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Jesus of Nazareth
Half-length portrait of younger man with shoulder-length hair and beard, with right hand raised over what appears to be a red flame. The upper background is gold. Around his head is a golden halo containing an equal-armed cross with three arms visible; the arms are decorated with ovals and squares.
6th-century mosaic of Jesus at Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna. Though depictions of Jesus are culturally important, no undisputed record of what Jesus looked like is known to exist.
Born c 5 BC/BCE[1]
Bethlehem, Judea, Roman Empire (traditional); Nazareth, Galilee (historical Jesus)[2]
Died .c 30 AD/CE[3][4]
Calvary, Judea, Roman Empire (According to the New Testament, he rose on the third day after his death.
^ Roman writer who lived from 20 BCE to 50 CE, who traveled to various places in the Roman Empire, including eastern portions of the empire.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the preface to Josephus' account of the war between the Jews and the Romans that lasted from 66 to 70 CE, resulting in the destruction of Judea.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman historian and philosopher who lived from 23-79 CE. He traveled throughout the Roman Empire, though mostly in the northern regions.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

)
Cause of death Crucifixion
Resting place Traditionally and temporarily, a garden tomb located in what is now the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem.[5]
Ethnicity Jewish
Jesus of Nazareth (c. 5 BC/BCE – c. .30 AD/CE),[3] also known as Jesus Christ or Jesus, is the central figure of Christianity, which views him as the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament, with most Christian denominations believing him to be the Son of God [6] who was raised from the dead.^ The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And what is most forcible of all, He raised the dead.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And who gave him rights over the dead?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[7] Islam considers Jesus a prophet and also the Messiah.[8] .Several other religions revere him in some way.^ Indeed there are several places in Josephus' other works that one would expect Josephus to mention Jesus if he had indeed been aware of him and written the Testimonium .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

He is one of the most influential figures in human history.
.The principal sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the four canonical gospels, especially the Synoptic Gospels,[9][10] though some scholars argue such texts as the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of the Hebrews [11][12] are also relevant.^ Some of the details of the life of Jesus are based on mistranslations of the Hebrew scriptures .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary, the supposed mother of Jesus, is never mentioned by Paul, nor in any canonical work outside of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The life of Jesus is a story that was created by combining elements from many other Hebrew stories to create a pseudo-proto-typical savior figure.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.Most critical scholars in biblical studies believe that some parts of the New Testament are useful for reconstructing Jesus' life,[14][15][16][17] agreeing that Jesus was a Jew who was regarded as a teacher and healer, that he was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect of Judaea, Pontius Pilate, on the charge of sedition against the Roman Empire.^ New Testament; Matthew 6:14-15 we will be Judged the same as we have judged others.

^ JESUS: Where Antipas reigns, who caused John the Baptist's death.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The letter of 2 John is here talking about the fact that many people at the time who did preach about Jesus Christ did not regard him as having existed in flesh and blood.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] .Aside from these few conclusions, academic debate continues regarding the chronology, the central message of Jesus' preaching, his social class, cultural environment, and religious orientation.^ These cultures didn't have strictly defined religious beliefs, their religions were instead more open and pertained more to ritual.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since we are guilty through association (Matthew 18:18 ) if a member of our family rejects JESUS and HIS message, we must have minimum social contact with them.

[13] .Critical scholars have offered competing descriptions of Jesus as a self-described Messiah, as the leader of an apocalyptic movement, as an itinerant sage, as a charismatic healer, and as the founder of an independent religious movement.^ A hostile reference towards Jesus is seen as the most likely type of reference that would be both authentic and independent, so this proposal has appeal to scholars who seek to maintain that this passage offers evidence for the existence of a real historical Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If we take the view of Jesus was a real person who was a teacher and the leader of a religious movement, then we could expect that this person would have produced his own writings, since other rabbis, theologians, and teachers did.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Most contemporary scholars of the historical Jesus consider him to have been an independent, charismatic founder of a Jewish restoration movement, anticipating an imminent apocalypse.^ The fragments of Phlegon's historical works that survive have led scholars to regard him as one of the least reliable and more outrageous writers of his time.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the story of Jesus' arrest and execution seems quite implausible at the outset, but when one considers the symbolism of the story it becomes apparent that the basis for this story is theological, not historical.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (Note: Many scholars have interpreted the cursing of the fig tree as a metaphor for Jesus' rejecting of those Jews who reject him and as a foreshadowing of his second coming and judgment.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[30] .Other prominent scholars, however, contend that Jesus' "Kingdom of God" meant radical personal and social transformation instead of a future apocalypse.^ How many readers can eschew their prejudices in regards to the labels of 'God', 'Jesus', 'Spirit' and so on remains to be experienced however.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus however, after a lengthy selfreflection, was able to decipher the OT archetypes to himself assume the Logos archetype in 'realising' or 'discovering' what 'God' had to be.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the future world God will call the princes (שריהם) of the kingdoms to account before He calls the kingdoms themselves.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[30]
.Christians predominantly believe that Jesus is the "Son of God" (generally meaning that he is God the Son, the second person in the Trinity) who came to provide salvation and reconciliation with God by his death for their sins.^ Yes, it would have been hard for the disciples to believe that JESUS came as GODS personal representative.

^ JESUS said, He who will know the father and the mother will be called the son of a whore.

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[31]:568-603 .Christians traditionally believe that Jesus was born of a virgin,[31]:529-532 performed miracles,[31]:358-359 founded the Church, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven,[31]:616-620 from which he will return.^ But when the light went away, and at the same time with the light itself, the soul of the blessed virgin Mary was taken up into heaven with psalms, and hymns, and songs of songs.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed his supposed bodily ascension into heaven precludes the possibility of there even being any bodily evidence for his existence, if that story were to be believed.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cerdo and Apelles did not believe Jesus to have been born at all!
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[31]:1091-1109 .While the doctrine of the Trinity is accepted by most Christians, a few groups reject the doctrine of the Trinity, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.^ Early Christian theologians believed the Gospel of Matthew to be the first Gospel that was written, and, by many accounts, the most important (of course there was disagreement among them, as there was on all doctrinal issues).
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We have very little information on the mystery religions partly because many of them were secretive and partly because most of them didn't have written scriptures.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most scholars call Didache the oldest non-canon piece of Christian literature, but just how old it is is disputed.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Most Christian scholars today present Jesus as the awaited Messiah[33] and as God.^ There are two basic views of the Biblical Jesus as a real person today, the religious Christian view and the secular historical view.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Septuagint translation of Hebrew "Mashiah" ("Messiah"=The Anointed), applied by Christians exclusively to Jesus as the Messiah.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Primarily, calling Jesus "the Messiah" is something that only a Christian would do.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Islam, Jesus (Arabic: عيسى‎, commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets,[34][35] a bringer of scripture, and a worker of miracles.^ The one who has realized this, does know JESUS, GOD & THE HOLY SPIRIT and will not taste death.

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the story of Jesus' arrest and execution seems quite implausible at the outset, but when one considers the symbolism of the story it becomes apparent that the basis for this story is theological, not historical.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus is also called "Messiah", but Islam does not teach that he was divine.^ Primarily, calling Jesus "the Messiah" is something that only a Christian would do.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew 27: 22 Pilate said to them, "Then what shall I do with Jesus called Messiah?"
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Islam teaches that Jesus ascended bodily to heaven without experiencing the crucifixion and resurrection,[36] rather than the traditional Christian belief of the death and resurrection of Jesus.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After his resurrection Jesus is depicted as walking around, touching people, having dinner, etc., in the Gospels, which supports a major doctrine for Christians: that they are to expect to be bodily resurrected.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

."Jesus" (pronounced /ˈdʒiːzəs/) is a transliteration, occurring in a number of languages and based on the Latin Iesus, of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iēsoûs), itself a Hellenisation of the Hebrew יְהוֹשֻׁעַ (Yĕhōšuă‘, Joshua) or Hebrew-Aramaic יֵשׁוּעַ (Yēšûă‘), meaning "Yahweh delivers (or rescues)".[37][38] "Christ" (pronounced /ˈkraɪst/) is a title derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christós), meaning the "Anointed One", a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Messiah).^ Also, Joshua and Jesus are the same name in Hebrew.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes sense that an account would be written in the same language that Jesus spoke to his followers, yet all of the Gospels were written in Greek, so this idea of an original Hebrew or Aramaic Gospel had a lot of draw to it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one story element here is clearly drawn from the Hebrew scriptures, the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[39][40]:274-275 .A "Messiah" is a king anointed at God's direction or with God's approval, and Christians identify Jesus as the one foretold by Hebrew prophets.^ The anointed one was the king.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Septuagint translation of Hebrew "Mashiah" ("Messiah"=The Anointed), applied by Christians exclusively to Jesus as the Messiah.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one story element here is clearly drawn from the Hebrew scriptures, the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Chronology

.Scholars conclude that Jesus was born 7–2 BC/BCE and died 26–36 AD/CE.^ We now turn to Wisdom of Solomon , written some time between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE. Most scholars agree that Wisdom of Solomon was written in the 1st century BCE, just shortly before Jesus was supposedly born.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist Killed early in the Gospels, died in 36 CE according to Josephus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that John the Baptist was probably killed in 35 or 36 CE, some 2 or 3 years after the latest proposed date for the death of Jesus based on the Gospels.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[41][42]
.There is no contemporary evidence of the exact date of Jesus' birth.^ There is also no archeological evidence to support this event either.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the Gospels there are various works that talk about Jesus in a variety of ways, but none of them provide any details about a birth, life, ministry, or death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No writing, graffiti, or evidence of any kind has ever been found from the period in which he supposedly lived that establishes the existence of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The common Gregorian calendar for numbering years, in which the current year is 2010, is based on an early medieval attempt to count the years from his birth (Incarnation). The Gospel of Matthew places his birth under the reign of Herod the Great, who died in 4 BC/BCE,[43] and indications in the Gospel of Luke point to the same period, though Luke also describes the birth as taking place during the first census of the Roman provinces of Syria and Iudaea, which is generally believed to have occurred in 6 AD/CE.[44] Most scholars generally assume a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC/BCE.[45]
.The earliest evidence of celebration on 25 December of the birth of Jesus is of the year 354 in Rome, and it was only later that the 25 December celebration was adopted in the East, with the exception of Armenia, where his birth is celebrated on 6 January.^ JESUS was not born on the 25 th of December.

^ Importantly, however, if this did actually refer to Christians in Rome in 49 CE then this reference alone would be evidence of the earliest existence of followers of Jesus in Rome.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only this, but the Gospel of Mark contains elements which imply that Jesus had a natural normal family and the author of Mark says nothing about a special birth.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[46] .Indeed there is no month of the year to which respectable authorities have not assigned his birth.^ Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed it is ironic that Christian apologists have tried to use the fact that there is no evidence for veneration of a tomb of Jesus to "prove" the "truth" of the resurrection.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.Jesus' ministry, which according to the Gospel of Luke he began at about 30 years of age,[47] followed that of John the Baptist,[48] whose ministry is said to have begun "in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar",[Lk. 3:1–2] which would be about 28 or 29 AD/CE.[49] Jesus' ministry lasted around one year, according to the Synoptic Gospels, or three years according to the Gospel of John.^ Would Paul have said nothing about the site of Jesus' burial?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist Killed early in the Gospels, died in 36 CE according to Josephus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Scholars go further and state that based on the information given in the Gospels Jesus had to have died in either the year 27, 30, or 33 CE. Since, aside from the dubious birth stories in Matthew and Luke, the Gospels deal strictly with a supposed ministry of Jesus that lasted from 1 to 3 years, we are looking at a date range from about 24 CE to 36 CE as the period during which we could look for writings about Jesus that were produced during his "lifetime".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[50] Thus, the earliest generally-accepted date for the crucifixion is 29 AD/CE, and the latest is 36 AD/CE.
.According to the Gospels, the death of Jesus took place during the time that Pontius Pilate was the Roman procurator of Judea.^ Christus, the founder of the name, was put to death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberius: but the pernicious superstition, repressed for a time broke out again, not only through Judea, where the mischief originated, but through the city of Rome also, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The only place where the rising of the dead upon the death of Jesus is mentioned is also in the Gospel of Matthew.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the people mentioned above lived during the same time that Jesus supposedly lived and are prime candidates for being potential witnesses and documenters of the existence of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Josephus[51] and Tacitus[52] also say that procurator Pontius Pilate executed Jesus.^ They are going to demand from Pontius Pilate the execution of the sentence.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We will deliver him to Pilate and we will demand the execution of Jesus.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Or on Pontius Pilate, the Procurator.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Procurator[53] was a civilian title introduced during the rule of Claudius, 41-54 CE. The historical Pontius Pilate had the military title prefect[53] between 26 and 36 CE.[54].^ He specifically wrote about conflicts between Pontius Pilate and Jews during Pilate's governorship of Judea.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pilate's last year as governor of Judea was also 36 CE. .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only this, but he actually wrote about political conflicts between the Jews and Pontius Pilate in Judea .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Most Christians commemorate Jesus' crucifixion on Good Friday and celebrate his resurrection on Easter Sunday.^ After his resurrection Jesus is depicted as walking around, touching people, having dinner, etc., in the Gospels, which supports a major doctrine for Christians: that they are to expect to be bodily resurrected.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How could an early Christian defend the doctrine of resurrection without mentioning Jesus Christ, unless he had indeed never heard of him or the story of his death and resurrection?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed it is ironic that Christian apologists have tried to use the fact that there is no evidence for veneration of a tomb of Jesus to "prove" the "truth" of the resurrection.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Life and teachings, as told in the Gospels

.The four canonical gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, are the main sources for the biography of Jesus' life; nevertheless, these Gospels were written with the intention of glorifying Jesus and are not strictly biographical in nature.^ There is also language that is shared between the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which is not in the Gospel of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The four main potential sources for independent accounts of Jesus are as follows: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We can also look at the works of Tacitus, which were written shortly after the Gospel of Mark was probably written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[55] .For example, the Gospels primarily characterize Jesus as the Messiah: he performs miracles and is often described as having a very close relationship to the Jewish God—the phrase "Son of God" is attributed to Jesus at least once in each Gospel.^ Once a child can understand the Gospels and JESUS he can accept or deny JESUS on his or her own.

^ Sons of Man would indicate that JESUS wanted people to know the power that GOD gives HIS creation.

[Lk. 1:35][Mt. 16:16][Mk. 1:1][Jn. 3:18] .The Gospels (especially Matthew) present Jesus' birth, life, death, and resurrection as fulfillment of prophecies found in the Hebrew Bible (e.g., the virgin birth, the flight into Egypt, Immanuel from Isaiah 7:14, and the suffering servant).^ A few interesting things about this is that, first of all, the author of Matthew continued to build on the mistranslation in the Septuagint and secondly the passage from Isaiah isn't a prophesy about anything expected to happen in the future, it was part of a self-contained story about Immanuel - there was no prophecy for "Jesus" to fulfill.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus knew how to decode Isaiah and what had to be done to bring the 'exiled' Father into the spacetime universe in lieu of his fake image.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[56] .However, critical scholars do find historical information about Jesus' life and ministry in the synoptic gospels, while interpreting the miraculous and theological content in light of what is known of Jewish beliefs at the time.^ Irenaeus was writing about 100 to 60 years after the Gospels had been in circulation, and we can see that beliefs about Jesus were clearly impacted by the Gospels, but that there were a variety of beliefs as well.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If Philo had known about Jesus he surely would have written something about him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[57]

Similarities and differences among the Gospels

.Three of the four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, are known as the synoptic Gospels because they display a high degree of similarity in content, narrative arrangement, language, and sentence and paragraph structures.^ Anonymous "Gnostic" passion narrative similar to that in the Gospel of Mark .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are similar passages in Matthew and Mark.

^ There is also language that is shared between the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which is not in the Gospel of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.These Gospels are also considered to share the same point of view.^ These propositions are from point of view.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that this was done is actually quite ironic, since the writers of these Gospels evidently viewed other Gospels as flawed, hence the reason that they created new versions.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to these issues consider this problem: How are the writers the Gospels of Matthew and Luke supposed to have gotten the details of their stories?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[58] .The fourth canonical Gospel, John, differs greatly from these three, as do the Apocryphal gospels.^ None of the three synoptic Gospels makes an explicit reference to Christ as the Passover lamb, but the Gospel called John does.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The three other Gospels all build on the story of Mark, but they introduce theological differences.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to the two-source hypothesis, Mark was a source for Matthew and Luke, both of whom also independently used a now lost sayings source called the Q Gospel.^ There is also language that is shared between the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which is not in the Gospel of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Here is exactly what the Gospel of Matthew says: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (The dominant theory now is that Matthew and Luke both independently use Mark and a document called "Q") It also would not make sense that Luke got his information from Paul, because Paul plainly stated in his letters that he never saw Jesus, other than through visions.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Mark defined the sequence of events from Jesus' baptism to the empty tomb and included parables of the Kingdom of God.^ Eating the bread symbolizes the knowledge these people have of the life and immortality they enjoy by belonging to the kingdom of God made known to them by Jesus, God's child.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no evidence of any knowledge of a tomb of Jesus (empty or occupied) prior to the Gospel stories .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[59]

Character of Jesus

.Each gospel portrays Jesus' life and its meaning differently.^ Prior to the Gospels there are various works that talk about Jesus in a variety of ways, but none of them provide any details about a birth, life, ministry, or death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Mark's Gospel Peter is portrayed as a fool who doesn't understand the message of Jesus, and thus him being Mark's authoritative source is unlikely at best.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[60][61] .The gospel of John is not a biography of Jesus but a theological presentation of him as the divine Logos.^ In Mark's Gospel Peter is portrayed as a fool who doesn't understand the message of Jesus, and thus him being Mark's authoritative source is unlikely at best.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist was the real martyr but if he were martyred in the Gospels that would only draw attention away from the "ultimate sacrifice" of the main character Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Theophilus has laid out a doctrine that is exactly like the Christian doctrine in the Gospel of John in every way, but he does not associate "The Word" with anyone named Jesus, he just talks about "him" as a "helper of God".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[62] .One modern scholar writes that to combine these four stories into one story is tantamount to creating a fifth story, one different from each original.^ The life of Jesus is a story that was created by combining elements from many other Hebrew stories to create a pseudo-proto-typical savior figure.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the four main odes that lead scholars to date the work after the Gospels, and perhaps it was written after the Gospels, but there are serious issues to address.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are actually four different endings to Mark, but scholars agree that the ending most likely to be original is the shortest one, that ends with the women who had found the empty tomb being afraid and saying nothing.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[61]
.Mark presents Jesus as a heroic, charismatic man of action and mighty deeds.^ And if your testimony is true of the life, actions, and death of Jesus of Nazareth, I tell you that Death and Satan are overthrown; that the salvation of man has come.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ "Mark" presents the killing of Jesus as the reason for the destruction of Judea.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in the story (Mark 9), the disciples ask Jesus about the teaching that Elijah would come before the "Son of Man", as shown below: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Matthew portrays him especially as the fulfillment of Hebrew prophecy and as a greater Moses.^ Christians have traditionally used the parallels between the story of Jesus and the Hebrew scriptures to claim that Jesus fulfilled many prophecies from the "Old Testament", but there are several problems with this claim.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Luke emphasizes Jesus' miraculous powers and his support for the poor, women, and Gentiles. .John views Jesus' earthly life as a manifestation of the eternal Word.^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The secular historical view, which may also be held by some Christians, takes the Gospels as exaggerated accounts of the life of a real Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, John uses eloquent Greek prose for the speeches of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[60]

Logos

.The Gospel of John opens with a hymn identifying Jesus as the divine Logos, or Word, that formed the universe.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Compare the above statements from Philo to the opening of the Gospel of John: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To get an idea of the extent to which this is the case we can look at one of the Gospels and identify the scriptural basis for the events in the story of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Jn. 1:1–5] .[1:9–14] [63] The author describes the Logos in relation to God and the created order, declares that he "became flesh", and identifies him as Jesus Christ.^ The letter of 2 John is here talking about the fact that many people at the time who did preach about Jesus Christ did not regard him as having existed in flesh and blood.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We also know that Paul repeatedly talks about his "relationship" with Jesus Christ, having seen him after his resurrection, having received his knowledge from him, and having been revealed to him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Jn. 1:17] .According to the Fourth Gospel, Jesus Christ is God active in creation, in revelation (Light), and in redemption (Life).^ Mark 1: 1 The beginning of the gospel about Jesus Christ[, the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[64] Jesus' earthly life was the Logos incarnate.[Jn. 1:14] [63]

Genealogy and family

Mary and Child Jesus, La vierge aux raisins by Pierre Mignard, 1640
.Of the four gospels, only Matthew and Luke give accounts of Jesus' genealogy.^ There are only two accounts of the birth of Jesus in the Gospels, one in Matthew and one in Luke.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Gospels provide us with four accounts of the death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The only place where the rising of the dead upon the death of Jesus is mentioned is also in the Gospel of Matthew.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[65][66] .The accounts in the two gospels are substantially different.^ We can compare the passages from Didache to the Last Supper meal in the Gospel of Matthew to see the differences between the two: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are only two accounts of the birth of Jesus in the Gospels, one in Matthew and one in Luke.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[67] .Several explanations have been suggested and it has been traditional to assume that Luke's genealogy traces through Mary and Matthew's through Joseph since at least 1490.[68] Some contemporary scholars generally view the genealogies as theological constructs.^ For example, many of the changes made by the authors of Matthew and Luke deal with making Mark's account more compatible with the virgin birth story, since Mark contains story elements which infer that Jesus is the naturally born son of Joseph and Mary.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since we are guilty through association (Matthew 18:18 ) if a member of our family rejects JESUS and HIS message, we must have minimum social contact with them.

