cooperative relations, power is more evenly distributed between participants so that a more symmetrical relationship emerges. .Under these conditions, authentic forms of intellectual exchange become possible; each partner has the freedom to project his or her own thoughts, consider the positions of others, and defend his or her own point of view.^ As a result of changing my mind about this, I now view the judgments of others, however distinguished or expert they are, as no more valid than my own.
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^ Be aware that they are likely to be deficient or inconsistent in seeing things from others' point of view.

^ Egocentric thinking persists throughout childhood, as shown by the child's unawareness of points of view other than his own, and projection of his own wishes, fears, and desires onto the world around him.
  • The Principle Features of Child Logic - Excerpts from the works of Jean Piaget - Judgment and Reasoning in the Child | Tela Communications 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.telacommunications.com [Source type: Original source]

.In such circumstances, where children’s thinking is not limited by a dominant influence, Piaget believed "the reconstruction of knowledge", or favorable conditions for the emergence of constructive solutions to problems, exists.^ Piaget believed that knowledge is primarily operative.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget believed that older children not only know quantitatively more than younger ones, but actually think in qualitatively different ways.
  • Essays and Papers on PSYCHOLOGY: PIAGET Research Papers, Essays, and Term Papers 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.research-assistance.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Piaget’s theory differed from empiricist theories of development, which suggest that children learn through experience, and nativist theories that maintain we are born with innate knowledge that gradually comes to maturation.
  • Piaget's Theory For Parents | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

.Here the knowledge that emerges is open, flexible and regulated by the logic of argument rather than being determined by an external authority.^ Here the knowledge which emerges is open, flexible and regulated by the logic of argument rather than being determined by an external authority.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ His method of classifying mollusks was being superseded by methods that emphasized the animals' internal anatomy rather than the characteristics of their shells.
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his "Sociological Studies", Piaget analyzes the processes of social interaction in far greater detail than any of the authors, who focus on the social rather than the individual construction of knowledge.
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  • Ernst von Glasersfeld Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC arbeitsblaetter.stangl-taller.at [Source type: Original source]

.In short, cooperative relations provide the arena for the emergence of operations, which for Piaget requires the absence of any constraining influence, and is most often illustrated by the relations that form between peers (for more on the importance of this distinction see Duveen & Psaltis, in press; Psaltis & Duveen, 2006,2007).^ While Kohlberg appreciated the importance and value of such moral dilemma discussions, he held from very early on that moral education required more than individual reflection, but also needed to include experiences for students to operate as moral agents within a community.
  • An Overview of Moral Development and Moral Education 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC tigger.uic.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On what must be done when rendering Piaget in English, see the preface by the dean of Piaget translators, Terrance Brown, to Jean Piaget, The equilibration of cognitive structures (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
  • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget elaborated the notion of reflection on mental operations, and provided a model for how it operates in conjunction with abstraction and generalization.
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld - Homage to Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.oikos.org [Source type: Original source]

Historical studies of thought and cognition

Historical changes of thought have been modeled in Piagetian terms. .Broadly speaking these models have mapped changes in morality, intellectual life and cognitive levels against historical changes (typically in the complexity of social systems).^ Studies confirm that there is a cognitive basis for moral judgment as educational level correlates with score on moral reasoning tests.
  • Child Development - Prism 2 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC academic.pg.cc.md.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I mplications for education Education involves the childs growth and development as well as norms of socialisation - social, intellectual and moral values.
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The approach is called 'cognitive' because it recognizes that moral education, like intellectual education, has its basis in stimulating the active thinking of the child about moral issues and decisions.
  • link: Piaget (educational theory) 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.holisticeducator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Notable examples include:
.
  • Michael Horace Barnes' study of the co-evolution of religious and scientific thinking[13]
  • Peter Damerow's theory of prehistoric and archaic thought[14]
  • Kieran Egan's stages of understanding[15]
  • James W. Fowler's stages of faith development
  • Suzy Gablik's stages of art history[16]
  • Christopher Hallpike's studies of changes in cognition and moral judgment in pre-historical, archaic and classical periods ...^ Structures, stages, and sequences in cognitive development.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Interpreting inclusion: A contribution to the study of the child's cognitive and linguistic development.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Studies in cognitive development: Essays in honor of Jean Piaget (pp.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    (Hallpike 1979, 2004)
  • Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development
  • Don Lepan's theory of the origins of modern thought and drama[17]
  • Charles Radding's theory of the medieval intellectual development[18]
  • Jürgen Habermas's reworking of historical materialism.

Non human development

Neo-Piagetian stages have been applied to the maximum stage attained by various animals. For example spiders attain the circular sensory motor stage, coordinating actions and perceptions. Pigeons attain the sensory motor stage, forming concepts.[citation needed]

Origins

.The origins of human intelligence have also been studied in Piagetian terms.^ The origins of human intelligence have also been studied in Piagetian terms.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether that single factor be termed positive manifold, neural processing speed, or g , the complexities of the human mind and its processes can be reduced to a single factor, defined as intelligence.

^ Origins of Intelligence: The Evolution of Cognitive Development in Monkeys, Apes and Humans .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

Wynn (1979, 1981) analysed Acheulian and Oldowan tools in terms of the insight into spatial relationships required to create each kind. On a more general level, Robinson's Birth of Reason (2005) suggests a large-scale model for the emergence of a Piagetian intelligence.

Primatology

.Piaget's models of cognition have also been applied outside the human sphere, and some primatologists assess the development and abilities of primates in terms of Piaget's model.^ NOTES: Piaget and his theory of cognitive development.
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piaget’s models of cognition have also been applied outside the human sphere, and there is a thriving community of primatologists assessing the development and abilities of primates in terms of Piaget’s model.
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ But Piaget did observe many children to provide us with some valuable insights into their cognitive and language development.
  • Piaget: Concepts before words; and Egocentric Speech before social speech 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Philosophy

Some have taken account of Piaget's work. .For example, the philosopher and social theorist Jürgen Habermas has incorporated Piaget into his work, most notably in The Theory of Communicative Action. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn credited Piaget's work in helping him understand the transition between modes of thought which characterized his theory of paradigm shifts.^ In this paper, I show that it is possible and important to go beyond the standard reading of Piaget's theory, and to extend or reinterpret it on the basis of the constructivist epistemology that lies at the heart of his work.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

[20][21] Shortly before his death (September, 1980), Piaget was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre Royaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he discussed his point of view with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin.

Artificial intelligence

.Piaget also had a considerable effect in the field of computer science and artificial intelligence.^ Piaget also had a considerable effect in the field of computer science and artificial intelligence .
  • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science: Impasse and Solution.
  • Mark Bickhard's Publications Chronologically 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Tenth Biennial Conference on AI and Cognitive Science organised by the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour and the Department of Computer Science at the University of Sheffield.
  • Mark Bickhard's Publications Chronologically 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.lehigh.edu [Source type: Academic]

Seymour Papert used Piaget's work while developing the Logo programming language. .Alan Kay used Piaget's theories as the basis for the Dynabook programming system concept, which was first discussed within the confines of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, or Xerox PARC.^ Stage» in Piaget's cognitive developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ In this paper, I show that it is possible and important to go beyond the standard reading of Piaget's theory, and to extend or reinterpret it on the basis of the constructivist epistemology that lies at the heart of his work.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

These discussions led to the development of the Alto prototype, which explored for the first time all the elements of the graphical user interface (GUI), and influenced the creation of user interfaces in the 1980s and beyond.

Piagetian scholars and collaborators

List of Major works

This list has been completely rewritten to avoid the inclusion of personal favourites. In the list below, the following definitions have been used:
  • Exemplars: More than 5,000 citations in Google Scholar
  • Super-Classics: More than 2,500 citations in Google Scholar
  • Classics: More than 1,000 citations in Google Scholar
  • Major Works: More than 500 citations in Google Scholar
  • Works of Significance: More than 250 citations in Google Scholar
If others are to be included, a new section should be created and the additions should be accompanied by a brief explanation regarding their significance. (Self-evident sections, such as "new translations," do not require further explanation.)
The references have been presented in order of their impact according to Google Scholar.

