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Jerez de la Frontera
—  Municipality  —
Easter 2007 in Jerez.

Flag

Coat of arms
Location of Jerez de la Frontera within Cádiz province
Jerez de la Frontera is located in Spain
Jerez de la Frontera
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 36°42′N 6°7′W / 36.7°N 6.117°W / 36.7; -6.117Coordinates: 36°42′N 6°7′W / 36.7°N 6.117°W / 36.7; -6.117
Country  Spain
Autonomous community  Andalusia
Province Cádiz
Comarca Campiña de Jerez
Judicial district Jerez de la Frontera
Commonwealth Municipios de la Bahía de Cádiz
Government
 - Alcalde Pilar Sánchez Muñoz (PSOE-Andalucía)
Area
 - Total 1,188.23 km2 (458.8 sq mi)
Elevation 56 m (184 ft)
Population (2008)
 - Total 205,364
 Density 172.8/km2 (447.6/sq mi)
 - Demonym Jerezano, na
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 11401 – 11409
Official language(s) spanish
Website Official website

Jerez de la Frontera is a municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia in southwestern Spain, situated midway between the sea and the mountains. As of 2008, the city, the largest city in the province, had 205,364 inhabitants; it is the fifth largest in Andalusia. It has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing even Cádiz, the provincial capital, in economic activity. Jerez de la Frontera is also, in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, and its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are also many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations. For those who ignore it, the municipality of Jerez, is considered old, as one of the largest in Europe - third, it seems, as always said - measuring the total surface area of 142,420 hectares and 80 term centiáreas, or aranzadas is 314,000, or approximately 46 square miles.

Contents

Government

The city of Jerez is governed by the ayuntamiento (municipality) of Jerez, whose representatives, as in other towns in Spain, are elected every four years by universal suffrage for all citizens older than 18 years of age. The body is chaired by the mayor of Jerez. Pilar Sánchez Muñoz of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party has been the mayor of Jerez since 2005.

Economy

View of Cathedral and bodegas

The economy of Jerez has traditionally been centered on the wine industry, with exports of sherry worldwide. Because it lacks the civil service that other cities enjoy, Jerez has based its economy on industry. The cultivation of fruits, grains, and vegetables and horse and cattle husbandry has also been important to the local economy.

After the wine crisis in the 1990s, the city is now seeking to expand its industrial base. Tourism has been successfully promoted. The city's strong identity as a center for wine, flamenco, and horses, its popular festivals, MotoGP hosting and its historical heritage have contributed to this success, .

The city is the home of Jerez Airport and has also been positioning itself as a logistics hub for western Andalucia, through the integration between the airport, the rail system and nearby ports.

Climate

Jerez de la Frontera is in an area of Mediterranean climate with oceanic influences, characterized by mild and wet winter and dry hot summer. The average annual temperature is 17.7 °C (64 °F). Winters are mild, and January is the coldest month, with 5.4 °C (42 °F). Summers are very hot, August has the highest average of 33.1 °C (91.6 °F) and every year exceeded 38 °C (100 °F) on several occasions. The average annual precipitation are 598 mm per year, concentrated in the months of October through April. December is the wettest month with 109 mm. There are 54 rainy days per year, 137 clear days, 2,966 hours of sunshine a year, a few days of frost and no snow.