^ It is almost universally accepted by New Testament scholars today that Mark was the first of the narrative Gospels that was written, and that Matthew and Luke are copied from it in some fashion, however this position has only been adopted within the last 200 years.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[69] .More specifically, some have suggested that the author of Matthew wants to underscore the birth of a Messianic child of royal lineage (Solomon is included in the list); whereas, in this interpretation, Luke's genealogy is priestly (e.g., it mentions Levi).^ The "Star of Bethlehem" is only mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew, it isn't mentioned in Luke or any other book in the Bible.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The biggest change that the author of Matthew made to the Gospel of Mark was the addition of the virgin birth story.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most famous and critical of these errors occurs in Isaiah 7 , which was referenced by the author of Matthew as the basis for his famous virgin birth story.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Mary is mentioned in passing in the genealogy given by Matthew, but not in Luke's, while Matthew gives Jacob as Joseph's father and Luke says Joseph was the son of Heli.^ And we will go on to love, to give ourselves entirely to one another, brother to brother, wife to spouse, son to father, in accordance with the flesh; man to friend of his choice?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus has a biological real Father (Joseph/Panthera) and a biological real Mother (Mary).
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ T2: Matthew 1 - Isaiah 9:6: "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Both accounts, when read at face value, trace Jesus' line though his human father Joseph back to King David and from there to Abraham.^ And will we see Jesus reign over the Jews and the Gentiles as King David announced?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The variety of beliefs ranged from Christ never having become incarnate at all, to Christ having entered into the body of a human Jesus, to the Catholic belief that Jesus was Christ, and that he was both human and divine.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.These lists are identical between Abraham and David (except for one), but they differ almost completely between David and Joseph (having only Zerubbabel and Shealtiel in common).^ Have you ever heard of the conversation between David Bohm and J. Krishnamurti about these issues?
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The author of Mark is evidently unaware of any virgin birth story, making no mention whatsoever of it, and the birth stories in Matthew and Luke are both completely different from one another, while they both contain the core of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The biggest problem with all of these other references to the Testimonium is not only that they all also come after the 3rd century, but they are all also almost exactly like what we currently have today, with the only real variation being the passage about "Christ".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Joseph, husband of Mary, appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood. .No mention, however, is made of Joseph during the ministry of Jesus.^ In Didache we again see Jesus mentioned not as a real flesh and blood entity, but as a spiritual mediator, and the eucharist ritual in Didache makes no reference either the body or blood of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the people mentioned above lived during the same time that Jesus supposedly lived and are prime candidates for being potential witnesses and documenters of the existence of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

The New Testament books of Matthew, Mark, and Galatians tell of Jesus' relatives, including words sometimes translated as "brothers" and "sisters".[70][71][72] Luke also mentions that Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, was a "cousin" or "relative" of Mary,[Lk. 1:36] which would make John a distant cousin of Jesus.

Nativity and early life

Adoration of the Shepherds, illustration by Guido Reni, 17th century
.While there are documents outside of the New Testament which are more or less contemporary with the Historical Jesus, many shed no light on the more biographical aspects of his life.^ There is no narrative or details of a life of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The life of Jesus is a story that was created by combining elements from many other Hebrew stories to create a pseudo-proto-typical savior figure.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[55] .The main sources of Jesus himself that are available to modern scholars are the gospels.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephus did write it, but he based his information on a Gospel or another Christian source, then it is of no value in supporting the existence of "Jesus."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the four main odes that lead scholars to date the work after the Gospels, and perhaps it was written after the Gospels, but there are serious issues to address.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.According to Matthew and Luke, Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea to Mary, a virgin, by a miracle of the Holy Spirit.^ When we trust JESUS we are trusting GOD and the HOLY SPIRIT. .

^ JESUS was not born of a virgin.

^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

In Luke, the angel Gabriel visits Mary to tell her that she was chosen to bear the Son of God.[Lk. 1:26–38] .An order of Caesar Augustus had forced Mary and Joseph to leave their homes in Nazareth and come to the home of Joseph's ancestors, the house of David, for the Census of Quirinius.^ Joseph also went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to the city of David called Bethlehem, because he was descended from the house and family of David.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew 1: 20 But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Lk. 2:1-5] .After Jesus' birth, the couple was forced to use a manger in place of a crib because of a shortage of accommodation.^ And she gave birth to her firstborn son and wrapped him in bands of cloth, and laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in the inn.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The author of the Gospel called Matthew used this mistranslation as the basis for his story about Jesus' birth, stating: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ (Note: Jesus was called a Nazorean in the gospels because he supposedly lived in a place called Nazareth, but this refers to Samson being from a Nazirite sect.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Lk. 2:1–7] .An angel announced Jesus' birth to shepherds who left their flocks to see the newborn child and who subsequently publicized what they had witnessed throughout the area (see The First Noël).^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ And will we see Jesus reign over the Jews and the Gentiles as King David announced?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

[Lk. 2:8-18]
.In Matthew, the "Wise Men" or "Magi" bring gifts to the young Jesus after following a star which they believe was a sign that the King of the Jews had been born.^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And will we see Jesus reign over the Jews and the Gentiles as King David announced?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ He had many followers both of the Jews and of the Gentiles -- he was believed to be the Christ .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 2:1–12] .King Herod hears of Jesus' birth from the Wise Men and tries to kill him by massacring all the male children in Bethlehem under the age of two (the "massacre of the innocents").^ According to the Gospel of Matthew, King Herod ordered all of the male children two or younger around the town of Bethlehem to be killed when he learned of the birth of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew 2: 16 When Herod saw that he had been tricked by the magi, he was infuriated, and he sent and killed all the children in and around Bethlehem who were two years old or under, according to the time that he had learned from the magi.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one story element here is clearly drawn from the Hebrew scriptures, the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[74][Mt. 2:16-17] .The family flees to Egypt and remains there until Herod's death, whereupon they settle in Nazareth to avoid living under the authority of Herod's son and successor Archelaus.^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

^ When they had heard the king, they set out; and there, ahead of them, went the star that they had seen at its rising in the east, until it stopped over the place where the child was.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For they forget the commandments of the living GOD and live pleasurably in worthless luxury, and are destroyed by this angel, some to death and some to corruption.

[Mt. 2:19–23]
.Jesus' childhood home is identified as the town of Nazareth in Galilee.^ Joseph also went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to the city of David called Bethlehem, because he was descended from the house and family of David.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 2:23] .Except for Matthew's "flight into Egypt", and a short trip to Tyre and Sidon (in what is now Lebanon), the Gospels place all other events in Jesus' life in ancient Israel.^ The life of Jesus is a story that was created by combining elements from many other Hebrew stories to create a pseudo-proto-typical savior figure.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If, on the other hand, Jesus really was divine and really was resurrected, and the Gospels accurately portray the events of his death and resurrection, then we should still expect to find some continuous line of veneration of the site of his burial and resurrection, but again we do not.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[75] .However, infancy gospels began to appear around the beginning of the second century.^ Pre-Gospel evidence was never appealed to, and yet, even though the defense of the humanity of Jesus began in the 2nd century, this defense began almost as soon as the Gospels were written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the great source of conformation for the events following the death of Jesus is a second century writer, who wrote after the Gospels had been published, who collected bizarre tales from around the empire and collated them into even more fantastic stories.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[76] .According to Luke, Jesus was "about thirty years of age" when he was baptized.^ JESUS: I was hers for thirty years.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Irenaeus was writing about 100 to 60 years after the Gospels had been in circulation, and we can see that beliefs about Jesus were clearly impacted by the Gospels, but that there were a variety of beliefs as well.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Could the first person who wrote a narrative about Jesus, who serves as the primary source for both Matthew and Luke, not have known about Jesus' special birth?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Lk. 3:23] .In Mark, Jesus is called a tekton, usually understood to mean carpenter.^ If Mark is an allegorical story, then what is Mark about, why did the author write it, and why is it about someone called Jesus Christ?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The talk about Christ descending in the form of a dove on a "dispensational Jesus" is actually inspired by the Gospel of Mark, and many so-called heretics used the Gospel of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Another example from the beginning of Mark is the calling of the fishermen, which has a quite different meaning when you know the underlying subtext of the passage.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Matthew says he was the son of a tekton.[Mk. 6:3] .[Mt. 13:55][40]:170 However, the Greek word used in the Gospels means "builder", which could refer to a stonemason or some other type of artisan as well.^ Matthew, on the other hand, responds with the words of a 'thinker'; words which say that the categories of meaning of the "observing consciousness" are similar to the categories of meaning of the consciousness of the 'thinker'--which, of course, is what all theologians say.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Greek Josephus is written Iosippus , and some people have translated this as Hegesippus while others translated it is Josephus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "Logos" is a Greek word whose precise meaning I can only speculate about.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[77]

Baptism and temptation

Christ baptized by John the Baptist by Francesco Trevisani
.All three synoptic Gospels describe the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist, an event which Biblical scholars describe as the beginning of Jesus' public ministry.^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Gospel account of the killing of John the Baptist by Herod portrays the reason for his execution as a moral failure of Herod.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist came to announce the coming of our SAVIOUR JESUS, which would be a great honor for John, granted by our CREATOR to John.

.According to these accounts, Jesus came to the Jordan River where John the Baptist had been preaching and baptizing people in the crowd.^ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The letter of 2 John is here talking about the fact that many people at the time who did preach about Jesus Christ did not regard him as having existed in flesh and blood.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.After Jesus was baptized and rose from the water, Mark states Jesus "saw the heavens parting and the Spirit descending upon Him like a dove.^ And just as he was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens torn apart and the Spirit descending like a dove on him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have baptized you with water; but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

Then a voice came from heaven saying: 'You are My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased'".[Mk. 1:10–11]
.Mark starts his narration with Jesus' baptism, specifying that it is a token of repentance and for forgiveness of sins.^ And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Anonymous narrative story about the life of Jesus starting with his baptism .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[60] .Matthew omits this reference, emphasizing Jesus' superiority to John.^ John makes-up the scenario here of having the other individuals' legs broken (and having Jesus stabbed in the side) in order to make references to the scriptures.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The point here, though, is that John is explicitly drawing a reference to Jesus as the Passover lamb.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer of John refers to Jesus as the "Lamb of God" and gives the following narrative of his crucifixion and death: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[60][78] .Matthew describes John as initially hesitant to comply with Jesus' request for John to baptize him, stating that it was Jesus who should baptize him.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The letter of 2 John is here talking about the fact that many people at the time who did preach about Jesus Christ did not regard him as having existed in flesh and blood.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus persisted, "It is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness".[Mt. 3:15] In Matthew, God's public dedication informs the reader that Jesus has become God's anointed ("Christ").^ But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, 5 made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressionsit is by grace you have been saved.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[60]
Temptation of Christ, illustration by Ary Scheffer, 19th c.
.Following his baptism, Jesus was led into the desert by God where he fasted for forty days and forty nights.^ Then JESUS was led up of the SPIRIT into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil, and when HE had fasted forty days and forty nights, HE was afterward an hungred.

^ The writer of John refers to Jesus as the "Lamb of God" and gives the following narrative of his crucifixion and death: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark 1: 14 After John was put in prison, Jesus went into Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 4:1–2] .During this time, the Devil appeared to him and tempted Jesus three times.^ All of the people mentioned above lived during the same time that Jesus supposedly lived and are prime candidates for being potential witnesses and documenters of the existence of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the LORD thy GOD. .

^ Yet, despite all this, not only does he not mention Jesus, but there is nothing in his writings to indicate that anything remarkable happened during the supposed time of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Each time, Jesus refused temptation with a quotation of scripture from the Book of Deuteronomy.^ We can now move on to the book of Romans, where Paul mentions the crucifixion of Jesus one time in Romans 6: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Temptation of Jesus: T1: Matthew 4:6 - Psalm 91:11,12 T1: Matthew 4:7 - Deuteronomy 6:16 T1: Matthew 4:10 - Deuteronomy 6:13 .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Devil departed and angels came and brought nourishment to Jesus.^ Then the devil leaveth HIM, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto HIM. .

^ Then the devil leaveth HIM, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto HIM. (Matthew 4:1-11 KJV) .

^ Then the devil leaveth HIM, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto HIM. (Matthew 4:8-11 KJV) .

[79]
.The Gospel of John does not describe Jesus' baptism,[10][80] or the subsequent Temptation, but it does attest that Jesus is the very one about whom John had been preaching—the Son of God.^ JESUS: Where must one go, John?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS: Happy are you, John, that God makes you so clearly confident.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But the verbal testimony of Jesus was preserved in its present purity by the inner circle of whom Paul became the last, albeit followed by the 'vision of John' to 'seal' the 'testimony'.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Baptist twice declares Jesus to be the Lamb of God, a term found nowhere else in the Gospels.^ The writer of John refers to Jesus as the "Lamb of God" and gives the following narrative of his crucifixion and death: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist was the real martyr but if he were martyred in the Gospels that would only draw attention away from the "ultimate sacrifice" of the main character Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It's interesting that the Gospels don't give this as the reason for the death of John the Baptist, because in the Gospels it is Jesus who is killed for being the supposed political threat.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.John also emphasizes Jesus' superiority over John.^ JESUS said, Among those born of women, from Adam until John the Baptist, there is no one so superior to John the Baptist that his eyes should not be lowered (before him).

[60] .In John, Jesus leads a program of baptism in Judea, and his disciples baptize more people than John.^ JOHN: Will we be more demanding than he?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Jn. 3:22–23] [4:1–3]

Ministry

.In the synoptics as well as in John, Jesus has a ministry of teaching and miracles, at least part of which is in Galilee.^ The synoptics have Jesus crucified on the day of Passover, while John puts the crucifixion on the day before.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[81] .In the synoptics, Jesus speaks in parables and aphorisms, exorcises demons, champions the poor and oppressed, and teaches mainly about the Kingdom of God.^ About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?"which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it the case that Paul's gospel and the early teachings about "Christ Jesus" were a Jewish form of this same type of mystery religion?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As for me, GOD forbid that I should boast about anything except the Cross of our LORD JESUS CHRIST. Galatians 6:14 TLB .

[14] .In John, Jesus speaks in long discourses, with himself as the theme of his teaching.^ JESUS may have been referring to John the Baptist or to HIMSELF, no matter which.

[14]

Jesus' purpose

.Jesus said of his purpose, "I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly."^ They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Eating the bread symbolizes the knowledge these people have of the life and immortality they enjoy by belonging to the kingdom of God made known to them by Jesus, God's child.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They said to HIM, So that he may kill it and eat it.

[Jn. 10:10]
Mark says that Jesus came to "give his life as a ransom for many";[Mk. 10:45] Luke, that he was sent to "preach the good news of the Kingdom of God";[Lk. 4:43] and John, that he came so that "those who believed in him would have eternal life".[Jn. 3:16]

Duration and location

.John describes three different Passover feasts over the course of Jesus' ministry, implying that Jesus preached for at least "two years plus a month or two".[82] The Synoptic Gospels suggest a span of only one year.^ There are only two accounts of the birth of Jesus in the Gospels, one in Matthew and one in Luke.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS: Where must one go, John?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Irenaeus was writing about 100 to 60 years after the Gospels had been in circulation, and we can see that beliefs about Jesus were clearly impacted by the Gospels, but that there were a variety of beliefs as well.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[83][84] .In the synoptics, Jesus' ministry takes place mainly in Galilee, until he travels to Jerusalem, where he cleanses the Temple and is executed.^ Then, when JESUS (or HOLY SPIRIT) finds the person worthy the following will take place, John 14:15-16.

^ JESUS traveled from one locality to another spreading the Good News of the Kingdom, not calling any one place his home.

^ On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out those who were buying and selling there.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[85] .In John, Jesus spends most of his ministry in and around Jerusalem, cleansing the temple at his ministry's beginning.^ John 12: 12 The next day the great crowd that had come to the festival heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out those who were buying and selling there.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[85]

Disciples

.In the synoptic Gospels, Jesus calls some Jewish men to be his Twelve Apostles.^ Mary, the supposed mother of Jesus, is never mentioned by Paul, nor in any canonical work outside of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Papias states that the Gospel called Mark was written by someone named Mark, and that Mark recorded his Gospel from the apostle Peter.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

None of them seems to have been a peasant (an agricultural worker). At least four are described as fishermen and another as a tax collector. .Three of them are presented as being chosen to accompany Jesus on certain special occasions, such as the transfiguration of Jesus, the raising of the daughter of Jairus, and the Agony in the Garden.^ Death of Jesus Accompanied by blackout of sun, earthquakes, and raising of the dead in the Gospels, no record of this by others.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The writings of Paul present Jesus Christ as a "mystery", who is being revealed by Paul and others through the interpretation of scriptures and prophetic writings.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus speaks of the demands of discipleship, telling a rich man to sell his possessions and give the money to the poor.^ Give to JESUS by supporting the poor .