Exemplars

  • Piaget, J. (1952). The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International University Press. .(Original work published 1936.)
  • Piaget, J. (1932).^ London: Routledge (original work published 1965, expanded 2nd ed.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ (Original work published 1977).
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    The Moral Judgment of the Child. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co. (Original work published 1932.)

Super-Classics

.
  • The construction of reality in the child
  • Piaget, J. (1962).^ La construction du réel chez l'enfant [The construction of reality in the child].
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    .Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood.^ Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood .
    • UMD Library - Psychologists - Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ La formation du symbole chez l'enfant [Play, dreams, and play in childhood].
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    New York: Norton.
  • The language and thought of the child
  • Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B. (1962). The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books.
  • Inhelder, B. and J. Piaget (1958). .The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence.^ The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence; an essay on the construction of formal operational structures .
    • UMD Library - Psychologists - Jean Piaget 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.d.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ De la logique de l'enfant à la logique de l'adolescent [The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence].
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    New York: Basic Books.
  • Piaget, J. (1928). The Child's Conception of the World. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Piaget, J. (1951). The Psychology of Intelligence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

Classics

  • Piaget, J., and Inhelder, B. (1967). .The Child's Conception of Space.^ The Child’s Conception of Space .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Piaget, J. (1983). Piaget's theory. In P. Mussen (ed.). .Handbook of Child Psychology.^ Handbook of child psychology (Vol.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Handbook of Child Psychology .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Handbook of child psychology (5th ed), D. Kuhn & R. Siegler (volume editors), Cognition, perception,and language.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    4th edition. Vol. 1. New York: Wiley.
  • Piaget, J. (1952). The Child's Conception of Number. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Piaget, J. (1970). Structuralism. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Genetic epistemology
  • The early growth of logic in the child
  • The origin of intelligence in the child

Major Works

  • Piaget, J. (1971). Biology and Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Science of education and the psychology of the child
  • The child's conception of physical causality
  • Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood
  • Six psychological studies
  • Piaget, J. (1985). .The Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development.^ On what must be done when rendering Piaget in English, see the preface by the dean of Piaget translators, Terrance Brown, to Jean Piaget, The equilibration of cognitive structures (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Equilibration of Cognitive Structures: The Central Problem of Intellectual Development .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ L'équilibration des structures cognitives [The equilibration of cognitive structures].
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (New translation of The Development of Thought)
  • Child's Conception of Geometry
  • Development and learning
  • To understand is to invent: The future of education
  • The development of thought: Equilibration of cognitive structures (see Equilibration of Cognitive Structures)
  • Language and learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky
  • The Principles of Genetic Epistemology

Works of Significance

  • Piaget, J. (1977). The Grasp of Consciousness: Action and concept in the young child. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Piaget, J. (1955). The Child's Construction of Reality. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • The mechanisms of perception
  • Piaget, J. (1972). Psychology and Epistemology: Towards a Theory of Knowledge. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • The child's conception of time
  • Piaget, J. (1953). Logic and Psychology. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Memory and intelligence
  • Piaget, J. (1975). The Origin of the Idea of Chance in Children. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Mental imagery in the child
  • Piaget, J. (1981). Intelligence and Affectivity. .Their Relationship during Child Development.^ Their Relationship during Child Development .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    Palo Alto: Annual Reviews.
  • Piaget, J., and Garcia, R. (1989). .Psychogenesis and the History of Science.^ Psychogenesis and the History of Science .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Beth, E. W., and Piaget, J. (1966). Mathematical Epistemology and Psychology. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
  • The growth of the mind

New Translations

  • Piaget, J. (1995). Sociological Studies. London: Routledge.
  • Piaget, J. (2000). Commentary on Vygotsky. New Ideas in Psychology, 18, 241-59.
  • Piaget, J. (2001). .Studies in Reflecting Abstraction.^ Jean Piaget, Studies in reflecting abstraction (edited and translated by Robert L. Campbell; Hove: Psychology Press, 2000), Chapter 2, p.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Studies in Reflecting Abstraction .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Major Commentaries and Critiques

Piaget inspired innumerable studies and even new areas of inquiry. The following is a list of the major critiques and commentaries, organized using the same citation-based method as the list of his own major works (above). These represent the most important and influential post-Piagetian writings in their respective sub-disciplines.

Exemplars

  • Vygotsky, L. (1963). Thought and language. [12630 citations]

Classics

  • Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas. [4089]
  • Minsky, M. (1988). The society of mind. [3950]
  • Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage And Sequence: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach To Socialization. [3118]
  • Flavell, J. (1963). The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. [2333]
  • Gibson, E. J. (1973). Principles of perceptual learning and development. [1903]
  • Meltzoff, A. N. & Moore, M. K. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. [1497]
  • Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood. [1456]
  • Fischer, K. W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. [1001]

Major Works

  • Bates, E. (1976). Language and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. [959]
  • Ginsberg, H. P. & Opper, S. (1969). Piaget's theory of intellectual development. [931]
  • Singley, M. K. & Anderson, J. R. (1989). The transfer of cognitive skill. [836]
  • Duckworth, E. (1973). The having of wonderful ideas. [775]
  • Youniss, J. (1982). Parents and peers in social development: A Sullivan-Piaget perspective. [763]
  • Hunt, J. McV. (1961). Intelligence and Experience. [607]
  • Pascual-Leone, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget's developmental stages. [563]
  • Schaffer, H. R. & Emerson, P. E. (1964). The development of social attachments in infancy. [535]

Works of Significance

  • Shatz, M. & Gelman, R. (1973). The Development of Communication Skills: Modifications in the Speech of Young Children as a Function of Listener. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38(5), pp. 1-37.[470]
  • Borke, H. (1971). Interpersonal perception of young children: Egocentrism or Empathy? Developmental Psychology, 5(2), pp. 263-269.[469]
  • Wadsworth, B. J. (1989). Piaget's theory of cognitive and affective development [421]
  • Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond Modularity. [419]
  • Bodner, G. M. (1986). Constructivism: A theory of knowledge. [403]
  • Shantz, C. U. (1975). The Development of Social Cognition. [387]
  • Diamond, A. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1989). Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget's AB task: evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 74(1), pp. 24-40. [370]
  • Gruber, H. & Voneche, H. (1982). The Essential Piaget. [348]
  • Walkerdine, V. (1984). Developmental psychology and the child-centred pedagogy: The insertion of Piaget into early education. [338]
  • Kamii, C. & DeClark, G. (1985). Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory [335]
  • Riegel, K. F. (1973). Dialectic operations: The final period of cognitive development [316]
  • Bandura, A. & McDonald, F. J. (1963). Influence of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children's moral judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(3), pp. 274-281. [314]
  • Karplus, R. (1980). Teaching for the development of reasoning. [312]
  • Brainerd, C. (1978). The stage question in cognitive-developmental theory. [311]
  • Brainerd, C. (1978). Piaget's theory of intelligence. [292]
  • Gilligan, C. (1997). Moral orientation and moral development [285]
  • Diamond, A. (1991). Neuropsychological insights into the meaning of object concept development [284]
  • Braine, M. D. S., & Rumain, B. (1983). Logical reasoning. [276]
  • John-Steiner, V. (2000). Creative collaboration. [266]
  • Pascual-Leone, J. (1987). Organismic processes for neo-Piagetian theories: A dialectical causal account of cognitive development. [261]
  • Hallpike, C. R. (1979). The foundations of primitive thought [261]
  • Furth, H. (1969). Piaget and Knowledge [261]
  • Gelman, R. & Baillargeon, R. (1983). A review of some Piagetian concepts. [260]
  • O'Loughlin, M. (1992). Rethinking science education: Beyond piagetian constructivism. Toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning. [252]

List of Major Achievements

Appointments

  • 1921-25 Research Director (Chef des travaux), Institut Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Geneva
  • 1925-29 Professor of Psychology, Sociology and the Philosophy of Science, University of Neuchatel
  • 1929-39 Professeur extraordinaire of the History of Scientific Thought, University of Geneva
  • 1929-67 Director, International Bureau of Education, Geneva
  • 1932-71 Director, Institute of Educational Sciences, University of Geneva
  • 1938-51 Professor of Experimental Psychology and Sociology, University of Lausanne
  • 1939-51 Professor of Sociology, University of Geneva
  • 1940-71 Professeur ordinaire of Experimental Psychology, University of Geneva
  • 1952-64 Professor of Genetic Psychology, Sorbonne, Paris
  • 1954-57 President, International Union of Scientific Psychology
  • 1955-80 Director, International Centre for Genetic Epistemology, Geneva
  • 1971-80 Emeritus Professor, University of Geneva

Honorary Doctorates

  • 1936 Harvard
  • 1946 Sorbonne
  • 1949 University of Brazil
  • 1949 Bruxelles
  • 1953 Chicago
  • 1954 McGill
  • 1958 Varsovie
  • 1959 Manchester
  • 1960 Oslo
  • 1960 Cambridge
  • 1962 Brandeis
  • 1964 Montreal
  • 1964 Aix-Marseille
  • 1966 Pennsylvania

Quotations

  • "Intelligence is what you use when you don't know what to do."
  • "Intelligence organizes the world by organizing itself."[22]
  • The principal goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done[23].

