Jersey: Wikis


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Bailiwick of Jersey
Bailliage de Jersey
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"God Save the Queen(official)
"Ma Normandie" ("My Normandy") (official for occasions when distinguishing anthem required)
"Island Home" (proposed new official anthem as of May 2008)
Location of  Jersey  (Dark Green)
(and largest city)
Saint Helier
49°11.401′N 2°06.600′W / 49.190017°N 2.11°W / 49.190017; -2.11
Official language(s) English, French
Recognised regional languages Jèrriais[1]
Ethnic groups  51.1% Jersey, 34.8% Britons, 6.4% Portuguese, 2.6% Irish, 1.7% French, 2.3% other white, 1.1% other[2]
Government Parliamentary system, Constitutional monarchy and Crown dependency
 -  Chief of state Elizabeth II, Duke of Normandy
 -  Lieutenant Governor Lt. Gen. Andrew Ridgway
 -  Bailiff Michael Birt[3]
 -  Chief Minister Senator Terry Le Sueur
Status British Crown dependency 
 -  Separation from mainland Normandy
 -  Liberation from German occupation
9 May 1945 
 -  Total 116 km2 (219th)
45 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0
 -  July 2009 estimate 91,626[4] (190th)
 -  Density 790/km2 (12th²)
2,034/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2003 estimate
 -  Total £3.6 billion (167th)
 -  Per capita £40,000 (2003 estimate) (6th)
HDI (n/a) n/a (n/a) (n/a)
Currency Pound sterling³ (GBP)
Time zone GMT4
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+1)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .je
Calling code +44 spec. 44-1534 (landline)
     (Jersey Telecom mobile)
     (Sure mobile)
     (Airtel-Vodafone mobile)
Patron saint St. Helier
1 Jersey’s Resident Population 2007
2 Rank based on population density of Channel Islands including Guernsey.
3 The States of Jersey issue their own sterling notes and coins (see Jersey pound).
4 In a referendum on October 16, 2008, voters rejected a proposal to adopt Central European Time, by 72.4%.[5]

The Bailiwick of Jersey (English pronunciation: /ˈdʒɜrzi/, French: [ʒɛʁzɛ]; Jèrriais: Jèrri) is a British Crown Dependency[6] off the coast of Normandy, France.[7] As well as the island of Jersey itself, the bailiwick includes two groups of small islands which are no longer permanently inhabited, the Minquiers and Écréhous, and the Pierres de Lecq[8] and other rocks and reefs. Together with the bailiwick of Guernsey, it forms the grouping known as the Channel Islands. Like the Isle of Man, Jersey is a separate possession of the Crown and is not part of the United Kingdom.[9] Jersey has an international identity different from that of the UK,[10] although it belongs to the Common Travel Area[11] and the definition of "United Kingdom" in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.[12] The United Kingdom is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey.[13] Jersey is not a full-member state of the European Union although it is included in the customs territory of the European Community.[14]



Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years.

Evidence of Bronze Age and early Iron Age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. Archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, Les Landes, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Roman temple worship (fanum).[15] Evidence for settled Roman occupation has yet to be established.

Formerly under the control of Brittany and named Angia (also spelled Agna ),[16] Jersey was invaded by Vikings in the ninth century. The name of Jersey is believed to be derived from Viking heritage: the Norse suffix -ey for island can be found in many places around the Northern European coasts. The source of the first part of the toponym is unclear. Scholars surmise it derives from jarth (Old Norse for "earth") or jarl (earl), or perhaps a personal name, Geirr ("Geirr's Island").[17] Alternatively Celtic origin may relate to the Gaulish gar- (oak), or ceton (forest). Some believe "Jersey" is a corruption of the Latin Caesarea, the Roman name for the island, influenced by Old English suffix -ey for "island";[18][19] this is plausible if, in the regional pronunciation of Latin, Caesarea was not IPA: [kaisarea] but [tʃeːsarea].

The island was eventually annexed to the Duchy of Normandy by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy in 933 and it became one of the Norman Islands. William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066. The Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England were governed under one monarch.[20] The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates on the island, and Norman families living on their estates founded many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey, along with Guernsey and the other Channel Islands. The islands have been internally self-governing since.[21]

Islanders traveled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries in the late 16th century.[22] In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey. It is now part of the United States of America.[23][24]

Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France.[25] The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, milling, fishing, shipbuilding, and production of woollen goods. 19th century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island.

During World War II, Jersey was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945 (when Germany surrendered).[26].


The States building in St. Helier.

Jersey's legislature is the States of Jersey. It includes fifty-three elected members: twelve senators (elected for six-year terms), twelve connétables (heads of parishes elected for three-year terms), twenty-nine deputies (elected for three-year terms); the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff (appointed to preside over the assembly and having a casting vote in favour of the status quo when presiding); and three non-voting members (the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General) appointed by the Crown. Government departments are run by a Cabinet government under a Chief Minister. The civil head of the island, and its judiciary is the Bailiff.

Senators are elected on an island-wide mandate and Deputies are elected by local constituencies. Formally constituted political parties are unfashionable, although groups of "like-minded members" act in concert.[citation needed]

Elizabeth II's traditional title as Head of State is that of Duke of Normandy, but she does not hold that title formally.[citation needed] She reigns by her position as Queen over a Crown Dependency. Her Representative in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, who has only token involvement in island politics. Since 2006, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor has been Lieutenant General Andrew Ridgway.