^ (Note: Jesus was placed in the tomb of a rich man) .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And the poor man, being provided for by the rich, prays for him, thanking GOD for the one who shares with him.

.He states that his message divides family members against each other.^ Since we are guilty through association (Matthew 18:18 ) if a member of our family rejects JESUS and HIS message, we must have minimum social contact with them.

[86]
.In Mark, the disciples are strangely obtuse, failing to understand Jesus' deeds and parables.^ In Mark's Gospel Peter is portrayed as a fool who doesn't understand the message of Jesus, and thus him being Mark's authoritative source is unlikely at best.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His disciples did not understand these things at first; but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things had been written of him and had been done to him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Understanding Mark is the key to understanding the whole story of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[87] .In Matthew, Jesus directs the apostles' mission only to those of the house of Israel,[Mt. 15:24] [10:1–6] Luke places a special emphasis on the women who followed Jesus, such as Mary Magdalene.^ Mary, the supposed mother of Jesus, is never mentioned by Paul, nor in any canonical work outside of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

^ But all those who knew him, including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[88]

Teachings and preachings

Sermon on the Mount,
illustration by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 19th c.
.In the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus speaks primarily about the Kingdom of God (or Heaven).^ Mark 1: 1 The beginning of the gospel about Jesus Christ[, the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Irenaeus was writing about 100 to 60 years after the Gospels had been in circulation, and we can see that beliefs about Jesus were clearly impacted by the Gospels, but that there were a variety of beliefs as well.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?"which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[83] .In Matthew and Luke, he speaks further about morality and prayer.^ Could the first person who wrote a narrative about Jesus, who serves as the primary source for both Matthew and Luke, not have known about Jesus' special birth?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

In John, he speaks at length about himself and his divine role.[83]
.At the height of his ministry, Jesus is said to have attracted huge crowds numbering in the thousands, primarily in the areas of Galilee and Perea (in modern-day Israel and Jordan respectively).^ In those days Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, I shall choose you, one from a thousand and two from ten thousand, and they will stand as a single one.

^ JESUS said, The man old in days will not hesitate to ask a little child seven days old about the place of life, and that person will live.

[89]
.Some of Jesus' most famous teachings come from the Sermon on the Mount, which contains the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer.^ Of course, the whole idea that Jesus had come to earth and spread his message is not presented until the Gospels are written, some 10 to 60 years after the evangelism of Paul.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be inconceivable that someone would teach that Jesus were "made alive in the spirit" if he had actually been witnessed to have come back to life "in the flesh".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Sermon on the Mount: T2: Matthew 5-7 - Exodus 19...: (Note: The Sermon on the Mount {which is only in the Gospel of Matthew} refers to how only Moses was allowed up the mountain in Exodus, but Jesus brings everyone up the mountain.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

It is one of five collections of teachings in Matthew.[74]
.In the Synoptics, Jesus often employs parables, such as the Parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke) and the Parable of the Sower (all Synoptics).^ I am also leaving out all of the parables because I am concerned here with the supposed events of the life of Jesus, i.e.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.His moral teachings in Matthew and Luke encourage unconditional self-sacrificing God-like love for God and for all people.^ Therefore they will be named "The Words of Imperishability and Truth," for those who know the eternal God in wisdom of knowledge and teaching of angels forever, for he knows all things."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And it teaches us to render all things to all, "honor to whom honor, fear to whom fear, tribute to whom tribute; to owe no man anything, but to love all."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The prayers of thanksgiving are for the food and drink God created for all people and the special, "spiritual" food and drink that Christians have because of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[90] .During his sermons, he preached about service and humility, the forgiveness of sin, faith, turning the other cheek, love for one's enemies as well as friends, and the need to follow the spirit of the law in addition to the letter.^ And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And we will go on to love, to give ourselves entirely to one another, brother to brother, wife to spouse, son to father, in accordance with the flesh; man to friend of his choice?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[91]
.In the Synoptics, Jesus relays an apocalyptic vision of the end of days.^ The synoptics have Jesus crucified on the day of Passover, while John puts the crucifixion on the day before.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John is specifically drawing on this passage to craft his story, thus John has Jesus crucified on the 14th day of Nisan, whereas he is crucified on the 15th day of Nisan in the synoptics.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.He preaches that the end of the current world will come unexpectedly, and that he will return to judge the world, especially according to how they treated the vulnerable.^ Talks about the coming end of the world.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It states that the end of suffering will only come when all women stop giving birth, then the end of the world will come.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said: Blessed are the solitary and the elect for they shall discover the Kingdom from which they come, and to which they must return.

He calls on his followers to be ever alert and faithful. .In Mark, the Kingdom of God is a divine government that will appear by force within the lifetimes of his followers.^ We need to seek the Kingdom of GOD while the flesh is alive or the following may occur.

[87] .Matthew describes false Messiahs, disasters, tribulations, and signs in the heavens that will portend Jesus' return, which is also described as unexpected.^ Matthew 27: 22 Pilate said to them, "Then what shall I do with Jesus called Messiah?"
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[74]

Outreach to outsiders

Table fellowship is central to Jesus' ministry in the Gospels.[16] He and his disciples eat with sinners (who neglect purity rules)[85] and tax collectors (imperial publicani, despised as extortionists). The apostle Matthew is a tax collector. .When the Pharisees object to Jesus eating with sinners and tax collectors, Jesus replies that it is the sick who need a physician, not the healthy.^ Galatians 2: 15 "We who are Jews by birth and not 'Gentile sinners' 16 know that a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus said, 'Woe to the Pharisees, for they are like a dog sleeping in the food trough of cows: the dog neither eats nor lets the cows eat.'
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 9:9–13] .[85] Jesus also defends his disciples against charges that they do not follow purity laws when eating.^ They had followed Jesus from Galilee to care for his needs.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against her mother in law, and a mans foes shall be they of his own household.

^ Let us beset the just one , because he is obnoxious to us; he sets himself against our doings, Reproaches us for transgressions of the law and charges us with violations of our training.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Pharisees accused Jesus himself of being a drunk and a glutton.^ The disciples at Pentecost were accused of being drunk when they received the HOLY SPIRIT. Thomas has become equal with JESUS because he has drunk from the same source (bubbling spring) as JESUS. We, all have the same potential but will not be equal with JESUS, because HE is the ONE WHO died for our sins.

^ Paul is saying that ancient mysteries are being revealed and made known through prophetic writings, but why wouldn't he be saying that these things were made known by Jesus himself?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[85] Jesus' miracles and teachings often involve food and feasting.[16] .He instructs his missionaries to eat with the people that they preach to and heal.^ Eating the bread symbolizes the knowledge these people have of the life and immortality they enjoy by belonging to the kingdom of God made known to them by Jesus, God's child.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[16] In the Synoptics, Jesus institutes a new covenant with a ritual meal before he is crucified.
.Jesus' outreach to outsiders includes the Samaritans, who followed a different form of the Israelite religion, as reflected in his preaching to the Samaritans of Sychar[Jn. 4:1–42] and in the Parable of the Good Samaritan.^ When we give the HOLY SPIRIT to those who are not committed to JESUS the following is likely to happen.

^ The defenders of the flesh immediately found themselves besieged with many different people who had completely different views of who or what "Jesus Christ" was.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A.D. 200) contains information about Jesus, and later rabbinic texts simply reflect knowledge of, and mocking midrash on, Christian texts and preaching.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Lk. 10:25-37]
.At various times, Jesus makes a point of welcoming sinners, children, women, the poor, Samaritans, and foreigners.^ Some of these supposed evidences for the existence of Jesus, and more, have been relatively recent forgeries, produced at various times from the Middle Ages through to the 20th century.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus said, 'When you make the two into one, you will become children of humanity, and when you say, 'Mountain move!'
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed the Gospels themselves state many times that "scribes" were present during the various acts of Jesus, yet we have no records from these supposed scribes.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Transfiguration and Jesus' divine role

.In the synoptic gospels, Jesus leads three select disciples—Peter, John, and James—to the top of a mountain.^ I did not come to be the friend and companion to Peter, James and John.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The synoptics have Jesus crucified on the day of Passover, while John puts the crucifixion on the day before.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[87] .While there, he is transfigured before them, his face shining like the sun and his clothes brilliant white; Elijah and Moses appear adjacent to him.^ The bandages were cut; we saw the living face, the eyes open, blinking; and there he was standing before us and coming towards us.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And when he appears, the prophet vows you will hear his terrible voice before having seen his face.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ If its possible, my Father, make my death like the death of Elijah and of Moses and let me be spared drinking the bitter dregs of the wine youve made me drink.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.A bright cloud overshadows them, and a voice from the sky says, "This is my beloved son, with whom I am well pleased".[92] The Transfiguration is a turning point in Jesus ministry.^ And a voice came from heaven, You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus called out with a loud voice, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[93] .Just before it and thereafter, Jesus warns that he is to suffer, die and rise again.^ If Jesus didn't really exist in the flesh, suffer, and die, reasons Basil, then we have no reason to believe in resurrection and eternal life, therefore we have to believe that Jesus existed "in flesh".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Testimonium Flavianum is by far best explained as the full insertion of a later note, and this was the dominant view among Protestant scholars before the rise of the challenge to the existence of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[93]
In Mark, Jesus' identity as the Messiah is obscured (see Messianic secret).[94] .Mark states that "this generation" will be given no sign, while Matthew and Luke say they will be given no sign but the sign of Jonah.^ Basically, so much of the text of Mark, Matthew, and Luke is shared word-for-word that the only explanation can be that there has been extensive copying between the texts.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This would indicate that the author of Mark is saying that they had dropped the ball, and this symbolizes a further failure of the Jews, presumably responsible for their woes.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The author of Mark is evidently unaware of any virgin birth story, making no mention whatsoever of it, and the birth stories in Matthew and Luke are both completely different from one another, while they both contain the core of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[95] .In John, and not in the synoptics, Jesus is outspoken about his divine identity and mission.^ The synoptics have Jesus crucified on the day of Passover, while John puts the crucifixion on the day before.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John is specifically drawing on this passage to craft his story, thus John has Jesus crucified on the 14th day of Nisan, whereas he is crucified on the 15th day of Nisan in the synoptics.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Anonymous narrative story about Jesus, which has traditionally been ascribed to "John the disciple of Jesus".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[81] Here he punctuates his ministry with several miraculous signs of his authority.
.In John, Jesus declares that belief in the Son brings eternal life, that the Father has committed powers of judgment and forgiveness to the Son, and that He is the bread of life, the light of the world, the door of the sheep, the good shepherd, the resurrection and the life, the way, the truth, and the life, and the real vine.^ JESUS said, He who will know the father and the mother will be called the son of a whore.

^ Jesus called out with a loud voice, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[63] .Here Jesus uses the phrase "I am" in talking of himself[Jn. 8:58] in ways that designate God in the Hebrew Bible,[Ex. 3:14] a statement taken by some writers as claiming identity with God.^ Principles or logical statements are the > "foundation of sand" that Jesus is talking about.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At least one story element here is clearly drawn from the Hebrew scriptures, the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the Gospels there are various works that talk about Jesus in a variety of ways, but none of them provide any details about a birth, life, ministry, or death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[96]

Arrest, trial, and death

In Jerusalem

Christ Driving the Moneychangers from the Temple, illustration by Rembrandt van Rijn, 1626.
.According to the Synoptics, Jesus came with his followers to Jerusalem during the Passover festival where a large crowd came to meet him, shouting, "Hosanna!^ When Thomas came back to his friends, they asked him, 'What did Jesus tell you?'
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The synoptics have Jesus crucified on the day of Passover, while John puts the crucifixion on the day before.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We see this in several places, but one of the most notable is the scene were Jesus rebukes Peter and tells the crowd that those who will come after him must take up their cross and follow him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!^ Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord the King of Israel!
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If you do not listen, and if you do not set your heart to honor my name," says the LORD Almighty, "I will send a curse upon you, and I will curse your blessings.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ No one is allowed to "eat or drink of your Eucharist except those who have been baptized in the Lord's name" (Did.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Blessed is the King of Israel!"^ Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord the King of Israel!
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[97] .Following his triumphal entry,[98] Jesus created a disturbance at Herod's Temple by overturning the tables of the moneychangers who set up shop there, and claiming that they had made the Temple a "den of robbers".[Mk. 11:17] Later that week, Jesus celebrated the Passover meal with his disciples—an event subsequently known as the Last Supper — in which he prophesied that he would be betrayed by one of his disciples, and would then be executed.^ And accordingly, they were set up in that edifice.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ John the Baptist came to announce the coming of our SAVIOUR JESUS, which would be a great honor for John, granted by our CREATOR to John.

In this ritual he took bread and wine in hand, saying: "this is my body which is given for you" and "this cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood", and instructed them to "do this in remembrance of me."[Lk. 22:7–20] Following the supper, Jesus and his disciples went to pray in the Garden of Gethsemane.
In Mark and Matthew, Jesus is anguished in the face of his fate.[93][99] He prays and accepts God's will, but his chosen disciples repeatedly fall asleep on the watch.[93][99] .In Luke, Jesus prays briefly at the Mount of Olives, and his disciples fall asleep out of grief.^ This passage is also the source for the portrayal of Jesus as crucified by putting spikes through his hands and the author of Luke's claim that Jesus proved he had been resurrected by showing the disciples the holes in his hands.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In reply JESUS said to the disciples, If you only have faith in GOD---this is the absolute truthyou can say to this Mount of Olives , Rise up and fall into the Mediterranean , and your command will be obeyed.

^ Matthew 21: 1 As they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage on the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two disciples, 2 saying to them, "Go to the village ahead of you, and at once you will find a donkey tied there, with her colt by her.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[100]
.In John, Jesus has already cleansed the temple a few years before and has been preaching in Jerusalem.^ The synoptics have Jesus crucified on the day of Passover, while John puts the crucifixion on the day before.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In both cases John the Baptist is killed by Herod fairly early in the story, and of course before the death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that John the Baptist was probably killed in 35 or 36 CE, some 2 or 3 years after the latest proposed date for the death of Jesus based on the Gospels.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.He raises Lazarus on the Sabbath, the act that finally gets Jewish leaders to plan his death.^ The Jewish leaders didnt want the victims hanging there the next day, which was the SABBATH (and a very special Sabbath at that, for it was the Passover), so they asked Pilate to order the legs broken to hasten death, then their bodies could be taken down.

[63] .At the Last Supper, Jesus washes the disciples' feet and there is no new covenant of bread and wine.^ In this work, written around 75 CE, there is no mention of Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no attestation to the existence of Jesus here.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no evidence of any knowledge of a tomb of Jesus (empty or occupied) prior to the Gospel stories .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[63] .Jesus gives the farewell discourses, discussing the persecution of his followers, the coming of the Holy Spirit, and more.^ When we trust JESUS we are trusting GOD and the HOLY SPIRIT. .

^ When we give the HOLY SPIRIT to those who are not committed to JESUS the following is likely to happen.

^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

[63] .He says a long final prayer with his disciples before heading to a garden where he knows Judas will show up.^ For this reason I say, if the owners of a house know that a thief is coming, they will be on guard before the thief arrives and will not let the thief break into their house (their domain) and steal their possessions.

[101]

Betrayal and arrest

Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!) .Pontius Pilate presents a scourged Jesus of Nazareth to onlookers.^ If we are to take the Gospels as our guide to the life of Jesus Christ, then we must look at Pontius Pilate as the figure who solidifies the period in which Jesus must have lived.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Illustration by Antonio Ciseri, 19th c.
.While in the Garden, Jesus is arrested by temple guards on the orders of the Sanhedrin and the high priest, Caiaphas.^ Jesus, high priest, son of Simon 7.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus, high priest, son of Phabes 8.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus son of the high priest Jozadak 5.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[102] .The arrest takes place clandestinely at night to avoid a riot, as Jesus is popular with the people at large.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only this, but the arrest and (very short) trial of Jesus supposedly took place at night on Passover eve.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, when JESUS (or HOLY SPIRIT) finds the person worthy the following will take place, John 14:15-16.

[Mk. 14:2] .Judas Iscariot, one of his apostles, betrays Jesus by identifying him to the guards with a kiss.^ JUDAS: He deceived me; I betrayed him.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ JUDAS: He makes them love him; he says he belongs to no one.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All or part of Act One might be omitted from the second play which is about Jesus and Judas.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 26:49-50] .Simon Peter, another one of Jesus' apostles, uses a sword to attack one of Jesus' captors, cutting off his ear, which, according to Luke, Jesus immediately heals miraculously.^ JESUS: Peter, sword in scabbard.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ There is another passage in Ephesians as well, however, where archon is used, and this passage makes a heavenly view of the rulers and Jesus quite clear: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS traveled from one locality to another spreading the Good News of the Kingdom, not calling any one place his home.

[103] .Jesus rebukes the apostle, stating "all they that take the sword shall perish by the sword".[Mt. 26:52] After his arrest, Jesus' apostles go into hiding; Judas, distraught by his betrayal of Jesus, commits suicide shortly after.^ Jesus called out with a loud voice, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then shall they be taken away into the lowest depths of the fire in torments; and in confinement shall they be shut up for ever.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 27:5]

Trials before the Sanhedrin and Pilate

.Jesus affirms that he is the Messiah before the Sanhedrin,[Mk. 14:53–65] the only time in the Gospel that he makes such a claim.^ The only place where the rising of the dead upon the death of Jesus is mentioned is also in the Gospel of Matthew.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only do these Gospels make it clear that John the Baptist is killed before Jesus, but they describe the killing of John the Baptist as being related to a dinner party transgression and say that John the Baptist was beheaded.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the LORD said, MY SPIRIT will not put up with humans for such a long time, for they are only mortal flesh.

[87] .The Jewish leaders turn him over to Pilate for execution, but Pilate is reluctant to execute Jesus.^ We will deliver him to Pilate and we will demand the execution of Jesus.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

^ Then Pilate went back into the palace and called for JESUS to be brought to him.

[87] .In an attempt to spare Jesus' life, Pilate offers the mob a chance to free him, but they choose Barabbas instead, so that the responsibility for Jesus' execution falls on the mob of Jews that the Pharisees have incited, rather than on the Romans,[87] as expressed in the Gospel of Matthew by the Jewish crowd's proclamation, “His blood be upon us and on our children.”[Mt. 27:24–25] Matthew adds the details that Pilate's wife, tormented by a dream, urges Pilate not to have anything to do with Jesus, and Pilate washes his hands of responsibility.^ We will deliver him to Pilate and we will demand the execution of Jesus.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the passage that is pointed to by those who claim that Paul did consider Jesus in a recent historical context and that he described him as a person who had recently been on earth and been executed, but there is more to this passage than first meets the eye, and secondly, this passage still gives us no details about Jesus' crucifixion; for example it does not mention Pilate, the Romans, or even the Jews, just "the rulers".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Thomas came back to his friends, they asked him, 'What did Jesus tell you?'
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 27:11–26] .[74] Luke adds the detail that Pilate sends Jesus to Herod Antipas, who has authority over Galileans, but that Herod, like Pilate, finds him guilty of nothing treasonous.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ JESUS said, The Kingdom of the FATHER is like a man who had good seed.