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Munari, Alberto (1994). "JEAN PIAGET (1896–1980)". Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education XXIV (1/2): 311–327. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/ThinkersPdf/piagete.pdf. 
  2. ^ (in An Exposition of Constructivism: Why Some Like it Radical, 1990)
  3. ^ A Brief Biography of Jean Piaget, Jean Piaget Society (Society for the study of knowledge and development)
  4. ^ Verne N. Rockcastle (1964, p. xi), the conference director, wrote in the conference report of the Jean Piaget conferences about Piaget: "Although few of us had any personal contact with Piaget prior to the conference, those who attended came to have the deepest and warmest regard for him both as a scientist and as a person. His sense of humor throughout the conference was a sort of international glue that flavored his lectures and punctuated his informal conversation. To sit at the table with him during a meal was not only an intellectual pleasure but a pure social delight. Piaget was completely unsophisticated in spite of his international stature. We could hardly believe it when he came prepared for two weeks' stay with only his 'serviette' and a small Swissair bag. An American would have hat at least two large suitcases. When Piaget left Berkeley, he had his serviette, the small Swissair bag, and a third, larger bag crammed with botanical specimens. 'Where did you get that bag?' we asked. 'I had it in onw of the others,' he replied."
  5. ^ a b Santrock, John W.. Children. 9. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
  6. ^ K. Kaye, The Mental and Social Life of Babies. U. Chicago Press, 1982.
  7. ^ K. Kaye, Psychology Today, November 1980, p. 102.
  8. ^ Guthrie, James W. "Piaget, Jean (1896-1980)." Encyclopedia of Education. 2nd ed. Vol. 5. New York, NY: Macmillan Reference USA, 2003. 1894-898.
  9. ^ "Piaget, Jean." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 3 Nov. 2008 <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9059885>.
  10. ^ Valsiner, Jaan. Society, Jan/Feb2005, Vol. 42 Issue 2, p. 57-61, 5p
  11. ^ Tsou, J. (2006). Genetic Epistemology and Piaget's Philosophy of Science: Piaget vs. Kuhn on Scientific Progress. Theory & Psychology, 16(2), 203-224.
  12. ^ Burman, J. T. (2007). Piaget No `Remedy' for Kuhn, But the Two Should be Read Together: Comment on Tsou's `Piaget vs. Kuhn on Scientific Progress'. Theory & Psychology, 17(5), 721-732.
  13. ^ Barnes, Michael Horace (2000). Stages of thought: the co-evolution of religious thought and science. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513389-7. 
  14. ^ Damerow, P. (1998). "Prehistory And Cognitive Development". Piaget, Evolution, and Development. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=haCAIME9vnEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA247&dq=Prehistory+and+cognitive+development&ots=w85O84G02I&sig=xjIAua5wWEkuq7J1AQ-iFSAJXZc. Retrieved 2008-03-24. 
  15. ^ Kieran Egan (1997). The educated mind: How Cognitive Tools Shape Our Understanding. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-19036-6. 
  16. ^ Gablik, Suzi (1977). Progress in art. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0847800822.. 
  17. ^ LePan, Don (1989). The cognitive revolution in Western culture. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-45796-X. 
  18. ^ Radding, Charles (1985). A world made by men: cognition and society, 400-1200. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1664-7. 
  19. ^ McKinney, Michael L.; Parker, Sue Taylor (1999). Origins of intelligence: the evolution of cognitive development in monkeys, apes, and humans. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6012-1. 
  20. ^ Tsou, J. (2006). Genetic Epistemology and Piaget's Philosophy of Science: Piaget vs. Kuhn on Scientific Progress. Theory & Psychology, 16(2), 203-224.
  21. ^ Burman, J. T. (2007). Piaget No `Remedy' for Kuhn, But the Two Should be Read Together: Comment on Tsou's `Piaget vs. Kuhn on Scientific Progress'. Theory & Psychology, 17(5), 721-732.
  22. ^ La Construction du Réel Chez l'Enfant by Jean Piaget (1937)
  23. ^ Piaget, J. (1953) The Origins of Intelligence in Children. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

For me, education means making creators... You have to make inventors, innovators, not conformists.
.Jean Piaget (9 August 189616 September 1980) was a Swiss developmental psychologist, famous for his work with children and his theory of cognitive development.^ Stage» in Piaget's cognitive developmental theory: Exegesis of a concept.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies in cognitive development: Essays in honor of Jean Piaget (pp.
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

^ The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget .
  • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

Sourced

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  • Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, to reality. They are more or less isomorphic to transformations of reality.^ They are more or less isomorphic to transformations of reality.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, with reality.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It means constructing systems of transformations that can be carried out on or with this object.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The transformational structures of which knowledge consists are not copies of the transformations in reality; they are simply possible isomorphic models among which experience can enable us to choose. .Knowledge, then, is a system of transformations that become progressively adequate.
  • I am convinced that there is no sort of boundary between the living and the mental or between the biological and the psychological.^ According to Jean Piaget, genetic epistemology "attempts to explain knowledge, and in particular scientific knowledge, on the basis of its history, its sociogenesis, and especially the psychological origins of the notions and operations upon which it is based" [2] .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, with reality.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Though Ayn Rand's Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology states no distinction between empirical and reflecting abstraction, much in the book hints at such a distinction.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    From the moment an organism takes account of a previous experience and adapts to a new situation, that very much resembles psychology.
    • Interview with Jean Claude Bringuier (1969)
  • As you know, Bergson pointed out that there is no such thing as disorder but rather two sorts of order, geometric and living. Mine is clearly living. The folders I need are within reach, in the order of frequency with which I use them. True, it gets tricky to locate a folder in the lower levels. But if you have to find it, you look for it. That takes less time than putting them away every day. .
    • Conversations with Jean Piaget (1980) by Jean Claude Bringuier
  • Education, for most people, means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society...^ In Conversations with Jean Piaget , he says: "Education, for most people, means trying to lead the child to resemble the typical adult of his society .
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ During the 1970s and 1980s, Piaget’s works also inspired the transformation of European and American education , including both theory and practice, leading to a more ‘child-centred’ approach.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On Piaget's desk (and his manner of editing his work), see Jean-Claude Bringuier, Conversations libres avec Piaget (Paris: Robert Laffon, 1977; translated by Basia Miler Gulati as Conversations with Piaget, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    But for me, education means making creators... .You have to make inventors, innovators, not conformists.
    • Conversations with Jean Piaget (1980) by Jean Claude Bringuier
  • The principal goal of education in the schools should be creating men and women who are capable of doing new things, not simply repeating what other generations have done; men and women who are creative, inventive and discoverers, who can be critical and verify, and not accept, everything they are offered.^ This is significant because they are now able to know things about a new animal simply on the basis of the fact that it is a bird – for example, that it will lay eggs.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On the other hand, Piaget would hasten to note that reflecting abstraction enables us to draw distinctions and make generalizations that are abstract in a different way than those which result from empirical abstraction.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This insight of Piaget's is not generally understood; other psychologists still think of egocentrism as a problem that is cured once and for all.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • As quoted in Education for Democracy, Proceedings from the Cambridge School Conference on Progressive Education (1988) edited by Kathe Jervis and Arthur Tobier

