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Jellyfish
.The Pacific sea nettle, Chrysaora fuscescens, is endemic to the west coast of North America.^ Sea Nettle Jellyfish (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) .
  • Jellyfish Stock Photos and Images. 402 Jellyfish pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Sea Nettle Jellyfish, (Chrysaora fuscescens) in aquarium .
  • Jellyfish Stock Photos and Images. 402 Jellyfish pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Sea Nettle Jellyfish ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha) .
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Goette, 1887
Orders
.Jellyfish (also known as jellies or sea jellies) are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria.^ Poisonous jellyfish jellyfish - 2 reference results Jellyfish Jellyfish are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria .
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyps generally have a mouth surrounded by tentacles that face upwards, like miniatures of the closely-related anthozoan polyps (sea anemones and corals), also of the phylum Cnidaria.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually these break free one by one and swim away to grow into tiny jellyfish.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jellyfish have several different morphologies that represent several different cnidarian classes including the Scyphozoa (over 200 species), Staurozoa (about 50 species), Cubozoa (about 20 species), and Hydrozoa (about 1000–1500 species that make jellyfish and many more that do not).^ They have several different basic morphologies that represent several different cnidarian classes including the Scyphozoa (about 200 species), Staurozoa (about 50 species), Cubozoa (about 20 species), and Hydrozoa (about 1000-1500 species that make jellyfish and many more that do not).
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stings of Scyphozoan jellyfish are not generally deadly, though some species of the completely separate class Cubozoa (box jellyfish), such as the famous and especially toxic Irukandji , can be fatal.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only scyphozoan jellyfish belonging to the order Rhizostomeae are harvested for food; about 12 of the approximately 85 known species of Rhizostomeae are being harvested and sold on international markets.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .The jellyfish in these groups are also called, respectively, scyphomedusae, stauromedusae, cubomedusae, and hydromedusae; medusa is another word for jellyfish, and as such is used to refer specifically to the adult stage of the life cycle.^ What is an adult jellyfish called?
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalked Jellyfish These are sessile species without a medusae stage.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An adult jellyfish is called a Jellyfish.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jellyfish are found in every ocean, from the surface to the deep sea.^ Ocean sunfish and sea turtles (such as Leatherback Turtles) are predators of jellyfish.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With trailing tentacles that contain thousands of tiny barbed stingers, jellyfish are found in all of the world's oceans.
  • Jellyfish stings 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Jellyfish stings 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Jellyfish stings 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The Portuguese Man-O-War Physalia physalia (above) is commonly observed in the open ocean and coastal seas, and is often mistaken for a true jellyfish.
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusae, are also found in fresh water; freshwater species are less than an inch (25 mm) in diameter, are colorless and do not sting.^ Some of them live in fresh water.

^ The diameter of the bell was about 25 mm.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusae, are also found in fresh water.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the best-known jellyfish, such as Aurelia, are scyphomedusae.^ For example, the animals known as comb jellies look in many ways like true jellyfish, but are actually distant cousins.
  • Science News for Kids: Feature: Blooming Jellies 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These poisonous barbs, known as nematocysts, are used by the jellyfish to immobilize prey such as small fish.
  • Jellyfish stings 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Jellyfish stings 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Jellyfish stings 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC edition1.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.These are the large, often colorful, jellyfish that are common in coastal zones worldwide.^ These are the big, often colorful, jellyfish that are common in coastal zones worldwide.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These battery-operated Floating Jellyfish Pool Lights unleash a kaleidoscope of color as they float in the water.
  • Jellyfish Stings | LIVESTRONG.COM 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The Portuguese Man-O-War Physalia physalia (above) is commonly observed in the open ocean and coastal seas, and is often mistaken for a true jellyfish.
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In its broadest sense, the term jellyfish also generally refers to members of the phylum Ctenophora.^ In its broadest sense, the term jellyfish is sometimes used also to refer to members of the phylum Ctenophora .
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its broadest usage, some people also include members of the phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) when they are referring to jellyfish.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comb Jellies are in the phylum Ctenophora, and are completely unrelated to jellyfishes, as are Sea Butterflies and Corollas, which are mollusks.
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although not closely related to cnidarian jellyfish, ctenophores are also free-swimming planktonic carnivores, are generally transparent or translucent, and exist in shallow to deep portions of all the world's oceans.^ Although not closely related to cnidarian jellyfish, ctenophores are also free-swimming planktonic carnivores, are also generally transparent or translucent, and occur in shallow to deep portions of all the world's oceans.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyps generally have a mouth surrounded by tentacles that face upwards, like miniatures of the closely-related anthozoan polyps (sea anemones and corals), also of the phylum Cnidaria.
  • Jellyfish encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HABITAT Many jellyfish live in oceans around the world and are capable of withstanding a large flux of temperatures and salinities.

Contents

Terminology

.Since jellyfish are not actually fish, some people consider the word jellyfish a misnomer, and American public aquariums have popularized use of the terms jellies or sea jellies instead.^ How do Humans use Jelly Fish?
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jellyfish is also getting publicity in women's magazines because it contains collagen, a protein used in cosmetics.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Invasive jelly species are wiping out fish larvae in waters from the Gulf of Mexico to the Black Sea.
  • Jellyfish: Beauty with a bite 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[3] .Others find jellyfish, which has been in common usage for more than a century,[4] to be equally useful and picturesque, and prefer it over jellies.^ This species is much more unpleasant than the common reddish-brown Lion's Mane Jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, and seems to be much less common.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LOCOMOTION Some Jelly fish swim using jet propulsion, and some attach themselves by a stalk to other material, such as seaweed.

^ Seaturtles, ctenophorans (comb jellies), anthozoans (corals) and other jellyfish feed on them.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word jellyfish is used to denote several different kinds of cnidarians, all of which have a basic body structure that resembles an umbrella, including scyphozoans, staurozoans (stalked jellyfish), hydrozoans, and cubozoans (box jellyfish).^ Jellyfishes breath by gas diffusion through all the surface of their body.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, sometimes folks group the relatives of true scyphozoans such as the Hydrozoa (Portuguese Man-o-War) and the Cubozoa (Australian Box Jelly) with the term "Jellyfish".
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ All kinds of jellyfishes can sting you, but dangerous ones are Semaeostomeae, Coronatae and Cubozoa.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some textbooks and websites refer to scyphozoans as "true jellyfish".[5][6]
.In its broadest usage, some scientists occasionally include members of the phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) when they are referring to jellyfish.^ It seems like a comb jelly (Ctenophora).
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Giant jellyfish Comb jelly Crystal jellyfish .
  • Science News for Kids: Feature: Blooming Jellies 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencenewsforkids.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comb jellies are not true jellyfish (although they look like jellies).
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

[7] .Other scientists prefer to use the more all-encompassing term "gelatinous zooplankton", when referring to these, together with other soft-bodied animals in the water column.^ These little animals grow attached to under-water surfaces for part of their lives, then form buds that turn into the floating form, called a medusa.
  • Freshwater Jellyfish in Minnesota - Real or Fake? | Science Buzz 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencebuzz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both are referred to as zooplankton (animal drifters), because their movement is strongly influenced by the oceans current.