^ They will not be able to find HIM after HE returns to the FATHER. Hopefully, by then they will have received the COMFORTER, WHO will meet their needs.

[88][Luke 23:6-16] .In John, Jesus makes no claim to be the Son of God or the Messiah to the Sanhedrin or to Pilate, even though this gospel proclaims Jesus' divinity from the beginning.^ JESUS: Happy are you, John, that God makes you so clearly confident.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ My understanding of the correlation between Genesis, the Gospel of Thomas and the Revelation of John has to do with Saying #37 in the Gospel of Thomas; where Jesus essentially says that the 'clothes' referred to in Genesis 3 are the thoughts of the 'thinker'.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Noone, no academic or theologian or historian can 'approach' the Gospel of Thomas and decipher its esoteric meanings; save it be given to himher by Jesus himherself.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[63]

Death

Crucifixion, illustration by D. Velázquez, 17th c.
Christ en majesté, Resurrection of Jesus, illustration by Matthias Grünewald, 16th c.
In Mark, Jesus is stripped, flogged, mocked, and crowned with thorns.[87] .He is crucified between two thieves, and his cross states that he is being executed for aspiring to be the king of the Jews.^ This then forms the antistate of the being existant; in that the 'connection' or tunnel or 'wormhole' between the state and the antistate allows the two 'realities' (say material and spiritual) to exchange information in interaction.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also significant here that Josephus is talking about disturbances in Judea, and interactions between the Romans and Jews in relation to disturbances, but makes no mention of the Roman execution of a Jewish rebel, blasphemer, prophet, or self-proclaimed "King of the Jews".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Above his head they placed the written charge against him: THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS. 38 Two robbers were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[87] He begins to recite Psalm 22, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me."[87] He utters a loud cry and dies.[87] .According to all four Gospels, Jesus died before late afternoon at Calvary, which was also called Golgotha.^ The trial of Jesus according to the Gospels violated all of these rules.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

In Luke, Jesus faces his crucifixion stolidly.[61] .He asks God to forgive those who are crucifying him, possibly the Romans and possibly the Jews.^ For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and is generous to all who call on him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps he wasn't really "the Messiah", perhaps he was not "The Son of God", and perhaps he didn't actually perform miracles and rise from the dead, but he really was a great moral teacher who traveled around Galilee with followers and got arrested by the Jews and crucified by the Romans right?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore they will be named "The Words of Imperishability and Truth," for those who know the eternal God in wisdom of knowledge and teaching of angels forever, for he knows all things."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[88] .One of the thieves states that Jesus has done nothing wrong and asks Jesus to remember him in the Kingdom, and Jesus replies that the thief will be with him in Paradise.^ Jesus replied, "I will ask you one question.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus replied, "I will also ask you one question.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Thomas came back to his friends, they asked him, 'What did Jesus tell you?'
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[88] .The Synoptic Gospels tell of the darkening of the sky from twelve until three that afternoon; Matthew also mentions an earthquake,[Mt. 27:51] "At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.^ At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And the curtain of the temple was torn in two.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The earth shook, the rocks split."^ The earth shook and the rocks split.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.John omits the phenomena accompanying Jesus' death.^ In both cases John the Baptist is killed by Herod fairly early in the story, and of course before the death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer of John refers to Jesus as the "Lamb of God" and gives the following narrative of his crucifixion and death: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Only the Gospel of Matthew mentions an earthquake that accompanied the death of Jesus, but the scriptural source for this claim comes from the same place as the darkness claim, Amos 8: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[63] .The tearing of the temple parokhet, upon the death of Jesus, is referenced by Matthew, Mark and Luke.^ The only place where the rising of the dead upon the death of Jesus is mentioned is also in the Gospel of Matthew.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Basically, so much of the text of Mark, Matthew, and Luke is shared word-for-word that the only explanation can be that there has been extensive copying between the texts.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus Predicts His Death: T2: Matthew 16:21 - Isaiah 53 .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[104]

Resurrection and ascension

.The Gospels state that Jesus rose from the dead on Sunday.^ The proposition that "Jesus Christ" never existed relies on much more than simply stating that we don't have evidence for his existence or that the Gospels are unbelievable.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The author of the Gospel called Matthew used this mistranslation as the basis for his story about Jesus' birth, stating: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Death of Jesus Accompanied by blackout of sun, earthquakes, and raising of the dead in the Gospels, no record of this by others.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[105] .All the Gospels portray Jesus' empty tomb.^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no evidence of any knowledge of a tomb of Jesus (empty or occupied) prior to the Gospel stories .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ J. M. Wedderburn attempts to find evidence for the resurrection of Jesus and the "empty tomb".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Matthew, an angel appears near the tomb of Jesus and announces his resurrection to Mary Magdalene and "another Mary" who had arrived to anoint the body.^ Another mystery, why was Mary Magdalene not allowed to 'touch' Jesus on resurrection Sunday?
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NATHAN: And is it true as Magdalene and Peter found his sepulchre empty, that we will see Jesus resurrected?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mt. 28:1–10] .Jewish elders bribe the soldiers who had guarded the tomb to spread the rumor that Jesus' disciples took his body.^ On hearing of this, John's disciples came and took his body and laid it in a tomb.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

^ The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[106] .In Luke, there are two angels[Lk. 24:4] and in Mark the angel appears as a youth dressed in white.^ Basically, so much of the text of Mark, Matthew, and Luke is shared word-for-word that the only explanation can be that there has been extensive copying between the texts.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also language that is shared between the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which is not in the Gospel of Mark.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are only two accounts of the birth of Jesus in the Gospels, one in Matthew and one in Luke.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mk. 16:5] .The "longer ending" to Mark, which is known as the Markan Appendix and which did not form part of the original manuscripts,[106][107] states that on the morning of his resurrection, Jesus first appeared to Mary Magdalene.^ The original ending of Mark indicates that after Jesus had risen nothing happened.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ NATHAN: And is it true as Magdalene and Peter found his sepulchre empty, that we will see Jesus resurrected?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mk. 16:9] .John states that when Mary looked into the tomb, two angels asked her why she was crying; and as she turned round she initially failed to recognize Jesus until he spoke her name.^ JESUS said, I have cast fire upon the world, and look I am guarding it until it blazes.

^ "Men of Galilee," they said, "why do you stand here looking into the sky?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the angels and all the generations of the powers will use the name in error, asking, "Where did it (the error) come from?"
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Jn. 20:11–18]
.The Gospels all record appearances by Jesus, including an appearance to the eleven apostles.^ Here Papias states that the Gospel called Mark was written by someone named Mark, and that Mark recorded his Gospel from the apostle Peter.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[108] .In Mark, Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene, to two disciples in the country, and to the eleven, at which point Jesus commissions them to announce the gospel, baptize, and work miracles.^ We can also look at the works of Tacitus, which were written shortly after the Gospel of Mark was probably written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary, the supposed mother of Jesus, is never mentioned by Paul, nor in any canonical work outside of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the Gospels there are various works that talk about Jesus in a variety of ways, but none of them provide any details about a birth, life, ministry, or death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[106] .In Matthew, Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene and to the eleven on a mountain, at which point he commissions them to enlist followers, baptize, and teach what Jesus taught.^ Thomas, having passed the test by refusing to compare Jesus to anything, then deserves additional Teaching which Peter and Matthew do not 'deserve' because they would not understand it.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your 'receiving' a 'holy ghost' dispensation so has made you a 'blood brother' of Jesus and your 'mission' is a 'commission' to follow the Logos.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another mystery, why was Mary Magdalene not allowed to 'touch' Jesus on resurrection Sunday?
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

[106] .Although his own mission and his disciples' missions had been to the Jews,[Mt. 15:24] here he sends the eleven to the whole world (see Great Commission).^ Here we see that Julius Africanus claims that the darkening of the sun covered the "whole world".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We can see here that the author of Matthew explicitly references Jeremiah 31:15, but he also implicitly makes reference to the Exodus story about the birth of Moses.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?

In Luke, he appears to two disciples in the country and to the eleven.[106] .He proves to them that he has a body, opens their minds to understand the scripture about the Messiah, and directs them to wait in Jerusalem until they are invested with power.^ Simon Peter, the son of Jonas, and those of Zebedee; they dont understand and they will never understand how their Messiah — ah!
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ NATHAN: Youve shown us that all these events had to come about; that all we witnessed in Jerusalem was announced by the prophets, and that Jesus was indeed the Messiah expected by Israel.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[106] .In John, Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene and to the eleven.^ Another mystery, why was Mary Magdalene not allowed to 'touch' Jesus on resurrection Sunday?
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

He demonstrates his physical reality to doubting Thomas.[60][106] .Later he appears to seven disciples who are fishing, and finally talks with Peter, foretelling Peter's death[106] and assigning him the principal role as shepherd of the new community.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ Are we really to believe that a historical person who really existed had to have bodily disappearance stories written about him to explain his lack of presence even in death?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ HIS disciples asked HIM: When will YOU appear to us?

[106][109]
.In Mark and Luke, Jesus ascends to the heavens;[Mk. 16:19] [Lk. 24:5] after these appearances.^ These are Jesus' own words in Mark.14.49 and Matthew.24.34-35 (yes, the generation is that of semantic definition and not of some time count) Modern Christianity 'worships' not only a fake God, but also a fake Jesus.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS cancelled the Promised Land Contract in Luke 19:41-44 because they would not accept JESUS as MESSIAH or HIS instructions.

^ The author of Luke also shares a large quantity of text with both Mark and Matthew, showing that much of Luke is copied from these sources in some fashion.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In Luke, Jesus ascends on Easter Sunday evening when he is with his disciples.^ This passage is also the source for the portrayal of Jesus as crucified by putting spikes through his hands and the author of Luke's claim that Jesus proved he had been resurrected by showing the disciples the holes in his hands.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[106] .In Mark, Jesus' Ascension to heaven, where he sits at God's right hand, is said to have taken place but not described as a visible event.^ He Himself sitteth in heaven, at the right hand of the Great Power, and shall come on the clouds of heaven."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Where GOD is, is Heaven, but since Adam and Eve sinned we dont get to enjoy Heaven until we learn to be obedient and acknowledge, JESUS died for our sins.

^ And when He had thus shown them that there is truly a resurrection of the flesh, wishing to show them this also, that it is not impossible for flesh to ascend into heaven (as He had said that our dwelling-place is in heaven), "He was taken up into heaven while they beheld," as He was in the flesh.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[106] .John implies that Jesus will return to his Father[Jn. 20:17] but doesn't describe an Ascension.^ That they all may be one; as THOU, FATHER, art in ME, and I in THEE, that they also may be ONE in US; that the world may believe that THOU hast sent ME. (John 17:21 KJV) .

^ Jesus Again Predicts His Death: T2: Matthew 20:18 - Isaiah 53 T2: Matthew 20:18 - Jonah 1:17 T2: Matthew 20:19 - Psalm 22 .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[106]

Names and titles in the New Testament

.Jesus lived in Galilee for most of his life and spoke Aramaic and possibly Hebrew and some Greek.^ Some of the details of the life of Jesus are based on mistranslations of the Hebrew scriptures .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes sense that an account would be written in the same language that Jesus spoke to his followers, yet all of the Gospels were written in Greek, so this idea of an original Hebrew or Aramaic Gospel had a lot of draw to it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Septuagint was created by Jewish scribes who translated the Jewish texts into Greek because the Jewish community outside of Judea typically spoke Greek instead of Hebrew or Aramaic.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[110] .The name "Jesus" comes from an alternate spelling of the Latin (Iēsus) which in turn comes from the Greek name Iesous (Ιησους).^ That's not critically important here, but what is important is the fact that both "Jesus" and "James" (in their Greek and Hebrew forms) were extremely common names at the time.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, we can only assume that Suetonius is talking about "Jesus Christ" by the use of the name "Chrestus", which corresponds to nothing and is not a proper Latin translation of the Greek Christos, though it is a proper Latin name.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the Septuagint Ιησους is used as the Greek version of the Hebrew name Yehoshua (יהושוע, "God delivers" from YehoYahweh [is] shua` — deliverance/rescue) in the Biblical book of the same name, usually Romanized as Joshua.^ Also, Joshua and Jesus are the same name in Hebrew.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, in reality Jesus and Joshua are the exact same name, or would have been the exact same name as far as Jews were concerned, because to them both of these names would have been Yeshu'a.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Septuagint was created by Jewish scribes who translated the Jewish texts into Greek because the Jewish community outside of Judea typically spoke Greek instead of Hebrew or Aramaic.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Some scholars believe that one of these was likely the name that Jesus was known by during his lifetime by his peers.^ Pray for non-believers to accept JESUS as LORD, HE is the ONE WHO died for our sins.

^ So, in reality Jesus and Joshua are the exact same name, or would have been the exact same name as far as Jews were concerned, because to them both of these names would have been Yeshu'a.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these supposed evidences for the existence of Jesus, and more, have been relatively recent forgeries, produced at various times from the Middle Ages through to the 20th century.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[111] Thus, the name has been translated into English as "Joshua".[112]
.Christ (which started as a title, and has often been used as a name for Jesus) is an Anglicization of the Greek term χριστός, christos.^ "Christ" is just a transliteration of the Greek word Christos ( Χριστου ), which is a translation of the Hebrew Mashiah , which simply means anointed , or one who is anointed .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A Christian reading the work may have seen the names Jesus and James together and jumped to the conclusion that this was "Jesus Christ", and then made a note saying so.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One argument against this being authentic is that Josephus doesn't use the term Christos anywhere else, so it does not appear likely that this is original.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the Septuagint, this term is used as the translation of the Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, Modern Mašíaḥ Tiberian Māšîªḥ, "Anointed One" in reference to priests,[113] and kings[114] and King Cyrus.^ The anointed one was the king.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jewish kings and high priests were called anointed ones , and this is used many times in the Hebrew scriptures.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Septuagint was created by Jewish scribes who translated the Jewish texts into Greek because the Jewish community outside of Judea typically spoke Greek instead of Hebrew or Aramaic.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Isaiah 45:1] In Isaiah and Jeremiah the word began to be applied to a future ideal king. .The New Testament has some 500 uses of the word χριστός applied to Jesus, used either generically or in an absolute sense, namely as the Anointed One (the Messiah, the Christ).^ Jesus, called The Anointed, whose name was James, and some others...
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We also know that the word was used in the "Old Testament" to mean both earthly and heavenly rulers.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed "Christianity", or the cult of "Jesus Christ", was just one small segment of this trend within Hellenistic Judaism.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Gospel of Mark has as its central point of its narrative Peter's confession of Jesus as the Messiah.^ Here Papias states that the Gospel called Mark was written by someone named Mark, and that Mark recorded his Gospel from the apostle Peter.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Mark's Gospel Peter is portrayed as a fool who doesn't understand the message of Jesus, and thus him being Mark's authoritative source is unlikely at best.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[Mk. 8:29] .1 Corinthians 15:3 indicates that the strong belief that Jesus was the Messiah predates the letters of Paul the Apostle.^ Mary, the supposed mother of Jesus, is never mentioned by Paul, nor in any canonical work outside of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is certainly something to keep in mind when dealing with the works of Paul, but despite this, the letters of Paul are still critical as the earliest writings about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

These letters also show that the Messiah title was already beginning to be used as a name.[115]
.Some have suggested that other titles applied to Jesus in the New Testament had meanings in the first century quite different from those meanings ascribed today.^ When Jesus says: #61: "Jesus said, 'Two will rest on a bed: the one will die, and the other will live" (compare Matthew.24.40-41); then you are to take this literally and not as some Buddhistic- or New Age metaphor.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

^ Prior to the adoption of Catholicism by the Roman Empire in the 4th century, there were many different beliefs about Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[116] Géza Vermes has argued that "Son of man" was not a title but rather the polite way in which people referred to themselves, i.e. a pronominal phrase.[116]
.Many New Testament scholars state that Jesus claimed to be God through his frequent use of "I am" (e.g.^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How many readers can eschew their prejudices in regards to the labels of 'God', 'Jesus', 'Spirit' and so on remains to be experienced however.
  • Genesis and The Gospel of Thomas 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC tonyb.freeyellow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Before Abraham was, I am),[Jn. 8:58] his act of forgiving sins which gave Jews an impression of blasphemy,[Lk. 5:20–21] and his statement that "I and the Father are one."[Jn. 10:30][117] However, a number of New Testament scholars argue that Jesus himself made no claims to being God.[118] .Most Christians identified Jesus as divine from a very early period, although holding a variety of views as to what exactly this implied.^ Early Christian theologians believed the Gospel of Matthew to be the first Gospel that was written, and, by many accounts, the most important (of course there was disagreement among them, as there was on all doctrinal issues).
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two basic views of the Biblical Jesus as a real person today, the religious Christian view and the secular historical view.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the early Christian apologists that are now considered the "correct ones" defended the belief in Jesus as both human and divine from the many beliefs that Jesus Christ was something other than this.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[119]

Other names and titles

."Son of David" is found elsewhere in Jewish tradition to refer to the heir to the throne.^ Within Jewish literature there were traditions, or tendencies, to reinterpret older stories and to draw references to older stories when writing new stories.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[116] ."Son of God" was often used to designate a person as especially righteous.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the augments that has often been used to claim that the Gospels reflect authentic history is the recognition that, especially in the Gospel of Mark, the disciples are poorly portrayed.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Heroes were often called sons of gods in Greek and Roman stories, as well as being born from virgins, so this reading of the story fit perfectly well in that culture.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[116]
"Emmanuel" or "Immanuel" derives from the Hebrew name Immanu-El, which translates as "God (is) with us" and is based on a Messianic interpretation of a verse in the Hebrew Bible, Isaiah 7:14, "They shall call his name Immanuel".

Historical views

A series of articles on
Jesus
.Biblical scholars have used the historical method to develop probable reconstructions of Jesus' life.^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two basic views of the Biblical Jesus as a real person today, the religious Christian view and the secular historical view.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The secular historical view, which may also be held by some Christians, takes the Gospels as exaggerated accounts of the life of a real Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[120] .Over the past two hundred years, their image of Jesus has thus come to be very different from the common one based on the gospels.^ Irenaeus was writing about 100 to 60 years after the Gospels had been in circulation, and we can see that beliefs about Jesus were clearly impacted by the Gospels, but that there were a variety of beliefs as well.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephus did write it, but he based his information on a Gospel or another Christian source, then it is of no value in supporting the existence of "Jesus."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, Whoever has come to know the world has discovered the body, and whoever has discovered the body, of that one the world is not worthy.