The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932)

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  • From the point of view of the practice or application of rules four successive stages can be distinguished.
  • A first stage of a purely motor and individual character, during which the child handles the marbles at the dictation of his desires and motor habits.^ Piaget's moral writings are out of character for him in their nearly total obliviousness to other philosophical points of view [ note 35 ].
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    .This leads to the formation of more or less ritualized schemas, but since play is still purely individual, one can only talk of motor rules and not of truly collective rules.
  • The second may be called egocentric for the following reasons.^ A major one was his policy of restricting the scope of moral development to reasoning with moral rules, which progress from a "heteronomous" dependence on external authority to an "autonomous" source in one's own conscience.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This stage begins at the moment when the child receives from outside the example of codified rules, that is to say, some time between the ages of two and five.^ Now we have moved--at a rapid clip--through Piaget's basic ideas (there is one slightly less basic idea, developmental stages, which will require some attention at the beginning of Part Two).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .But though the child imitates this example, he continues to play either by himself without bothering to find play-fellows, or with others, but without trying to win, and therefore without attempting to unify the different ways of playing.^ At the same time, the child is able to identify the properties of objects by the way different kinds of action affect them.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    .In other words, children of this stage, even when they are playing together, play each one "on his own " (everyone can win at once) and without regard for any codification of rules.^ Some of his studies were observational (for instance, when he noted that nursery school children sometimes engaged in "collective monologues": from a distance, they might appear to be playing together, but from close up it turned out that each child was interacting with a particular toy and commenting on this activity without much regard to what the others were saying).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At Level IIA (around 7 or 8) children predict that they can make the rows equal, but without being able to figure out in advance how to do it.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Egocentrism is fundamentally a cognitive limitation; children are egocentric because they fail to understand how someone else's point of view might be different from their own--or they fail to coordinate their point of view with that other person's.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This dual character, combining imitation of others with a purely individual use of the examples received, we have designated by the term Egocentrism.
  • A third stage appears between 7 and 8, which we shall call the stage of incipient cooperation.^ He advocated what some others have called"evolutionary epistemology"--although, as we shall see in Part 2, his conception of evolution was not strictly based on variation and selection.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other studies from this period used what he called the "clinical interview" (an open-ended series of questions, modeled after clinical practice and intended to diagnose the type of thinking the child was using).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Each player now tries to win, and all, therefore, begin to concern themselves with the question of mutual control and of unification of the rules. But while a certain agreement may be reached in the course of one game, ideas about the rules in general are still rather vague. .In other words, children of 7-8, who belong to the same class at school and are therefore constantly playing with each other, give, when they are questioned separately, disparate and often entirely contradictory accounts of the rules observed in playing marbles.
  • Finally, between the years of 11 and 12, appears a fourth stage, which is that of the codification of rules.^ By contrast, children aged 6 on up will say that there are more animals, and, by and large, they can give a justification for their answers [ note 12 ].
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some of his studies were observational (for instance, when he noted that nursery school children sometimes engaged in "collective monologues": from a distance, they might appear to be playing together, but from close up it turned out that each child was interacting with a particular toy and commenting on this activity without much regard to what the others were saying).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Not only is every detail of procedure in the game fixed, but the actual code of rules to be observed is known to the whole society. .There is remarkable concordance in the information given by children of 10-12 belonging to the same class at school, when they are questioned on the rules of the game and their possible variations.
  • Genetically speaking, the explanation both of rites and of symbols would seem to lie in the conditions of preverbal motor intelligence.^ Piaget would have questioned Rand's statement that "the relationship of concepts to their constituent particulars is the same as the relationship of algebraic symbols to numbers.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the same time, by reflecting on their own actions, the child develops an increasingly sophisticated awareness of the ‘rules’ that govern in various ways.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ By contrast, children aged 6 on up will say that there are more animals, and, by and large, they can give a justification for their answers [ note 12 ].
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .When it is presented with any new thing, a baby of 5 to 8 months will respond with a dual reaction; it will accommodate itself to the new object and it will assimilate the object to earlier motor schemas.^ However, the underlying objection is very often, " We know these things about objects, so how could babies not know them?"
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some investigators have objected to this account on empirical grounds (how babies respond to objects under different circumstances than those under which Piaget tested them), and that may be a reasonable thing to do.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Give the baby a marble, and it will explore its surface and consistency, but will at the same time use it as something to grasp, to suck, to rub against the sides of its cradle, and so on. .This assimilation of every fresh object to already existing motor schemas may be conceived of as the starting point of ritual acts and symbols, at any rate from the moment that assimilation becomes stronger than actual accommodation itself.
  • We shall conclude this analysis of the first stage by repeating that before games are played in common, no rules in the proper sense can come into existence.^ The Piaget-Montessori connection was actually much stronger than anyone would gather from these writings.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These peculiarities come into focus when we realize that Piaget formed his views on evolution before there was a neo-Darwinian synthesis.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Regularities and ritualized schemas are already there, but these rites, being the work of the individual, cannot call forth that submission to something superior to the self which characterizes the appearance of any rule.
  • It is striking to note the affinity between this attitude of children of 4 to 6 in the game of marbles and the attitude of those same children in their conversations with each other.^ It is incumbent on translators to break up his tortuous sentences and to clarify his cryptic allusions (both to his own work and to the work of others); failure to do these things guarantees a result that few will want to suffer through in English [ note 27 ].
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piaget did not focus so much on the fact of the children 's answers being wrong, but that young children kept making the same pattern of mistakes that older children and adults did not.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It took nearly a decade for these observations to be interpreted and worked up into book form (the two books on infancy appeared in French in 1936 and 1937 [ note 7 ]).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For alongside of the rare cases of true conversation where there is a genuine interchange of opinions or commands, one can observe in children between 2 and 6 a characteristic type of pseudo-conversation or "collective monologue", during which the children speak only for themselves, although they wish to be in the presence of interlocutors who will serve as a stimulus.^ One of Piaget’s most famous studies focused purely on the discriminative abilities of children between the ages of two and a half years old, and four and a half years old.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We have to test our hypotheses by collecting data, not only about the thinking of human infants and children, but also about the historical development of scientific ideas.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piaget believed that children who are able to make this inference correctly, along with some related ones, have acquired a logical structure.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Now here again, each feels himself to be in communion with the group because he is inwardly addressing the Adult [God-like creator of the eternal, inherently correct and material rules or laws of nature which contains all, including the individual self] who knows and understands everything, but here again, each is only concerned with himself, for lack of having dissociated the "ego" from the "socius".
  • Considering that the square game is only one of the five or ten varieties of the game of marbles, it is almost alarming in face of the complexity of rules and procedure in the square game, to think of what a child of twelve has to store away in his memory.^ To this day there are self-proclaimed Piagetians who don't think any more of his writings are worth translating.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (If anything, Objectivists have tended to assume that because there is natural necessity, all human beings have to do to grasp it is know the relevant facts; nothing more, except an occasional stern reminder from an Objectivist philosopher, is required for them to understand that these facts are necessary!
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Genetic epistemology (which, for Piaget, included the history of scientific ideas, as well as the study of development in individuals) is consistent with Objectivism in its biocentric concerns.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These rules, with their overlapping and their exceptions, are at least as complex as the current rules of spelling. .It is somewhat humiliating, in this connection, to see how heavily traditional education sets about the task of making spelling enter into brains that assimilate with such ease the mnemonic contents of the game of marbles.^ But the children can't predict in advance that adding another 3 sets of 2 and 2 sets of 3 will make the rows equal again; they just have to try and see what happens.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .But then, memory is dependent upon activity, and a real activity presupposes interest.