The legal system is based on Norman customary law (including the Clameur de Haro), statute and English law; justice is administered by the Royal Court. Appeals are heard by the Jersey Court of Appeal and, ultimately, by the Privy Council. Statutes were enacted solely in French until 1929; some legislation continues to be made in French, especially amendments to existing legislation. The influence of French language legislation in Jersey is now limited and principally concerns administrative and real property matters, wills and succession and some aspects of criminal procedure. Company legislation, regulatory statutes, material bankruptcy procedures, security over shares and all other relevant matters are, to the extent addressed by existing legislation, governed by statutes enacted in English and, in many cases, are largely based on English law principles or practices.[citation needed]


Map of the parishes of Jersey

Administratively, Jersey is divided into twelve parishes. All border on the sea. They were named after the Christian saints to whom their ancient parish churches were dedicated:

The parishes of Jersey are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes), divisions which are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency.

The Constable (Connétable) is the head of each parish, elected at a public election for a three-year term to run the parish and to represent the municipality in the States. The Procureur du Bien Public (two in each parish) is the legal and financial representative of the parish (elected at a public election since 2003 in accordance with the Public Elections (Amendment) (Jersey) Law 2003; formerly an Assembly of Electors of each parish elected the Procureurs in accordance with the Loi (1804) au sujet des assemblées paroissiales). A Procureur du Bien Public is elected for three years as a public trustee for the funds and property of the parish and may contract when authorised by a Parish Assembly. The Parish Assembly is the decision-making body of local government in each parish; it consists of all entitled voters of the parish.

Each parish elects its own force of Honorary Police consisting of Centeniers, Vingteniers and Constable's Officers. Centeniers are elected at a public election within each parish for a term of three years to undertake policing within the parish. The Centenier is the only officer authorised to charge and bail offenders. Formerly, the senior Centenier of each parish (entitled the Chef de Police) was deputised for the Constable in the States of Jersey when the Constable was unable to attend a sitting of the States. This function has now been abolished.

International relations

Jersey Airport greets travellers with "Welcome to Jersey" in Jèrriais.

Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown, Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on matters within the competence of the States of Jersey. Jersey maintains the Bureau de Jersey in Caen, France, a permanent non-diplomatic representation, with a branch office in Rennes. A similar office, the Maison de Normandie in St. Helier, represents the Conseil général of Manche and the Conseil régional of Basse-Normandie. It hosts the Consulate of France.

Jersey is a member of the British-Irish Council, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. Jersey wants to become a full member of the Commonwealth in its own right.[27]

Dicey and Morris (p26)[28] list the separate States comprising the British Islands: "England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, [Herm] and Sark. . . is a separate country in the sense of the conflict of laws, though not one of them is a State known to public international law."

In 2007, the Chief Minister and the UK Lord Chancellor signed an agreement[10] which established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey. The agreement stated that:

  • the UK has no democratic accountability in and for Jersey;
  • the UK will not act internationally on behalf of Jersey without prior consultation;
  • Jersey has an international identity which is different from that of the UK;
  • the UK recognises that the interests of Jersey may differ from those of the UK, and the UK will seek to represent any differing interests when acting in an international capacity; and
  • the UK and Jersey will work together to resolve or clarify any differences which may arise between their respective interests.

In a survey of 700 people carried out by Channel Television in the summer of 2000, 68% supported independence from the United Kingdom.[29] Soon after, Senator (now Deputy) Paul le Claire lodged a projet calling for Jersey's independence. Subsequently, the Jersey Law Review published an editorial[30] and articles touching on the possibility of full independence.[31] In 2007 the Chief Minister was reported[32] saying that Jersey had contingency plans in case independence were to be forced upon the Island, or if Jersey wanted to move towards independence at a later date. In June 2008 an interim report was presented to the Council of Ministers evaluating "the potential advantages and disadvantages for Jersey in seeking independence from the United Kingdom or other incremental change in the constitutional relationship, while retaining the Queen as Head of State."[33]. The Bailiff, who chaired the group that produced the report, said on 15 September 2008 that "sovereignty would cause no major problems for Jersey."[34]

The island has a special relationship with the EU provided by Protocol 3 to the UK’s Treaty of Accession in 1973. This relationship cannot be changed without the unanimous agreement of all Member States and Island Authorities. Under Protocol 3, the island is part of the customs territory of the European Community. The common customs tariff, levies and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between the island and non-Member States. There is free movement of goods and trade between the island and Member States. Jersey is not, however, part of the single market in financial services. It is not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as movement of capital, company law or money laundering. Jersey plans to incorporate such measures where appropriate, with particular regard to the island's commitment to meeting international standards of financial regulation and countering money laundering and terrorist financing.

A number of tax information exchange agreements[35] have been signed directly by the island with foreign countries. Jersey’s Chief Minister signed a TIEA with the United States of America on 4 November 2002 and with the Kingdom of the Netherlands[36] on 20 June 2007. This was reported[37] as the Bailiwick's first tax treaty with a European state as a state in its own right (and the second after the similar agreement with the United States in 2002). Both TIEAs have been ratified by the States of Jersey and are in force. However, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany ruled on 1 July 2002 (case: II ZR 380/00), that under German law, for the purposes of § 110 of the German Civil Procedures Act (ZPO), Jersey is to be deemed to be part of the United Kingdom and of the European Union as well.

Jersey’s Chief Minister also signed a TIEA with the Federal Republic of Germany on 4 July 2008 and TIEAs with Denmark, the Faroes, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Sweden and Norway on 28 October 2008 (ratified March 2009)[38]. On 10 March 2009, a TIEA was signed between Jersey and the UK.[39] Also in March 2009, TIEAs were signed with France[40] and Ireland[41], followed by a TIEA with Australia in June 2009[42], and New Zealand[43]. These agreements will not come into force until they are ratified by the States, the relevant regulations have been adopted and the other party has completed its own domestic procedures.


Satellite view of Jersey.
Coastline of Bonne Nuit
Map of islands of Bailiwick of Jersey

Jersey is an island measuring 118.2 square kilometres[6] (65,569 vergée / 46 sq mi), including reclaimed land and intertidal zone. It lies in the English Channel, approximately 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from the Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy, France, and approximately 87 nautical miles (161 km; 100 mi) south of Great Britain.[44] It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands, with a maximum land elevation is 143m (469 ft) above sea level.

The climate is temperate with mild winters and cool summers.[45] The average annual temperature, 11.6 °C (52.9 °F) is similar to the South Coast of England and the mean annual total sunshine is 1912 hours.[46] The terrain consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north-south.


Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies. The CIA World Factbook estimate of Jersey's GDP per capita for 2005 is US$57,000, surpassed only by two other small states with similar economic characteristics, Bermuda and Luxembourg. Jersey's economy is based on financial services, tourism, electronic commerce and agriculture; financial services contribute approximately 60 percent of the island's economy.[45] The island is recognised as one of the leading offshore financial centres. In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005 [47] to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth. This competition law was based on that of other jurisdictions.

Aside from its banking and finance (and the finance industries supporting industries), Jersey depends on tourism. In 2006 there were 729,000 visitors (down 3% on the previous year) but total visitor spending rose 1% to £222m.[48] Duty-free goods are available for purchase on travel to and from the island.

Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce. The source of milk is Jersey cattle, a small breed of cow that has also been acknowledged (though not widely so) for the quality of its meat.[49][50] Small-scale organic beef production has been reintroduced in an effort to diversify the industry.

Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside. They rely on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls.

On February 18, 2005, Jersey was granted Fairtrade Island status.[51]


Until the 20th century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The levying of impôts (duties) different from those of the United Kingdom was granted by Charles II and remained in the hands of the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats until 1921 when that body's tax raising powers were transferred to the Assembly of the States, leaving the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats to serve simply as licensing bench for the sale of alcohol (this fiscal reform also stripped the Lieutenant-Governor of most of his effective remaining administrative functions). The Income Tax Law of 1928 introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English. Income tax has been levied at a flat rate of 20% set by the occupying Germans during World War II.

As VAT has not been levied in the island, luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK or in France, providing an incentive for tourism from neighbouring countries. The absence of VAT has also led to the growth of the fulfilment industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting local prices on the same products. In 2005, the States of Jersey announced limits on licences granted to non-resident companies trading in this way.

Although Jersey does not have VAT, the States of Jersey introduced a goods and services tax (GST) in 2008 which was put at a flat rate of 3%.


Twin cash machines at a bank that dispensed a choice of Bank of England or Jersey banknotes. Since the intervention of the Treasurer of the States in 2005, cash machines generally (with the exception of those at the Airport and Elizabeth Harbour) no longer dispense English notes.

Jersey issues its own Jersey banknotes and coins which circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey currency within the island. Jersey currency is not legal tender outside Jersey: However, in the United Kingdom it is acceptable tender[52] and can be surrendered at banks within that country in exchange for Bank of England-issued currency on a like-for-like basis.


Designs on the reverse of Jersey coins:

The main currency of Jersey is the pound, although in most places the euro is accepted because of the positioning of the island. Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. Designs on the reverse of Jersey pound coins include historic ships built in Jersey and a series of the twelve parishes' crests. The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is Insula Caesarea (English: Island of Jersey). Two pound coins are issued also, but in very small quantities.


Mont Orgueil was built in the 13th century to protect Jersey from French invasion.

The island has numerous residents born outside Jersey; 47% of the population are not native to the island. The total population is nearly 88,000. Thirty percent of the population is concentrated in Saint Helier, the island's only town.[53]

Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey since 1821. The most recent was the 2001 Census conducted on March 11. Of the roughly 88,000 people in Jersey, around 40 percent identify as of Jersey / Norman descent and 40 percent of British (English, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish) descent. The largest minority groups in the island are Portuguese (around 7%, especially Madeiran); Irish and Polish. The ethnic French community is also present and there is a growing community of Russian immigrants [2].

The people of Jersey are often called islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British and value the special relationship between the British Crown and the island.

Religion in Jersey has a complex history and much diversity. The established church is the Church of England. In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. A minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private schools: De La Salle College in Saint Saviour is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint Helier is an all-girls school. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life.


For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom generally treats Jersey as though it were part of the UK. Jersey is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration[54] by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.[55] Immigration is therefore controlled by a mixture of restrictions on those without residential status purchasing or renting property in the island and restrictions on employment. Migration policy is to move to a registration system to integrate residential and employment status.[55] Jersey maintains its own immigration[56] and border controls. Although Jersey citizens are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in European Union states other than the UK is placed in the Jersey passport of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man.[57] Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom for five years, are not subject to this restriction.

Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people, mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.[58] In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoléon's coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier as a predominantly English-speaking town.

Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following Liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom - the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy and Brittany employed domestic labour.

Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism.

A trend that has developed over the past few years is the setting up of recruitment agencies in a number of countries in the world, to employ either cheap labour (often from poor countries) or qualified/experienced labour. Amongst the countries that have been targeted for this type of recruitment are Poland, Nigeria, Australia, South Africa, Cyprus, Kenya and Latvia.


Jèrriais road sign ("The black road") in Saint-Ouen.
Victor Hugo in exile, 1850s.

Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais — a variety of Norman — was the language of the island, though French was used for official business. During the 20th century, however, an intense language shift took place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking. Jèrriais nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers is in the capital.

Actress Lillie Langtry, nicknamed the Jersey Lily.

The dialects of Jèrriais differ in phonology and, to a lesser extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the toponymy increased apace with the migration of English people to the island.

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century.

Printing arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature).

The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902.[59] Annual music festivals include Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, Jersey Live, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod. Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival), the Battle of Britain air display, food festivals, and parish events. Branchage Jersey International Film Festival has recently become a major addition to Jersey's cultural calendar attracting filmmakers from all over the world.

The island's patron saint is Saint Helier.[60]



BBC Radio Jersey provides a radio service, and BBC Spotlight Channel Islands with headquarters in Jersey provides a joint television news service with Guernsey.

Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey.

Channel 103 is a commercial radio station.

The Frémont Point transmitting station is a facility for FM and television transmission at Frémont


Jersey's only newspaper, the Jersey Evening Post, claims that it has an average issue readership of 73% of adults in Jersey and that over the course of a week 93 per cent of all adults will read a copy of the newspaper,[61] it being the main printed source of local news and official notices. The newspaper features a weekly Jèrriais column accompanied by English-language précis.


Lifestyle magazines include Gallery Magazine[62] (monthly), Jersey Now[63] (quarterly) and The Jersey Life[64] (monthly).

Les Nouvelles Chroniques du Don Balleine[65] is a quarterly literary magazine in Jèrriais.

Jersey Live

Jersey Live is an indie/dance music festival held annually at The Royal Jersey Showground in the parish of Trinity. The festival has grown in popularity and size each year and has drawn interest from people outside the Channel Islands with foreign visitors making up approximately 27% of the 2006 crowd.


In 1909, T.J. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture, The Perfect Alibi, was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 — during the German Occupation this was used for German propaganda films.

The Odeon Cinema was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. It's owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Forum closed its doors in late 2008.

Since 1997[citation needed], Kevin Lewis (formerly of the Cine Centre and the New Forum) has arranged the Jersey Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and also classic films outdoors in 35 mm on a big screen. The 2006 festival was held in Howard Davis Park, St Saviour, on the 12-18 August 2006. In 2008 the boutique Branchage film festival was held.[66]

In August 2006, plans were revealed to convert the former Odeon building into a department store while retaining the landmark architecture.

Food and drink

Jersey wonders, or mèrvelles, are a favourite snack consisting of fried dough, especially at country fêtes. According to tradition, the success of cooking depends on the state of the tide.

Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: mussels (called moules locally), oysters, lobster and crabs — especially spider crabsormers, and conger.

Jersey milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. (See Channel Island milk) However there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists.

Jersey Royal potatoes are the local variety of new potato, and the island is famous for its early crop of Chats (small potatoes) from the south-facing côtils (steeply sloping fields). Originally grown using vraic as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter.

Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdélots are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter (lé nièr beurre), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Apple brandy is also produced, as is some wine.

Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey wonders (les mèrvelles), fliottes, bean crock (les pais au fou), nettle (ortchie) soup, vraic buns.


In its own right Jersey participates in the Commonwealth Games and in the biennial Island Games, which it last hosted in 1997.

In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation.

Jersey is an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competes in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania in October 2008, after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also compete in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey. In two tournaments at this level Jersey have finished 6th.

For horseracing, Les Landes Racecourse can be found at Les Landes in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle.

The Jersey Football Association supervises football in Jersey. The Jersey Football Combination has 9 teams in its top division. The 2006/07 champions were Jersey Scottish where Ross Crick is the top scorer. The Jersey national football team plays in the annual Muratti competition among others.

Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, surfing, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. Jersey Swimming Club have organised an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle to Saint Helier Harbour for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge which a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey.

There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing.

In golf, two golfers from Jersey have won The Open Championship 7 times between them, Harry Vardon winning 6 times and Ted Ray winning once. Harry and Ted have also won the US Open one time each and Harry's brother Tom Vardon has had some smaller wins on European Tours.

Jersey has one un-roofed skateboarding park


There is no self-sufficient autonomous institution of higher education in Jersey. However, it is possible to take some Higher Education qualifications locally, on a full-time or part-time basis and also to study by distance learning.

Jersey has an FE college, Highlands College. As well as offering part-time and evening courses Highlands is the largest sixth form provider in the Island, and works collaboratively with a range of organisations including the Open University, University of Plymouth and London South Bank University. In particular students can study at Highlands for the two year Foundation Degree in Financial Services and for BSc Social Sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth.

The college incorporates the Jersey Business School but this is at an early stage of development in terms of degree programmes.

The Open University supports students in Jersey (but they pay higher fees than UK students) and is believed to have a study centre on the Island. The Department for Education, Sport & Culture does provide some funding for distance learning courses, but at first degree level only.


Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geological interest as Sites of Special Interest (SSI): Les Landes, Les Blanches Banques and La Lande du Ouest. A large area of intertidal zone is designated as a Ramsar site.

Jersey is the home of Durrell Wildlife (formerly known as the Jersey Zoological Park) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper, and author Gerald Durrell.


Four species of small mammal are considered native[67]: the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Jersey bank vole (Myodes glareolus caesarius), the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the French shrew (Sorex coronatus). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions: the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel and the hedgehog (both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat (Mustela erminea) became extinct in Jersey between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) is a protected species of reptile; Jersey is its only habitat in the British Isles.[68]

Trees generally considered native are the alder (Alnus glutinosa), silver birch (Betula pendula), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), aspen (Populus tremula), wild cherry (Prunus avium), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), holm oak (Quercus ilex), oak (Quercus robur), sallow (Salix cinerea), elder (Sambucus nigra), elm (Ulmus spp.), and medlar (Mespilus germanica). Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm (Cordyline australis) has been planted in coastal areas and may be seen in many gardens.[69]

Notable marine species[70] include the ormer, conger, bass, undulate ray, grey mullet, ballan wrasse and garfish. Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin[71] and grey seal.[72]

Emergency services

Emergency services[73] are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service[74], Jersey Fire and Rescue Service[75] and the Jersey Coastguard[76]. The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service; Channel Islands Air Search provides rapid response airborne search of the surrounding waters[77].

The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the States took over the Saint Helier Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901.

The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884.[78]

Border security and controls are undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service.

See also

Footnotes and references

  2. ^ Chapter 2 - Population Characteristics, Population by cultural and ethnic background.
  3. ^
  4. ^ CIA World Fact Book
  5. ^ "Jersey rejects time-zone change". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  6. ^ a b " — Welcome to the States of Jersey website". States of Jersey. 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  7. ^ "Where is Jersey". Jersey Tourism. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  8. ^ "Walking — Walking Routes — Moonwalks". Jersey Tourism. Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Jersey and UK agree framework for developing Jersey’s international identity
  11. ^ "Visas / entry clearances / work permit issue". Home Affairs, Customs & Immigration, Immigration. States of Jersey. Retrieved 2009-09-14. "Passengers arriving from outside of the Common Travel Area (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands and the Isle of Man) will pass through an Immigration control." 
  12. ^ "British Nationality Act 1981". Legislation, UK, Acts. Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 2009-09-14. "the Islands” means the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; [...] the United Kingdom” means Great Britain, Northern Ireland and the Islands, taken together;" 
  13. ^
  14. ^ "Jersey's relationship with the European Union". Home Affairs, Customs & Immigration, Customs & Excise; Traders Information. States of Jersey. Retrieved 2009-09-14. "Although the Channel Islands form part of the Customs territory of the EC, they are not full member states and are not part of the Single European Market for VAT purposes." 
  15. ^ "Countryside Character Appraisal — Character Area A1: North Coast Heathland". States of Jersey. Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
  16. ^ "History of stamps". Jersey Post. Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
  17. ^ "Jersey", Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. John Everett-Heath. Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Jersey Library. 6 October 2006 [1]
  18. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Online Etymological Dictionary". Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  19. ^ Le Messurier, H. W. (December 1916). "The Early Relations between Newfoundland and the Channel Islands". Geographical Review 2 (6): 449. doi:10.2307/207514. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  20. ^ "A Short Constitutional History of Jersey". Voisin & Co.. 1999-05-18. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  21. ^ Liddicoat, Anthony (1 August 1994). A Grammar of the Norman French of the Channel Islands. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 6. ISBN 3-11-012631-1. 
  22. ^ Ommer, Rosemary E. (1991). From Outpost to Outport. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-7735-0730-2. 
  23. ^ Weeks, Daniel J. (1 May 2001). Not for Filthy Lucre's Sake. Lehigh University Press. pp. 45. ISBN 0-934223-66-1. 
  24. ^ Cochrane, Willard W. (30 September 1993). The Development of American Agriculture. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 18. ISBN 0-8166-2283-3. 
  25. ^ Ommer, Rosemary E. (1991). From Outpost to Outport. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 12. ISBN 0-7735-0730-2. 
  26. ^ Bellows, Tony. "What was the "Occupation" and why is "Liberation Day" celebrated in the Channel Islands?". Société Jersiaise. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  27. ^ Jersey Evening Post, 23 September 2006
  28. ^ *Dicey & Morris. (1993) The Conflict of Laws 12th edition. London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd. (pp26/30) ISBN 0-420-48280-6
  29. ^ Channel Isles.
  30. ^ "The Sword of Damocles", Jersey Law Review, Volume 6, Issue 3, October 2002
  31. ^ "Jersey and the United Kingdom: a choice of destiny", Jersey Law Review, Volume 8, Issue 3, October 2004.
  32. ^ Jersey Evening Post, 21 April 2007
  33. ^ Second Interim Report of the Constitution Review Group
  34. ^ Bailiff’s speech at Assise d’Héritage
  35. ^
  36. ^ International Finance - The Netherlands and Jersey sign agreement on the exchange of tax information
  37. ^ Jersey Evening Post, 22 June 2007
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ Geographically it is not part of the British Isles. As of October 15, 2006, the States of Jersey indicates that the island is situated "only 22 km off the northwest coast of France and 140 km south of England".
  45. ^ a b "CIA — The World Factbook — Jersey". Central Intelligence Agency. 2006-10-05. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  46. ^ Climate Averages Jersey 1971 - 2000
  47. ^
  48. ^ Jersey Tourism Annual Report, 2006
  49. ^ Davenport, Philippa (2006-05-20). "Jersey's cash cow". Financial Times. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  50. ^ Witmer, Jason (2004-06-11). "CROPP contracts brings profitability to Ohio grass-based, organic dairies". The Rodale Institute. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  51. ^ "Island achieves Fairtrade status". BBC News. 2005-02-24. Retrieved 2006-10-06. 
  52. ^
  53. ^ 2001 Census
  54. ^ - Summary Policy
  55. ^ a b - Migration Monitoring and Regulation
  56. ^ - Immigration
  57. ^ - Passports - I have an observation in my passport which says - the holder is not entitled to benefit from EC Provisions relating to employment and settlement - what does that mean?
  58. ^ Balleine's History of Jersey
  59. ^ "The Jersey Battle of Flowers". Jersey Battle of Flowers Association. 2005. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  60. ^ Falle, Samuel. "Saint Helier — Saint Hélyi — Saint Hélier". Geraint Jennings, Société Jersiaise. Retrieved 2006-10-15. 
  61. ^ "At the heart of island life since 1890". Jersey Evening Post. Retrieved 2006-10-07. 
  62. ^ Gallery Magazine Jersey
  63. ^
  64. ^ Quality LifeStyle Magazines - Jersey, Harpenden,Jersey Estrella Radlett, St Albans
  65. ^ Les Nouvelles Chroniques du Don Balleine
  66. ^
  67. ^ Species Based Research Projects - The Jersey Mammal Survey
  68. ^ Biodiversity Action Plan
  69. ^ Trees in Jersey, The Jersey Association of Men of the Trees, Jersey 1997, ISBN 0953097900
  70. ^
  71. ^
  72. ^
  73. ^
  74. ^
  75. ^
  76. ^
  77. ^
  78. ^


  • Jersey Through the Centuries, Leslie Sinel, Jersey 1984, ISBN 0-86120-003-9

Further reading

  • Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7
  • A Biographical Dictionary of Jersey, G.R. Balleine
  • The Archaeology of the Channel Islands. Vol. 2: The Bailiwick of Jersey by Jacquetta Hawkes (1939)
  • The Prehistoric Foundations of Europe to the Mycenean Age, 1940, C. F. C. Hawkes
  • Jersey in Prehistory, Mark Patton, 1987
  • The Archaeology and Early History of the Channel Islands, Heather Sebire, 2005.
  • Dolmens of Jersey: A Guide, James Hibbs (1988).
  • A Guide to The Dolmens of Jersey, Peter Hunt, Société Jersiaise, 1998.
  • Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany, Mark Patton, 1993
  • Hougue Bie, Mark Patton, Warwick Rodwell, Olga Finch, 1999
  • The Channel Islands, An Archaeological Guide, David Johnston, 1981
  • The Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Peter Johnston, 1986

One Hundred Years of the Royal Jersey Agricultural and Horticultural Society 1833-1933. Compiled from the Society's Records, by H.G. Shepard, Secretary Eric J. Boston. Jersey Cattle, 1954

  • The Channel Islands under Tudor Government, A.J. Eagleston
  • Reformation and Society in Guernsey, D.M. Ogier
  • International Politics and the Establishment of Presbytarianism in the Channel Islands: The Coutances Connection, C.S.L. Davies
  • Religion, History and G.R. Balleine: The Reformation in Jersey, by J. St John Nicolle, The Pilot Magazine
  • The Reformation in Jersey: The Process of Change over Two centuries, J. St John Nicolle
  • The Chroniques de Jersey in the light of contemporary documents, BSJ, AJ Eagleston
  • The Portrait of Richard Mabon, BSJ, Joan Stevens

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Quick Facts
Capital Saint Helier
Government British crown dependency
Currency British pound (GBP) or Jersey pound
Area 116 sq km
Population 89,775 (July 2002 est.)
Language English (official), French (official), Jèrriais spoken in country districts
Religion Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian
Electricity 240V/50Hz (U.K. style 3-pin plug)
Calling Code +44-1534
Internet TLD .je
Time Zone UTC

The island of Jersey [1] is the largest and southernmost of the British Channel Islands. It lies in the English Channel, northwest of France.

The Bailiwick of Jersey is a self-governing British crown dependency and is not administered by the United Kingdom. The Channel Islands are the last remnants of the Dukedom of Normandy and are considered a separate jurisdiction to the United Kingdom.

This beautiful island is famous for the Jersey Cow, Lilly Langtry and the Bergerac TV series during the eighties.

  • Saint Helier - the capital of Jersey. About 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier.
  • Saint Lawrence
  • Saint Peter
  • Saint Ouen
  • Saint Mary
  • Grouville
  • Saint Brelade
  • Saint Saviour
  • Saint Clement
  • Trinity
  • Saint John
  • Saint Martin

Other settlements within the parishes....

  • Gorey - this is an area within the parish of Grouville
  • Saint Aubin - this is an area within the parish of Saint Brelade, otherwise the Island would have 13 Parishes!


High earnings, zero inheritance tax rates and a mild climate make the island a popular offshore finance centre. Tourism, banking and finance, and agriculture, particular dairying, are mainstays of the economy. Produce includes potatoes (Jersey Royals), cauliflower, tomatoes, flowers, beef and dairy products as well as light industrial and electrical goods, and textiles.


The island of Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II.

  • Jersey War Tunnels (Jersey War Tunnels), Les Charrieres Malorey, St Lawrence, Jersey, JE3 1FU (Head west from St Helier taking the inner main road. From Bel Royal the attarction is well signposted. Bus No. 8a), 01534 860808, [2]. 10:00 - 18:00. Formerly known as the German Underground Hospital, the tunnels were built during the Second World War, and now is an interesting tourist attraction. Cut deeply into rising hills, the site is now a museum telling the story of Jersey as the only part of Britain to be occupied by Germany during the war. £10.50.  edit


Temperate, with mild winters and cool summers. Gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast.