[121] .Scholars of historical Jesus distinguish their subject from the "Jesus Christ" of Christianity[14] while others hold that the figure presented in the gospels is the real Jesus and that his life and influence only make sense if the gospel stories are accurate.^ It's not really conceivable how these rituals could have been inspired by the life, deeds, and words of Jesus if the Gospel accounts are accurate, which is something that most Christian scholars will not consider, so they instead try to gloss over this issue or explain it away as having been written by confused people.
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^ In Didache we again see Jesus mentioned not as a real flesh and blood entity, but as a spiritual mediator, and the eucharist ritual in Didache makes no reference either the body or blood of Jesus.
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^ It makes sense that an account would be written in the same language that Jesus spoke to his followers, yet all of the Gospels were written in Greek, so this idea of an original Hebrew or Aramaic Gospel had a lot of draw to it.
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[122][123][124] .The principal sources of information regarding Jesus' life and teachings are the Gospels, especially the Synoptic Gospels: Mark, Matthew, and Luke.^ There is also language that is shared between the Gospels of Matthew and Luke which is not in the Gospel of Mark.
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^ (The dominant theory now is that Matthew and Luke both independently use Mark and a document called "Q") It also would not make sense that Luke got his information from Paul, because Paul plainly stated in his letters that he never saw Jesus, other than through visions.
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^ Whether the Gospel of Matthew was written with the intent of portraying it as history is questionable, but is it seems that at least the Gospel of Luke was written as a historical document, even though it was based on the Gospel of Mark and other sources.
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.Including the Gospels, there are no surviving historical accounts of Jesus written during his life or within three decades of his death.^ NATHAN: There is no more death!
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But for you there will be no resurrection to life!
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^ The Jesus of the Gospels, then, had to have lived and been killed during this period if the Gospels are true accounts.
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[125] .A great majority of biblical scholars accept the historical existence of Jesus.^ There are two basic views of the Biblical Jesus as a real person today, the religious Christian view and the secular historical view.
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^ That this statement by Tacitus is not evidence for the existence of Jesus is admitted to even by Christian scholars.
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^ A hostile reference towards Jesus is seen as the most likely type of reference that would be both authentic and independent, so this proposal has appeal to scholars who seek to maintain that this passage offers evidence for the existence of a real historical Jesus.
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[126][127][128][129][130]
.The English title of Albert Schweitzer's 1906 book, The Quest of the Historical Jesus, is a label for the post-Enlightenment effort to describe Jesus using critical historical methods.^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For those to subscribe to a secular historical view of Jesus, as a real man that is exaggeratedly described in the Gospels, why would stories of bodily disappearance be crafted around a real man?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The four now canonical Gospels became the key documents for the defense of a flesh and blood historical Jesus and we see that theology and the Gospels are the weapons used in the defense of Jesus' humanity.
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[131] .Since the end of the 18th century, scholars have examined the gospels and tried to formulate historical biographies of Jesus.^ For those to subscribe to a secular historical view of Jesus, as a real man that is exaggeratedly described in the Gospels, why would stories of bodily disappearance be crafted around a real man?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is interesting that Tertullian bases many of his arguments about the humanity of Christ on Jesus' nativity, and in truth the nativity stories in the Gospels are the elements of the Jesus story that are most in question and most widely rejected as historical by scholars.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pre-Gospel evidence was never appealed to, and yet, even though the defense of the humanity of Jesus began in the 2nd century, this defense began almost as soon as the Gospels were written.
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[120] .Contemporary efforts benefit from a better understanding of 1st-century Judaism, renewed Roman Catholic biblical scholarship, broad acceptance of critical historical methods, sociological insights, and literary analysis of Jesus' sayings.^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The development of the Jesus Christ story is best explained not as simply a "paganization" of Judaism, but as a part of Jewish literary tradition.
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^ Prior to the adoption of Catholicism by the Roman Empire in the 4th century, there were many different beliefs about Jesus Christ.
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[131]

Constructing a historical view

.Historians of Christianity analyze the gospels to try to discern the historical man on whom these stories are based.^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Since every potentially verifiable story element in the Gospels that is based on scriptures is not confirmed by the historical evidence, a strong case is made that events in the Bible that have a scriptural basis do not have a corresponding historical basis, thus the burden of proof is on those proposing that such events are historical.
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^ Josephus did write it, but he based his information on a Gospel or another Christian source, then it is of no value in supporting the existence of "Jesus."
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.They compare what the gospels say to historical events relevant to the times and places where the gospels were written.^ For he says in the treatises that he has written on the governance of the Jews: At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus.
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^ And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of GOD is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.

^ Nothing in the Jewish midrash of the time mentions anything about Jesus Christ or any of the events in the Gospels.
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.They try to answer historical questions about Jesus, such as why he was crucified.^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
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^ About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?"which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
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^ The question with this passage is, if Jesus had just been on earth and been ministering to the Jews and performing miracles in Galilee and Judea and drawing large crowds, as the Gospels claim, then why does Paul ask here if Jews cannot be blamed for not believing in Christ because they haven't heard about him?
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.Most Biblical scholars agree the Gospel of Mark was written about the time of the destruction of the Jewish Temple by the Romans under Titus in the year 70 AD/CE, and that the other gospels were written between 70 and 100 AD/CE.[132] The historical outlook on Jesus relies on critical analysis of the Bible, especially the gospels.^ (Most scholars date to some time between 50 and 120 CE) .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To get a sense of this we can compare the Gospel of Mark to other historical accounts, by both Jews and Romans, that were written around the same time.
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^ This was also written at pretty much the same time that the Gospel of Mark was probably written.
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.Many Biblical scholars have sought to reconstruct Jesus' life in terms of the political, cultural, and religious crises and movements in late Second Temple Judaism and in Roman-occupied Palestine, including differences between Galilee and Judea, and between different sects such as the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes and Zealots,[133][134] and in terms of conflicts among Jews in the context of Roman occupation.^ The life of Jesus is a story that was created by combining elements from many other Hebrew stories to create a pseudo-proto-typical savior figure.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Gospel of Mark appears to have been written in response to the conflict between the Jews and the Romans that resulted in the destruction of Judea in 70 CE. It may have been written during the war between the Jews and Romans, or shortly thereafter.
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^ It is also significant here that Josephus is talking about disturbances in Judea, and interactions between the Romans and Jews in relation to disturbances, but makes no mention of the Roman execution of a Jewish rebel, blasphemer, prophet, or self-proclaimed "King of the Jews".
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Descriptions

.Historians of Christianity generally describe Jesus as a healer who preached the restoration of God's kingdom[135] and agree he was baptized by John the Baptist and crucified by the Romans.^ JESUS: Where Antipas reigns, who caused John the Baptist's death.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
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^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
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Baptism by John the Baptist

John the Baptist led a large apocalyptic movement. He demanded repentance and baptism. Jesus was baptized and later began his ministry. .After John was executed, some of his followers apparently took Jesus as their new leader.^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
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^ So, the story of Jesus' arrest and execution seems quite implausible at the outset, but when one considers the symbolism of the story it becomes apparent that the basis for this story is theological, not historical.
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[136] .Historians are nearly unanimous in accepting Jesus' baptism as a historical event.^ Secular historians who believe that Jesus existed rely on the Gospels as essentially historical, but inflated, accounts of his life.
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[136]

Teaching

Jewish focus
Jesus preached primarily to the Jews.[137] .Geza Vermes concludes that Jesus' message was exclusively for the Jews,[137] while Gerd Theissen asserts that Jesus' message included themes related to the Gentiles being welcomed into the coming Kingdom.^ And will we see Jesus reign over the Jews and the Gentiles as King David announced?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Galatians 2: 15 "We who are Jews by birth and not 'Gentile sinners' 16 know that a man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ.
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^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
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[138]
Arrival of the Kingdom
.Jesus preached about the Kingdom of God.^ About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?"which means, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
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^ As for me, GOD forbid that I should boast about anything except the Cross of our LORD JESUS CHRIST. Galatians 6:14 TLB .

^ Eating the bread symbolizes the knowledge these people have of the life and immortality they enjoy by belonging to the kingdom of God made known to them by Jesus, God's child.
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.He said that the age of the Kingdom had in some sense arrived, starting with the ministry of John the Baptist.^ Yet I have said, whichever one of you comes to be a child will be acquainted with the Kingdom and will become superior to John.

^ This means that John the Baptist was probably killed in 35 or 36 CE, some 2 or 3 years after the latest proposed date for the death of Jesus based on the Gospels.
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^ JESUS said, Among those born of women, from Adam until John the Baptist, there is no one so superior to John the Baptist that his eyes should not be lowered (before him).

[137]
Apocalyptic sect
.Most scholars hold that the movement Jesus led was apocalyptic, expecting God to intervene imminently to restore Israel.^ It talks about various things that will happen on the day that God decides to destroy Israel, and then goes on to say that after God has destroyed Israel he will restore Israel through "David's fallen tent" .
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^ NATHAN: Youve shown us that all these events had to come about; that all we witnessed in Jerusalem was announced by the prophets, and that Jesus was indeed the Messiah expected by Israel.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.John the Baptist's movement was apocalyptic, and Jesus began his public career as one of his followers.^ John the Baptist came to announce the coming of our SAVIOUR JESUS, which would be a great honor for John, granted by our CREATOR to John.

^ One of the interesting subplots in Mark deals with John the Baptist.
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^ They claim that perhaps John the Baptist was killed 4 or 5 years earlier, but the public still associated his death with the bad fortunes of Herod.
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[139] .Scholars commonly surmise that Jesus' eschatology was apocalyptic, like John's.^ The writer of the Gospel of John also included this scene, likely based on the Gospel of Matthew, but in the Gospel of John the author corrected this problem and had Jesus ride into town on only one animal.
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[140]
Parables
Jesus taught in pithy parables and with striking images.[141] His preaching was marked by hyperbole and unusual twists of phrase.[137] .Jesus likened the Kingdom of Heaven to small and lowly things, such as yeast or a mustard seed,[141] that have great effects.^ Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

^ JESUS said, The Kingdom of the FATHER is like a man who had good seed.

^ Another parable put HE forth unto them, saying, The Kingdom of Heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field: but while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.

.Significantly, he never described the Kingdom in military terms.^ We also see here the term archon used to clearly describe a ruler "of the kingdom of the air" .
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[137] He used his sayings to elicit responses from the audience, engaging them in discussion.[16]
Importance of faith and prayer
.Jesus identified faith or trust in God as a primary spiritual virtue.^ When we trust JESUS we are trusting GOD and the HOLY SPIRIT. .

^ The prayers of thanksgiving are for the food and drink God created for all people and the special, "spiritual" food and drink that Christians have because of Jesus.
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^ This was in accordance with the eternal purpose that he has carried out in Christ Jesus our Lord, 12 in whom we have access to God in boldness and confidence through faith in him.
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[137] .Associated with this main theme, Jesus taught that one should rely on prayer and expect prayer to be effective.^ If the crucifixion of Jesus were based on an observed historical event, then we should not expect that virtually every line of the crucifixion narrative comes from existing Hebrew scriptures (including themes that were mistranslated in the Greek sources that were used).
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^ Indeed there are several places in Josephus' other works that one would expect Josephus to mention Jesus if he had indeed been aware of him and written the Testimonium .
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^ The one who is wealthy should reign as JESUS did.

[137]
Virtue of being childlike
.Jesus was remarkable in stating that one must become like a child to enter the Kingdom of God.^ JESUS: Where must one go, John?
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^ Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

^ Thus this seal was proclaimed to them as well, and they made use of it in order that they might enter the Kingdom of GOD. .

[137]
The eschatological family
.Jesus repeatedly set himself at odds with traditional family duties and emphasized that the true family of a believer was the community of believers.^ What did set Christianity apart, however, was its crossover status into non-Jewish communities, where Jewish literary traditions were not understood.
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[137]
Healing and exorcism
Jesus taught that his healings and exorcisms indicated that a new eschatological age had arrived or was arriving.[137]
God as a loving father
.Jesus placed a special emphasis on God as one's heavenly father.^ Indeed there are several places in Josephus' other works that one would expect Josephus to mention Jesus if he had indeed been aware of him and written the Testimonium .
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^ JESUS answered and said to him, Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is Born Again, he cannot see the Kingdom of GOD .

^ Notice that Theophilus never quotes the passage about the Word becoming flesh, and he says that God sends the Word to any place at any time, but he never says anything about the incarnation of Jesus.
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[137][141] This teaching contrasts with the more common practice of depicting God as a king or lord.[137]

Crucifixion

Jewish and Roman authorities in Jerusalem were wary of Galilean patriots, many of whom advocated or launched violent resistance to Roman rule.[15] .The gospels demonstrate that Jesus, a charismatic leader regarded as a potential troublemaker, was executed on political charges.^ The fact that all three of the other narrative Gospels in the Bible are based directly or indirectly on the Gospel of Mark demonstrates the lack of other narrative information about Jesus.
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^ What the works of Philo, and also Justus, demonstrate is that we do have high quality sources for potential independent witnesses to Jesus, it is not as though we are lacking potential sources, but they make no mention of Jesus Christ.
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^ It's interesting that the Gospels don't give this as the reason for the death of John the Baptist, because in the Gospels it is Jesus who is killed for being the supposed political threat.
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[15] .Jesus' criticism of the Temple and the scene he caused there led the Jewish leaders to have him executed.^ There is also considerable doubt that the Jews would have had any reason to go to the Romans to carry out the execution, or that they would have had him crucified, since the law required death by stoning for blasphemy, which is what Jesus was supposedly charged with.
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^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

^ Matthew 21: 12 Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all who were buying and selling there.
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[142]
.The Gospels report that Jesus foretold his own Passion, but the actions of the disciples suggest that it came as a surprise to them.^ Yes, it would have been hard for the disciples to believe that JESUS came as GODS personal representative.

^ Compare this to the passion story of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew (or any Gospel).
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^ Once a child can understand the Gospels and JESUS he can accept or deny JESUS on his or her own.

[137] .Historically, it's more probable that Jesus did not foretell his own crucifixion.^ Again we get metaphor from Paul, and no indication of knowledge of a literal, historical, crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Christians have tried to claim that Tacitus would have gotten his details about the death of Jesus from the Roman archives, thereby establishing the historical reality of the crucifixion.
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^ There is one more passage that discusses the crucifixion of Jesus, however, and that comes from 1 Corinthians 2: .
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[137]

Religious groups

.Scholars refer to the religious background of the early 1st century to better reconstruct Jesus' life.^ We now turn to Wisdom of Solomon , written some time between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE. Most scholars agree that Wisdom of Solomon was written in the 1st century BCE, just shortly before Jesus was supposedly born.
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^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
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^ From Irenaeus, writing in the 2nd century, we see that by this early time there was already a huge variety of beliefs about who or what Jesus Christ was.
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.Some scholars identify him with one or another group.^ The fragments of Phlegon's historical works that survive have led scholars to regard him as one of the least reliable and more outrageous writers of his time.
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Pharisees

Pharisees were a powerful force in 1st-century Judea. .Early Christians shared several beliefs of the Pharisees, such as resurrection, retribution in the next world, angels, human freedom, and Divine Providence.^ The variety of beliefs ranged from Christ never having become incarnate at all, to Christ having entered into the body of a human Jesus, to the Catholic belief that Jesus was Christ, and that he was both human and divine.
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^ Many of the early Christian apologists that are now considered the "correct ones" defended the belief in Jesus as both human and divine from the many beliefs that Jesus Christ was something other than this.
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^ How could an early Christian defend the doctrine of resurrection without mentioning Jesus Christ, unless he had indeed never heard of him or the story of his death and resurrection?
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[143] After the fall of the Temple, the Pharisee outlook was established in Rabbinic Judaism. .Some scholars speculate that Jesus was himself a Pharisee.^ Some Pharisees and other Jewish leaders now arrived from Jerusalem to interview JESUS. Why do YOUR disciples disobey the ancient Jewish traditions?

^ JESUS said, The Pharisees and the scholars have taken the keys of knowledge and have .

[144] .In Jesus' day, the two main schools of thought among the Pharisees were the House of Hillel, which had been founded by the eminent Tanna, Hillel the Elder, and the House of Shammai.^ JESUS said, If two make peace with each other in a single house, they will say to the mountain, Move from here!

.Jesus' assertion of hypocrisy may have been directed against the stricter members of the House of Shammai, although he also agreed with their teachings on divorce.^ We are created in the image of GOD. When we accept JESUS sacrifice for our sins and choose to be obedient to HIS teachings we may be Born Again.

[Mk. 10:1–12] .[145] Jesus also commented on the House of Hillel's teachings (Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 31a) concerning the greatest commandment[Mk. 12:28–34] and the Golden Rule.^ Jesus at the Temple: T1: Matthew 21:12 - Isaiah 56:7 "...for my house will be called a house of prayer for all nations."
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[Mt. 7:12] .Historians do not know whether there were Pharisees in Galilee during Jesus' life, or what they would have been like.^ JESUS: They dont know what they are doing, .
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also considerable doubt that the Jews would have had any reason to go to the Romans to carry out the execution, or that they would have had him crucified, since the law required death by stoning for blasphemy, which is what Jesus was supposedly charged with.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to the Gospels there are various works that talk about Jesus in a variety of ways, but none of them provide any details about a birth, life, ministry, or death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[85]

Sadducees

The Sadducee sect was particularly powerful in Jerusalem. .They accepted the written Law only, rejecting the traditional interpretations accepted by the Pharisees, such as belief in retribution in an afterlife, resurrection of the body, angels, and spirits.^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

^ And suddenly there shone round them a light from heaven, and they fell to the ground, and the holy body was taken up by angels into heaven.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore we shall have to guard our belief in the resurrection from the same armory, whence they get their weapons of destruction.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.After Jesus caused a disturbance at the Temple, it was to have been the Sadducees who had him arrested and turned over to the Romans for execution.^ Josephus had every reason to portray people who were condemned under the Romans as bad people who were justly executed.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also considerable doubt that the Jews would have had any reason to go to the Romans to carry out the execution, or that they would have had him crucified, since the law required death by stoning for blasphemy, which is what Jesus was supposedly charged with.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the story of Jesus' arrest and execution seems quite implausible at the outset, but when one considers the symbolism of the story it becomes apparent that the basis for this story is theological, not historical.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

After the fall of Jerusalem, they disappeared from history.[146]

Essenes

.Essenes were apocalyptic ascetics, one of the three (or four) major Jewish schools of the time, though they were not mentioned in the New Testament.^ What the works of Philo, and also Justus, demonstrate is that we do have high quality sources for potential independent witnesses to Jesus, it is not as though we are lacking potential sources, but they make no mention of Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing in the Jewish midrash of the time mentions anything about Jesus Christ or any of the events in the Gospels.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We can now move on to the book of Romans, where Paul mentions the crucifixion of Jesus one time in Romans 6: .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[147] .Some scholars theorize that Jesus was an Essene, or close to them.^ Surely a Jew from Galilee would have made at least some comment about Jesus if he existed as described in the Gospels, or anything even remotely close to the Gospels, would he not?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Among these scholars is Pope Benedict XVI, who supposes in his book on Jesus that "it appears that not only John the Baptist, but possibly Jesus and his family as well, were close to the Qumran community."[148]

Zealots

.The Zealots were a revolutionary party opposed to Roman rule, one of those parties that, according to Josephus inspired the fanatical stand in Jerusalem that led to its destruction in the year 70 AD/CE.[149] Luke identifies Simon, a disciple, as a "zealot", which might mean a member of the Zealot party (which would therefore have been already in existence in the lifetime of Jesus) or a zealous person.^ JESUS knows that HE will soon be predicting the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD. .