  • As far as the game of marbles is concerned, there is therefore no contradiction between the egocentric practice of games and the mystical respect entertained for rules.^ For him there was no fixed limit to human development, and, wisely, he did not attempt to forecast future creative activity.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This respect is the mark of a mentality fashioned, not by free cooperation between equals, but by adult constraint.
  • When the child imitates the rules practiced by his older companions he feels that he is submitting to an unalterable law, due, therefore, to his parents themselves. Thus the pressure exercised by older on younger children is assimilated here, as so often, to adult pressure. .This action of the older children is still constraint, for cooperation can only arise between equals.
  • Nor does the submission of the younger children to the rules of the older ones lead to any sort of cooperation in action; it simply produces a sort of mysticism, a diffused feeling of collective participation, which, as in the case of many mystics, fits in perfectly well with egocentrism.^ By contrast, in cooperative relations, power is more evenly distributed between participants so that a more symmetrical relationship emerges.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If all that mattered about Piaget was that he was the first psychologist to ask children whether two equal rows of eggs still have the same number after one of the rows is stretched out; or the first to ask children how many ways there are to get from one end of a room to the other--he would have done enough to merit our admiration.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One of Piaget’s most famous studies focused purely on the discriminative abilities of children between the ages of two and a half years old, and four and a half years old.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    .For we shall see eventually that cooperation between equals not only brings about a gradual change in the child's practical attitude, but that it also does away with the mystical feeling towards authority.
  • There is an adult in every child and a child in every adult.
  • This renders arbitrary any attempt to cut mental reality up into stages.^ Each new stage emerges only because the child can take for granted the achievements of its predecessors, and yet there are still more sophisticated forms of knowledge and action that are capable of being developed.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Thus a new stage begins, which will only be completed when all the child’s activity and experience have been re-organized on this still higher level.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Piaget eventually realized that every stage of development includes beliefs or assumptions that are not reflectively known at that stage (consequently they are taken for granted, and, if wrong, are difficult or impossible to correct).
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The matter is further complicated by the "Law of conscious realization" and the resulting time-lag. .The appearance of a new type of rule on the practical plane does not necessarily mean that this rule will come into the subject's consciousness, for each mental operation has to be relearned on the different planes of action and of thought.
  • A second prefatory question faces us: that of society and the individual.^ Other studies from this period used what he called the "clinical interview" (an open-ended series of questions, modeled after clinical practice and intended to diagnose the type of thinking the child was using).
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    ^ And in his time Kant did not have to face evolutionary questions about the origins of innate mental structures.
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    ^ Rather than concentrating on a subject matter or general principle (such as number or physical causality), he and his students attempted to isolate the operations of equilibration, or reflecting abstraction, or differentiating out new possibilities and integrating them into new necessities, or running into contradictions in your thinking, or becoming conscious of your ways of thinking.
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    We have sought to contrast the child and the civilized adult on the ground of their respective social attitudes. .The baby (at the stage of motor intelligence) is asocial, the egocentric child is subject to external constraint but has little capacity for cooperation, the civilized adult of to-day presents the essential character of cooperation between differentiated personalities who regard each other as equals.
  • There are therefore three types of behavior: motor behavior, egocentric behavior (with external constraint), and cooperation.^ Three types of stage models used in the study of adult development.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ [Are there stages in the development of concrete operational intelligence?
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ And for a thinker who occupied a Chair of Philosophy for 5 years, and is likely to go down in history as a major philosopher, Piaget had little good to say about the subject.
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    .And to these three types of social behavior there correspond three types of rules: motor rules, rules due to unilateral respect, and rules due to mutual respect.
  • But here again, one must beware of laying down the law: for things are motor, individual and social all at once.
  • As we shall have occasion to show, rules of cooperation are in some respects the outcome of the rules of coercion and of the motor rules.^ Others effectively flatten all of our knowledge down into a single layer of knowledge about things in the environment.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One that he studied on a number of occasions goes like this: if dogs and cats are kinds of animals, and there are more than zero cats present, then there must be more animals than dogs.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    On the other hand, coercion is applied during the first days of an infant's life, and the earliest social relations contain the germs of cooperation. Here again, it is not so much a question of these successive features themselves as of the proportions in which they are present. .Moreover, the way in which conscious realization and the time-lag from one level to another come into play is a further bar to our arranging these phenomena in a strict sequence, as though they made a single appearance and then disappeared from the scene once and for all.
  • The motor rule.^ These come in various flavors, but for our purposes, an example of a really elementary cognitive structure and another example of a more advanced one will suffice.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the same time, by reflecting on their own actions, the child develops an increasingly sophisticated awareness of the ‘rules’ that govern in various ways.
    • What is Jean Piaget? 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Piaget concludes that they have become conscious of the number of times they added, so reflecting abstraction is starting to take place.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In its beginnings the motor rule merges into habit. .During the first few months of an infant's life, its manner of taking the breast, of laying its head on the pillow, etc., becomes crystallized into imperative habits.^ Except for a 5-year stretch at the University of Neuchâtel and a few years during which he commuted to Paris to lecture part-time at the Sorbonne, he remained in Geneva for the rest of his life.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This is why education must begin in the cradle. To accustom the infant to get out of its own difficulties or to calm it by rocking it may be to lay the foundations of a good or of a bad disposition.
  • But not every habit will give rise to the knowledge of a rule. The habit must first be frustrated, and the ensuing conflict must lead to an active search for the habitual. Above all, the particular succession must be perceived as regular, i.e. there must be judgment or consciousness of regularity (Regelbewusstseiri).
  • The motor rule is therefore the result of a feeling of repetition which arises out of the ritualization of schemas of motor adaptation. The primitive rules of the game of marbles (throwing the marbles, heaping them, burying them, etc.) which we observed towards the age of 2-3 are nothing else. The behavior in question starts from a desire for a form of exercise which takes account of the particular object that is being handled. .The child begins by incorporating the marbles into one or other of the schemas of assimilation already known to him, such as making a nest, hiding under earth, etc.^ It is much easier to claim that the human mind makes the known world when you are under no obligation to explain how the human mind got to be the way it is.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Then he adapts these schemas to the nature of the object by preventing the marbles from rolling away by putting them in a hole, by throwing them, etc.
  • This mixture of assimilation to earlier schemas and adaptation to the actual conditions of the situation is what defines motor intelligence. .But and this is where rules come into existence as soon as a balance is established between adaptation and assimilation, the course of conduct adopted becomes crystallized and ritualized.^ The developmental ideal, according to Piaget, is a balance, or equilibrium, between assimilation and accommodation.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New schemas are even established which the child looks for and retains with care, as though they were obligatory or charged with efficacy.
  • To understand this we need only analyze the relations of the younger to the older children.^ By the 1940s he was acknowledging that adults in "primitive" societies do think like adults, not like children; he was also realizing that failure to understand your own point of view, and how it relates to other people's points of view, is a difficulty that can arise, in new and different forms, as we develop.
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    Every observer has noted that the younger the child, the less sense he has of his own ego. From the intellectual point of view, he does not distinguish between external and internal, subjective and objective. From the point of view of action, he yields to every suggestion, and if he does oppose to other people's wills -- a certain negativism which has been called "the spirit of contradiction" -- this only points to his real defenselessness against his surroundings. A strong personality can maintain itself without the help of this particular weapon.
  • The adult and the older child have complete power over him. They impose their opinions and their wishes, and the child accepts them without knowing that he does so. .Only and this is the other side of the picture as the child does not dissociate his ego from the environment, whether physical or social, he mixes into all his thoughts and all his actions, ideas and practices that are due to the intervention of his ego and which, just because he fails to recognize them as subjective, exercise a check upon his complete socialization.
  • From the intellectual point of view, he mingles his own fantasies with accepted opinions, whence arise pseudo lies (or sincere lies), syncretism, and all the features of child thought.^ We are all creative, not in the sense that the ideas we arrive at are new and specially useful to others in our culture, but in the sense that they are new to us, different in kind from what we knew before.
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    ^ Others effectively flatten all of our knowledge down into a single layer of knowledge about things in the environment.
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    ^ Piaget's moral writings are out of character for him in their nearly total obliviousness to other philosophical points of view [ note 35 ].