Climate data for Cádiz and Jerez de la Frontera (Airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.9
(61)
17.5
(64)
20.2
(68)
21.5
(71)
24.6
(76)
28.8
(84)
33.0
(91)
33.1
(92)
30.2
(86)
25.0
(77)
20.1
(68)
16.8
(62)
23.9
(75)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.7
(51)
12.0
(54)
14.0
(57)
15.4
(60)
18.4
(65)
22.0
(72)
25.5
(78)
25.7
(78)
23.5
(74)
19.1
(66)
14.7
(58)
11.9
(53)
17.7
(64)
Average low °C (°F) 5.4
(42)
6.6
(44)
7.7
(46)
9.4
(49)
12.1
(54)
15.3
(60)
18.0
(64)
18.4
(65)
16.8
(62)
13.3
(56)
9.2
(49)
7.1
(45)
11.6
(53)
Precipitation cm (inches) 8.9
(3.5)
6.0
(2.4)
4.2
(1.7)
5.4
(2.1)
3.7
(1.5)
1.3
(0.5)
0.2
(0.1)
0.6
(0.2)
2.2
(0.9)
6.7
(2.6)
8.6
(3.4)
10.9
(4.3)
59.8
(23.5)
Avg. precipitation days 7 7 5 6 4 2 0 0 2 6 7 9 54
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[1]

History

View of the interior of the Alcázar of Jerez.
Jerez in 1835.

Jerèz has been occupied by six cultures: the Tartessic, the Phoenician, the Roman, the Muslim, the Jewish, and the Christian.

There are signs of human presence in the area from the upper Neolithic, and Jerèz de la Frontera has been inhabited by humans since at least the Copper or Neolithic Age, but the identity of the first natives remains unclear. The first major protohistoric settlement in the area (around the third millennium BC) is attributed to the Tartessos.

Jerèz was the capital of the Taifa of Jerez, which joined the Almohad Empire and later the Crown of Castile in 1264. The Discovery of America and the Conquest of Granada, in 1492, made Jerez one of the most prosperous cities of Andalusia through trade and its proximity to the ports of Seville and Cadiz. Despite the social, economic and political decadence that occurred in the seventeenth century, towards the end of the Habsburg rule, the city managed to maintain a reasonable pace of development, becoming world wide famous for its wine industry.

Basílica del Carmen.
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The City's name

Its name goes back to the existence of Phoenician Xera, Sèrès, then romanized under the name of Ceret; the location of this settlement, however, remains unknown.[citation needed]

In former times, during the Muslim occupation of Iberia, it was called Xerez or Xeres. Frontera in its name refers to its location on the border between the Moorish and Christian regions of Spain during that period. The name of the famous fortified wine, sherry, which originated here (although some argue that it originated in Shiraz, Persia), is an adaptation of the city's Arabic name, which is pronounced Sherish.

Early history

Jerez was a small independent emirate created c. 1030 in what is now Spain after the fall of the Emirate of Córdoba. Some years later it was united to Arcos by Aben Jairuan who ruled both c. 1040-1053. In 1053 it was annexed to Sevilla. From 1145 to 1147 the region of Arcos and Jerez was briefly an emirate under dependency of Granada, led by Aben Garrum.

The Middle Ages

Modern history

Culture

Andalusian horse showing a historical Spanish walk, practiced in 'The Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art', Jerez de la Frontera
Puerta de Rota.
Palace of Bertemati.
Monastery of la Cartuja.

Jerez is known as the capital of sherry wine, the horse, and flamenco. It is the home of the Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art, a riding school comparable to the world-famous Spanish Riding School in Vienna. Jerez, the city where flamenco singing began, is also proud of its Andalusian Centre of Flamenco.

There are two museums of note: the Jerez Archaeological Museum and the Atalaya Watch Museum (also known as "Palace of Time").

The old quarter of Jerez, dating from medieval times, has been named an "Artistic Historic Complex". The Easter week celebrations in Jerez are of "National Touristic Interest", and its remarkable Horse Fair (Feria del Caballo) in May is an event of "International Touristic Interest".

[2]

This is the city from where all the actors of "En tu ausencia" [4], the 2007 independent movie by Ivan Noel come from. The movie was filmed in the city's region. Gonzalo Sanchez Salas is the boy, found working in a butcher shop in the city, that performs the role of Pablo, the lead characther in the movie.