^ These animals like still waters, so they won't be found in rivers or streams.
  • Freshwater Jellyfish in Minnesota - Real or Fake? | Science Buzz 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencebuzz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.A group of jellyfish is sometimes called a bloom or a swarm.^ We must learn to flow.Groups of jellyfish are called blooms, and the image itself suggests flowing.

^ Also, sometimes folks group the relatives of true scyphozoans such as the Hydrozoa (Portuguese Man-o-War) and the Cubozoa (Australian Box Jelly) with the term "Jellyfish".
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[9] ."Bloom" is usually used for a large group of jellyfish that gather in a small area, but may also have a time component, referring to seasonal increases, or numbers beyond what was expected.^ July 2009, 4.24pm Great restaurant We have ate at the restuarant several times a couple with large groups (10 or more people) and also small groups.
  • Jellyfish Restaurant, Brisbane - Restaurant Information And Reviews - yourRestaurants.com.au 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.yourrestaurants.com.au [Source type: General]

^ We must learn to flow.Groups of jellyfish are called blooms, and the image itself suggests flowing.

^ If it is a small jellyfish and is not a Portuguese Man of War, rinse off the affected area.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

[10] .Jellyfish are "bloomy" by nature of their life cycles, being produced by their benthic polyps usually in the spring when sunshine and plankton increase, so they appear rather suddenly and often in large numbers, even when an ecosystem is in balance.^ Needless to say, large numbers of these jellies in the Gulf of Mexico could pose a serious threat to native species of fish and other marine life.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ This gastropod is rarely recorded in British seas even when there are large numbers of Velella stranded.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This year the winner so far seems to be the giant jellyfish design that suddenly appeared in a field in Oxfordshire, England.

[11] .Using "swarm" implies some kind of active ability to stay together, which a few species like Aurelia, the moon jelly, demonstrate.^ Moon Jelly - Aurelia aurita .
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LOCOMOTION Some Jelly fish swim using jet propulsion, and some attach themselves by a stalk to other material, such as seaweed.

^ Like some kind of hat that ties around the head.
  • Halloween LED Jellyfish Costume 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Most jellyfish have a second part of their life cycle, which is called the polyp phase.^ Trying to understand why the jellyfish have started appearing in such numbers, marine biologist Kohzoh Ohtsu studies their reproductive cycle on another part of Oki.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Not all medusas ( as jellyfishes are called ) have a corresponding polyp stage, and likewise not all polyps have a corresponding medusa stage, but most alternate generations in each form.
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some jellyfishes haven't any, but most of them have eyes called ocelli; jellyfish of the class Cubozoa (box jelly) have 24...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When single polyps, arising from a single fertilized egg, develop into a multiple-polyp cluster, connected to each other by strands of tissue called stolons, they are said to be "colonial."^ Man-O-Wars are hermaphrodites; the fertilized egg develops into a planktonic larval form that produces the large Physalia colony by asexual budding.
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I wire as instructed...will all the LED strands flash at the same time and in the same pattern or will they be flashing out of sync with each other, as they would if I just turned them all on independently?
  • Halloween LED Jellyfish Costume 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each finger in these egg clusters was produced by a single female.
  • Scuba Diving - New Jersey & Long Island New York - dive Wreck Valley - Marine Biology - Jellyfishes 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC njscuba.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A few polyps never proliferate and are referred to as "solitary" species.[13]

Anatomy

A cross section of the jellyfish Olindias formosa, illustrating the anatomy of a jellyfish in the medusa stage.
.Jellyfish do not have specialized digestive, osmoregulatory, central nervous, respiratory, or circulatory systems.^ We need to let go - even more so - of heirarchical thinking/behavior.Unlike humans, jellyfish don't have a brain and central nervous system feeding into it.

^ Jellyfish lack basic sensory organs and brain, but their nervous systems generally allow them to perceive stimuli such as light...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jellyfish nervous system is made up of two neural rings, an inner and an outer one, located in the margin of the umbrella.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They digest using the gastrodermal lining of the gastrovascular cavity, where nutrients are absorbed. .They do not need a respiratory system since their skin is thin enough that the body is oxygenated by diffusion.^ Its because their skin is so thin on the body and tenticles that the oxygen flows through their body and goes through to its...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jellyfishes get oxygen by diffusion through all the surface of their body.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have limited control over movement, but can use their hydrostatic skeleton to accomplish movement through contraction-pulsations of the bell-like body; some species actively swim most of the time, while others are passive much of the time.^ He noticed several jellyfish actively swimming in the strong current as though they were aggressively hunting for food.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ This substance allows doctors to trace the movement of specific chemicals through the body.

^ Most jellyfish are passive drifters that feed on living or dead preys: small fish, eggs, zooplankton and other invertebrates that...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Jellyfish are composed of more than 90% water; most of their umbrella mass is a gelatinous material — the jelly — called mesoglea which is surrounded by two layers of epithelial cells which form the umbrella (top surface) and subumbrella (bottom surface) of the bell, or body.^ Jellyfish kill more people than great White Sharks.

^ Only jellyfish belonging to the order Rhizostomeae (especially Rhopilema esculentum , Mandarin name: haizhe ) are harvested for food because they are typically larger, have no tentacles or stinging cells, and have more rigid bodies than other jellyfish.
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ These little animals grow attached to under-water surfaces for part of their lives, then form buds that turn into the floating form, called a medusa.
  • Freshwater Jellyfish in Minnesota - Real or Fake? | Science Buzz 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencebuzz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Jellyfish do not have a brain or central nervous system, but rather have a loose network of nerves, located in the epidermis, which is called a "nerve net." A jellyfish detects various stimuli including the touch of other animals via this nerve net, which then transmits impulses both throughout the nerve net and around a circular nerve ring, through the rhopalial lappet, located at the rim of the jellyfish body, to other nerve cells. .Some jellyfish also have ocelli: light-sensitive organs that do not form images but which can detect light, and are used to determine up from down, responding to sunlight shining on the water's surface.^ Jellyfish lack basic sensory organs and brain, but their nervous systems generally allow them to perceive stimuli such as light...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These little animals grow attached to under-water surfaces for part of their lives, then form buds that turn into the floating form, called a medusa.
  • Freshwater Jellyfish in Minnesota - Real or Fake? | Science Buzz 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencebuzz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Yes, jellyfishes have up to 32 eyes called ocelli, similar to vertebrate eyes, and can see shapes, distances and colours.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These are generally pigment spot ocelli, which have some cells (not all) pigmented.

Jellyfish blooms

Photo of translucent moon jelly on black blackground. The jelly contains a solid white mass extending through about 2/3 of its body
.
Aurelia sp., occurs in large quantities in most of the world's coastal waters.
^ This is the most unusual of the British species of pelagic jellyfish to wash up, but large swarms occur in years of abundance.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Moon jellyfish [Aurelia aurita] can occur in very large numbers in one place.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

Members of this genus are nearly identical to each other.
The presence of ocean blooms is usually seasonal, responding to prey availability and increasing with temperature and sunshine. .Ocean currents tend to congregate jellyfish into large swarms or "blooms", consisting of hundreds or thousands of individuals.^ HABITAT Many jellyfish live in oceans around the world and are capable of withstanding a large flux of temperatures and salinities.