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    .From the point of view of action, he interprets in his own fashion the examples he has adopted, whence the egocentric form of play we were examining above.^ By the 1940s he was acknowledging that adults in "primitive" societies do think like adults, not like children; he was also realizing that failure to understand your own point of view, and how it relates to other people's points of view, is a difficulty that can arise, in new and different forms, as we develop.
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    ^ Egocentrism is fundamentally a cognitive limitation; children are egocentric because they fail to understand how someone else's point of view might be different from their own--or they fail to coordinate their point of view with that other person's.
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    .The only way of avoiding these individual refractions would lie in true cooperation, such that both child and senior would each make allowance for his own individuality and for the realities that were held in common.
  • Egocentrism in so far as it means confusion of the ego and the external world, and egocentrism in so far as it means lack of cooperation, constitute one and the same phenomenon.^ One of his life-long goals was to explain development in a way that avoided both "preformation" (as he called the doctrine of innate ideas) and environmental determinism.
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    ^ Then, while seated in one position at a table, the child is asked to pick out the photograph that shows what another child seated across the table would see.
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    ^ Babies, according to Piaget, are so egocentric that they have to work really hard just to be able to distinguish physical objects from their ways of searching for them.
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    .So long as the child does not dissociate his ego from the suggestions coming from the physical and from the social world, he cannot cooperate, for in order to cooperate one must be conscious of one's ego and situate it in relation to thought in general.^ In the works on biology or physical causality, Aristotle does occasionally surface, as a quaint fellow who thought there were final causes everywhere and had an essentially preoperational understanding of the physical world.
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    ^ Physical causality was easiest to encompass within the Piagetian framework to the extent that causal relations in the world could be modeled mathematically.
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    ^ Piaget thought we must impute the kinds of logical and mathematical structures that are typical of concrete operations (structures that have the property of reversibility) in order to have an understanding of causal mechanism (roughly, the specific means by which cause and effect are related).
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    .And in order to become conscious of one's ego, it is necessary to liberate oneself from the thought and will of others.^ Pat obviously thought that adding 2 at a time to one row and adding 3 at a time to other were going to produce unequal outcomes.
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    ^ He wanted to know whether they thought adding 2 to one row and 3 to other could result in their being equal.
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    ^ Piaget wasn't just interested in whether children thought that adding 2 to one row and 3 to the other resulted in the rows being equal on this particular occasion, or that particular occasion.
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    The coercion exercised by the adult or the older child is therefore inseparable from the unconscious egocentrism of the very young child.
  • There is little mysticism without an element of transcendence, and conversely, there is no transcendence without a certain degree of egocentrism. It may be that the genesis of these experiences is to be sought in the unique situation of the very young child in relation to adults. .The theory of the filial origin of the religious sense seems to us singularly convincing in this connection.
  • If mutual respect does derive from unilateral respect, it does so by opposition.
  • Generally speaking, one can say that motor intelligence contains the germs of completed reason.^ Generally, he would say that we attain more complete knowledge of "the object" as we reach higher levels of development and coordinate more and more perspectives on it.
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    But it gives promise of more than reason pure and simple. .From the moral as from the intellectual point of view, the child is born neither good nor bad, but master of his destiny.^ Piaget's moral writings are out of character for him in their nearly total obliviousness to other philosophical points of view [ note 35 ].
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    Now, if there is intelligence in the schemas of motor adaptation, there is also the element of play. The intentionality peculiar to motor activity is not a search for truth but the pursuit of a result, whether objective or subjective; and to succeed is not to discover a truth.
  • The discussion of the game of marbles seems to have led us into rather deep waters. But in the eyes of children the history of the game of marbles has quite as much importance as the history of religion or of forms of government. .It Is a history, moreover, that is magnificently spontaneous; and it was therefore perhaps not entirely useless to seek to throw light on the child's judgment of moral value by a preliminary study of the social behaviour of children amongst themselves.
  • In real life the child is in the presence, not of isolated acts, but of personalities that attract or repel him as a global whole.^ Le jugement moral chez l'enfant [The moral judgment of the child].
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ For him, stages were a means of classifying children's thinking (specific instances of thinking, not whole children!
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    ^ The moral views did not come from reading Kant, though Piaget did study him later.
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    He grasps people's intentions by direct intuition and cannot therefore abstract from them. He allows, more or less justly, for aggravating and attenuating circumstances. .This is why the stories told by the children themselves often give rise to different evaluations from those suggested by the experimenter's stories.
  • Now, since thought in the child always lags behind action, it is quite natural that the solution of theoretical problems such as we made use of should be formed by means of the older and more habitual schemas rather than the more subtle and less robust schemas that are in process of formation.^ Knowing reality means constructing systems of transformations that correspond, more or less adequately, with reality.
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    ^ It is easy to forget that during much of Piaget's career, purely maturationist accounts of development (such as that of Arnold Gesell) and, of course, purely environmental accounts of "learning" (such as those of Clark Hull and B. F. Skinner) were taken more seriously than Piaget's views were.
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    ^ Worse yet, he made favorable references to that dreadful fellow, Immanuel Kant; and he exhibited a strong commitment to knowledge arising from action that had more than a little in common with pragmatism and its rejection of "spectator" conceptions of knowledge.
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    Thus an adult who may be in the midst of reviewing all his values and experiencing feelings of which the novelty surprises him, will, if he is suddenly faced with the necessity of solving someone else's problems, very probably appeal to moral principles which he has discarded for himself. For example, he will, if he is not given time to reflect, judge his neighbor's actions with a severity which would be incomprehensible in view of his present deeper tendencies, but which effectively corresponds to his previous system of values. .In the same way, our children may perfectly well take account of intentions in appraising their own conduct, and yet confine themselves to considerations of the material consequences of actions in the case of the characters involved in our stories, who are indifferent to them.
  • It is when the child is accustomed to act from the point of view of those around him, when he tries to please rather than to obey, that he will judge in terms of intentions.^ Egocentrism is fundamentally a cognitive limitation; children are egocentric because they fail to understand how someone else's point of view might be different from their own--or they fail to coordinate their point of view with that other person's.
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    ^ Piaget's moral writings are out of character for him in their nearly total obliviousness to other philosophical points of view [ note 35 ].
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    ^ It is easy to forget that during much of Piaget's career, purely maturationist accounts of development (such as that of Arnold Gesell) and, of course, purely environmental accounts of "learning" (such as those of Clark Hull and B. F. Skinner) were taken more seriously than Piaget's views were.
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    .So that taking intentions into account presupposes cooperation and mutual respect.
  • Such is the prestige of parents in the eyes of the very young child, that even if they lay down nothing in the form of general duties, their wishes act as law and thus give rise automatically to moral realism (independently, of course, of the manner in which the child eventually carries out these desires).^ But he was very interested in how they understand what happens when the row of eggs is spread out or squashed closer together--do these transformations affect how many eggs there are?
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    In order to remove all traces of moral realism, one must place oneself on the child's own level, and give him a feeling of equality by laying stress on one's own obligations and one's own deficiencies.
  • In this way the child will find himself in the presence, not of a system of commands requiring ritualistic and external obedience, but of a system of social relations such that everyone does his best to obey the same obligations, and does so out of mutual respect. .The passage from obedience to cooperation thus marks a progress analogous to that of which we saw the effects in the evolution of the game of marbles: only in the final stage does the morality of intention triumph over the morality of objective responsibility.
  • When parents do not trouble about such considerations as these, when they issue contradictory commands and are inconsistent in the punishments they inflict, then, obviously, it is not because of moral constraint but in spite of and as a reaction against it that the concern with intentions develops in the child.^ Developing in judging moral issues .
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Then he became enthralled, for a little while, with Henri Bergson's philosophy of "creative evolution," in part because he saw in it the basis for a "real science of genera."
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    ^ Adolescents can think about their values, and wonder what sort of values they ought to have, but by the same token they may draw the conclusion that only they are evaluating their values, so everyone else (including their parents, of course) must have phony values.