^ Origen also states that Josephus attributed the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE to the execution of James, who Origen believes is "James the Just", and he ponders why this would be the case instead of attributing the destruction of Jerusalem to the execution of Jesus himself.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS referred to James as Just which would indicate that he is Born Again, therefore capable of being their leader; after the Crucifixion of JESUS. .

[149] .The notion that Jesus himself was a Zealot does not do justice to the earliest Synoptic material describing him.^ Paul specifically tells us that his knowledge of Jesus Christ has not come from any human, but has come to him directly by "revelation" from Jesus Christ himself.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It's also important to note here that Paul is discussing of "visions and revelations", which seems to be what Paul is talking about when he describes himself or others "seeing Jesus".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Does not JESUS say: He who finds himself, the world is not deserving of HIM? (Hannah) .

[150]

Christian scripture as historical texts

.Historians of Christianity examine scripture for clues about the historical Jesus.^ Josephus wrote something about Jesus, but later Christians altered it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only can Christianity be explained without a real historical Jesus at its core, but the historical facts that we do have are best explained if Jesus never existed.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.They sort out sayings and events that are more likely to be genuine and use those to construct their portraits of Jesus.^ Contains sayings like those in the Gospels, but not attributed to Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

^ They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Gospel tradition has certainly preserved several authentic fragments of Jesus' teaching.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it the case that Paul's gospel and the early teachings about "Christ Jesus" were a Jewish form of this same type of mystery religion?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The traditional explanation for the origin of the Gospels has been that they were each written independently by people who were either disciples of Jesus or who received their information from disciples of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.The New Testament was at least substantially complete by 100 AD/CE, making its books, especially the synoptic gospels, historically relevant.^ None of the three synoptic Gospels makes an explicit reference to Christ as the Passover lamb, but the Gospel called John does.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For the majority of time Christians have believed that Matthew was written first, hence the reason that it is the first book in the New Testament.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Antiquity of the Jews, Book XX ; Flavius Josephus, 94-100 CE .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[151] .The Gospel tradition certainly preserves several fragments of Jesus' teaching.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it the case that Paul's gospel and the early teachings about "Christ Jesus" were a Jewish form of this same type of mystery religion?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The traditional explanation for the origin of the Gospels has been that they were each written independently by people who were either disciples of Jesus or who received their information from disciples of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[152] .The Gospel of Mark is believed to have been written c.^ We can also look at the works of Tacitus, which were written shortly after the Gospel of Mark was probably written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Papias states that the Gospel called Mark was written by someone named Mark, and that Mark recorded his Gospel from the apostle Peter.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Early Christian theologians believed the Gospel of Matthew to be the first Gospel that was written, and, by many accounts, the most important (of course there was disagreement among them, as there was on all doctrinal issues).
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

70 AD/CE.[153][154][155] Matthew is placed at being sometime after this date and Luke is thought to have been written between 70 and 100 AD/CE.[156][157]
.Biblical scholars hold that the works describing Jesus were initially communicated by oral tradition, and were not committed to writing until several decades after Jesus' crucifixion.^ This is certainly something to keep in mind when dealing with the works of Paul, but despite this, the letters of Paul are still critical as the earliest writings about Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The works in which Paul talks about a crucifixion of Jesus are Galatians, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, and Romans.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Between the works of Paul and the writing of the four canonical Gospels several other Christian works were written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.After the original oral stories were written down in Greek, they were transcribed, and later translated into other languages.^ In this way later notes got written into the text as if they were a part of the original.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes sense that an account would be written in the same language that Jesus spoke to his followers, yet all of the Gospels were written in Greek, so this idea of an original Hebrew or Aramaic Gospel had a lot of draw to it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Greek Josephus is written Iosippus , and some people have translated this as Hegesippus while others translated it is Josephus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Contemporary textual critic Bart D. Ehrman cites numerous places where he maintains that the gospels, and other New Testament books, were apparently altered by Christian scribes.^ Even the spreading of the religion prior to the Gospels occurred due to apostolistic evangelism, the works of Paul and other writings are a testament to this.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ New Testament; Matthew 6:14-15 we will be Judged the same as we have judged others.

^ The "Star of Bethlehem" is only mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew, it isn't mentioned in Luke or any other book in the Bible.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[61]
.Critical scholars consider scriptural accounts more likely when they are attested in multiple texts, plausible in Jesus' historical environment, and potentially embarrassing to the author's Christian community.^ It's not really conceivable how these rituals could have been inspired by the life, deeds, and words of Jesus if the Gospel accounts are accurate, which is something that most Christian scholars will not consider, so they instead try to gloss over this issue or explain it away as having been written by confused people.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As we will see when looking at the other supposed reference to Jesus Christ in the writings of Josephus, this passage is the only potential writing of Josephus that can establish his knowledge of Jesus and Christianity.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only can Christianity be explained without a real historical Jesus at its core, but the historical facts that we do have are best explained if Jesus never existed.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The "criterion of embarrassment" holds that stories about events with aspects embarrassing to Christians (such as the denial of Jesus by Peter, or the fleeing of Jesus' followers after his arrest) would likely not have been included if those accounts were fictional.^ Josephus wrote something about Jesus, but later Christians altered it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes sense that an account would be written in the same language that Jesus spoke to his followers, yet all of the Gospels were written in Greek, so this idea of an original Hebrew or Aramaic Gospel had a lot of draw to it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But all those who knew him, including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[158] .Sayings attributed to Jesus are deemed more likely to reflect his character when they are distinctive, vivid, paradoxical, surprising, and contrary to social and religious expectations, such as "Blessed are the poor."^ Contains sayings like those in the Gospels, but not attributed to Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ HE said, They are like little children living in a field that is not theirs, when the owners of the field come, they will say, Give us back our field.

^ The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[159] .Short, memorable parables and aphorisms capable of being transmitted orally are also thought more likely to be authentic.^ One argument against this being authentic is that Josephus doesn't use the term Christos anywhere else, so it does not appear likely that this is original.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[159]
.The earliest extant texts which refer to Jesus are Paul's letters (mid-1st century), which affirm Jesus' crucifixion.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS referred to James as Just which would indicate that he is Born Again, therefore capable of being their leader; after the Crucifixion of JESUS. .

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Some scholars hold that the Gospel of Thomas, a collection of 114 sayings of Jesus, predates the four orthodox gospels, and was composed around mid-first century.^ After his resurrection Jesus is depicted as walking around, touching people, having dinner, etc., in the Gospels, which supports a major doctrine for Christians: that they are to expect to be bodily resurrected.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We now turn to Wisdom of Solomon , written some time between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE. Most scholars agree that Wisdom of Solomon was written in the 1st century BCE, just shortly before Jesus was supposedly born.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Contains sayings like those in the Gospels, but not attributed to Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[160][161]

Mythical view

.Although the historicity of Jesus is accepted by almost all Biblical scholars and classical historians,[162][163][164][165][166] a few scholars have questioned the existence of Jesus as an actual historical figure.^ All of the people mentioned above lived during the same time that Jesus supposedly lived and are prime candidates for being potential witnesses and documenters of the existence of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two basic views of the Biblical Jesus as a real person today, the religious Christian view and the secular historical view.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Importantly, however, if this did actually refer to Christians in Rome in 49 CE then this reference alone would be evidence of the earliest existence of followers of Jesus in Rome.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Among the proponents of non-historicity was Bruno Bauer in the 19th century. Non-historicity was somewhat influential in biblical studies during the early 20th century. .The views of scholars who entirely rejected Jesus' historicity then were based on a suggested lack of eyewitnesses, a lack of direct archaeological evidence, the failure of certain ancient works to mention Jesus, and similarities early Christianity shared with then-contemporary religion and mythology.^ Mary, the supposed mother of Jesus, is never mentioned by Paul, nor in any canonical work outside of the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At any rate, what we get from this passage by Origen is an example of someone who was using the works of Josephus to make a defense of the reputation and legacy of Jesus Christ, and who makes no mention of the Testimonium , despite appearing to be familiar with information in book 18.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[167]
.More recently, arguments for non-historicity have been discussed by authors such as George Albert Wells and Robert M. Price.^ Indeed it is the argument of those like Earl Doherty that the "rulers" which Paul speaks of are similar to those that we see discussed in works such as this, the angels who have power over the nations.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The author of Mark may or may not have been aware of the Book of Hebrews , but one can presume that the author of Mark was aware of the same symbolism that is discussed above, because this symbolism is a part of his story as well in a more subtle way.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But many of these passages are obscure, such as the casting of lots for clothing, and thus indicate that the author of John is working from one or more of the synoptic narratives.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, The Jesus Puzzle and The Jesus Mysteries are examples of works presenting the non-historical hypothesis.^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The writings of Paul present Jesus Christ as a "mystery", who is being revealed by Paul and others through the interpretation of scriptures and prophetic writings.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Classicist Michael Grant stated that standard historical criteria prevent one from rejecting the existence of an historical Jesus.^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ So, the story of Jesus' arrest and execution seems quite implausible at the outset, but when one considers the symbolism of the story it becomes apparent that the basis for this story is theological, not historical.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The proposition that "Jesus Christ" never existed relies on much more than simply stating that we don't have evidence for his existence or that the Gospels are unbelievable.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[168] The New Testament scholar, James Dunn describes the mythical Jesus theory as a 'thoroughly dead thesis'.[169][170][171]

Religious perspectives

.By and large, the Jews of Jesus' day rejected his claim to be the Messiah, as do Jews today.^ (Note: Many scholars have interpreted the cursing of the fig tree as a metaphor for Jesus' rejecting of those Jews who reject him and as a foreshadowing of his second coming and judgment.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To a large extent the ἄρχοντες are opponents of the people of God who are resisted by the One like a man (later the Messiah) and His allies, and who will be defeated in the last days.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.For their part, Christian Church Fathers, Ecumenical Councils, Reformers, and others have written extensively about Jesus over the centuries.^ The reason for removing these sections can easily be seen, they are the parts that seem impossible for a non-Christian to have written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephus wrote something about Jesus, but later Christians altered it.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If Philo had known about Jesus he surely would have written something about him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Christian sects and schisms have often been defined or characterized by competing descriptions of Jesus. .Meanwhile Gnostics, Mandaeans, Manichaeans, Muslims, Baha'is, and others have found prominent places for Jesus in their own religious accounts.^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed there are several places in Josephus' other works that one would expect Josephus to mention Jesus if he had indeed been aware of him and written the Testimonium .
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, Blessed are you when you are hated and persecuted, wherever you have been persecuted, no place will be found.

Christian views

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.Though Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to describe a general majority Christian view by examining the similarities between specific Western Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and many Protestant doctrines found in their catechetical or confessional texts.^ After his resurrection Jesus is depicted as walking around, touching people, having dinner, etc., in the Gospels, which supports a major doctrine for Christians: that they are to expect to be bodily resurrected.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Early Christian theologians believed the Gospel of Matthew to be the first Gospel that was written, and, by many accounts, the most important (of course there was disagreement among them, as there was on all doctrinal issues).
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[172] .Almost all Chistian groups regard Jesus as the "Savior and Redeemer", as the Messiah (Greek: Christos; English: Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament,[173] who, through his life, death, and resurrection, restored humanity's communion with God in the blood of the New Covenant.^ The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The death he died, he died to sin once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By this reasoning, Jesus Christ had to shed real blood in order to create a new covenant.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.His death on a cross is understood as the redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's salvation and the atonement for sin[174] which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.^ Just as the death which is in the flesh, transmitted to us through Adam, was swallowed up by the Godhead, so was the sin taken away by the righteousness which is in Christ Jesus, so that in the resurrection we receive back the flesh neither liable to death nor subject to sin.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ We see in this the continuing development of the theme of passion narratives and atonement for the sins of a nation through the deaths of men.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[175] .Christians profess that Jesus suffered death by crucifixion,[176] and rose bodily from the dead in the definitive miracle that foreshadows the resurrection of humanity at the end of time,[177] when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead,[178] resulting in either entrance into heaven or damnation.^ The time has come for you to descend into it.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Various dogmas that are not found in the Gospels were developed by the emerging Catholics, such as the trinity, the doctrine of "fully human and fully divine", the "Father is equal to the Son", etc., and when the Catholics came into power within the Roman State they used their power to eliminate all of the other various beliefs about Jesus Christ, passing down only the view (which it was required to believe) that Jesus Christ had come "in the flesh", suffered, died, and bodily ascended to heaven.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

[179]
.Christians profess Jesus to be the only Son of God, the Lord,[180] and the eternal Word (which is a translation of the Greek Logos),[181] who became man in the incarnation,[182] so that those who believe in him might have eternal life.^ And the first power after God the Father and Lord of all is the Word, who is also the Son; and of Him we will, in what follows, relate how He took flesh and became man.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ In making his argument, Tertullian accuses those who do not believe in bodily resurrection of having a motive to deny the existence of Christ in the flesh, but of course this only highlights his own motives for proclaiming the flesh of Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[183] .They further hold that he was born of the Virgin Mary by the power of the Holy Spirit in an event described as the miraculous virgin birth or Incarnation.^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

^ A person who has been Born Again can pray for another person to receive the HOLY SPIRIT and the SPIRIT will be passed.

^ Why, sir, I said, did the stones come up from the deep, and why were they put into the building, even though they had borne these SPIRITS? .

[184] .Current religious groups that do not accept the doctrine of the Trinity include the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), Jehovah's Witnesses, Oneness Pentecostals and the Christadelphians.^ GOD sent John the Baptist as a witness to the fact that JESUS CHRIST is the true LIGHT. John himself was not the LIGHT; he was only a witness to identify IT. Later on, the ONE WHO is the true LIGHT arrived to shine on everyone coming into the world.

^ What the works of Philo, and also Justus, demonstrate is that we do have high quality sources for potential independent witnesses to Jesus, it is not as though we are lacking potential sources, but they make no mention of Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed "Christianity", or the cult of "Jesus Christ", was just one small segment of this trend within Hellenistic Judaism.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

(See also Nontrinitarianism)

Islamic views

.Mainstream Islam denies that Jesus was God or the son of God, stating that he was an ordinary man who, like other prophets, had been divinely chosen to spread God's message.^ JESUS said, He who will know the father and the mother will be called the son of a whore.

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

.Islamic texts forbid the association of partners with God (shirk), emphasizing the notion of God's divine oneness (tawhīd).^ The passage from Isaiah says that the "Lord, your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior," is the one who is with you, and that is certainly enough of a passage to arrive at the notion of the Lord Messiah being with you.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

As such, Jesus is referred to in the Qur'an frequently as the "son of Mary" ("Ibn Maryam").[185][186] .Jesus is seen in Islam as a precursor to Muhammad, and is believed by Muslims to have foretold the latter's coming.^ This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[185][187] .According to the Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be God's final revelation, Jesus was born to Mary (Arabic: Maryam) as the result of virginal conception, and was given the ability to perform miracles.^ JESUS was not born of a virgin.

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And, as the only begotten Son and Word of God was born of His Father before centuries and times existed, and as He, in later times, descended from Heaven, was born of the Holy Spirit and the Holy ever Virgin Mary, the Mother of God, Our Lord Jesus Christ having become a man, is properly and truly God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.However Islam rejects historians assertions that Jesus was crucified by the Romans, instead claiming that he had been raised alive up to heaven.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ Some Christians have tried to claim that Tacitus would have gotten his details about the death of Jesus from the Roman archives, thereby establishing the historical reality of the crucifixion.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This passage is also the source for the portrayal of Jesus as crucified by putting spikes through his hands and the author of Luke's claim that Jesus proved he had been resurrected by showing the disciples the holes in his hands.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Islamic traditions narrate that he will return to earth near the day of judgement to restore justice and defeat al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl (lit. "the false Messiah", also known as the Antichrist) and the enemies of Islam. As a just ruler, Jesus will then die.[185]

Ahmadiyya views

.Similar to Islamic views, the Ahmadiyya Movement consider Jesus was a mortal man, but go a step further to describe Jesus as a mortal man who died a natural death – as opposed to having been raised up alive to Heaven.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.

.According to the early 20th century writings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement) [188], Jesus survived his ordeal on the cross, and after his apparent death and resurrection, he fled Palestine and migrated eastwards to further teach the gospels.^ The main aspect of Paul's teachings which people identify with the Jesus Christ of the Gospels is the crucifixion, so let's take a look at Paul's statements on the crucifixion of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these supposed evidences for the existence of Jesus, and more, have been relatively recent forgeries, produced at various times from the Middle Ages through to the 20th century.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it the case that Paul's gospel and the early teachings about "Christ Jesus" were a Jewish form of this same type of mystery religion?
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.They claim Jesus eventually died a natural death of old age in India – Kashmir and is believed to be buried at Roza Bal.^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

^ Pray for non-believers to accept JESUS as LORD, HE is the ONE WHO died for our sins.

^ That is because they do not contain any reference to the death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[189] .Although the view of Jesus having migrated to India has also been researched in the publications of independent historians with no affiliation to the movement[190], the Ahmadiyya Movement are the only religious organization to adopt these views as a characteristic of their faith.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two basic views of the Biblical Jesus as a real person today, the religious Christian view and the secular historical view.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ What the works of Philo, and also Justus, demonstrate is that we do have high quality sources for potential independent witnesses to Jesus, it is not as though we are lacking potential sources, but they make no mention of Jesus Christ.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The general notion of Jesus in India is older than the foundation of the movement,[191] and is discussed at length by Grönbold[192] and Klatt[193].^ Didache also goes into extensive discussions about rules concerning the treatment of apostles and prophets, making no mention of disciples of Jesus, but rather apostles in general.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The movement also interprets the second coming of Christ prophecised in various religious texts would be that of a person "similar to Jesus" (mathīl-i ʿIsā).^ John the Baptist came to announce the coming of our SAVIOUR JESUS, which would be a great honor for John, granted by our CREATOR to John.

^ Showing that the story of Jesus Christ is not based on a person in any meaningful way requires showing that the story of Jesus Christ is better explained as having developed through non-historical methods than it is through historical methods.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Ahmadi's consider that the founder of the movement and his prophetical character and teachings were representative of Jesus and subsequently a fulfillment of this prophecy.^ If I took a copy of the works of Nostradamus today I could sit down and write a story about a character who fulfills hundreds of "his prophecies".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Christians have traditionally used the parallels between the story of Jesus and the Hebrew scriptures to claim that Jesus fulfilled many prophecies from the "Old Testament", but there are several problems with this claim.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also a history of writing pseudo-prophetic literature that foretold and "fulfilled" prophecies within the same work, i.e.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Judaism's view

.Judaism holds the idea of Jesus being God, or a person of a Trinity, or a mediator to God, to be untrue.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, it would have been hard for the disciples to believe that JESUS came as GODS personal representative.