^ This is the most unusual of the British species of pelagic jellyfish to wash up, but large swarms occur in years of abundance.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not in the large swarms of other jellyfish and often seen singly.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition to sometimes being concentrated by ocean currents, blooms can result from unusually high populations in some years. Bloom formation is a complex process that depends on ocean currents, nutrients, temperature and oxygen concentrations. .Jellyfish are better able to survive in oxygen-poor water than competitors, and thus can thrive on plankton without competition.^ With no predators or competition to speak of due to overfishing and warming waters, jellyfish have thrived and multiplied.
  • Deep End Dining: All Those Jellyfish. So Little Time. PB&Jf. 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.deependdining.com [Source type: General]

^ SpongeBob:Ah, there is nothing better than the taste of natural jelly from a jellyfish.
  • Jellyfish Jam (transcript) - SpongeBob SquarePants Wiki 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC spongebob.wikia.com [Source type: General]

.Jellyfish may also benefit from saltier waters, as saltier waters contain more iodine, which is necessary for polyps to turn into jellyfish.^ These little animals grow attached to under-water surfaces for part of their lives, then form buds that turn into the floating form, called a medusa.
  • Freshwater Jellyfish in Minnesota - Real or Fake? | Science Buzz 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.sciencebuzz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are more then 350 different species of jellyfish known, however, scientist estimate there may be 2,000.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jellyfishes are made up of 99% water to float; they have stinging cells; they are free swimming, unlike the polyps they grow...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rising sea temperatures caused by climate change may also contribute to jellyfish blooms, because many species of jellyfish are better able to survive in warmer waters.^ Though he doesn't know details of the sea temperatures there, the peak water temperature in the Sea of Japan has been four or five degrees Fahrenheit higher than normal in a couple of recent years, indicating warmer seas in the region.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Sting Reports Diver's are rarely stung by jellyfish in British seas because there is hardly any skin exposed: the water is too cold.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specimen in Loch Fyne (External Site) Guernsey Records Last week (19/1/00) a fishermen told me that there were many large jellyfish in the sea.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Jellyfish are likely to stay in blooms that are quite large and can reach up to 100,000 in each.^ This is the most unusual of the British species of pelagic jellyfish to wash up, but large swarms occur in years of abundance.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Also seen at least 5 jellyfish that are shaped like an oblong bell, about 100 mm (3-4 inches) in length and an electrical green glow passing up and down the centre, I have had no luck in looking up the species so far."
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fishermen have also taken a trawl net and added a wire grill like a large potato masher at the trailing end: When the net is pulled through a swarm of jellyfish, they float through and are sliced up.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.There is very little data about changes in global jellyfish populations over time, besides "impressions" in the public memory.^ The only plants that were around when jellyfish first came about was algae, there were no land plants.
  • Jellyfish Invasion | Popular Science 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ Finally, there is a sunscreen called Safesea that can provide very good protection from jellyfish stings and protection from sea lice stings .
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ A dam in a section of the Danube that runs between Serbia and Romania completed in 1972 changed the river flow, after which the jellyfish population of the Black Sea exploded.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

Scientists have little quantitative data of historic or current jellyfish populations[11]. .Recent speculation about increases in jellyfish populations are based on no "before" data.^ The only plants that were around when jellyfish first came about was algae, there were no land plants.
  • Jellyfish Invasion | Popular Science 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ With the devastation we caused on populations such as the leather back and green sea turtles that naturally prey on jellyfish, it's a no-brainer that the jellyfish population would increase just based off of that.
  • Jellyfish Invasion | Popular Science 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: General]

^ There have been no warnings of stinging jellyfish but my wife has informed me that we did have a warning last summer about the Lion's Tail variety.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The global increase in jellyfish bloom frequency may stem from human impact. .In some locations jellyfish may be filling ecological niches formerly occupied by now overfished creatures, but notes that this hypothesis lack supporting data[11].^ These free-swimming creatures live in every ocean in the world and in some fresh waters , such as the stinger-less jellyfish that live in fresh-water lakes in Palau .
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes, in some locations, a large mass of jellyfish will invade the beach.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ At the beginning of May, some beaches in the south of France had been closed for swimming for a short while, because of the presence of this jellyfish (probably often the case in the Mediterranean).
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jellyfish researcher Marsh Youngbluth further clarifies that "jellyfish feed on the same kinds of prey as adult and young fish, so if fish are removed from the equation, jellyfish are likely to move in."^ Most jellyfish are drifters that feed on living or dead prey: small fish, eggs, zooplankton and other invertebrates that become...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A kind of jellyfishes is an artificial concept to recognize jellyfishes with same anatomy and echology.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To treat a jellyfish sting, first remove any adherent tentacles that will cause further delivery of venom.

[citation needed]
.Some jellyfish populations that have shown clear increases in the past few decades are "invasive" species, newly arrived from other habitats: examples include the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, the eastern Mediterranean coasts of Egypt and Israel, and the American coast of the Gulf of Mexico.^ There have been several other reports of this species in the past few weeks.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even staff at some of the nuclear power plants along the Japan Sea coast found that the jellyfish got sucked into the pumps which take in sea water to cool the reactors.
  • FOXNews.com - Enormous Jellyfish Sink Japanese Fishing Boat 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Mostly they were Moon Jellyfish, but there were also some as shown in the photograph on the left.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Populations of invasive species can expand rapidly because there are often no natural predators in the new habitat to check their growth.^ There are many different types of jellyfish in Florida waters, including some exotic invasive species with an unpredictable distribution.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ Now the tunnel have closed, and the jelly fish came to have no poison in an environment where there's no predator.
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It was such a dramatic difference in my life and outlook on things that there's no way I'd be the same if I had remained in New Mexico or any of the rest of the U.S. Mainland.
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Such blooms would not necessarily reflect overfishing or other environmental problems.
Increased nutrients, ascribed to agricultural runoff, have also been cited as an antecedent to the proliferation of jellyfish. Monty Graham, of the Dauphin Island Sea Lab in Alabama, says that "ecosystems in which there are high levels of nutrients ... provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. .In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate.^ Sting Reports Diver's are rarely stung by jellyfish in British seas because there is hardly any skin exposed: the water is too cold.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This species is much more unpleasant than the common reddish-brown Lion's Mane Jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, and seems to be much less common.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mostly they were Moon Jellyfish, but there were also some as shown in the photograph on the left.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The fact that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."[15]
.By sampling sea life in a heavily fished region off the Namibian coast, total jellyfish biomass has overtaken that of fish, following intense fishing in the area in the last few decades.^ September 2007 In the last three weeks we have been observing the fragile String Jellyfish , Apolemia uvaria , in areas of plankton over deep water in various places off Land's End , Cornwall.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One has devised a computer model of ocean currents that suggests the jellyfish are breeding off the Chinese coast near the mouth of the Yangtze River.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ Report and Photograph by Carole O'Connor This species has not been recorded recently off the Sussex coast although it has been discovered in the shallow seas around the rest of Britain.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16].
Areas which have been seriously affected by jellyfish blooms include the northern Gulf of Mexico, about which, Graham states, "Moon jellies have formed a kind of gelatinous net that stretches from end to end across the gulf."[15]