Get in

By plane

Jersey Airport (IATA: JER) (ICAO: EGJJ) [3] - in the parish of St. Peter. Air France, Flybe, British Airways, and Aurigny Airlines offer regular flights from London airports and other UK mainland airports. Aer Lingus offers regular flights from Dublin, Ireland.

By boat

To/from Guernsey.

From UK Mainland and France try Condor Ferries or HD Ferries

Get around

By car

The maximum speed limit on the Island is 40mph, with many narrow 'Green Lanes' having a speed limit of 15mph. With a maximum straight-line journey length of some 11 miles, there would seem to be no point in owning and driving high-performance vehicles on the Island. This does not however stop a surprising number of people on the Island from doing so.

There are many car hire companies on the island, and as public transport is a little restricting, it is probably a good idea to hire from one of these. Most airlines will have a deal where you get money off if you go with their partner car hire company.

By bus

The 2 major bus routes on the island are the 1 and the 15. The one goes to the east of the island and the 15 goes to the west. During the day these run approximately every 20mins. They get less frequent in the evening and stop running at about 11:30. The rest of the routes will not run so frequently, but are a must if you want to explore some of the islands better attractions and do not have access to a car. Timetables [4] for the buses change seasonally and can be obtained from the bus station near town. All busses will go to and from this bus station. Note that if you are not going to or from town, you will probably need to get 2 buses and timing this can be difficult.

How much you pay is dependant on how far you travel, with the maximum fare being £1.60. Students with a valid NUS card should be able to get travel for 50p as should those under 16. The "This is Jersey" website will contain more information as well as up to date timetables.

By taxi

There are a few taxi ranks on the island, mostly in town or outside the airport. These are very expensive, however, they are the only option (other than walking) if you don't have a car and wish to travel after about 11:30PM most nights.


Languages: English (official, and majority everyday language), French (official for some purposes), Jèrriais (a variety of Norman language, spoken in country districts). Portuguese is widely spoken.


The economy is based largely on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes (Jersey Royals) , cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. In 1996 the finance sector accounted for about 60% of the island's output. Tourism, another mainstay of the economy, accounts for 24% of GDP. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs.


Jersey has an abundance of excellent restaurants [5] covering most tastes. In particular a lot of French, Italian and Portuguese styles. Chinese, Indian and Thai are well represented too. Only one each of Greek and Sushi and one Mexican, located in Colomberie or Iranian though. There are a few B.Y.O. restaurants (example the Dicq Shack). Fast food chains, such as McDonalds are in town, although there is only 1 McDonalds and 1 Starbucks..located at the Airport.

There are occasionally themed "food weeks" celebrating the different cultures in the Island. Every October (for a little over a month) there is a Tennerfest [6] where you can explore many of the world-class restaurants.


Vegetarians will face a limited menu except in one or two very good vegetarian restaurants.

  • CafeJAC, Phillips St, St Helier (Arts Centre), 01534879482, [7].  edit


The minimum age for drinking alcohol is 18 years. For such a small place there's a lot of bars and quite a few different clubs. Despite duty on alcohol being lower than the U.K. most popular bars set their prices close to what you'd expect in London. Normal pub closing time is 11PM and most clubs have to be closed by 2AM (there is no "drinking-up-time"). There's a few bars with alfresco areas including one with a view over the bay toward Elizabeth castle. Most of the working-men's pubs became trendy wine bars in the early nineties so there's not much chance of finding a pool table in town. There are two bars which sell Absinthe.

There is quite a good music scene, in part due to licensing regulations which allow some bars to stay open till 1AM if they have live entertainment. The bars with a late licence never have a cover charge but all the clubs do.

The main town of St. Helier is compact enough that you can wander from pub to pub and club to club quite easily.


Many hotels and guest houses disappeared in the late nineties but there's two new multi-million pound hotels both in town. Jersey Tourism produce an accommodation guide containing all registered establishments, this is available free of charge.


There is very little budget accommodation in Jersey. The only Youth Hostel [8], near Gorey Village on the east coast was closed in 2008 due to a police investigation into child abuse that allegedly occured when the building was used as a childrens home. The extensive forensic searches has meant that the Youth Hostel is not reopening and is now housing Jersey's seasonal lifeguards.

There are some restrictions on caravans and motorhomes due to the size of the island's roads, but they are excepted at most of the Island's campsites.

More details can be found on [9]. There are four camp sites, including one in St. Brelade near the west coast.


Jersey does not have any universities, although there is a college, called Highlands, which offers a very limited selection of university level degrees.

Stay safe

Jersey law derives from Norman customary law, now supplemented by English law and local statute. United Kingdom law does not automatically apply in Jersey, unless adopted by the parliament, the States of Jersey. Most every day things are the same as in English law, with the exception of some odd laws about marriage and divorce and the legal age of homosexual intercourse for males being set at 18. Attitudes towards homosexuality tend to be very similar to those you would find in mainland Britain.

Stay healthy

There is a hospital in St Helier which will be able to deal with most regular injuries. For specialist treatment it is often necessary for patients to be taken to mainland Britain.

It is also worth noting that going to the doctors in Jersey will cost you money, normally around £40 a time. This can vary considerably, as it is up to the doctors surgery to set the price.

Jersey is not covered by the British NHS, however, most emergency treatment is free.


Some people from Jersey refer to themselves as British (which is quasi-accurate). Some people refer to themselves as Normanic, or some even French! People from Jersey are not English (in the same way the Welsh are the Welsh, the Scottish are the Scottish and the Irish are the Irish). The correct/official way of describing persons from Jersey are 'Jerseymen' and 'Jerseywomen'. Calling them anything else may offend unless you are on good terms.