^ Now a person might say that these men, and those who hold a different opinion, are yet near neighbors, being involved in like error.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[194] .Judaism also holds that Jesus is not the Messiah, arguing that he had not fulfilled the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh nor embodied the personal qualifications of the Messiah.^ Christians have traditionally used the parallels between the story of Jesus and the Hebrew scriptures to claim that Jesus fulfilled many prophecies from the "Old Testament", but there are several problems with this claim.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to Jewish tradition, there were no more prophets after Malachi, who lived centuries before Jesus and delivered his prophesies about 420 BC/BCE. Judaism states that Jesus did not fulfill the requirements set by the Torah to prove that he was a prophet.^ NATHAN: There is no more death!
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Theres no more of anything.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all and is generous to all who call on him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Even if Jesus had produced such a sign that Judaism recognized, Judaism states that no prophet or dreamer can contradict the laws already stated in the Torah, which Jesus did.^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Josephus did write it, but he based his information on a Gospel or another Christian source, then it is of no value in supporting the existence of "Jesus."
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no evidence for a legitimate grave, or even knowledge of a grave, for either Jesus or Mary, and there is no sign of any discussion of a tomb of Jesus, empty or occupied, until the advent of the Gospel stories.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[195]
The Mishneh Torah (an authoritative work of Jewish law) states in Hilkhot Melakhim 11:10–12 that Jesus is a "stumbling block" who makes "the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God".[196] According to Conservative Judaism, Jews who believe Jesus is the Messiah have "crossed the line out of the Jewish community".[197] Reform Judaism, the modern progressive movement, states "For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate".[198]

Bahá'í views

.The Bahá'í Faith, founded in 19th-century Persia, considers Jesus, along with Muhammad, the Buddha, Krishna, and Zoroaster, and other messengers of the great religions of the world to be Manifestations of God (or prophets), with both human and divine stations.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The variety of beliefs ranged from Christ never having become incarnate at all, to Christ having entered into the body of a human Jesus, to the Catholic belief that Jesus was Christ, and that he was both human and divine.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The suspicion that Jesus never existed was first seriously entertained (within the past thousand years) and addressed in a scholarly fashion in the 19th century.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[199]

Hindu views

.Jesus is not a part of mainstream Hindu theology.^ This symbolism was, perhaps, one of the earliest and most developed parts of Jesus Christ theology among the early followers of the Christ mythos among the Jews.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Beliefs about him in some sects vary. .The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) considers Jesus to be a shaktyavesha Avatar, the beloved Son of Krishna who came down to Earth to preach Krishna consciousness.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And a voice came from heaven, You are my Son, the Beloved; with you I am well pleased.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus is considered the Son of God and an empowered incarnation of Krishna.^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Jesus is considered to be a liberated perfected Jiva residing with Krishna who descended to do Krishna's will by spreading Krishna Consciousness among the Jewish people according to their capacity to understand.^ Others consider Him to have been manifested as a transfigured man; but they maintain Him to have been neither born nor to have become incarnate; while others [hold] that He did not assume a human form at all, but that, as a dove, He did descend upon that Jesus who was born from Mary.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This reference to a star is part of a supposed prophesy by Balaam, who was not a Jew, but who foretold good things for the Jewish people.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to all this you can hear the wailings and lamentations of each of the prophets, wailing and lamenting characteristically over the calamities which will overtake the Jewish people because of their impiety to Him Who had been foretold.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.It must be understood that the form of Krishna Consciousness Jesus taught to the Jews is a vey elementary and basic form of Krishna Consciousness because the Jewish people would not be able to understand advanced concepts.^ JESUS canceled the Promised Land Contract, because the Jews did not live as GOD required.

^ I say to you that this man must die, in whom Satan is contriving the destruction of Israel; and he will die, I repeat, because it is better one man die than an entire people.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS cancelled the Promised Land Contract in Luke 19:41-44 because they would not accept JESUS as MESSIAH or HIS instructions.

Krishna Conscious people believe Jesus taught basic forms of Karma, Reincarnation, and Vegetarianism as supported in the Gospel of the Holy Twelve. .Some Hindus believe that Jesus is an incarnation or aspect of the Hindu God Brahman.^ Yes, it would have been hard for the disciples to believe that JESUS came as GODS personal representative.

Contemporary Sant Mat movements regard Jesus as a Satguru. .Ramakrishna believed that Jesus was an Incarnation of God.^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, it would have been hard for the disciples to believe that JESUS came as GODS personal representative.

Swami Vivekananda has praised Jesus and cited him as a source of strength and the epitome of perfection. Mohandas Gandhi expressed similar views. .Paramahansa Yogananda taught that Jesus was the reincarnation of Elisha and a student of John the Baptist, the reincarnation of Elijah.^ John the Baptist came to announce the coming of our SAVIOUR JESUS, which would be a great honor for John, granted by our CREATOR to John.

^ In both cases John the Baptist is killed by Herod fairly early in the story, and of course before the death of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS may have been referring to John the Baptist or to HIMSELF, no matter which.

Buddhist views

Buddhists' views of Jesus differ. .Some Buddhists, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama[200] regard Jesus as a bodhisattva who dedicated his life to the welfare of human beings.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ T2: Matthew 28:7 - Daniel 12:2-4: "Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Mark's Gospel Peter is portrayed as a fool who doesn't understand the message of Jesus, and thus him being Mark's authoritative source is unlikely at best.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.The 14th century Zen master Gasan Jōseki indicated that the sayings of Jesus in the Gospels were written by an enlightened man.^ JESUS said, When you make the two one, you will become the SONS OF MAN, and when you say, Mountain, move away, it will move away.

^ Contains sayings like those in the Gospels, but not attributed to Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Pre-Gospel evidence was never appealed to, and yet, even though the defense of the humanity of Jesus began in the 2nd century, this defense began almost as soon as the Gospels were written.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

[201]

Sikh views

.Sikhism has no connection to Jesus religiously, but there is respect for him.^ NICODEMUS: And that, in any case, there will be no question of condemning him to death.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ JESUS said, Among those born of women, from Adam until John the Baptist, there is no one so superior to John the Baptist that his eyes should not be lowered (before him).

^ JESUS: And as for me, if I think there is no necessity to die?
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

Jesus is mentioned in the Sikh Holy Book, The Sri Guru Granth Shaib as "Issa" as with Allah and the Buddha. .Jesus is not believed to be a God, as Sikhism does not think God comes in the form of a man.^ For God formed man to be imperishable; the image of his own nature he made him.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ GOD, and JESUS, come first, before our earthly family.

^ But not all the relief that could come from man, not all the bounties that the prince could bestow, nor all the atonements which could be presented to the gods, availed to relieve Nero from the infamy of being believed to have ordered the conflagration, the fire of Rome.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

.Sikhism specifically says that salvation can be reached through either the path of the Sikh Religion or through any other religion including Christianity.^ Other such evidences were either intentionally manufactured or inadvertently created through the eye of the beholder.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Justin Martyr and Tertullian made comments that compare the Christian rites to the "mysteries" of other religions.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike most of the Greek and Roman religions, Christianity was highly evangelical with its claims of salvation and "truth".
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Other views

.Mandaeanism, a very small Mideastern, Gnostic sect that reveres John the Baptist as God's greatest prophet, regards Jesus as a false prophet of the false Jewish god of the Old Testament, Adonai,[202] and likewise rejects Abraham, Moses, and Muhammad.^ JESUS: Happy are you, John, that God makes you so clearly confident.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ John the Baptist came to announce the coming of our SAVIOUR JESUS, which would be a great honor for John, granted by our CREATOR to John.

Manichaeism accepted Jesus as a prophet, along with Gautama Buddha and Zoroaster.[203]
The New Age movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus. The creators of A Course In Miracles claim to trance-channel his spirit. However, the New Age movement generally teaches that Christhood is something that all may attain. .Theosophists, from whom many New Age teachings originated (a Theosophist named Alice A. Bailey invented the term New Age), refer to Jesus of Nazareth as the Master Jesus and believe he had previous incarnations.^ JESUS said, Many times you desire to hear these sayings that I speak among you and you have no other from whom to hear them.

^ JONATHAN: His names Jesus; hes the son of a carpenter from Nazareth in Galilee.
  • JESUS OF NAZARETH 24 January 2010 15:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Many writers emphasize Jesus' moral teachings.^ The period from the 2nd to the 4th centuries saw a large volume of writings about Jesus, with various anonymous writers adding many elements to the story of Jesus.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

Garry Wills argues that Jesus' ethics are distinct from those usually taught by Christianity.[204] .The Jesus Seminar portrays Jesus as an itinerant preacher who taught peace and love, rights for women and respect for children, and who spoke out against the hypocrisy of religious leaders and the rich.^ But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, 5 made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressionsit is by grace you have been saved.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The letter is a polemic against "godless men" who don't believe in Jesus, and it also begins to outline the concept of the trinity.
  • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew 21: 12 Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all who were buying and selling there.
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[205] .Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a deist, created the Jefferson Bible entitled "The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth" that included only Jesus' ethical teachings because he did not believe in Jesus' divinity or any of the other supernatural aspects of the Bible.^ Various dogmas that are not found in the Gospels were developed by the emerging Catholics, such as the trinity, the doctrine of "fully human and fully divine", the "Father is equal to the Son", etc., and when the Catholics came into power within the Roman State they used their power to eliminate all of the other various beliefs about Jesus Christ, passing down only the view (which it was required to believe) that Jesus Christ had come "in the flesh", suffered, died, and bodily ascended to heaven.
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^ The life of Jesus is a story that was created by combining elements from many other Hebrew stories to create a pseudo-proto-typical savior figure.
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^ Pray for non-believers to accept JESUS as LORD, HE is the ONE WHO died for our sins.

Legacy of Jesus

Pietà, Jesus' mother Mary holds the body of her dead son, illustration by Michelangelo, 16th c.
Shroud of Turin which some believe shows the face of Jesus at the time of his burial
.According to most Christian interpretations of the Bible, the theme of Jesus' teachings was that of repentance, unconditional love,[Jn. 13:34–35] forgiveness of sin, grace, and the coming of the Kingdom of God.^ But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, 5 made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressionsit is by grace you have been saved.
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^ And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins.
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^ And saying, The time is fulfilled, and the Kingdom of GOD is at hand: repent ye, and believe the gospel.

[206] .Starting as a small Jewish sect,[207] it developed into a religion clearly distinct from Judaism several decades after Jesus death.^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
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^ The development of the Jesus Christ story is best explained not as simply a "paganization" of Judaism, but as a part of Jewish literary tradition.
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^ Indeed "Christianity", or the cult of "Jesus Christ", was just one small segment of this trend within Hellenistic Judaism.
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.Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire under a version known as Nicene Christianity and became the state religion under Theodosius I.^ Theodosius declares Catholicism the official state religion of Rome .
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^ Roman historian and philosopher who lived from 23-79 CE. He traveled throughout the Roman Empire, though mostly in the northern regions.
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^ Roman philosopher and statesman who lived from 3 BCE to 65 CE. He traveled throughout the Roman Empire and was the private tutor of Nero.
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Over the centuries, it spread to most of Europe, and around the world.

Concept of God

.Jesus presented a view of God as more lovingly parental, merciful, and more forgiving, and the growth of a belief in a blissful afterlife and in the resurrection of the dead.^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
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^ Here again we see a range of views about Christ, ranging from the belief that he was just a man to the belief that he was just a god.
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^ If we take the view that Jesus was indeed God, then it would be peculiar that he was unable to write and chose to write nothing himself.
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.His teachings promoted the value of those who had commonly been regarded as inferior: women, the poor, ethnic outsiders, children, prostitutes, the sick, prisoners, etc.^ The angels shall take them to punishment, that vengeance may be inflicted on those who have oppressed his children and his elect.
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^ MAGDALENE: Will you come again, Master, now that we are here alone, two poor women who had only him?
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^ Therefore they will be named "The Words of Imperishability and Truth," for those who know the eternal God in wisdom of knowledge and teaching of angels forever, for he knows all things."
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.For over a thousand years, countless hospitals, orphanages, and schools have been founded explicitly in Jesus' name.^ The suspicion that Jesus never existed was first seriously entertained (within the past thousand years) and addressed in a scholarly fashion in the 19th century.
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Thomas Jefferson considered Jesus' teachings to be "the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man".[208]

Concept of salvation

.Jesus and his message of salvation have been interpreted, explained and understood by many people.^ Many people ask, "If Jesus didn't exist, then where did these stories come from?"
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^ They came out of the tombs, and after Jesus' resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many people.
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^ (Note: Many scholars have interpreted the cursing of the fig tree as a metaphor for Jesus' rejecting of those Jews who reject him and as a foreshadowing of his second coming and judgment.
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.Paul of Tarsus, in his influential epistles which were the earliest writings of the New Testament, espoused that salvation was based on Jesus alone, acknowledging the positive value of the Jewish Law but considering it unnecessary to salvation.^ Josephus did write it, but he based his information on a Gospel or another Christian source, then it is of no value in supporting the existence of "Jesus."
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^ This is certainly something to keep in mind when dealing with the works of Paul, but despite this, the letters of Paul are still critical as the earliest writings about Jesus.
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^ Even the spreading of the religion prior to the Gospels occurred due to apostolistic evangelism, the works of Paul and other writings are a testament to this.
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[209] .The Church Fathers of the early centuries further defined Jesus' identity as fully God.^ From Irenaeus, writing in the 2nd century, we see that by this early time there was already a huge variety of beliefs about who or what Jesus Christ was.
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^ Of course not, but this isn't what the early Church fathers and Christian apologists thought, they viewed the correlations between the Hebrew scriptures (which they typically read in Greek translations) and the story of Jesus as "proof that the religion is true."
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^ The Catholics held a specific view of Jesus Christ as a real live, historical, person, who was both God, the only son of God, and a fully human being.
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[210] .Ancient and medieval thinkers, such as Augustine of Hippo, further defined Jesus' divine and human natures.^ The variety of beliefs ranged from Christ never having become incarnate at all, to Christ having entered into the body of a human Jesus, to the Catholic belief that Jesus was Christ, and that he was both human and divine.
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^ Many of the early Christian apologists that are now considered the "correct ones" defended the belief in Jesus as both human and divine from the many beliefs that Jesus Christ was something other than this.
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^ Irenaeus goes on to discuss the significance of the human nature of Jesus, which is to support the doctrine of salvation of the flesh and to fulfill scripture.
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[210] .Enlightenment and Reformation theologians concerned themselves less with defining Jesus' identity as with understanding his work in redemption.^ All of this makes relying on the works of Paul to build a case or to understand the early views of Jesus difficult, but not impossible.
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[210]
Not all have agreed. .In the 1800s, German scholars questioned Jesus' miracles and some, such as David Strauss, portrayed him as merely a man, hence incapable of providing one's eternal salvation.^ Jesus replied, "I will ask you one question.
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^ In Mark's Gospel Peter is portrayed as a fool who doesn't understand the message of Jesus, and thus him being Mark's authoritative source is unlikely at best.
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^ (Note: Many scholars have interpreted the cursing of the fig tree as a metaphor for Jesus' rejecting of those Jews who reject him and as a foreshadowing of his second coming and judgment.
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[211] .C. S. Lewis and Pope John Paul II have defended the Jesus of faith against historical critics.^ What else is important about this passage is that it is one of the passages in the letters of Paul that would seem to establish a historical view of Jesus, however, as mentioned, this is regarded as a later addition.
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^ This is certainly something to keep in mind when dealing with the works of Paul, but despite this, the letters of Paul are still critical as the earliest writings about Jesus.
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^ Again we get metaphor from Paul, and no indication of knowledge of a literal, historical, crucifixion of Jesus.
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Art and literature

Jesus has been a popular subject in drawing, painting, and sculpture. He is popularly depicted as having long brown hair and a full beard, wearing robes. He is often crucified and wearing a crown of thorns, such as on a crucifix. .The resurrected Jesus has the wounds he suffered on the cross (see stigmata).^ NATHAN: And is it true as Magdalene and Peter found his sepulchre empty, that we will see Jesus resurrected?
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^ As already discussed, Paul also talked about others seeing Jesus Christ "portrayed" as crucified and had visions of his resurrection.
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^ If Jesus didn't really exist in the flesh, suffer, and die, reasons Basil, then we have no reason to believe in resurrection and eternal life, therefore we have to believe that Jesus existed "in flesh".
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He appears as the Christ Child in Christmas nativity scenes. .He has been portrayed on stage and in films in many different ways, both serious and humorous.^ This is not at all unusual, indeed this was a common opinion among both Jews and non-Jews and was also expressed, though in a different way, by the Jewish writer Josephus.
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^ During this time, however, in both Judea and in the diaspora communities, many apocalyptic and Messianic works were written, in both Semitic languages and Greek, and many different Messianic movements emerged.
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^ The thing is that John ends up referencing many of the same passages that Mark and Matthew reference, the author just does it in a different way.
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The figure of Jesus features prominently in art and literature. .A number of popular novels, such as The Da Vinci Code, have also portrayed various ideas about Jesus, and a number of films, such as The Passion of the Christ, have portrayed his life, death, and resurrection.^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
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^ We also know that Paul repeatedly talks about his "relationship" with Jesus Christ, having seen him after his resurrection, having received his knowledge from him, and having been revealed to him.
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^ Prior to the Gospels there are various works that talk about Jesus in a variety of ways, but none of them provide any details about a birth, life, ministry, or death of Jesus.
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.Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have become part of the culture of Western civilization.^ JESUS said, When you make the two one, you will become the SONS OF MAN, and when you say, Mountain, move away, it will move away.

^ Contains sayings like those in the Gospels, but not attributed to Jesus.
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^ Didache is a highly Jewish work, which has sayings in it that are similar to those in the Gospels, but not attributed to Jesus, and it contains rituals that cannot conceivably be tied to the Gospel accounts of similar rituals or the Gospel story.
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There are a few items purported to be relics of Jesus, of which the most famous are the Shroud of Turin and the Sudarium of Oviedo.

Christian antisemitism

.Although Jesus was a Jew as were the first Christians, some anti-Judaic attitudes started to develop even before the end of the first century.^ JUDAS: Before evening.
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^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
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^ We now turn to Wisdom of Solomon , written some time between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE. Most scholars agree that Wisdom of Solomon was written in the 1st century BCE, just shortly before Jesus was supposedly born.
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.For some Jews, the legacy of Jesus has been a history of Christian antisemitism, even though there is evidence of continued Jewish-Christian interaction since the early Church.^ There were many different groups of Christians early on, some of them include: .
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^ The "miraculous signs" narrative in John shows Jesus doing many "miraculous signs", but then at the end says that even after all of this the Jews still didn't believe that he was the Son of God.
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^ Some of these supposed evidences for the existence of Jesus, and more, have been relatively recent forgeries, produced at various times from the Middle Ages through to the 20th century.
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[212] although in the wake of .the Holocaust many Christian groups have gone to considerable lengths to reconcile with Jews and to promote interfaith dialogue and mutual respect.^ There were many different groups of Christians early on, some of them include: .
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Christianity has often been linked to European colonialism.[213] .But others have argued that through Bartolomé de las Casas's defense of the indigenous inhabitants of Spain's New World empire, one of the legacies of Jesus has been the notion of universal human rights.^ JESUS said, Whoever has come to know the world has discovered the body, and whoever has discovered the body, of that one the world is not worthy.

^ As with other theologians who defended the humanity of Jesus, Basil provided theological reasoning to support the existence of Jesus in the flesh.
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^ Many of the early Christian apologists that are now considered the "correct ones" defended the belief in Jesus as both human and divine from the many beliefs that Jesus Christ was something other than this.
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[214]

Religious-political alliances

"Constantine’s recognition of Christianity in 313 and Charlemagne’s crowning by the Pope in 800 are similar in that both events encourage the spreading and acceptance of Christianity in the early European world."[215] The coronation of Charlemagne led to the creation of the Holy Roman Empire. Both the rulers and the Church benefited politically by affiliating with the Church. Christianity was spread throughout the early European world as a result.[216]
Historians say it is questionable whether Constantine truly accepted the Christian faith in a personal manner. .In an attempt to please all of his subjects, he combined pagan worship with Christianity.^ Battle of the Frigidus, Theodosius defeats remaining pagan armies in the Empire, all of Europe now officially Christian .
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Yet, there also were obvious benefits. .Christians were no longer persecuted for their faith.^ He concludes that no such evidence exists and that Christians have to remain agnostic as to the historical reality of this event and continue to take it on faith.
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^ STRANGER: Men of little faith, wasnt it necessary that the Christ die the least honorable death so that you, his disciples and all those you will convert may no longer fear those who will persecute you.
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^ Well then, if we are saved by faith, does this mean that we no longer need obey GODS laws?

.Constantine as Emperor gave many gifts to Christian leaders.^ Emperor Constantine, being the first Roman Emperor who was a Christian, urged the CHURCH to change the Sabbath and so it was changed.

^ Emperor Constantine, supposedly the first Christian Roman Emperor, believed that he could use war in the name of CHRIST. Constantine urged the changing of the Sabbath Day and the CHURCH leaders followed.

.With his belief that the church and state should be as close as possible, Christianity became a part of the government.^ It should be noted that Trajan's reply to Pliny stated that he was not to seek out Christians and that accusations against them be treated with care.
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.With the church and state so closely interknit, children were taught Christian beliefs and these were passed down through generations.^ All of these references are in works that were written after the Gospels had been written and, as with all ancient works, they come down to us through a long line of translations and hand copying.
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^ Wherefore Mark has not erred in any thing, by writing some things as lie has recorded them; for lie was carefully attentive to one thing, not to pass by any thing that he heard, or to state any thing falsely in these accounts.
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.Christianity was able to spread throughout Constantine’s empire.^ By the 1st century CE Jews had spread throughout much of the Roman Empire, this is what is known as the Jewish diaspora.
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[215]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sanders says c 4 BC. Vermes says c 5/6 BC.
  2. ^ "Our conclusion must be that Jesus came from Nazareth." Theissen, Gerd; and Merz, Annette. The historical Jesus: A comprehensive guide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1998. Tr from German (1996 edition). p. 165. ISBN 978-0-8006-3123-9
  3. ^ a b Sanders (1993).p.11, p 249.
  4. ^ Vermes, Geza. The authentic gospel of Jesus. London, Penguin Books. 2004.
  5. ^ Eusebius, (trans. Cameron, Averil; Hall, Stuart G.). Life of Constantine. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York : Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0-19-814917-0
  6. ^ and God incarnate
  7. ^ Theologian and bishop Lesslie Newbigin says "the whole of Christian teaching would fall to the ground if it were the case that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus were not events in real history but stories told to illustrate truths which are valid apart from these happenings." Newbigin, J. E. L. (1989). "The Gospel In a Pluralist Society". London: SPCK. p. 66.
  8. ^ Abdulsalam, M. (19 February 2008). "Jesus in Islam". IslamReligion.com. http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/31/. 
  9. ^ "The Gospel of John is quite different from the other three gospels, and it is primarily in the latter that we must seek information about Jesus." Sanders (1993), p. 57.
  10. ^ a b Funk, Robert W.; Seminar, Jesus (1998). Introduction. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. pp. 1–40. ISBN 978-0-06-062978-6. 
  11. ^ P. Parker, A Proto-Lukan Basis for the Gospel According to the Hebrews Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 59, No. 4 (Dec., 1940), pp. 471-473
  12. ^ J. R. Edwards, The Hebrew Gospel & the Development of the Synoptic Tradition, Eerdmans Publishing, 2009 pp. 1-376
  13. ^ a b Levine, Amy-Jill (1998). Visions of Kingdoms: From Pompey to the First Jewish Revolt (63 BCE—70 CE). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 370–371. ISBN 978-0-19-508707-9. http://books.google.ca/books?id=zFhvECwNQD0C&pg=PA352. 
  14. ^ a b c d Funk, Robert W.; Hoover, Roy W.; Jesus Seminar (1993). Introduction. New York: Maxwell Macmillan. pp. 1–30. ISBN 978-0-02-541949-0. 
  15. ^ a b c Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible : a reader's introduction. Palo Alto: Mayfield. pp. 255–260. ISBN 978-0-87484-696-6. 
  16. ^ a b c d e Crossan, John Dominic (1998). The essential Jesus : original sayings and earliest images. Edison, NJ: Castle Books. ISBN 978-0-7858-0901-2. 
  17. ^ Examples of authors who argue the Jesus myth hypothesis:
  18. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1994). The death of the Messiah : from Gethsemane to the grave : a commentary on the Passion narratives in the four Gospels. New York: Doubleday, Anchor Bible Reference Library: Doubleday. p. 964. ISBN 978-0-385-19397-9. 
  19. ^ Carson, D. A.; et al.. pp. 50–56. 
  20. ^ Cohen (1987). pp. 78, 93, 105, 108. 
  21. ^ Crossan. pp. xi—xiii. 
  22. ^ Grant, Michael. pp. 34–35, 78, 166, 200. 
  23. ^ Paula Fredriksen (1999). Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 6–7, 105–110, 232–234, 266. 
  24. ^ Meier, John P. (1993). 1:68, 146, 199, 278, 386, 2:726. Sanders. pp. 12–13. 
  25. ^ Vermes, Géza (1973). "Jesus the Jew". Philadelphia: Fortress Press. p. 37. 
  26. ^ Maier, Paul L. (1991). Kregel. pp. 1, 99, 121, 171. 
  27. ^ Wright, N. T. (1998). HarperCollins. pp. 32, 83, 100–102, 222. 
  28. ^ Witherington, Ben III. pp. 12–20. 
  29. ^ Though many historians may have certain reservations about the use of the Gospels for writing history, "even the most hesitant, however, will concede that we are probably on safe historical footing" concerning certain basic facts about the life of Jesus; Cruz, Jo Ann H. Moran; Gerberding, Richard (2004). Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 44–45. 
  30. ^ a b Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition). Chapter 1. Quest of the historical Jesus. p. 1-16
  31. ^ a b c d e Grudem, Wayne (1994). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-28670-0. 
  32. ^ Friedmann, Robert (1953). "Antitrinitarianism". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/A597.html. Retrieved June 8, 2008. 
  33. ^ For instance Brown, Raymond E. (1979). The Birth of the Messiah. Garden City, NY: Image Books. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-385-05405-8. 
  34. ^ Houlden, James L. (2005). Jesus: The Complete Guide. London: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-8011-8. 
  35. ^ Prof. Dr. Şaban Ali Düzgün (2004). "Uncovering Islam: Questions and Answers about Islamic Beliefs and Teachings". Ankara: The Presidency of Religious Affairs Publishing. http://www.diyanet.gov.tr/English/web_kitap.asp?yid=30. 
  36. ^ "Compendium of Muslim Texts". http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/004.qmt.html#004.157. 
  37. ^ Brown Driver Brigges Hebrew and English Lexicon; Hendrickson Publishers 1996 ISBN 1565632060.
  38. ^ Fausset's Bible Dictionary
  39. ^  "Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Origin_of_the_Name_of_Jesus_Christ. 
  40. ^ a b Vine, W.E. (1940). Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company. ISBN None. 
  41. ^ Some of the historians and Biblical scholars who place the birth and death of Jesus within this range include D. A. Carson, Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1992, 54, 56
  42. ^ Michael Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner's, 1977, p. 71; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew, Doubleday, 1991–, vol. 1:214; Sanders (1993), pp. 10–11; and Ben Witherington III, "Primary Sources," Christian History 17 (1998) No. 3:12–20.
  43. ^ Edwin D. Freed, Stories of Jesus' Birth, (Continuum International, 2004), page 119.
  44. ^ Géza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, page 22.
  45. ^ James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans Publishing (2003), page 324.
  46. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia, Christmas
  47. ^ Luke 3:23
  48. ^ Luke states that John's ministry began in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, and Herod was tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip was tetrarch of the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias was tetrarch of Abilene, during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas.
  49. ^ Hoehner, Harold W. (1978). Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Zondervan. pp. 29–37. ISBN 0310262119. http://books.google.com/books?id=6z-NcR7fVSIC&dq=CHronological+Aspects+of+the+Life+of+Christ&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  50. ^ Carol A. Newsom, Sharon H. Ringe, The Women's Bible Commentary, (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) page 381. Google Book Search preview
  51. ^ Theissen 1998, pp. 64–72
  52. ^ Theissen 1998, pp. 81-83
  53. ^ a b Pontius Pilate in history and interpretation, Helen Katharine Bond p. 12
  54. ^ Green, Joel B. (1997). The Gospel of Luke : new international commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.. p. 168. ISBN 0802823157. http://books.google.com/books?id=koYlW6IoOjMC&pg=PR85&dq=Joel+B.+Green,+The+Gospel+of+Luke,+(Eerdmans,+1997),+page+168&ei=pd98Sa_HA5HEMf7HnaQF&client=firefox-a#PPA168,M1. 
  55. ^ a b "The Historical Figure of Jesus," Sanders, E.P., Penguin Books: London, 1995, p., 3.
  56. ^ ""What the Old Testament Prophesied About the Messiah"". http://Christianity.com/Christian%20Foundations/Jesus/11541169/. Retrieved October 11, 2007. 
  57. ^ Sanders 1993 132-143
  58. ^ "synoptic". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.
  59. ^ Carlson, Stephen C. "The Two Source Hypothesis." Aug. 20, 2009. <http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/synopt/2sh/index.htm>
  60. ^ a b c d e f g Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  61. ^ a b c d Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why. HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 978-0-06-073817-4
  62. ^ Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1972
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "John" pp. 302–310
  64. ^ Stagg, Frank (1962). New Testament Theology. Broadman Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0805416138. 
  65. ^ [Mt. 1:1–17]
  66. ^ [Lk. 3:23–38]
  67. ^ Joseph A. Fitzmyer, The Gospel According to Luke I–IX. Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday, 1981, pp. 499–500; I. Howard Marshall, The Gospel of Luke (The New International Greek Testament Commentary). Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978, p. 158;
  68. ^ Ben Witherington, "Birth of Jesus" in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Ed. Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall, page 65
  69. ^ Bienert, Wolfgang E. (2003). [9780664227210 "The Relatives of Jesus"]. in Wilhelm Schneemelcher, Robert McLachlan Wilson. New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and Related Writings. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 487. 9780664227210. 
  70. ^ Matthew 13:55–56, Mark 6:3 and Galatians 1:19
  71. ^ The Greek word adelphos in these verses, often translated as brother, can refer to any familial relation, and most Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians translate the word as kinsman, brethren, or cousin in this context (see Perpetual virginity of Mary).
  72. ^ The members of the church also addressed each other as "Brethren". http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=283&letter=S&search=paul#973
  73. ^ "Sanders, p. 3."
  74. ^ a b c d Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "Matthew" pp. 272–285
  75. ^ For Egypt: Matthew 2:13–23; For Tyre and sometimes Sidon:Matthew 15:21–28 and Mark 7:24–30 Only Luke tells that Jesus was found teaching in the temple by his parents after being lost. The Finding in the Temple is the sole event between Jesus' infancy and baptism mentioned in any of the canonical Gospels.[Lk. 2:41–52]
  76. ^ "Lost Scriptures: Books that Did Not Make it Into the New Testament," Ehrman, Bart D., Oxford University Press: New York, 2003, p. 58.
  77. ^ "An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon." The Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 797.
  78. ^ Early Christian accounts reflect some perplexity at Jesus being baptized, especially by a subordinate figure. See "Baptism of Christ". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  79. ^ Matthew 4:1–11, Mark 1:12–13, Luke 4:1–13
  80. ^ "John, Gospel of." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  81. ^ a b "John, Gospel of St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  82. ^ Meier 1991 vol. 1:405
  83. ^ a b c Introduction. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
  84. ^ "The Thompson Chain-Reference Study Bible", published December 1999, B.B. Kirkbride Bible Co., Inc.; William Adler & Paul Tuffin, "The Chronography of George Synkellos: A Byzantine Chronicle of Universal History from the Creation", Oxford University Press (2002), p. 466
  85. ^ a b c d e f Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998.
  86. ^ Luke 14:26, Matthew 10:37. Luke contains a harsher version than the saying in Matthew, as does Thomas. Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. p. 353
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "Mark" pp. 285–296
  88. ^ a b c d Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "Luke" pp. 297–301
  89. ^ In John, Jesus' ministry takes place in and around Jerusalem.
  90. ^ 1 Corinthians 13:1–8, 1 John 4:8, Luke 10:26–28, and Matthew 22:37–40
  91. ^ Sermon on the Mount;[Mt. 5–7] Prodigal Son;[Lk. 15:11–32] Parable of the Sower;[Mt. 13:1–9] Agape[Mt. 22:34–40]
  92. ^ Matthew 17:1–6, Mark 9:1–8, Luke 9:28–36
  93. ^ a b c d Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Mark" pp. 51–161
  94. ^ "Messianic Secret", Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  95. ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. pages 72–73.
  96. ^ "Jesus was claiming for himself the title "I AM" by which God designates himself... he was claiming to be God."—Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology, page 546, Zondervan.
  97. ^ The crowd was quoting Psalms 118:26; found in John 12:13–16.
  98. ^ John puts the cleansing of the temple at the start of Jesus' ministry.
  99. ^ a b Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Matthew" pp. 129–270
  100. ^ Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Luke" pp. 267–364
  101. ^ Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "John" pp. 365–440
  102. ^ Luke 22:47–52, Matthew 26:47–56
  103. ^ The apostle is identified as Simon Peter in John 18:10; the healing of the ear is found in Luke 22:51.
  104. ^ [Mt. 27:51]; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45
  105. ^ Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:9; Luke 24:1; John 20:1
  106. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Empty Tomb, Appearances & Ascension" pp. 449–495.
  107. ^ May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
  108. ^ Jesus' appearances in Mark were not part of the original text. See Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. "Empty Tomb, Appearances & Ascension" pp. 449–495.
  109. ^ Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar. The acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco. 1998. p. 491
  110. ^ Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (InterVarsity Press, 1992), page 442
  111. ^ Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. p. 558; John P. Meier, A Marginal Jew. New York: Doubleday, 1991 vol. 1:205–7;
  112. ^ "Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  113. ^ e.g. Leviticus 4:3–5
  114. ^ e.g., King David 2 Samuel 23:1
  115. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Messiah
  116. ^ a b c d Vermes (1981).
  117. ^ Martin Hengel, The Son of God: The Origin of Christology and the History of Jewish-Hellenistic Religion (Wipf & Stock Publishers 2007); Robert M. Bowman, Jr., Ed Komoszewski, Putting Jesus in His Place: The Case for the Deity of Christ (Kregel 2007); Jacob Neusner, Rabbi talks with Jesus (Image 1994); Joseph Ratzinger, Jesus of Nazareth, (Ignatius Press 2008); Fernando Ocariz, Luis Mateo Seco, Alfonso Riestra, Mystery of Jesus Christ, (Four Courts Press 1994); Gerald O'Collins S.J., Christology: A Biblical, Historical, and Systematic Study of Jesus Christ (Oxford University Press 1995)
  118. ^ "A further point of broad agreement among New Testament scholars is…that the historical Jesus did not make the claim to deity that later Christian thought was to make for him: he did not understand himself to be God, or God the Son, incarnate."—John Hick, The Metaphor of God Incarnate: Christology in a Pluralistic Age, Westminster John Knox Press, page 27; Michael Ramsey, Jesus and the Living Past (Oxford University Press, 1980), page 39: 'Jesus did not claim deity for himself'; C. F. D. Moule, The Origin of Christology: 'Any case for a "high" Christology that depended on the authenticity of the alleged claims of Jesus about himself, especially in the Fourth Gospel, would indeed be precarious'; James Dunn, Christology in the Making, (SCM Press 1980), page 254: 'We cannot claim that Jesus believed himself to be the incarnate Son of God' and 'There is no question in my mind that the doctrine of incarnation comes to clear expression within the NT…John 1:14 ranks as a classic formulation of the Christian belief in Jesus as incarnate God.' Page xiii; Brian Hebblethwaite, The Incarnation (Cambridge University Press, 1987), page 74: 'it is no longer possible to defend the divinity of Jesus by reference to the claims of Jesus'; John A. T. Robinson, Honest to God, Westminster Press (1963), p. 47: 'It is, indeed, an open question whether Jesus ever claimed to be the Son of God, let alone God.'; Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, page 5, describes the view that Jesus made 'both his Messiahship and his divinity clear to his disciples during his ministry' as 'naive and ahistorical'.
  119. ^ Larry Hurtado, Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity, (Eerdmans, 2005), page 650.
  120. ^ a b Schaeffer, Francis (1968). The God Who is There. Downers Grove, Il.: InterVarsity Press. pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-8308-1947-9. 
  121. ^ Borg, Marcus J. in Borg, Marcus J. and N. T. Wright. The Meaning of Jesus: Two visions. New York: HarperCollins. 2007.
  122. ^ "Pope's Book: A Lifetime of Learning". Newsweek. 21 May 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18629516/site/newsweek/print/0/displaymode/1098/. Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  123. ^ Pope Benedict XVI, Jesus of Nazareth. Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 978-0-385-52341-7
  124. ^ Chesterton, G. K. The everlasting man. 1925, Part II, chapter II, also says that "the merely human Christ is a made-up figure, a piece of artificial selection".
  125. ^ "Extrabiblical references to Jesus". Extra-biblical references to Jesus and Christianity. Rational Christianity. 17 January 2006. http://www.rationalchristianity.net/jesus_extrabib.html. Retrieved December 4, 2008. 
  126. ^ "The nonhistoricity thesis has always been controversial, and it has consistently failed to convince scholars of many disciplines and religious creeds. ... Biblical scholars and classical historians now regard it as effectively refuted."—Van Voorst, Robert E. