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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jena
Jena Market Square
Jena Market Square
Coat of arms of Jena
Jena is located in Germany
Jena
Coordinates 50°55′38″N 11°35′10″E / 50.92722°N 11.58611°E / 50.92722; 11.58611
Administration
Country Germany
State Thuringia
District Urban district
Lord Mayor Albrecht Schröter (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 114.30 km2 (44.13 sq mi)
Elevation 155 m  (509 ft)
Population  102,752  (31 December 2007)[1]
 - Density 899 /km2 (2,328 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate J
Postal codes 07701–07751
Area code 03641
Website www.jena.de

Jena (German pronunciation: [ˈjeːna]) is a university city in central Germany on the river Saale. With a population of 103,000 it is the second largest city in the federal state of Thuringia, after Erfurt.

Contents

History

Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document. In the 11th century it was a possession of the lords of Lobdeburg, but in the following century it developed into an independent market town with laws and magistrates of its own. Economy was based mainly on wine production. In 1286 the Dominicans were established in the city, followed by the Cistercians in 1301.

The margraves of Meißen imposed their authority over Jena in 1331. From 1423 it belonged to Electoral Saxony of the House of Wettin, which had inherited Meißen, remaining with it also after the division of its lands in 1485.

The Protestant Reformation was brought into the city in 1523. In the following years the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen. In 1548, the university was founded by elector John Frederick the Magnanimous.

For a short period (1670–1690), Jena was the capital of an independent dukedom (Saxe-Jena). In 1692 it was annexed to Saxe-Eisenach and in 1741 to the Duchy (later Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar, to which it belonged until 1918.

At the end of the 18th century the university became the largest and most famous within the German states, and made Jena the center of idealistic philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck). In 1794 the poets Goethe and Schiller met at the university and established a long lasting friendship.

On 14 October 1806, Napoleon fought and defeated the Prussian army here in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Resistance against the French occupation was strong, especially among the town students, many of whom fought in the Lützow Free Corps in 1813. Two years later the Urburschenschaft fraternity was founded in the city.

At the end of the 19th century, with the building of the railway-line Saalbahn (along the river Saale) from Halle/Leipzig to Nürnberg, Jena became a center for precision machinery, optics and glass making, with the formation of the world famous companies Carl Zeiss Jena and Schott Jenaer Glaswerk, by Carl Zeiss, Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott.

In 1945, towards the end of World War II, Jena was heavily bombed by the American and British Allies. 153 people were killed and most of the medieval town centre was destroyed (though restored after the end of the war).

Part of the State of Thuringia from its foundation in 1920 on, it was incorporated into the German Democratic Republic in 1949 and its district of Gera in 1952. Since 1990, the city of Jena has been a part of the Free State of Thuringia in the united Federal Republic of Germany.

Economy

Today Jena is a manufacturing city, specializing in precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics and photographic equipment, and is home to the famous Zeiss optics plant. In 1926, the world's first modern planetarium was built by the Zeiss company in the Damenviertel district of the town.

Today the city's economy diversifies into bioinformatics, biotechnology, software and photonics. The metropolitan area of Jena is among Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low unemployment, and a very young population structure. Jena was awarded with the title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" (city of science) by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, a German science association, in 2008.

The Jen-Tower.
View over the city center of Jena
View from the Jen-Tower at night: the domed building was part of the former Carl-Zeiss works, now used by the University of Jena
Johannisstraße, looking towards Eichplatz. Jena

Main sights

  • The 13th century Town Hall ("Rathaus"). It has an astronomical clock featuring the "Snatching Hans" ("Schnapphans").
  • The Gothic St. Michael's Church ("Michaelskirche", 1506). It has a bronze slab of Martin Luther's tomb
  • Monument to John Frederick the Magnanimous (1905–08), in the Market Square
  • The Old Castle and numerous towers from the medieval fortifications, including the Powder Tower (13th-14th centuries)
  • House of Friedrich Schiller and his Wedding Church.
  • The Botanischer Garten Jena, founded in 1580, the second oldest botanical garden in Germany
  • Jen-Tower, a research edifice built in GDR times. There is a restaurant and viewing platform at the 27th floor.