As a general rule, people from Jersey are very pro-Europe (despite not being a part of the 'European Union'), and would describe themselves as being more a part of Europe than the mainland United Kingdom is - on the basis of geography and French cultures. On the reverse side, people from the UK mainland as a 'general rule' wouldn't refer to themselves as European!

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

="">See Jersey (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Jersey.

JERSEY, the largest of the Channel Islands, belonging to Great Britain. Its chief town, St Helier, on the south coast of the island, is in 49° 12' N., 2° 7' W., 105 m. S. by E. of Portland Bill on the English coast, and 24 m. from the French coast to the east. Jersey is the southernmost of the more important islands of the group. It is of oblong form with a length of Io m. from east to west and an extreme breadth of 64 m. The area is 28,717 acres, or 45 sq. m. Pop. (1901), 52,576.

The island reaches its greatest elevation (nearly 50o ft.) in the north, the land rising sharply from the north coast, and displaying bold and picturesque cliffs towards the sea. The east, south and west coasts consist of a succession of large open bays, shallow and rocky, with marshy or sandy shores separated by rocky headlands. The principal bays are Greve au Lan cons, Greve de Lecq, St John's and Bouley Bays on the north coast; St Catherine's and Grouville Bays on the east; St Clement's, St Aubin's and St Brelade's Bays on the south; and St Ouen's Bay, the wide sweep of which occupies nearly the whole of the west coast. The sea in many places has encroached greatly on the land, and sand drifts have been found troublesome, especially on the west coast. The surface of the country is broken by winding valleys having a general direction from north to south, and as they approach the south uniting so as to form small plains. The lofty hedges which bound the small enclosures into which Jersey is divided, the trees and shrubberies which line the roads and cluster round the uplands and in almost every nook of the valleys unutilized for pasturage or tillage, give the island a luxuriant appearance, neutralizing the bare effect of the few sandy plains and sand-covered hills. Fruits and flowers indigenous to warm climates grow freely in the open air. The land, under careful cultivation, is rich and productive, the soil being generally a deep loam, especially in the valleys, but in the west shallow, light and sandy. The subsoil is usually gravel, but in some parts an unfertile clay. Some two-thirds of the total area is under cultivation, great numbers of cattle being pastured, and much market gardening practised. The potato crop is very large. The peasants take advantage of every bit of wall and every isolated nook of ground for growing fruit trees. Grapes are ripened under glass; oranges can be grown in sheltered situations, but the most common fruits are apples, which are used for cider, and pears. A manure of burnt sea-weed (vraic) is generally used. The pasturage is very rich, and is much improved by the application of this manure to the surface. The breed of cattle is kept pure by stringent laws against the importation of foreign animals. The milk is used almost exclusively to manufacture butter. The cattle are always housed in winter, but remain out at night from May till October. There was formerly a small black breed of horses peculiar to the island, but horses are now chiefly imported from France or England. Pigs are kept principally for local consumption, and only a few sheep are reared. Fish are not so plentiful as round the shores of Guernsey, but mackerel, turbot, cod, mullet and especially the conger eel are abundant at the Minquiers. There is a large oyster bed between Jersey and France, but partly on account of overdredging the supply is not so abundant as formerly. There is a great variety of other shell fish. The fisheries, ship-building and boat-building employ many of the inhabitants. Kelp and iodine are manufactured from sea-weed. The principal exports are granite, fruit and vegetables (especially potatoes), butter and cattle; and the chief imports coal and articles of human consumption. Communications with England are maintained principally from Southampton and Weymouth, and there are regular steamship services from Granville and St Malo on the French coast. The Jersey railway runs west from St Helier round St Aubin's Bay to St Aubin, and continues to Corbiereat the southwestern extremity of the island; and the Jersey eastern railway follows the southern and eastern coasts to Gorey. The island is intersected with a network of good roads.

Jersey is under a distinct and in several respects different form of administrative government from Guernsey and the smaller islands included in the bailiwick of Guernsey. For its peculiar constitution, system of justice, ecclesiastical arrangements and finance, see Channel Islands. There are twelve parishes, namely St Helier, Grouville, St Brelade, St Clement, St John, St Laurence, St Martin, St Mary, St Ouen, St Peter, St Saviour and Trinity. The population of the island nearly doubled between 1821 and 1901, but decreased from 54,518 to 52,576 between 1891 and 1901.

The history of Jersey is treated under Channel Islands. Among objects of antiquarian interest, a cromlech near Mont Orgueil is the finest of several examples. St Brelade's church, probably the oldest in the island, dates from the 12th century; among the later churches St Helier's, of the 14th century, may be mentioned. There are also some very early chapels, considered to date from the 10th century or earlier; among these may be noted the Chapelle-es-Pecheurs at St Brelade's, and the picturesque chapel in the grounds of the manor of Rozel. The castle of Mont Orgueil, of which there are considerable remains, is believed to be founded upon the site of a Roman stronghold, and a "Caesar's fort" still forms a part of it.

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also jersey



Wikipedia has an article on:



Proper noun




  1. The largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel between France and Great Britain.
  2. A type of cow from Jersey.
  3. (US, informal) New Jersey.

Derived terms


Related terms

See also


Proper noun


  1. Jersey (island)


Proper noun


  1. Jersey (island)
  2. The letter J in the Italian phonetic alphabet


Proper noun


  1. Jersey (island)


Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Wikipedia has a page called:

Jersey is one of the Channel Islands, a British Crown dependency close to the coast of France.

This page is a "stub" and could be improved by additions and other edits.

This article uses material from the "Jersey" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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