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    Here is a child, who, in his desire to please, happens to break something and is snubbed for his pains, or who in general sees his actions judged otherwise than he judges them himself. It is obvious that after more or less brief periods of submission, during which he accepts every verdict, even those that are wrong, he will begin to feel the injustice of it all. Such situations can lead to revolt. .But if, on the contrary, the child finds in his brothers and sisters or in his playmates a form of society which develops his desire for cooperation and mutual sympathy, then a new type of morality will be created in him, a morality of reciprocity and not of obedience.^ Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 56 , 1-103.
    • An�lise Psicol�gica - Al�m de Piaget? Sim, mas Primeiro Al�m da Sua Interpreta��o Padr�o! 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC www.scielo.oces.mctes.pt [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This new focus on the "sensorimotor" period of development was most salutary for Piaget--it compelled to him to consider what the simplest forms of human knowledge might be like, and he responded with his conception of action schemes.
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    ^ By the 1940s he was acknowledging that adults in "primitive" societies do think like adults, not like children; he was also realizing that failure to understand your own point of view, and how it relates to other people's points of view, is a difficulty that can arise, in new and different forms, as we develop.
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    This is the true morality of intention and of subjective responsibility.
  • In short, whether parents succeed in embodying it in family life or whether it takes root in spite of and in opposition to them, it is always cooperation that gives intention precedence over literalism, just as it was unilateral respect that inevitably provoked moral realism. .Actually, of course, there are innumerable intermediate stages between these two attitudes of obedience and collaboration, but it is useful for the purposes of analysis to emphasize the real opposition that exists between them.
  • The child who defines a lie as being a "naughty word" knows perfectly well that lying consists in not speaking the truth.^ These come in various flavors, but for our purposes, an example of a really elementary cognitive structure and another example of a more advanced one will suffice.
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    ^ Piaget concluded that Grouping I is actually part of these children's knowledge, that it exists in their minds, that it is "psychologically real" [ note 31 ].
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    ^ His treatment of children's knowledge of space and time emphasized development toward an understanding of units of measurement and of metric properties of these dimensions; he was also much taken with analogies between stages in the child's understanding of space and various systems of geometry (interestingly, the supposed order of development was the reverse of the order in which these systems emerged historically).
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    .He is not, therefore, mistaking one thing for another, he is simply identifying them one with another by what seems to us a quaint extension of the word "lie".
  • There seems therefore to be only one explanation: to tell a lie is to commit a moral fault by means of language.^ Although equilibration is the most fundamental aspect of development, there is another one that became more important in his late works, and can be treated semi-autonomously.
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    And using naughty words also constitutes a fault committed by means of language. .So that for the little child, who really feels no inner obstacle to the practice of lying, and who at six years old still lies more or less as he romances or as he plays, the two types of conduct are on the same plane.^ And for a thinker who occupied a Chair of Philosophy for 5 years, and is likely to go down in history as a major philosopher, Piaget had little good to say about the subject.
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    ^ Without Piaget's turn toward child psychology, his ideas would be seen as little more than the halfway-considered notions of a really bright young man who never realized his promise.
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    ^ They are more or less isomorphic to transformations of reality.
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    When he pronounces certain sentences that do not conform with the truth (and which his parents regard as genuine lies) he is astonished to find that they provoke the indignation of those around him and that he is reproached with them as with a fault. When he brings in certain expressive words from the street, the same thing happens. .He concludes that there are things one may say and things one may not say, and he calls the latter "lies" whether they are indecent words or statements that do not conform with fact.
  • Nevertheless, during the next few years the child does not distinguish between intentional actions and others as clearly as we do.^ The simplest cognitive structures Piaget called sensorimotor action schemes (some books say "schemata," but that is a bad translation).
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    ^ Except for a 5-year stretch at the University of Neuchâtel and a few years during which he commuted to Paris to lecture part-time at the Sorbonne, he remained in Geneva for the rest of his life.
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    ^ He wanted to know whether they thought adding 2 to one row and 3 to other could result in their being equal.
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    The proof of this is that his thinking is finalistic, animistic and artificialistic to a degree that the average adult does not suspect, and this is precisely because he fails to dissociate involuntary, unconscious and mechanical movements from conscious psychological action. .There was therefore some reason to doubt whether a child of 6-7 could really distinguish an involuntary error from an intentional lie.
  • What has perhaps been less generally understood is that this feature of child psychology is of an intellectual as well as of a moral order, and that it is connected with the laws of child-thought in general and with the phenomenon of intellectual egocentrism in particular.^ He wanted to know whether they thought adding 2 to one row and 3 to other could result in their being equal.
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    ^ This insight of Piaget's is not generally understood; other psychologists still think of egocentrism as a problem that is cured once and for all.
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    ^ Reflecting abstraction applied in a straightforward fashion to the logical and mathematical domains; with some stretching, it could be said to apply to spatial reasoning as well.
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    .For the need to speak the truth and even to seek it for oneself is only conceivable in so far as the individual thinks and acts as one of a society, and not of any society (for it is just the constraining relations between superior and inferior that often drive the latter to prevarication) but of a society founded on reciprocity and mutual respect, and therefore on cooperation.
  • In this way things, external objects, are assimilated to more or less ordered motor schemas, and in this continuous assimilation of objects the child's own activity is the starting point of play.^ However, the underlying objection is very often, " We know these things about objects, so how could babies not know them?"
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    ^ For instance, if Piaget is correct about the way babies think during the first two sensorimotor substages, young babies don't experience physical objects.
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    ^ At the time, equilibrium was an ideal balance between parts and whole, within the individual or within society.
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    .Not only this, but when to pure movement are added language and imagination, the assimilation is strengthened, and wherever the mind feels no actual need for accommodating itself to reality, its natural tendency will be to distort the objects that surround it in accordance with its desires or its fantasy, in short to use them for its satisfaction.^ Piaget concluded that Grouping I is actually part of these children's knowledge, that it exists in their minds, that it is "psychologically real" [ note 31 ].
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    .Such is the intellectual egocentrism that characterizes the earliest form of child thought.
  • Every thought that enters the head of a child of 2-3 does so from the first in the form of a belief and not in the form of a hypothesis to be verified.^ In the 1920s Piaget was strongly tempted to equate egocentrism with primitive forms of thought.
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    ^ The essay was first published in 1970, in the previous edition of the Handbook, and the treatment of equilibration does not indicate Piaget's final thoughts on the subject.
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    .Hence the very young child's almost systematic romancing as with others and to which one cannot yet give the name of pseudo-lie, so close is the connection between primitive romancing and assertive belief.
  • Hence finally, the pseudo-lie, which is a sort of romancing used for other people, and serving to pull the child out of any straight due to circumstances, from which he deems it perfectly natural to extricate himself by inventing a story.
  • Just as, from the intellectual point of view the child will elude a difficult question by means of an improvised myth to which he will give momentary credence, so from the moral point of view, an embarrassing situation will give rise to a pseudo-lie.^ He believed that "primitive" people thought "sociocentrically" (they took their culture's beliefs and practices for granted, and subscribed to "ideologies").
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    ^ Piaget's moral writings are out of character for him in their nearly total obliviousness to other philosophical points of view [ note 35 ].
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    ^ Other studies from this period used what he called the "clinical interview" (an open-ended series of questions, modeled after clinical practice and intended to diagnose the type of thinking the child was using).
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    .Nor does this involve anything more than an application of the general laws of primitive child thought, which is directed towards its own satisfaction rather than to objective truth.
  • It is as his own mind comes into contact with others that truth will begin to acquire value in the child's eyes and will consequently become a moral demand that can be made upon him.^ Without Piaget's turn toward child psychology, his ideas would be seen as little more than the halfway-considered notions of a really bright young man who never realized his promise.
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    ^ Often Piaget had different ideas when it came time to write the conclusion than he'd had when he wrote the introduction (and other ideas might come and go in the middle).
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    ^ Rather than concentrating on a subject matter or general principle (such as number or physical causality), he and his students attempted to isolate the operations of equilibration, or reflecting abstraction, or differentiating out new possibilities and integrating them into new necessities, or running into contradictions in your thinking, or becoming conscious of your ways of thinking.