In the neighbourhood are the Dornburg Castles and the Kapellendorf Moated Castle.

Public transport

  • The city is served by an extensive network of buses and trams run by the "Jenah" organization (a pun on Jena and Nahverkehr, German for public transport).
  • busses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect Jena with cities and villages in the region
  • The high-speed railway line from Berlin to Munich calls at the Jena-Paradies station just to the east of the city centre (like all other trains on the north-south-relation); trains from Erfurt and further west arrive at the Westbahnhof just west of the city centre (like all other trains on the east-west-relation).
  • The nearest airports to Jena are Leipzig-Altenburg Airport and Erfurt Airport. However international visitors normally arrive at Frankfurt, Berlin or Munich airports, from all of which there are convenient train connections to Jena.

Colleges, universities and research institutes

Museums

  • Optical Museum Jena - history of optical instruments
  • Schott GlassMuseum - production and usage of glass
  • Citymuseum Göhre - urban history of Jena
  • Botanical Garden
  • Phyletic Museum - phylogeny and evolutionary theory
  • Romanticism House - literature
  • Memorial to Goethe - literature
  • Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena - Oriental history, numismatics
  • Schott Villa - history of the Jena glassworks and of Otto Schott and his family

Culture

The Botanical Garden of Jena
  • The Jenaer Philharmonie is the largest independent symphony orchestra in Thuringia.
  • Kulturarena: annual music festival held in front of the theatre

Famous citizens and Alumni of the University

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Jena is twinned with:

External links

References

Notes
  1. ^ Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik. "Population of Thuringia by district". http://www.tls.thueringen.de/seite.asp?aktiv=dat01&startbei=datenbank/default2.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
  2. ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto". © 2006-2009 Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices InternationalRelationsOffice. http://www.cm-porto.pt/document/449218/481584.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Jena [1] is a city in the German state of Thuringia (Thüringen).

Understand

Jena was founded quite late, compared to its near neighbour villages, in the early 2nd millennium. Part of the State of Thuringia from its foundation in 1920 on, it was incorporated into the German Democratic Republic in 1949 and its district of Gera in 1952. Since 1990, the city of Jena has been a part of the Free State of Thuringia which is itself part of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Jena has one of the biggest universities in Germany and its ratio of students to the total of inhabitants may belong to the greatest in Germany, as there are 20,000 students at the university (http://www.uni-jena.de/start_en.html) which was founded in 1558 and named after Friedrich Schiller in 1934. Additionally, there are some 4,500 students at the university of applied sciences (Fachhochschule), making one out of four citizens of Jena a student.

Goethe and Schiller, probably the two greatest German writers, lived in Jena as well as for example the biologist Ernst Haeckel, the physicists Ernst Abbe and Erwin Schrödinger and the philosopher Karl Marx.

Jena is also famous of its Carl Zeiss optics and the Schott glass factories. Still important to Jena, the number of workers drastically declined after Jena became part of capitalistic Germany.

Get in

By plane

There are two small airports in Altenburg [2] (east of Jena) and Erfurt [3] (west of Jena), serving popular destination inside the European Union. Coming from far away you will most probably arrive in Frankfurt. Coming from there you can either take the train to Weimar (Intercity Express) and then change to a regional train going to Jena or you can go by car via Autobahn A4 straight towards Jena. This is approx. 300 km.

By train

Jena is located directly at the north-south connection between Munich and Berlin with a stop in the Paradies-Bahnhof (literally paradise station, as the park it is located in is called Paradies). On the other hand you can jump on the west-east connection between Frankfurt and Leipzig in Weimar which is some kilometres away.

By car

Jena is not far from the Hermsdorfer Kreuz where the A9 (E49/E51) from Berlin to Munich and the A4 (E40) from Frankfurt to Dresden cross. Just take the way towards Erfurt/Frankfurt and you'll reach Jena within minutes.

Get around

You can reach all important destinations by walking. You can also use public transportation, (buses and street cars) but public transportation is not cheap in Jena. Look at the public transport company's homepage [4].

See

Holzmarkt (literally wood market) is a good point to start your tour through Jena. Go up to Löbdergraben and turn towards Engelplatz (Post office). You'll see the Kulturhaus. Right next to it there is a small street in which you can find Schiller's garden house with an exhibition in it. By the way, Kulturhaus has great theatre.