Sport

Jerez is present in most important national competitions. The more important clubs in different sport are:

  • Xerez Club Deportivo: first football team in the city. Currently plays in the Liga BBVA in Spain.
  • Puma Chapín Jerez: Jerez is home to one of the best athletic teams of Spain. It has been champion of Spain in 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007.[citation needed] It has been the Copa del Rey champion many times.
  • Club Natación Jerez: it has been champion of many championships, it has won the "Campeonato de España Master" ("Championship of Spain Master") many times.
  • Canasta Unibasket Jerez: City's basketball team. In the next season, it will be in the LEB Plata (Spanish's basketball's league of Silver).

Jerez is also the site of Circuito de Jerez, formerly called the Circuito Permanente de Jerez, where the annual Motorcycle Grand Prix is contested. The race course is a prime destination for Formula One teams who wish to perform off-season testing; it also hosted the highly controversial 1997 European Grand Prix.

Education

There are 74 elementary schools, 41 secondary schools, 12 adult education centers and 10 public libraries in the city of Jerez.[citation needed]

The University of Cádiz, the provincial university, has a campus in Jerez.

The city is also home to a member of the Official School of Languages (Escuela Oficial de Idiomas) and a center of the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED).

Demographics

According to official population data from INE, the municipality of Jerez had 205,364[5] inhabitants as of January 1, 2008. This makes Jerez the most populous city in the province, fifth in Andalusia, and 27th in Spain.

Population of Jerez de la Frontera between 1996 and 2008[5]
2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996
205,364 202,687 199,544 196,275 192,648 191,002 187,087 185,091 183,677 182,660 181,602 n/a 182,269

Famous natives of Jerez

View from the Palace of Villavicencio.
Lola Flores monument
A glass of the famous Sherry, originated in Jerez de la Frontera.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Jerez de la Frontera is twinned with:

References

Notes

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Jerez de la Frontera article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : Iberia : Spain : Andalucia : Jerez de la Frontera

Jerez de la Frontera[1] is in Costa de la Luz, in Spain.

Understand

Few places in Spain can be said to enjoy the international renown of Jerez as, thanks to its sherry wines, the name of the city crossed international borders many years ago.

But Jerez is not just a city of wines and beautiful buildings, it has much more to offer than that: home of the Carthusin horse, the fighting bull, cradle of flamenco art, capital of motorcycle racing and home to international sporting events, and on top of all that, declared to be of Artistic and Historical interest.

Nowadays Jerez is a large city where long-standing traditions coexist in perfect harmony with the modern: large shopping centres and wide avenues converge upon the historic, cheerful and bustling city-center, where shopping and tapas go hand in hand. All of these distinctive features, together with a privileged geographical situation and climate, a unique and distinct tourist attractiveness, and modern infrastructures, all make Jerez the perfect place to live in and to visit.

Get in

By train

Jerez is on the main line between Sevilla and Cadiz. RENFE, Spanish National Railway. [2]

By bus

Consorcio de Transportes Bahía de Cádiz [3] operate a semi-regular bus service from Jerez Airport to downtown Jerez (one-way ticket €1) and onwards to Cádiz (view timetable [4]). A train service operates from Sevilla San Justa train station direct to Jerez and Cadiz, for those arriving via Seville airport.