Detrimental effects

Jellyfish blooms cause severe problems for mankind. .The most obvious are human stings (sometimes deadly) and tourism declines on coasts.^ The most deadly cnidocytes (to humans, at least) are those of the box jellyfish (which is not a true jellyfish--but a close relative).
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This jellyfish does not have stinging tentacles like the similar looking Cyanea species, which are sometimes washed up on the same coast.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the most severe effects are those to fish: severe or complete declines in commercial fish stocks, destroying fish nets, poisoning or crushing captured fish, consuming fish eggs and young fish.^ Most jellyfish are passive drifters that feed on living or dead preys: small fish, eggs, zooplankton and other invertebrates that...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most jellyfish are drifters that feed on living or dead prey: small fish, eggs, zooplankton and other invertebrates that become...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most jellyfish are passive drifters that feed on living or dead preys: small fish, eggs,...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Clogging also causes many problems including stoppage of nuclear power plants and desalination plants, as well clogging engines of ships[17] and even overturning of boats by one of the largest species, the Nomura's jellyfish.^ However, there has been more than one report in British seas of this species causing a rash (from my records) and even pain (Paul Cornelius).
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, I may have one record, so like other innocuous animals and plants the sting can be felt through broken skin and will cause a rash in the sensitive.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many different types of jellyfish in Florida waters, including some exotic invasive species with an unpredictable distribution.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

Life cycle

Illustration of two life stages of seven jelly species
The developmental stages of scyphozoan jellyfish's life cycle
.Most jellyfish undergo two distinct life history stages (body forms) during their life cycle.^ Ocean sunfish and Leatherback turtles are two of the most prevalent jellyfish predators.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first is the polypoid stage, when the animal takes the form of a small stalk with feeding tentacles; this polyp may be sessile, living on the bottom or on similar substrata such as floats or boat-bottoms, or it may be free-floating or attached to tiny bits of free-living plankton[18] or rarely, fish[19] or other invertebrates.^ Where feeding conditions are good the sessile asexual reproductive phase, the polyp will thrive, and all come to maturity at much the same time.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (You may also remove tentacles by applying a paste made of flour or shaving cream and scraping the area with a dull instrument such as a credit card.
  • Jellyfish Stings | LIVESTRONG.COM 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Most jellyfish are drifters that feed on living or dead prey: small fish, eggs, zooplankton and other invertebrates that become...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polyps generally have a mouth surrounded by upward-facing tentacles like miniatures of the closely-related anthozoan polyps (sea anemones and corals), also of the phylum Cnidaria.^ They look a bit like tiny sea anemones for a long time, and feed and grow like this for a year, hanging downwards from a support.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please also consider that in rough water, or when predators like sea-turtles are feeding on them, the tentacles of jellyfish may break apart and float around in the water and in the surf.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ Relatives of coral and sea anemones (and also of the Portuguese Man-O-War and the Australian Box Jelly ), Sea Jellies or " Jellyfish " are marine invertebrates belonging to the class Scyphozoa of the phylum Cnidaria .
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Polyps may be solitary or colonial, and some bud asexually by various means, making more polyps.^ May occur for several years in a row then absent for some years, perhaps five, perhaps more.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes; some hydrozoan jellyfishes can reproduce asexually by gemmation (with buds) and by direct scission.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under some conditions a sting can be more serious and may create medical complications.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

Most are very small, measured in millimeters.
.In the second stage, the tiny polyps asexually produce jellyfish, each of which is also known as a medusa. Tiny jellyfish (usually only a millimeter or two across) swim away from the polyp and then grow and feed in the plankton.^ Eventually these break free one by one and swim away to grow into tiny jellyfish.
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^ Jellyfishes are made up of 99% water to float; they have stinging cells; they are free swimming, unlike the polyps they grow...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They look a bit like tiny sea anemones for a long time, and feed and grow like this for a year, hanging downwards from a support.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Medusae have a radially symmetric, umbrella-shaped body called a bell, which is usually supplied with marginal tentacles - fringe-like protrusions from the bell's border that capture prey.^ I do know these jellyfish tend to lie on the bottom of whatever water body they occupy, conserving their energy for prey capture and reproduction.

^ Like their Cnidarian cousins (the corals , sea anemones , and hydra ), jellyfish's main claim to fame are the microscopic stinging cells that coat their tentacles (tendrils or "oral arms") that extend from their main body (their "bell").
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Jellyfish are translucent sea creatures that have a circular, hollow-like shape with tentacles.
  • Jellyfish Stings | LIVESTRONG.COM 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.A few species of jellyfish do not have the polyp portion of the life cycle, but go from jellyfish to the next generation of jellyfish through direct development of fertilized eggs.^ The only way a jellyfish could "decide" where it was going would be by moving up or down in the water column and finding itself in a water body moving in a different direction.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jellyfish are dioecious; that is, they are usually either male or female (occasionally hermaphroditic specimens are found).^ If the jellyfish are cut into three or more bits, they usually die and get eaten by other sea creatures.
  • Invasion of Jellyfish Envelops Japan In Ocean of Slime - WSJ.com 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ These are remarkable little creatures with large green eyes, and as adults they are only found in jellyfish.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In most cases, both release sperm and eggs into the surrounding water, where the (unprotected) eggs are fertilized and mature into new organisms.^ In October or November the jellyfish will breed, releasing tiny swimming embryos into the water, and the adults then probably die as the water gets colder.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a few species, the sperm swim into the female's mouth fertilizing the eggs within the female's body where they remain for the early stages of development.^ In their second winter they lose their tentacles, and their bodies elongate and gradually divide crosswise into a stack of little discs.
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^ Now, of course, they are dying off with the remains littering the seabed and forming a food source for a wide variety of species.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are always associated with one or other of the species of jellyfish , living under the shelter of the umbrella (often within the gonad cavities) where they are sought by some species of fish.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In moon jellies, the eggs lodge in pits on the oral arms, which form a temporary brood chamber for the developing planula larvae.^ Sea Nettles eat small crustaceans, comb jellies, and fish eggs and larvae.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After fertilization and initial growth, a larval form, called the planula, develops. The planula is a small larva covered with cilia. It settles onto a firm surface and develops into a polyp. .The polyp is cup-shaped with tentacles surrounding a single orifice, resembling a tiny sea anemone.^ They look a bit like tiny sea anemones for a long time, and feed and grow like this for a year, hanging downwards from a support.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jellyfish are translucent sea creatures that have a circular, hollow-like shape with tentacles.
  • Jellyfish Stings | LIVESTRONG.COM 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] After a growth interval, the polyp begins reproducing asexually by budding and, in the Scyphozoa, is called a segmenting polyp, or a scyphistoma.^ Yes; some hydrozoan jellyfishes can reproduce asexually by gemmation (with buds) and by direct scission.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New scyphistomae may be produced by budding or new, immature jellies called ephyrae may be formed.^ A sexually immature jellyfish is called an ephyra.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few jellyfish species can produce new medusae by budding directly from the medusan stage.^ Stalked Jellyfish These are sessile species without a medusae stage.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jellyfish expert Lisa Gershwin found a new species off Tasmania that has a rainbow attached!
  • Jellyfish Stings | LIVESTRONG.COM 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Budding sites vary by species; from the tentacle bulbs, the manubrium (above the mouth), or the gonads of hydromedusae. A few of species of hydromedusae reproduce by fission (splitting in half).[18]
.Other species of jellyfish are among the most common and important jellyfish predators, some of which specialize in jellies.^ What is the most common jellyfish in the Chesapeake Bay?
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the most unusual of the British species of pelagic jellyfish to wash up, but large swarms occur in years of abundance.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This species is much more unpleasant than the common reddish-brown Lion's Mane Jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, and seems to be much less common.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other predators include tuna, shark, swordfish, sea turtles and at least one species of Pacific salmon.^ Ocean sunfish and sea turtles (such as Leatherback Turtles) are predators of jellyfish.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please also consider that in rough water, or when predators like sea-turtles are feeding on them, the tentacles of jellyfish may break apart and float around in the water and in the surf.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ However, there has been more than one report in British seas of this species causing a rash (from my records) and even pain (Paul Cornelius).
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sea birds sometimes pick symbiotic crustaceans from the jellyfish bells near the sea's surface, inevitably feeding also on the jellyfish hosts of these amphipods or young crabs and shrimp.^ Amphipod Hyperia galba on a Compass Jellyfish from the Channel Islands Photographs © by Richard Lord (Guernsey) A number of these contained the symbiotic amphipod crustacean Hyperia galba alive inside them.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's a live Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus) swimming about 2 feet under the surface of the water, near St. Augustine, Florida.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ Please also consider that in rough water, or when predators like sea-turtles are feeding on them, the tentacles of jellyfish may break apart and float around in the water and in the surf.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

.Jellyfish lifespans typically range from a few hours (in the case of some very small hydromedusae) to several months.^ At the beginning of May, some beaches in the south of France had been closed for swimming for a short while, because of the presence of this jellyfish (probably often the case in the Mediterranean).
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If vinegar is all you have, you might try some on a very small section of the sting area to see if it helps or hurts.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ Some jellyfish have very weak venom, others have extremely potent venom, which upon sufficient exposure, can result in the death of a human.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

Life span and maximum size varies by species. .One unusual species is reported to live as long as 30 years.^ They are always associated with one or other of the species of jellyfish , living under the shelter of the umbrella (often within the gonad cavities) where they are sought by some species of fish.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another species, Turritopsis dohrnii as T. nutricula, may be effectively immortal because of its ability to transform between medusa and polyp, thereby escaping death.[20] .Most large coastal jellyfish live 2 to 6 months, during which they grow from a millimeter or two to many centimeters in diameter.^ Crystal Jellyfish live from 4 to 6 months.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the most unusual of the British species of pelagic jellyfish to wash up, but large swarms occur in years of abundance.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specimen in Loch Fyne (External Site) Guernsey Records Last week (19/1/00) a fishermen told me that there were many large jellyfish in the sea.
  • British Jellyfish 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They feed continuously and grow to adult size fairly rapidly.^ They look a bit like tiny sea anemones for a long time, and feed and grow like this for a year, hanging downwards from a support.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After reaching adult size, jellyfish spawn daily if there is enough food. .In most species, spawning is controlled by light, so the entire population spawns at about the same time of day, often at either dusk or dawn[21].^ About the same time 30 were on Par Beach.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Importance to humans

Culinary uses

Photo of whole jellyfish
Cannonball jellyfish, Stomolophus meleagris, are harvested for culinary purposes
.Only scyphozoan jellyfish belonging to the order Rhizostomeae are harvested for food; about 12 of the approximately 85 species are harvested and sold on international markets.^ Only jellyfish belonging to the order Rhizostomeae (especially Rhopilema esculentum , Mandarin name: haizhe ) are harvested for food because they are typically larger, have no tentacles or stinging cells, and have more rigid bodies than other jellyfish.
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Jellyfish prepared this way are about 95% water and 4 to 5% protein, making it a relatively low calorie food.
  • Jellyfish - Pulsating Sea Creature with a Sting 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Jellyfish refers to the medusoid stadium of animals belonging to different classes and orders of the Phylum Cnidaria.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most of the harvest takes place in southeast Asia[22]. .Rhizostomes, especially Rhopilema esculentum in China (Chinese name: 海蜇 hǎizhē, meaning "sea sting") and Stomolophus meleagris (cannonball jellyfish) in the United States, are favored because of their larger and more rigid bodies and because their toxins are harmless to humans.^ Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris) .
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ The cannonball jellyfish [Stomolophus meleagris], also known as the cabbage head jellyfish, is a harmless (its edible) variety that sometimes washes up on beaches in large numbers.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ Sting Reports Diver's are rarely stung by jellyfish in British seas because there is hardly any skin exposed: the water is too cold.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
Photo of gold-colored jellyfish strips on plate
Jellyfish strips in soy sauce, sesame oil, and chili sauce
.Traditional processing methods, carried out by a Jellyfish Master, involve a 20 to 40 day multi-phase procedure in which after removing the gonads and mucous membranes, the umbrella and oral arms are treated with a mixture of table salt and alum, and compressed.^ Jellyfish protect theirselves by stinging predators with their tentacles or with their oral arms.
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are always associated with one or other of the species of jellyfish , living under the shelter of the umbrella (often within the gonad cavities) where they are sought by some species of fish.
  • Jellyfish Page 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.glaucus.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Processing reduces liquidation, off-odors and the growth of spoilage organisms, and makes the jellyfish drier and more acidic, producing a "crunchy and crispy texture."^ This should be done BEFORE vinegar is applied, to reduce the possibility that the application of vinegar might cause the jellyfish's nematocysts to sting more.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

[23] .Jellyfish prepared this way retain 7-10% of their original weight, and the processed product contains approximately 94% water and 6% protein.^ The only way a jellyfish could "decide" where it was going would be by moving up or down in the water column and finding itself in a water body moving in a different direction.
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[23] Freshly processed jellyfish has a white, creamy color and turns yellow or brown during prolonged storage.
In China, processed jellyfish are desalted by soaking in water overnight and eaten cooked or raw. The dish is often served shredded with a dressing of oil, soy sauce, vinegar and sugar, or as a salad with vegetables.[23] In Japan, cured jellyfish are rinsed, cut into strips and served with vinegar as an appetizer.[23][24] Desalted, ready-to-eat products are also available.[23]
.Fisheries have begun harvesting the American cannonball jellyfish, Stomolophus meleagris, along the southern Atlantic coast of the United States and in the Gulf of Mexico for export to Asia.^ Cannonball Jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris) .
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^ So, they do exist in the Gulf of Mexico, although as I mentioned above, I've not seen any on the peninsular west coast of Florida.
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^ AH. On 27 June 1999 , a fisherman reported seeing many of the large jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo along the South Penwith coast, Cornwall.
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[23]

In biotechnology

Photo of live jelly in the sea
The hydromedusa Aequorea victoria
In 1961, Osamu Shimomura of Princeton University extracted green fluorescent protein (GFP) and another bioluminescent protein, called aequorin, from the large and abundant hydromedusa Aequorea victoria, while studying photoproteins that cause bioluminescence by this species of jellyfish. Three decades later, Douglas Prasher, a post-doctoral scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, sequenced and cloned the gene for GFP. Martin Chalfie of Columbia University soon figured out how to use GFP as a fluorescent marker of genes inserted into other cells or organisms. Roger Tsien of University of California, San Diego, later chemically manipulated GFP in order to get other colors of fluorescence to use as markers. In 2008, Shimomura, Chalfie, and Tsien won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their work with GFP.
Man-made GFP is now commonly used as a fluorescent tag to show which cells or tissues express specific genes. The genetic engineering technique fuses the gene of interest to the GFP gene. The fused DNA is then put into a cell, to generate either a cell line or (via IVF techniques) an entire animal bearing the gene. In the cell or animal, the artificial gene turns on in the same tissues and the same time as the normal gene. But instead of making the normal protein, the gene makes GFP. One can then find out what tissues express that protein—or at what stage of development—by shining light on the animal or cell and observing fluorescence. The fluorescence shows where the gene is expressed.[25]
.Jellyfish are also harvested for their collagen, which can be used for a variety of applications including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.^ Stop-Sting is a jellyfish sting treatment kit that has been used by medical professionals for years at a seaside medical clinic...
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^ Treatment of Stings The only published proven effective first aid treatment for the skin pain of jellyfish wounds is the use of cold packs or ice.
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^ The only published proven effective first aid treatment for the skin pain of jellyfish wounds is the use of cold packs or ice.
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In captivity

Photo of downward-swimming jellies
A group of Pacific sea nettle jellyfish, Chrysaora fuscescens, in an aquarium exhibit
Jellyfish are displayed in aquariums in many countries. Often the tank's background is blue and the animals are illuminated by side light, increasing the contrast between the animal and the background. In natural conditions, many jellies are so transparent that they are nearly invisible.
Jellyfish are not adapted to closed spaces. They depend on currents to transport them from place to place. Professional exhibits feature precise water flows, typically in circular tanks to prevent specimens from becoming trapped in corners. The Monterey Bay Aquarium uses a modified version of the kreisel (German for "spinning top") for this purpose. Jellyfish are becoming a popular trend in home aquariums. .It is now possible to buy jellyfish aquariums and live jellyfish online.^ Buy SafeSea jellyfish protection online.
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[26][27] It is also possible to assemble a jellyfish aquarium for personal use.[28]

Toxicity to humans

.All jellyfish sting their prey using nematocysts, also called cnidocysts, stinging structures located in specialized cells called cnidocytes, which are characteristic of all Cnidaria.^ The tentacles have stinging cells, called nematocysts, that have tiny harpoons and venom.
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^ It is a beautiful jellyfish, and most reports suggest that its sting is so mild that only very sensitive people can feel it at all.
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^ First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia: response to a newly differentiated species.
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.Contact with a jellyfish tentacle can trigger millions of nematocysts to pierce the skin and inject venom,[29] yet the sting of only some jellyfish species causes an adverse reaction in humans.^ The tentacles have stinging cells, called nematocysts, that have tiny harpoons and venom.
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^ Aug-1999 But the snake-like venom of the Pelagia noctiluca - the jellyfish glows a purple yellow in the sea at night - can in rare cases cause life threatening allergic reactions such as anaphylactic shock.
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^ It is a beautiful jellyfish, and most reports suggest that its sting is so mild that only very sensitive people can feel it at all.
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.When a nematocyst is triggered by contact by predator or prey, pressure builds up rapidly inside it up to 2,000 lbs/sq.^ When the tentacles touch something, or are otherwise stimulated, the nematocysts build up pressure until they burst, driving the little harpoons and the venom into the unlucky victim.
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inch until it bursts open. .A lance inside the nematocyst pierces the victim's skin and poison flows through into the victim.^ It goes without saying, that what would be a mild sting on the skin will be a very strong sting if the nematocysts get into your eyes.
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^ Its because their skin is so thin on the body and tenticles that the oxygen flows through their body and goes through to its...
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[30] .Touching, or being touched by a jellyfish can be very uncomfortable, sometimes requiring medical assistance; sting effects range from no effect to extreme pain to death.^ Sometimes this jellyfish will sting, and sometimes no sting will be felt.
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^ The wound of a jellyfish tends to be very similar to the wound of stinging nettles.
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^ Stop-Sting is a jellyfish sting treatment kit that has been used by medical professionals for years at a seaside medical clinic...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the wide variation in response to jellyfish stings, it is wisest not to contact jellyfish with bare skin.^ Sting Reports Diver's are rarely stung by jellyfish in British seas because there is hardly any skin exposed: the water is too cold.
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^ Yours sincerely, Gerald T. Boalch Although it is more an anecdotal story, I recently made an interesting experience in the variability of the individual response to jellyfish stings.
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^ First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia: response to a newly differentiated species.
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.Even beached and dying jellyfish can still sting, when touched.^ Avoid touching dead jellyfish lying on the beach.
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^ Even after the jellyfish has washed up on the beach dead and has dried up, the tentacles can still sting you.
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.Scyphozoan jellyfish stings are often uncomfortable, though not generally deadly, but some species of the class Cubozoa, or the Box jellyfish, such as the famous and especially toxic Irukandji, can be deadly.^ Jellyfish lack basic sensory organs and brain, but their nervous systems generally allow them to perceive stimuli such as light...
  • WikiAnswers - Jellyfish Questions including "What do jellyfish eat" 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: This is general information on jellyfish stings for educational purposes and general awareness.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ There are many different types of jellyfish in Florida waters, including some exotic invasive species with an unpredictable distribution.
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.Stings may cause anaphylaxis, which may result in death.^ It MAY cause more stings from remaining tentacles.
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Hence, victims should immediately get out of the water. Medical care may include administration of an antivenom.
.The three goals of first aid for uncomplicated jellyfish stings are: prevent injury to rescuers, inactivate the nematocysts, and remove tentacles attached to the patient.^ Preventing jellyfish stings.
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^ Go to Treatment of Stings Vinegar is only useful, but very effective, for preventing further discharge and removing adherent tentacles after cubozoan stings (Williamson et al 1996).
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^ It seems to prevent the jellyfish sting mechanism from firing and is backed up by considerable research and testing.
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Rescuers should wear barrier clothing, such as panty hose, wet suits or full-body sting-proof suits. .Inactivating the nematocysts, or stinging cells, prevents further injection of venom.^ The tentacles have stinging cells, called nematocysts, that have tiny harpoons and venom.
  • Jellyfish | Florida | photos 14 January 2010 19:24 UTC www.beachhunter.net [Source type: General]

^ Vinegar is only useful, but very effective, for preventing further discharge and removing adherent tentacles after cubozoan stings (Williamson et al 1996).
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Photo of umbrella jelly in water
Like many species of jellyfish, the sting of some species of Mastigias have no discernible effect on humans
.Vinegar (3 to 10% aqueous acetic acid) helps with box jellyfish stings,[31][32] but not Portuguese Man o' War stings.^ Are man of wars jellyfish?
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^ The Portuguese Man O' War also known as the bluebottle jellyfish.
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^ What kind of poison does a Portuguese-Man-of-War jellyfish produce?
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[31] For stings on or around the eyes, dampen a towel with vinegar and dab around the eyes, but avoid the eyeballs. Salt water may also be used if vinegar is unavailable.[31][33] .Do not use fresh water if the sting occurred in salt water, because a change in tonicity[34] can release additional venom.^ Sting Reports Diver's are rarely stung by jellyfish in British seas because there is hardly any skin exposed: the water is too cold.
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Avoid rubbing the wound, or using alcohol, spirits, ammonia, or urine which also encourage the release of venom.[35]
Clearing the area of jelly, tentacles, and wetness stops further nematocyst firing.[35] .Shaving the affected skin with a knife edge, safety razor, or credit card can remove remaining nematocysts.^ The longer they remain on the skin, the greater the envneomation as more nematocysts fire.
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[36]
.Beyond initial first aid, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) can control skin irritation (pruritus).^ I had antihistamine tablets on me and immediatly gave her one and we took her to first aid where they applied a general sting lotion/jelly.
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^ Treatment of Stings The only published proven effective first aid treatment for the skin pain of jellyfish wounds is the use of cold packs or ice.
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^ The only published proven effective first aid treatment for the skin pain of jellyfish wounds is the use of cold packs or ice.
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[36] .To remove the venom in the skin, apply a paste of baking soda and water and a cloth covering on the sting.^ Sting Reports Diver's are rarely stung by jellyfish in British seas because there is hardly any skin exposed: the water is too cold.
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If possible, reapply paste every 15–20 minutes. Ice can stop the spread of venom until either of these is available.

Recent discoveries

.Jellyfish research has increased due to their rapidly rising populations and resulting contact with humans.^ Kokelj F. Contact dermatitis due to the Adriatic Sea jellyfish.
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Among the latest discoveries, some of which contradict previous understandings, are:
.
  • The jellyfish of Turritopsis nutricula has the capability to be immortal, able to revert to the polyp phase of its life cycle under adverse conditions.^ Where feeding conditions are good the sessile asexual reproductive phase, the polyp will thrive, and all come to maturity at much the same time.
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    [37][38]

Jellyfish in the media

.The new discoveries about jellyfish and their popularity as symbol of the beauty and fragility of the oceans are reflected on television in programs such as in "Jellyfish Invasion," which is an episode of the National Geographic Channel documentary series Explorer,[39][40][41] which includes research conducted by scientists in Australia, Hawaii and Japan.^ Report by Doug Herdson ( National Marine Aquarium at Plymouth ) on the Marine Wildlife of the North-east Atlantic Ocean Group BMLSS Jellyfish-1 BMLSS Hyperia .
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Taxonomic classification systematics

Taxonomic classification systematics within the Cnidaria, as with all organisms, are always in flux. Many scientists who work on relationships between these groups are reluctant to assign ranks, although there is general agreement on the different groups, regardless of their absolute rank. Presented here is one scheme, which includes all groups that produce medusae (jellyfish), derived from several expert sources:
Phylum Cnidaria
Subphylum Medusozoa
Class Hydrozoa [42][43]
Subclass Hydroidolina
Order Anthomedusae (= Anthoathecata or Athecata)
Suborder Filifera - see [42] for families
Suborder Capitata - see [42] for families
Order Leptomedusae (= Leptothecata or Thecata)
Suborder Conica - see [42] for families
Suborder Proboscoida - see [42] for families
Order Siphonophorae
Suborder Physonectae
Families: Agalmatidae, Apolemiidae, Erennidae, Forskaliidae, Physophoridae, Pyrostephidae, Rhodaliidae
Suborder Calycophorae
Families: Abylidae, Clausophyidae, Diphyidae, Hippopodiidae, Prayidae, Sphaeronectidae
Suborder Cystonectae
Families: Physaliidae, Rhizophysidae
Subclass Trachylina
Order Limnomedusae
Families: Olindiidae, Monobrachiidae, Microhydrulidae, Armorhydridae
Order Trachymedusae
Families: Geryoniidae, Halicreatidae, Petasidae, Ptychogastriidae, Rhopalonematidae
Order Narcomedusae
Families: Cuninidae, Solmarisidae, Aeginidae, Tetraplatiidae
Order Actinulidae
Families: Halammohydridae, Otohydridae
Class Staurozoa (= Stauromedusae) [44]
Order Eleutherocarpida
Families: Lucernariidae, Kishinouyeidae, Lipkeidae, Kyopodiidae
Order Cleistocarpida
Families: Depastridae, Thaumatoscyphidae, Craterolophinae
Class Cubozoa [45]
Families: Carybdeidae, Alatinidae, Tamoyidae, Chirodropidae, Chiropsalmidae
Class Scyphozoa [45]
Order Coronatae
Families: Atollidae, Atorellidae, Linuchidae, Nausithoidae, Paraphyllinidae, Periphyllidae
Order Semaeostomeae
Families: Cyaneidae, Pelagiidae, Ulmaridae
Order Rhizostomeae
Families: Cassiopeidae, Catostylidae, Cepheidae, Lychnorhizidae, Lobonematidae, Mastigiidae, Rhizostomatidae, Stomolophidae

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Marques, A.C.; A. G. Collins (2004). "Cladistic analysis of Medusozoa and cnidarian evolution". Invertebrate Biology 123: 23–42. 
  2. ^ Kramp, P.L. (1961). "Synopsis of the Medusae of the World". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 40: 1–469. 
  3. ^ Flower Hat Jelly, New York Aquarium, retrieved Aug 2009.
  4. ^ Kelman, Janet Harvey; Rev. Theodore Wood (1910). The Sea-Shore, Shown to the Children. London: T. C. & E. C. Jack. pp. 146. 
  5. ^ Klappenbach, Laura. "Ten Facts about Jellyfish". http://animals.about.com/od/cnidarians/a/tenfactsjellyfi.htm. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  6. ^ "What are some determining characteristics of jellyfish in the class, Scyphozoa?". http://qanda.encyclopedia.com/question/some-determining-characteristics-jellyfish-class-scyphozoa-97854.html. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  7. ^ Kaplan, Eugene H.; Kaplan, Susan L.; Peterson, Roger Tory (August 1999). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. p. 55. ISBN 0-6180-0211-1. http://books.google.ca/books?id=OLYPWMoBkccC&pg. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  8. ^ Haddock, S.H.D., and Case, J.F. (April 1999). "Bioluminescence spectra of shallow and deep-sea gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophores, medusae and siphonophores". Marine Biology 133. doi:10.1007/s002270050497. http://www.lifesci.ucsb.edu/~haddock/abstracts/haddock_spectra.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  9. ^ "Jellyfish Gone Wild" (Text of Flash). National Science Foundation. 3 March 2009. http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/jellyfish/textonly/intro.jsp. Retrieved 17 November 2009. "In recent years, massive blooms of stinging jellyfish and jellyfish-like creatures have overrun some of the world’s most important fisheries and tourist destinations.... Jellyfish swarms have also damaged fisheries, fish farms, seabed mining operations, desalination plants and large ships." 
  10. ^ "Jellyfish Take Over an Over-Fished Area". 21 July 2006. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5573968. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  11. ^ a b c Mills, C.E. 2001. Jellyfish blooms: are populations increasing globally in response to changing ocean conditions? Hydrobiologia 451: 55-68.
  12. ^ Hamner, W. M.; P. P. Hamner, S. W. Strand (1994). "Sun-compass migration by Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa): population retention and reproduction in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia.". Marine Biology 119: 347–356.. 
  13. ^ Schuchert, Peter. "The Hydrozoa". http://www.ville-ge.ch/mhng/hydrozoa/hydrozoa-directory.htm. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  14. ^ Shubin, Kristie (10 December 2008). "Anthropogenic Factors Associated with Jellyfish Blooms - Final Draft II". http://jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu/fieldcourses08/PapersMarineEcologyArticles/AnthropogenicFactorsAssocA.html. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  15. ^ a b The Washington Post, republished in the European Cetacean Bycatch Campaign, Jellyfish “blooms” could be sign of ailing seas, May 6, 2002. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  16. ^ Lynam, C. and six other authors, 2006. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Current Biology 16, no. 13: R492-R493.
  17. ^ a b Jellyfish Gone Wild — Text-only
  18. ^ a b Mills, C. E. (1987). "In situ and shipboard studies of living hydromedusae and hydroids: preliminary observations of life-cycle adaptations to the open ocean". Modern Trends in the Systematics, Ecology, and Evolution of Hydroids and Hydromedusae (Oxford: Clarendon Press). 
  19. ^ Fewkes, J. Walter (1887). "A hydroid parasitic on a fish". Nature 36: 604–605. 
  20. ^ Piraino, S. et al. 1996. Reversing the life cycle: medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Biological Bulletin 190: 302-312.
  21. ^ Mills, Claudia (1983). "Vertical migration and diel activity patterns of hydromedusae: studies in a large tank.". Journal of Plankton Research 5: 619–635. 
  22. ^ Omori, M. and E. Nakano, 2001. Jellyfish fisheries in southeast Asia. Hydrobiologia 451: 19-26.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h Y-H. Peggy Hsieh, Fui-Ming Leong, and Jack Rudloe (2004). "Jellyfish as food". Hydrobiologia 451 (1-3): 11–17. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x7204250k4174gwt/. 
  24. ^ Firth, F.E. (1969). The Encyclopedia of Marine Resources. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.. New York. ISBN 0442223994. 
  25. ^ Pieribone, V. and D.F. Gruber (2006). Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence. Harvard University Press. pp. 288p. http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/PIEAGL.html. 
  26. ^ http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/14/how-to-avoid-liquefying-your-jellyfish/
  27. ^ http://www.airtranmagazine.com/features/2009/08/garage-brands
  28. ^ http://www.wikihow.com/Start-a-Jellyfish-Tank
  29. ^ Purves WK, Sadava D, Orians GH, Heller HC. 1998. Life.The Science of Biology. Part 4: The Evolution of Diversity. Chapter 31
  30. ^ http://www.jellyfishart.com/kb_results.asp?ID=11
  31. ^ a b c Fenner P, Williamson J, Burnett J, Rifkin J (1993). "First aid treatment of jellyfish stings in Australia. Response to a newly differentiated species". Med J Aust 158 (7): 498–501. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. PMID 8469205. 
  32. ^ Currie B, Ho S, Alderslade P (1993). "Box-jellyfish, Coca-Cola and old wine". Med J Aust 158 (12): 868. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. PMID 8100984. 
  33. ^ Yoshimoto C (2006). "Jellyfish species distinction has treatment implications". Am Fam Physician 73 (3): 391. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. PMID 16477882. 
  34. ^ http://www.healthline.com/blogs/outdoor_health/2008/01/meat-tenderizer-for-jellyfish-sting.html
  35. ^ a b Hartwick R, Callanan V, Williamson J (1980). "Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri". Med J Aust 1 (1): 15–20. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. PMID 6102347. 
  36. ^ a b Perkins R, Morgan S (2004). "Poisoning, envenomation, and trauma from marine creatures". Am Fam Physician 69 (4): 885–90. doi:10.1023/A:1011875720415. PMID 14989575. 
  37. ^ Piraino, Stefano; F. Boero, B. Aeschbach, V. Schmid (1996). "Reversing the life cycle: medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)". Biological Bulletin 190 (3): 302–312. 
  38. ^ Turritopsis nutricula: the world's only 'immortal' creature, The Times, 26 Jan 2009, retrieved Feb 2009.
  39. ^ Jellyfish Invasion, National Geographic, retrieved Feb 2009.
  40. ^ Jellyfish Invasion, YouTube, retrieved Feb 2009.
  41. ^ Killer jellyfish population explosion warning, The Daily Telegraph, 11 Feb 2008, retrieved Feb 2009.
  42. ^ a b c d e Schuchert, Peter. "The Hydrozoa Directory". http://www.ville-ge.ch/mhng/hydrozoa/hydrozoa-directory.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  43. ^ Mills, C.E., D.R. Calder, A.C. Marques, A.E. Migotto, S.H.D. Haddock, C.W. Dunn and P.R. Pugh, 2007. Combined species list of Hydroids, Hydromedusae, and Siphonophores. pp. 151-168. In Light and Smith's Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast. Fourth Edition (J.T. Carlton, editor). University of California Press, Berkeley.
  44. ^ Mills, Claudia E. "Stauromedusae: List of all valid species names". http://faculty.washington.edu/cemills/Staurolist.html. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  45. ^ a b Dawson, Michael N. "The Scyphozoan". http://thescyphozoan.ucmerced.edu/. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 

External links

Photos:

Simple English

Jellyfish
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Goette, 1887

Jellyfish are animals of the phylum Cnidaria. They eat fish and float in the sea. Only a few jellyfish live in fresh water.

They have soft bodies and long, stinging, poisonous tentacles that they use to catch fish. Venom is injected by stinging cells called nematocysts. A jellyfish is 98% water.[1]

Their bodies are made of 99% water. A jellyfish has a bell-shaped body and long tentacles at the underside of the body. Tentacles are long "arms" with special stinging cells called nematocysts. They move by contracting moves of their bell, but they cannot decide where to go on their own. Most of the time, they drift with the water current. The most common type of jellyfish is a Lions Mane Jellyfish. These jellyfish have tentacles that can be as long as 60 meters.

Jellyfish occur in four of the Cnidarian classes:

These four classes are sometimes linked as the sub-phylum Medusozoa.[2]

There are many types of jellyfish. The smallest jellyfish are just a few inches across. The largest jellyfish is the Lion's mane (Cyanea capillata), whose body can be over 3 feet (1 m) across, with much longer tentacles. Some jellyfish glow in the dark (this is called phosphorescence). Some of the most dangerous jelly fish include the box jelly (Genus Carybdea) and the tiny, two-cm-across Irukandji jelly (Carukia barnesi); the venomous sting of these jellyfish can kill a person.

Many animals eat jellyfish, including sea turtles and some fish (including the sun fish).

Life cycle

Most jellyfish undergo two distinct life history stages (body forms) during their life cycle. The first is the polypoid stage, when the animal takes the form of a small stalk with feeding tentacles; this polyp may be unable to move around, living on the bottom of the ocean or it may be free-floating. Polyps generally have a mouth surrounded by upward-facing tentacles. Polyps may be on their own or in groups, and some bud asexually by various means, making more polyps. Most are very small, measured in millimeters.

In the second stage, the tiny polyps asexually produce jellyfish, each of which is also known as a medusa. Tiny jellyfish swim away from the polyp and then grow and feed in the plankton. Medusae have a radially symmetric, umbrella-shaped body called a bell, which is usually supplied with marginal tentacles that capture prey. A few species of jellyfish do not have the polyp portion of the life cycle, but go from jellyfish to the next generation of jellyfish through direct development of fertilized eggs.

Jellyfish eat plankton and little fish, which are caught by their poisonous tentacles. Jellyfish may live in symbiosis with algae. The jellyfish transports them into sunlight and get nutrients from the algae's photosynthesis. Both forms of jelly fish have small tentacles with nematocysts (stinging cells) that sting and can hurt people on contact.

References


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Up to date as of December 17, 2010

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