Leaving again towards Engelplatz and going straight towards Johannisplatz on the left you'll find GoetheGalerie, one of the greatest shopping malls in Jena. On the right is the Anatomy Tower. Some metres ahead there is Ernst-Abbe-Platz which is meant to be the Campus of the university for Mathematics, Law, Economy and some other departments (faculties) are located around the place. If you are on Johannisplatz, you'll see Johannisturm (John's Tower). Right next to it there is the Intershop Tower which is owned by a new economy company. At its bottom there is Neue Mitte, another great shopping mall. If you turn around you see Wagnergasse. Wagnergasse is the best location to have a rest in a restaurant. "Stilbruch" is known to be among the best restaurants in Jena. You can now go some metres up to Fürstengraben. If you go along Fürstengraben, after some metres you will see the Botanic Garden. It is absolutely worth going there. After passing the Thuringian University and State Library (on the left) you will see University Main Building (Universitätshauptgebäude) on the right. Turn right to the Schlossgasse and left towards Oberlauengasse. Go some metres through Oberlauengasse and then turn right towards Markt. On the great square you can see the old city hall. Eating here is not the worst idea. Take now the way towards Kollegiengasse. Here you can find where the university was actually founded. On the right there is Eichplatz. Now turn left towards Holzmarkt and you're at the place where you started.

Do

Enjoy nightlife at Wagnergasse and/or Rosenkeller [5] (Johannisstraße) and/or Kassablanca [6] (near Westbahnhof) and/or in front of the JenTower at UmaCarlson [7].Every year during the summer the Kulturarena [8] is a very popular cultural event with dozens of good international artists and entertainers.

Jena is surrounded by hills. Hence there are a lot of very nice opportunities to get a beautiful panorama view of the town. You can go to the Landgrafen [9], the Fuchsturm [10] or to the Wilhelmshöhe [11]. In addition for 3€ you can go to the top of the JenTower [12].

Close to the center of Jena is very nice park located called Paradies. Especially in the summer a lot of students use this park for barbecue and hanging out with their friends.

Buy

Take a look at GoetheGalerie or Neue Mitte. Here you can find almost anything you need. Another places for shopping are the shopping centres Burgaupark and Schillerpassage.

Eat

Thuringian specialties are: Thüringer Rostbratwurst (Thuringian roaster sausage), Rostbrätel (roasted meat). These can be found e.g. at the Grillteufel food stalls.

You'll find more on the menu in Noll (Oberlauengasse), Stilbruch (Wagnergasse) and most other restaurants. R2, just off the market square, is a sitdown restaurant with good burgers and steaks. A very pleasant place with student atmosphere is Café Immergrün. It is located in vincinity of the Pulverturm, the entrance a bit hidden in the back yard. Not far from there is another atmospheric cafe, Quirinus.

As Jena is a student town and a town in the east of Germany, prices are slightly lower than in Western Germany.

  • You should taste black (dark) beer. In all restaurants you will either get Köstritzer or Schwarze Rose. Both are good. You will find many Pils sorts as well.
  • Gruenowski is a lively pub which also serves food, just down the road behind the theatre.
  • In addition you should try in Jena brewed beer from the Papiermühle [13].

Sleep

Accomodation can be booked through the tourist information: Jena Tourist-Information Markt 16 07743 Jena

Tel.: +49 3641 498066, Fax: +49 3641 498055,zimmer@jena.de

A list of accomodation options can be found at (German language only):

http://www.jena.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=46410&_nav_id1=35168&_lang=de

Budget

There is a youth hostel (Jugendgästehaus) at Am Herrenberge 3, Tel.: +49 3641 687230, Fax: +49 3641 687202, JGH-Jena@internationaler-bund.de.

Room rates including breakfast:

Single room 27,50 EUR, Double room 41,- EUR, Dorm (3 or 4 beds) from 18,50 EUR per person

To get there, take bus line 10,13 or 40 from Teichgraben or Westbahnhof (Western train station) with direction Burgau. Get off at Zeiss-Werk. From there, it is 800 metres by foot slightly uphill along Mühlenstraße.

Another option is Gäste-Haus-Wettin at Erfurter Straße 52. Tel.: +49 3641 352710, Fax: +49 3641 352766, gaestehaus@ueag-jena.de, http://www.ueag-jena.de/Wettin/index.php?lang=eng.

Room rates without breakfast:

Single/Double room from 17,50 EUR, Dorm from 12,50 EUR per person

To get there, take bus line 16 from Teichgraben or Johannistor direction Papiermühle or Isserstedt for about two kilometres.

Mid-range and splurge

There are lots of good hotels with reasonable prices. Places located in Old Town include:

Hotel Schwarzer Bär http://www.schwarzer-baer-jena.de

Hotel & Kneipengalerie Zur Noll http://www.zur-noll.de

Restaurant & Hotel Weinbauernhaus im Sack http://www.weinbauernhaus-im-sack.de

Steigenberger Esplanade Jena http://www.jena.steigenberger.de

IBIS Hotel City am Holzmarkt http://www.ibishotel.com

Stay safe

Although Germany's east is considered to be a bit more dangerous for people "looking foreign" this is not problem in Jena due to the high number of foreigners, especially foreign students. Jena is amongst the towns with the highest ratio of foreigners in eastern Germany. So just take those measures you would normally take in the town you come from. Though, when using the tram in the night, the risk of encountering people you didn't want to encounter rises.

Get out

Buses leaving from the bus terminal adjacent to the main train station are only serving regional destinations of minor touristic interest, such as Eisenberg or Schleiz.

The best option is going by train from Westbahnhof to towns like Weimar (20 min.) or Erfurt (40 min.). Trains are leaving approx. once an hour. From the main train station Jena-Paradis, it is possible to go to Dornburg, Naumburg and Rudolstadt by regional train, and to Leipzig, Berlin, Nuremberg and Munich by ICE (high speed train). Trains leaving every two hours.

People who like hiking might try the Thüringenweg, a 400 kilometre hiking trail: http://www.wanderbares-deutschland.de/page.php?ID=W_013

Cyclists will enjoy the Saale-Radweg, http://www.fahrradreisen.de/radwege/r101.htm or the so-called Städtekette, see http://www.fahrradreisen.de/radwege/r417.htm .


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Jena

Plural
-

Jena

  1. Jena (independent city in Thuringia, Germany)
  2. A female given name, a rare variant of Gina.

See also

Anagrams


Simple English

Jena

Jena
Coordinates 50°56′0″N 11°35′0″E / 50.933333°N 11.583333°E / 50.933333; 11.583333
Administration
Country Germany
State Thuringia
District Urban district
Lord Mayor Albrecht Schröter (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 114 km2 (44 sq mi)
Elevation 155 m  (509 ft)
Population  102,494  (31 December 2006)[1]
 - Density 899 /km2 (2,329 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate J
Postal codes 07701 – 07751
Area code 03641
Website www.jena.de

Jena is a city in the middle of Germany, in the state of Thuringia. About 103,000 people live there. Jena has a university called Friedrich Schiller University.

Geography

Jena partly lies in the middle hall valley between from mixed woodlands covered shelly limestone and sandstone slopes (geological phenomena are among other things the devil holes and the student chute). On them numerous partially rare Orchideenarten occurs. From north to south Jena is 14.7 km (9.1 mi) wide, and from east to west 12.2 km (7.6 mi). The following larger cities are close to Jena: Gera, approx. 35 km (21.7 mi) east, Erfurt, approx. 40 km (24.9 mi) west, Weimar, approx. 15 km (9.3 mi) west, Naumburg (Saale), approx. 33 km (20.5 mi) northeast, is (Saale), to approx. 70 km (43.5 mi) northeast, Leipzig, approx. 75 km (46.6 mi) northeast and Chemnitz, approx. 94 km (58.4 mi) east, Rudolstadt, approx. 30 km (18.6 mi) south.

[[File:|thumb|left|196px|view over the city center of Jena]] [[File:|thumb|left|196px|The JenTower in Jena]]

Other websites

References

  1. Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik. "Population of Thuringia by district". http://www.tls.thueringen.de/seite.asp?aktiv=dat01&startbei=datenbank/default2.asp. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 
frr:Jena








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