  • Equestrian Events (Royal Andalusian School of Equestrian Art[5],Yeguada La Cartuja - Hierro del Bocado)
  • Bodegas (Tio Pepe [6], Romate [7], Sandeman, Domecq, Williams and Humbert, Garvey, Harveys, Lustau...)
  • Flamenco (Andalusian Flamenco Centre [8], Ciudad del Flamenco [9], La Taberna Flamenca, Tablao del Bereber)
  • Natural (Zoo and Botanical Garden [10])
  • Museums (Municipal Archaeological Museum, The Mystery of Jerez [11], The Wine Museum, Bullfight Museum Restaurant, The Time Palace - Antique Clock and Watch Museum ...)
  • Architecture Heritage (Conjunto Monumental del Alcázar de Jerez [12], Mosque and Morish Baths, Camara Obscure, Domecq Palace, Duque de Abrantes Palace...)
  • Religious Buildings (San Salvador Cathedral, San Miguel Church, San Dionisio Church, San Mateo Church, San Juan de los Caballeros Church...)
  • Parks and Natural Spaces (Laguna de Medina, La Suara, Montes de Propio...)
  • Alameda Vieja Walk at dusk around this area, on the top of the hil where the Alcazar was built. The fresh air from the cost, the nice and colorful sun make it unforgettable, besides enjoying one of the nicest area in the city, among the Cathedral, the Arab fortress and a Wine Cellar.
  • Casco antiguo. Bring a map and let yourself discover the narrow streets, small squares and noble buildings from Middle Age. Calle Francos is a must, since was the central street during the Arabs dominion, linking the Santiago Gate and the Royal Gate (Plaza del Arenal), and Plaza del Mercado, in which the Andalusi market was established during the Middle Age as well.
  • Terraza Sabores is the nicest terrace roof you can find in the old city during summertime. It belongs to the Hotel Chancilleria([13]), it´s very easy to access, just taking the elevator in the main patio or going upstairs. Sorrounding by old church towers, the view and situation are really nice, enjoying a wine, cold drinks or any cocktail, they usually play soft music, bossa nova or jazz.
  • Hammam Andalusí, Arabic Baths, has become an essential stop for any visitor to Jerez as indeed it is to many locals. It is set in a beautifully restored 18th century house in the old part of the town and consists in a circuit of 3 pools (warm hot and cold)with optional relaxing massages of 15 and 30 minutes, starting at €15 for an hour and a half of bath only, 25 and 40 with the respective massages included. They also have special treatments which include scrubs and wraps which are ideal for a couple and last 2 and a half hours. The accompanying relaxing music and candle-lit atmosphere provide for a truly memorable and relaxing time. Highly recommended. Incidentally, on the 21st October (Year?) they tell me they are going to open a stunning tea-room upstairs on the first floor, for those who might visit after that date.

Buy

There are many shopping centres in Jerez, mainly out of the city centre. Cinemas, department stores, etc. but if you want to enjoy the taste and charm of the city, the city centre is the best place to stay.

  • Calle Larga. The local people, jerezanos, say that no one can talk about having been in Jerez and not having walking around this street. As large as the old wall was, this street is full of bars, shops and anything you may need.
  • Jerez Souvenirs. Calle Lanceria, Centro Comercial Lanceria. Souvenirs about horses, flamenco and wine cellars.
  • Vinoteca Rafael. Calle Arcos, 6. Any kind of Sherry wine you may fancy, you will find in this old-fashioned flavour shop.
  • Zoco de Artesanía. Plaza Peones, s/n - Edif. Carnicerías Viejas. Charming place in the old-district. Handicrafts and local products.

Eat

Much of the eating is done in bars:

  • La Cruz Blanca. Calle Consistorio - Plaza de la Yerba. Nice place in a small old square by the city hall. Many local people
  • La Alternativa. Calle San Pablo. Modern vegeterian restaurant in Calle San Pablo, by Plaza del Arenal. Gay-friendly.
  • El Almacen. Calle Consistorio. Other bar by the City Hall.
  • Bar Juanito Pedestrian old street, between Plaza del Arenal and Pescaderia Vieja. Regional menu. Maybe too touristic.
  • Plaza Rafael Rivero. With Plaza de la Asunción, one of the most beautiful square in the old city. Among places and old houses, several tapas bars until late.
  • La Parra Vieja. Calle San Miguel. In the charming San Miguel area, well-known by its flamenco tradition, this restaurant is open since 1886.
  • Maypa, in the center of the San Miguel district. Cold tapas (specially spanish omelette) can be tasted in a typical environment.
  • Bar la Moderna, end of the 'Larga' Street, close to Alameda Cristina. The ancient wall surrounding Jerez is still present at its back. A nice nightly environment.

Further from the centre:

  • Erdavid, in San José district.
  • De paco, El Buen Comer in 'Chapin' district;
  • Marruzella, Casa Pepa, El Bar de Manolo, next to the railway station.

Another eating option is small shops, ventas:

  • Venta Juan Carlos, Venta Las Cuevas (you can find an excellent bread in it), Venta Antonio, Venta Esteban. Typical dishes served: Ajo,Sopa de Tomate, Tagarninas, Carrillada, Caracoles (spring only), fish (Pescado frito), Tortilla de Patatas, Ensaladillas , Patatas Ali-Oli, Tortillas de camarones, Sangre con Tomate, Atún Encebollado, Menudo.

Drink

Tasting the local sherry is mandatory. There are two main areas to go out.

City center

People usually get some nice tapas around Plaza del Arenal or Plaza Rafael Rivero and then some drinks out.

  • La Lola. Calle Porvenir, 1. Three floors in a 1780´s building. Cool atmosphere. Live shows everyweek.
  • Kapote. Avenida Alvaro Domecq. A bit stylish, people around 40´s.
  • Café Bereber. Calle Cabezas, 8. Disco, flamenco show & dinner and also coffee shop. Very late on weekend.
  • Damajuana. Calle Francos, 18. A classic bar in the old area, always busy and funny, many local people. Live pop music shows and cultural exchange.^
  • Cuatro Gatos. Calle Santa Rosa, 10. Jam session every Tuesday, DJ sessions every weekend at night. Also blues, rock, punk. etc.
  • Montparnasse. Calle Adriático, 6-7. A bit posh but relaxing. Live concerts.
  • Oxi. Calle Zaragoza. Big discoteca, mainly young people.

Avenida Lola Flores

This new district, by the socces stadium, attract many young people -and not so young-.

  • La Thipica. Good for some drink, but you can even keep dancing on any Sunday evening.
  • Discoteca Rouge. Terrace, different atmosphere. Ibiza flavour.

Gay-Lesbian scene

  • Discoteca Fangorias. Guadalcacín. The one gay disco in the province. Mainly young people
  • Café-Pub Sinatra. Edificio Málaga 1, Jerez. Nice pub to hang out and enjoy some drinks. Live shows.
  • Café Central. Calle Remedios, 7. It´s not openly a gay café, but you will find many local gay and lesbian people.
  • La Fonda Barranco, C/Barranco 12, Jerez de la Frontera, 956 332 141, [14]. La Fonda Barranca [15] is a delightful new boutique hotel in the historic centre of Jerez. Just eight rooms and a suite arranged around an interior courtyard tucked in behind a discreet street facade. Elegant Andalusian/Moroccan decor, superb showers and toileteries, and breakfast on the roof terrace. Very good value at about €85 (double) a night. It's comfortable, quiet, and friendly.  edit
  • NH Avenida Jerez, Avda. Alcalde Alvaro Domecq, 10, +34.95.6347411 [16]. This comfortable hotel is situated in the centre of the city, near the ‘Real Escuela Andaluza de Arte Ecuestre’ (Andalusian Royal School of Equestrian Art), and 10km from the beach, its modern and functional decoration creates the feel of being in a different hotel.
  • Hostal Las Palomas, Calle Higueras 17 (Just off Calle Medina, half way between the train/bus station and the centre), [17]. Shared bathroom, no breakfast. Single 20, double 35..  edit

Get out

Arcos de la Frontera. 40 minutes by bus from Jerez. One of Andalucia's most dramatically positioned pueblos blancos (white villages), Arcos balances atop a rocky limestone ridge, its whitewashed houses and stone castle walls stopping abruptly as a sheer cliff face plunges down to the fertile valley of the river Guadalete below.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also jerez

Spanish

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Proper noun

Jerez

  1. A city in Cádiz, Andalucía, Spain.
  2. A city in Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain.

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