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    .As long as the child remains egocentric, truth as such will fail to interest him and he will see no harm in transposing facts in accordance with his desires.
  • Thus we see that the child is almost led to tell lies -- or what seem to us lies from our point of view -- by the very structure of his spontaneous thought.^ To render the matter in greater technical detail, Piaget thought that our knowledge consists of cognitive structures.
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    ^ The important point for us is that the most frankly Kantian areas of Piaget's thought are ones in which he clearly failed.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Egocentrism is fundamentally a cognitive limitation; children are egocentric because they fail to understand how someone else's point of view might be different from their own--or they fail to coordinate their point of view with that other person's.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Given this situation, what will be the result of the laws laid down by adults about truthfulness? .On the occasion of the first very obvious lies, or of those connected with some offense or other and told therefore with the object of averting punishment or scolding, the parents point out to the child that he has just done something very wrong and thus inculcate in him the respect for truth.
  • ...the child is a realist in every domain of thought, and it is therefore natural that in the moral sphere he should lay more stress on the external, tangible element than on the hidden motive.
  • Be that as it may, we can say that up to the age of 7-8, the child tends spontaneously to alter the truth, that this seems to him perfectly natural and completely harmless, but that he considers it a duty towards the adult not to lie, and recognizes that a lie is a "naughty" action.^ Without Piaget's turn toward child psychology, his ideas would be seen as little more than the halfway-considered notions of a really bright young man who never realized his promise.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Inevitably these would be of a highly specialized nature, and might be found in the thinking of professional mathematicians or experts in some other fields [ note 19 ].
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piaget's moral writings are out of character for him in their nearly total obliviousness to other philosophical points of view [ note 35 ].
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Moral realism and objective responsibility are the inevitable outcome of so paradoxical a situation.
  • It is obvious that if the desire for truthfulness does not correspond to something very fundamental in the child's nature, the adult's command, in spite of the nimbus that surrounds it, will always remain external, "stuck on" as it were, to a mind whose structure is of a different order.^ The problem that Piaget glimpsed but did not solve is that it does little good to characterize knowledge as structures in the mind that correspond to structures in the world.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For the spirit of such a command could only be understood by experience.
  • One must have felt a real desire to exchange thoughts with others in order to discover all that a lie can involve.^ Pat obviously thought that adding 2 at a time to one row and adding 3 at a time to other were going to produce unequal outcomes.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He wanted to know whether they thought adding 2 to one row and 3 to other could result in their being equal.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piaget wasn't just interested in whether children thought that adding 2 to one row and 3 to the other resulted in the rows being equal on this particular occasion, or that particular occasion.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And this interchange of thoughts is from the first not possible between adults and children, because the initial inequality is too great and the child tries to imitate the adult and at the same time to protect himself against him rather than really to exchange thoughts with him.^ It is not merely that we as adults think faster, or know more; we really do think differently from babies and children, and the differences can be radical.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The situation we have described is thus almost the necessary outcome of unilateral respect. The spirit of the command having failed to be assimilated, the letter alone remains. Hence the phenomenon we have been observing. The child thinks of a lie as "what isn't true," independently of the subject's intentions. He even goes so far as to compare lies to those linguistic taboos, "naughty words." As for the judgment of responsibility, the further a lie is removed from reality, the more serious is the offense. .Objective responsibility is thus the inevitable result of unilateral respect in its earliest stage.
  • It is obvious that if the desire for truthfulness does not correspond to something very fundamental in the child's nature, the adult's command, in spite of the nimbus that surrounds it, will always remain external, "stuck on" as it were, to a mind whose structure is of a different order.^ The problem that Piaget glimpsed but did not solve is that it does little good to characterize knowledge as structures in the mind that correspond to structures in the world.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For the spirit of such a command could only be understood by experience.
  • One must have felt a real desire to exchange thoughts with others in order to discover all that a lie can involve.^ Pat obviously thought that adding 2 at a time to one row and adding 3 at a time to other were going to produce unequal outcomes.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He wanted to know whether they thought adding 2 to one row and 3 to other could result in their being equal.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Piaget wasn't just interested in whether children thought that adding 2 to one row and 3 to the other resulted in the rows being equal on this particular occasion, or that particular occasion.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And this interchange of thoughts is from the first not possible between adults and children, because the initial inequality is too great and the child tries to imitate the adult at the same time protect himself against him rather than really to exchange thoughts with him.^ It is not merely that we as adults think faster, or know more; we really do think differently from babies and children, and the differences can be radical.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The situation we have described is thus almost the necessary outcome of unilateral respect. The spirit of the command having failed to be assimilated, the letter alone remains. Hence the phenomenon we have been observing. The child thinks of a lie as "what isn't true," independently of the subject's intentions. He even goes so far as to compare lies to those linguistic taboos, "naughty words." As for the judgment of responsibility, the further a lie is removed from reality, the more serious is the offense. .Objective responsibility is thus the inevitable result of unilateral respect in its earliest stage.
  • The notion of good, which generally speaking, appears later than the notion of pure duty, particularly in the case of the child, is perhaps the final conscious realization of something that is the primary condition of the moral life -- the need for reciprocal affection.^ Without Piaget's turn toward child psychology, his ideas would be seen as little more than the halfway-considered notions of a really bright young man who never realized his promise.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Finally, there is egocentrism, at least in its later, generalized version.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And since moral realism is, on the contrary, the result of constraint exercised by the adult on the child, it may perhaps be a secondary growth in comparison to the simple aspiration after good, while still remaining the first notion to be consciously realized when the child begins to reflect upon morality and to attempt formulation.
  • For the fundamental fact of human psychology is that society, instead of remaining almost entirely inside the individual organism as in the case of animals prompted by their instincts, becomes crystallized almost entirely outside the individuals.^ Without Piaget's turn toward child psychology, his ideas would be seen as little more than the halfway-considered notions of a really bright young man who never realized his promise.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In other words, social rules, as Durkheim has so powerfully shown, whether they be linguistic, moral, religious, or legal, etc., cannot be constituted, transmitted or preserved by means of an internal biological heredity, but only through the external pressure exercised by individuals upon each other.
  • As Bovet has demonstrated in the field of morals, rules do not appear in the mind of the child as innate facts, but as facts that are transmitted to him by his seniors, and to which from his tenderest years he has to conform by means of a sui generis form of adaptation.^ He wanted to know whether they thought adding 2 to one row and 3 to other could result in their being equal.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A major one was his policy of restricting the scope of moral development to reasoning with moral rules, which progress from a "heteronomous" dependence on external authority to an "autonomous" source in one's own conscience.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This, of course, does not prevent some rules from containing more than others an element of rationality, thus corresponding to the deepest fundamental constants of human nature. .But whether they be rational or simply a matter of usage and consensus of opinion, rules imposed on the childish mind by adult constraint do begin by presenting a more or less uniform character of exteriority and sheer authority.^ They are more or less isomorphic to transformations of reality.
    • Jean Piaget's Genetic Epistemology: Appreciation and Critique 16 January 2010 13:46 UTC hubcap.clemson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    So that instead of passing smoothly from an early individualism (the "social" element of the first months is only biologically social, so to speak, inside the individual, and therefore individualistic) to a state of progressive cooperation, the child is from his first year onwards in the grip of coercive education which goes straight on and ends by producing what Claprède has so happily called a veritable "short circuit."

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Simple English

File:Jean
Part of a statue of Piaget, in a park, in Geneva

Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 - 16 September 1980) was a Swiss developmental psychologist. He is famous for his work with children and how they learn. He started a type of study called "genetic epistemology", which is about where knowledge comes from.

Stages of cognitive development

At first, Piaget was a biologist. He was especially interested in mollusks.[1] He became more interested in psychology listening to children talk.[2] He wondered how they learned, and came up with a theory that they go through stages where they become ready for certain kinds of learning. These stages are called "stages of cognitive development". For example, the first stage he came up with is called the "sensorimotor stage". He believed that, from birth to two years old, children would learn that they are different from objects, and that even if the child left a room, things that were in the room would still be there. (This is called "object permanence").

References

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Jean Piaget, which are similar to those in the above article.








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