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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jeep
Type Division of Chrysler
Founded 1941
Headquarters Auburn Hills, Michigan, United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people Michael Manley (CEO of Jeep division)
Industry Automobile
Products Sport Utility vehicles
Parent Chrysler Group LLC
Website Jeep.com

Jeep is an automobile marque (and registered trademark) of Chrysler. It is the oldest off-road vehicle (also sport utility vehicle – SUV) brand. It inspired a number of other military Light Utility Vehicles such as the Land Rover which is the second oldest brand. The original vehicle which first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the US Army and allies during the World War II and postwar period. Many vehicles serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created by many nations.

Contents

History

Origin of the name "jeep"

There are many explanations of the origin of the word "jeep," all of which have proven difficult to verify. One notion holds that the vehicle bore the designation "GP" (for "Government Purposes" or "General Purpose"), which was phonetically slurred into the word jeep. However, R. Lee Ermey, on his television series Mail Call, disputes this, saying that the vehicle was designed for specific duties, and was never referred to as "General Purpose" and it is highly unlikely that the average jeep-driving GI would have been familiar with this designation. The Ford GPW acronym actually mean (G for government use, P to designate its 80-inch (2,000 mm) wheelbase and W to indicate its Willy-Overland designed engine).

Many, including Ermey, suggest that soldiers at the time were so impressed with the new vehicles that they informally named it after Eugene the Jeep, a character in the Popeye cartoons created by E. C. Segar. Eugene the Jeep was Popeye's "jungle pet" and was "small, able to move between dimensions and could solve seemingly impossible problems."[1]

Words of the Fighting Forces by Clinton A. Sanders, a dictionary of military slang, published in 1942, in the library at The Pentagon gives this definition:

Jeep: A four-wheel drive vehicle of one-half- to one-and-one-half-ton capacity for reconnaissance or other army duty. A term applied to the bantam-cars, and occasionally to other motor vehicles (U.S.A.) in the Air Corps, the Link Trainer; in the armored forces, the ½-ton command vehicle. Also referred to as "any small plane, helicopter, or gadget."

This definition is supported by the use of the term "jeep carrier" to refer to the Navy's small escort carriers.

Early in 1941, Willys-Overland demonstrated the vehicle's off-road capability by having it drive up the steps of the United States Capitol, driven by Willy's test driver Irving "Red" Haussman, who had recently heard soldiers at Fort Holabird calling it a "jeep." When asked by syndicated columnist Katherine Hillyer for the Washington Daily News (or by a bystander, according to another account) what it was called, Irving answered, "It's a jeep."

Katherine Hillyer's article was published nationally on February 20, 1941, and included a picture of the vehicle with the caption:

LAWMAKERS TAKE A RIDE- With Senator Meade, of New York, at the wheel, and Representative Thomas, of New Jersey, sitting beside him, one of the Army's new scout cars, known as "jeeps" or "quads", climbs up the Capitol steps in a demonstration yesterday. Soldiers in the rear seat for gunners were unperturbed.

This exposure caused all other jeep references to fade, leaving the 4x4 with the name. The term was also in military slang use to mean vehicles that were untried, or untested. The word certainly existed as slang for several decades prior to the invention of the military vehicle.

In 1950 Willys-Overland Inc. was granted the privilege of owning the name "Jeep" as a registered trademark however they certainly did not invent the name nor design the original vehicle.

The origins of the vehicle: the first jeeps

Bantam BRC 40
Dashboard of World War II era jeep.
Jeep with 50 cal. Browning machine gun

The first jeep prototype (the Bantam BRC) was built for the United States Army Quartermaster Corps (QMC) by American Bantam in Butler, Pennsylvania,[2] followed by two other competing prototypes produced by the Ford Motor Company and Willys-Overland.

When it became obvious that the United States was eventually going to become involved in the war raging in Europe the U.S. Army contacted 135 companies asking for working prototypes of a four wheel drive reconnaissance car. Only two companies responded to the request, The American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army had set what seemed like an impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys asked for more time but were refused. The bankrupt American Bantam Car Company had no engineering staff left on the payroll and brought in Karl Probst, a talented freelance designer from Detroit. After turning down an initial request from Bantam, Probst accepted the job after being asked again by the Army, and initially working without salary, went to work July 17, 1940.

Probst completely laid out plans for the Bantam prototype in two days, and the next day estimated the total cost of the vehicle. On July 22, Bantam's bid was submitted, complete with blueprints[3] Much of the vehicle had to be assembled from existing off-the-shelf automotive parts, and the custom four wheel drive train components were supplied by Spicer. The hand built prototype was completed and driven to Camp Holabird, MD for testing by the Army on 21 September 1940. The vehicle met the Army's criteria, but its engine did not meet the Army's torque requirements.

The Army felt that the Bantam company was too small to supply the number of vehicles it needed so it supplied the Bantam design to Willys and Ford who were encouraged to make their own changes and modifications. The resulting Ford 'Pygmy' and Willys 'Quad' prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC (Bantam Reconnaissance Car) prototype and Spicer supplied very similar 4-wheel drive train components to all three manufacturers.

1,500 of each of the three models built and extensively field tested. Willys-Overland's chief engineer Delmar "Barney" Roos made design changes to meet a revised weight specification (a maximum of 2,175 lb (987 kg), including oil and water). He was thus able to use the powerful but comparatively heavy Willys "Go Devil" engine, and win the initial production contract. The Willys version of the car would become the standardized jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio. The familiar pressed metal Jeep grille was actually a Ford design feature and incorporated into the final design by the Army.

Since the War Department required a large number of vehicles to be manufactured in a relatively short time, Willys-Overland granted the United States Government a non-exclusive license to allow another company to manufacture vehicles using Willys' specifications. The Army chose Ford as the second supplier, but building Jeeps to the Willys' design. Willys supplied Ford with a complete set of plans and specifications. American Bantam, the creators of the first Jeep, spent the rest of the war building heavy duty trailers for the army.

Final production version Jeeps built by Willys-Overland were the Model MB, while those built by Ford were the Model GPW (G = government vehicle, P designated the 80" wheelbase, and W = the Willys engine design). There were subtle differences between the two.[4] The versions produced by Ford had every component (including bolt heads) marked with an "F". Willys also followed the Ford pattern by stamping its name into some body parts, but stopped this in 1942.[5] The cost per vehicle trended upwards as the war continued from the price under the first contract from Willys at US$648.74 (Ford's was $782.59 per unit).[6] Willys-Overland and Ford, under the direction of Charles E. Sorensen (Vice-President of Ford during World War II), produced about 640,000 Jeeps between them which was about 18% of all the wheeled military vehicles built in the U.S. during the war.

Jeeps were used by every division of the U.S. military and an average of 145 were supplied to every infantry regiment. Jeeps were used for many other purposes including cable laying, saw milling, as fire fighting pumpers, field ambulances, tractors and, with suitable wheels, would even run on railway tracks. An amphibious jeep, the model GPA, or "seep"(Sea Jeep) was built for Ford in modest numbers but it could not be considered a huge success - it was neither a good off road vehicle nor a good boat. As part of the war effort, nearly 30% of all Jeep production was supplied to Great Britain and to the Soviet Red Army during World War II. During the jeep's service in Korea the name was referred to as "Just Enough Essential Parts" by the troops due to the very basic design.

The Jeep has been widely imitated around the world, including in France by Delahaye and by Hotchkiss et Cie (after 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under license from Willys), and in Japan by Mitsubishi Motors. The utilitarian good looks of the original Jeep have been hailed by industrial designers and museum curators alike. The Museum of Modern Art described the Jeep as a masterpiece of functionalist design, and has periodically exhibited the Jeep as part of its collection.[7][8]

Jeeps became even more famous following the war, as they became available on the surplus market. Some ads claimed to offer "Jeeps still in the factory crate." This legend persisted for decades, despite the fact that Jeeps were never shipped from the factory in crates.

Another legend—true, in this case—rising around the Jeep comes from the Jeepney, a unique type of taxi or bus created in the Philippines. The first Jeepneys were military-surplus MB and GPWs, left behind in the war-ravaged country following WWII and Filipino independence. Jeepneys were built from Jeeps by lengthening and widening the rear "tub" of the vehicle, allowing more passengers to ride. Over the years, Jeepneys have become the most ubiquitous symbol of the modern Philippines, even as they have been decorated in more elaborate and flamboyant styles by their owners.

In the United States military, the jeep has been supplanted by a number of vehicles (e.g. Ford's M151 MUTT) of which the latest is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or "Humvee").

The M715

Jeep M715

In 1965, Jeep developed the M715 1.25 ton army truck, a militarised version of the civilian J-series Jeep truck, which served extensively in Vietnam. It had heavier full floating axles and a vertical flat windshield. Today it serves other countries, and is still being produced by Kia under license.

The CJ ("Civilian Jeep") series began in 1945 with the CJ-2A followed by the CJ-3B in 1953. These early Jeeps are commonly referred to as "flatfenders" because their front fenders were flat across the front, the same as their military precedents, the Willys MB and identical Ford GPW models. The CJ-4 exists only as a 1951 prototype, and is the missing link between the flat fendered CJ-2A and CJ-3B and the round-fendered CJ-5 first introduced in 1955.

The Jeep marque

The marque has gone through many owners, starting with Willys, which produced the first Civilian Jeep (CJ) in 1945 and who were the first granted the trademark in 1950. Willys was sold to Kaiser Motors in 1953, which became Kaiser-Jeep in 1963. American Motors (AMC) purchased Kaiser's money-losing Jeep operations in 1970. The utility vehicles complemented AMC's passenger car business by sharing components, achieving volume efficiencies, as well as capitalizing on Jeep's international and government markets.

The French automaker Renault began investing in AMC in 1979. However, by 1987, the automobile markets had changed and even Renault itself was experiencing financial troubles. At the same time, Chrysler Corporation wanted to capture the Jeep brand, as well as other assets of AMC. Chrysler bought out AMC in 1987, shortly after the Jeep CJ-7 was replaced with the AMC-designed Jeep Wrangler or YJ. Chrysler merged with Daimler-Benz in 1998 to form DaimlerChrysler. DaimlerChrysler eventually sold most of their interest in Chrysler to a private equity company in 2007. Chrysler and the Jeep division now operate under the name Chrysler Group LLC.

Jeeps have been built under licence by various manufacturers around the world including Mahindra in India, EBRO in Spain, and several in South America. Mitsubishi built more than 30 different Jeep models in Japan between 1953 and 1998. Most of them were based on the CJ-3B model of the original Willys-Kaiser design.[9]

Toledo, Ohio has been the headquarters of the Jeep marque since its inception, and the city has always been proud of this heritage. Although no longer produced in the same factory as the World War II originals, two streets in the vicinity of the old plant are named Willys Parkway and Jeep Parkway.

American Motors set up the first automobile-manufacturing joint venture in the People's Republic of China on January 15, 1984.[10] The result was Beijing Jeep Corporation, Ltd., in partnership with Beijing Automobile Industry Corporation, to produce the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) in Beijing. Manufacture continued after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. This joint venture is now part of DaimlerChrysler and DaimlerChrysler China Invest Corporation. The original 1984 XJ model was updated and called the "Jeep 2500" toward the end of its production that ended after 2005.[11]

A division of Chrysler Group LLC, the most recent successor company to the Jeep brand, now holds trademark status on the name "Jeep" and the distinctive 7-slot front grille design. The original 9-slot grille associated with all WW2 jeeps was designed by Ford for their GPW, and because it weighed less than the original "Slat Grille" of Willys, (an arrangement of flat bars) was incorporated into the "standardized jeep" design.

AM General

The history of the HMMWV (Humvee) has ties with Jeep. In 1971, Jeep's Defense and Government Products Division was turned into AM General, a wholly-owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation, which also owned Jeep. In 1979, while still owned by American Motors, AM General began the first steps toward designing the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle. AM General also continued manufacturing the two wheel drive DJ, which Jeep created in 1953.

The General Motors Hummer and Chrysler Jeep have been waging battle in US courts over the right to use seven slots in their respective radiator grills. Chrysler Jeep claims it has the exclusive rights to use the seven vertical slits since it is the sole remaining assignee of the various companies since Willys gave their post-war jeeps seven slots instead of Ford's nine-slot design for the Jeep.

Off-road abilities

Jeep Wrangler off-roading

Jeep advertising has always emphasized the vehicle's off-road capabilities.[12] Today, the Wrangler is one of the few remaining four wheel drive vehicles with solid front and rear axles. These axles are known for their durability and strength. Most Wranglers come with a Dana 44 rear differential and a Dana 30 front differential (44 in the case of the Rubicon). The upgraded Rubicon model of the JK Wrangler is equipped with electronically activated locking differentials, Dana 44 axles front and rear with 4.10 gears, a 4:1 transfer case, electronic sway bar disconnect and heavy duty suspension.

Another benefit of solid axle vehicles is they tend to be easier and cheaper to "lift" with after market suspension systems. This "lifting" increases the distance between the center of the axle hub and chassis of the vehicle. By increasing this distance, larger tires can be installed, which will increase the ground clearance and track of the Jeep, allowing it to traverse even larger and more difficult obstacles. In addition to higher ground clearance many owners aim to increase suspension articulation or "flex" to give their Jeeps greatly improved off-road capabilities. Good suspension articulation keeps all four wheels in contact with the ground and maintains traction. Many owners equip their Jeep with larger tires, locking differentials, heavy duty bumpers, extra lights, and a winch to pull the vehicle out from mud, sand or snow if it becomes bogged.

Useful features of the smaller Jeeps are their short wheelbases, narrow frames, and ample approach, breakover, and departure angles, allowing them to fit into places where full-size four wheel drives have difficulty. Jeeps also feature a removable soft top (hard tops are also available) and removable doors (half or full-sized) for fair weather, the only remaining utility vehicle so equipped.

Jeep events

The Jeep Jamboree

Jamborees are two-day off-road events held throughout the year in which Jeep owners can bring their friends and families to meet other Jeepers, tour scenic trails, and test the limits of their vehicles. Any Jeep with a low-range transfer case is allowed, although Full Size Jeeps require prior approval. Only registered participants are allowed to take part in the trail rides and activities; no spectators are allowed. Participants can choose to camp at a local campground, stay in a motel, or find other lodging. The day starts off with breakfast, followed by a general meeting that discusses the trail of the day, as well as the driving techniques required. The trail run is concluded by sundown.

Camp Jeep

Camp Jeep is an annual, three-day, multi-activity oriented event which includes mountain biking, fishing, kayaking, tubing, arts and crafts, and performances by top bands. Children are encouraged to participate as much as adults (events permitting). Man-made obstacle courses are also offered, as well as trail rides (although the latter must be reserved in advance). "Jeep 101" courses are offered for people just getting started in the off-road world, with experienced guides demonstrating proper driving techniques and the vehicles' 4x4 systems. There is no actual camping at Camp Jeep; participants may camp locally or stay at a motel.

Summary of Jeep ownership

Jeep model list

Historical and military models

World War II era jeep built by Ford, using the Willys-Overland design
World War II era Willys jeep

FC Trucks, VJ Jeepsters, & FJ Vans

(Foward Control Jeep)

(Fleetvan Jeep)

(Commando)

  • 1966-1971 C101- Jeepster Commando
    • Hurst Jeepster
    • Hurst Half Cab (only 100 produced)
    • Revival Jeepster
    • Commando convertible
    • open body roadster
  • 1972-1973 C104— Jeep Commando
    • Commando Half Cab

CJ models

(Civilian Jeep)

A USPS mail delivery vehicle made by Jeep
1982 Jeep Scrambler
  • 1944 Agrijeep CJ-1
  • 1944-1945 CJ-2
  • 1945-1949 CJ-2A
  • 1949-1953 CJ-3A
  • 1950 CJ-V35
  • 1950 CJ-4- Prototype
  • 1950 CJ-4M- Prototype
  • 1950 CJ-4MA- Prototypes
  • 1953-1968 CJ-3B
  • 1954-1983 CJ-5
    • 1961-1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
    • 1969 Camper
    • 1969 462
    • 1970 Renegade I
    • 1971 Renegade II
    • 1972-1983 Renegade Models
    • 1973 Super Jeep
    • 1977-1980 Golden Eagle
    • 1977 Golden Eagle California Edition - limited production that were only available through California AMC Dealerships
    • 1980 Golden Hawk
    • 1979 Silver Anniversary CJ-5 Limited Edition - estimated that perhaps only 1,000 were ever built
  • 1955-1975 CJ-6
  • 1955-1968 CJ-3B Long- Spain
  • 1960-1977 Jeep Rural- Brazil
  • 1964-1967 CJ-5A/CJ-6A Tuxedo Park
  • 1976-1986 CJ-7
    • 1982 — Jamboree Limited Edition (2500 examples)
  • 1979 — CJ-5 Silver Anniversary Limited Edition - estimated that perhaps only 1000 were built)
  • 1981-1985 CJ-8 Scrambler
  • 1981-1985 CJ-10

DJ models

(Dispatcher Jeep)

SJ (FSJ) models

(Full Size Jeep)

1974 Cherokee S in action.

XJ models

  • 1984-2001 XJ Cherokee
    • 1984-2001 — Base "SE"
    • 1984-1988 — Chief
    • 1984-1990 — Pioneer
    • 1985-1992 — Laredo
    • 1987-1992/1998-2001 — Limited
    • 1988-2001 — Sport
    • 1991-1992 — Briarwood
    • 1993-1997 — Country
    • 1996-2001 — Classic
  • 1984-1990 XJ Wagoneer
    • 1984-1985 — Broughwood
    • 1984-1990 — Limited

MJ models

(Metric Ton Jeep Comanche)

  • 1986-1992 MJ Comanche
    • 1986 — Custom
    • 1986 — X
    • 1986 — XLS
    • 1987-1992 — Base SE
    • 1987-1990 — Chief
    • 1987-1992 — Laredo
    • 1987-1990 — Pioneer
    • 1987-1992 — SporTruck
    • 1987-1992 — Eliminator
1997 Jeep Wrangler TJ

YJ, TJ, LJ and JK models

(Jeep Wrangler)

  • 1987-1995 Wrangler YJ
    • 1991-1993 Renegade
    • 1988-1995 Wrangler Long- Venezuela
2005 TJ Rubicon
  • 1997-2006 Wrangler TJSe, Sport, Sharaha models
    • 2002 - TJ Se, X, Sport, Sharaha models
    • 2003 - TJ Rubicon, Sahara, Sport, X, Se models
    • 2004-2006 - LJ Unlimited(extended version TJ) Rubicon, Sport, X, Se models
    • 2004-2005 - Willys Edition (2004-1997 made, 2005-2001 made)
    • 2004 — Columbia Edition
    • 2005 - Rubicon Sahara Unlimited LJ (1000 made)
    • 2006 - Golden Eagle Edition
2006 Golden Eagle
  • 2007-2009 Wrangler JK
    • 2007-2009 JK Rubicon, Sahara, X
    • 2010 JK Rubicon, Sahara, Sport

ZJ, WJ, and WK models

(Jeep Grand Cherokee)

First generation ZJ
1994 ZJ Laredo Model
  • 1993-1998 ZJ Grand Cherokee
    • 1993–1995 – Base SE
    • 1993–1998 – Laredo
    • 1993–1998 – Limited
    • 1995–1997 – Orvis "Limited Edition"
    • 1997–1998 – TSi
    • 1998 - 5.9 Limited
  • 1993 ZJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer
  • 1999-2004 WJ Grand Cherokee
    • 2002–2003 — Sport
    • 2002–2004 — Special edition
    • 2002–2004 — Overland
    • 2004 — Columbia Edition
  • Jeep Grand Cherokee — Five-passenger family-oriented SUV.
    • WK — The newest Grand Cherokee, 2005-present ("WK" is the designator for the new Grand Cherokee, it is one of the few non-J-designated Jeeps).

KJ models

(Jeep Liberty)

Current models

The Jeep brand currently produces six models:

Concept vehicles

  • 1958 DJ-3A Pickup
  • 1970 XJ001
  • 1970 XJ002
  • 1971 Jeep Cowboy
  • 1977 Jeep II
  • 1986 Cherokee Targa Essentially a Cherokee convertible (later revised as Jeep Freedom).
  • 1987 Comanche Thunderchief This vehicle was put into production later as the Comanche Eliminator.
  • 1989 Jeep Rubicon Wrangler This vehicle was later put in production.
  • 1990 Jeep JJ Essentially what would later be called the Icon.
  • 1990 Jeep Freedom Essentially a revised Cherokee Targa.
  • 1991 Jeep Wagoneer 2000 Essentially what Jeep thought would be the next generation Wagoneer, but it got discontinued.
  • 1989 Jeep Concept 1 Evolved into the ZJ Grand Cherokee.
  • 1993 Jeep Ecco
  • 1997 Jeep Cherokee Casablanca A special edition of Cherokee, never produced.
  • 1997 Jeep Wrangler Ultimate Rescue Essentially a tuned version of a regular TJ Wrangler. Before SEMA.
  • 1997 Fender Jeep Wrangler
  • 1997 Jeep Dakar Essentially a fused version of a XJ Cherokee and TJ Wrangler.
  • 1997 Jeep Icon What Jeep thought would be the next-generation Wrangler.
  • 1999 Jeep Journey
  • 1999 Jeep Jeepster Concept
  • 2000 Jeep Cherokee Total Exposure
  • 2000 Jeep Varsity This was later put into production as the Compass.
  • 2000 Jeep Commander Concept This vehicle was later put into production as the XK.
  • 2000 Jeep Willys
  • 2001 Jeep Willys 2
  • 2002 Jeep Wrangler Tabasco
  • 2002 Jeep Wrangler Patriot This was a special decal package for the Wrangler X/Sport.
  • 2002 Jeep Wrangler Mountain Biker
  • 2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee (WJ) Concierge
  • 2004 Jeep Treo
  • 2004 Jeep Rescue
  • 2004 Jeep Liberator CRD
  • 2005 Jeep Hurricane The 4-wheel steering system allows the vehicle to have both a zero turning circle, and "crab" sideways.[21] Its engine was later put in the Grand Cherokee (WK) SRT/8.
  • 2005 Jeep Gladiator Concept This vehicle was supposed to be put into production, but Jeep cancelled it.
  • 2005 Jeep Aggressor (the Rezo)
  • 2007 Jeep Trailhawk
  • 2008 Jeep Renegade

Jeeps around the world

Jeeps have been built and/or assembled around the world by various companies.[22]

  • Argentina - IKA Jeeps 1956-current; now owned by Chrysler [23]
  • Australia - Willys Motors Australia - 1940s-1980s [24]
  • Belgium -
The Troller T4

Further reading

  • Hartwell D The Mighty Jeep American Heritage Magazine, Vol 12 No 1, December 1960

See also

References

  • Jeep, written by Jim Allen, published in 2001 by MBI Publishing Company
  • Standard catalog of JEEP, written by Patrick Foster, published in 2003 by Krause Publications
  • Jeep® Owner's Bible™, written and illustrated by Moses Ludel, First Edition published 1992, 2nd Edition 1998 and 3rd Edition 2004—each edition by Bentley Publishers

Footnotes

  1. ^ Wordorigins.org
  2. ^ "Invention of the Jeep" Waymark
  3. ^ "The Military Jeep". Cossor.com.au. http://www.cossor.com.au/jeep_1.html. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  4. ^ Allen, Jim (2003). Jeep: Collector's Library. MBI Publishing Company. pp. 36-39. ISBN 9780760314869. 
  5. ^ Scott, Graham (1996). Essential Military Jeep: Willys, Ford & Bantam models 1941–45. MBI Publishing Company. p. 25. ISBN 9781870979764. 
  6. ^ Zaloga, Steven J. (2005). Jeeps 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 9781841768885. 
  7. ^ Leigh Brown, Patricia, Where Do You Hang The 747?, New York Times, December 13, 1998
  8. ^ MOMA Press Release, The Museum of Modern Art Displays Entire Automotive Collection, page 2 (June 2002) http://www.moma.org/about_moma/press/2002/AUTObodies_6_01_02.pdf
  9. ^ "Mitsubishi Jeep Photos on The CJ3B Page". Film.queensu.ca. 2002-08-29. http://www.film.queensu.ca/cj3B/World/JapanPhotos.html. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  10. ^ Mann, Jim. (1997). Beijing Jeep: A Case Study of Western Business in China. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3327-X.
  11. ^ Dunne, Timothy. "Can Chrysler Rebound in China?" Business Week, November 2, 2007. Retrieved on January 22, 2008.
  12. ^ Toledo-built Jeeps' sales results abroad mirror those in North American market
  13. ^ "Jeepster VJ - - Jeep at Off-Road.com". Jeep.off-road.com. http://jeep.off-road.com/jeep/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=261018. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  14. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/hist1.jpg
  15. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/hist2.jpg
  16. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/hist3.jpg
  17. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/49coupe.jpg
  18. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/proto.jpg
  19. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/proto2.jpg
  20. ^ http://www.americanjeepsterclub.org/history/proto3.jpg
  21. ^ "Jeep 4-wheel steering". http://autoweek.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050109/FREE/501090708&SearchID=7326899736199. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  22. ^ Jeeps Around the World on The CJ3B Page
  23. ^ Jeeps in Argentina on The CJ3B Page
  24. ^ Jeeps in Australia on The CJ3B Page
  25. ^ Jeeps in Brasil on The CJ3B Page
  26. ^ Kaiser Jeep in Canada 1959-69 on The CJ3B Page
  27. ^ Jeeps in Colombia on The CJ3B Page
  28. ^ Jeeps in France on The CJ3B Page
  29. ^ Mahindra Jeeps on The CJ3B Page
  30. ^ Jeeps in Italy on The CJ3B Page
  31. ^ Jeeps in Japan on The CJ3B Page
  32. ^ Jeeps in Korea on The CJ3B Page
  33. ^ Jeeps in Mexico on The CJ3B Page
  34. ^ Jeeps in the Netherlands on The CJ3B Page
  35. ^ Jeepneys of the Philippines on The CJ3B Page
  36. ^ Afp.google.com, Philippine firm brings old WWII jeeps back to life
  37. ^ earthtimes.org, Electric minibuses start commercial operations in Philippines
  38. ^ manilastandardtoday.com, Enforcers to drive E-jeeps
  39. ^ Jeeps in Spain on The CJ3B Page
  40. ^ Jeeps in Turkey on The CJ3B Page

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also jeep

Contents

English

Etymology

From GP, standing for "general purpose".

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Jeep

Plural
Jeeps

Jeep (plural Jeeps)

  1. (trademark) A brand of vehicle suitable for rough terrain.

Translations


German

Noun

Jeep m.

  1. jeep (vehicle)

This German entry was created from the translations listed at jeep. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see Jeep in the German Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) December 2009


Simple English

Jeep is the name of a car maker that makes four-wheel drive vehicles. They are similar to Land Rovers. They are based in Toledo, Ohio, USA.








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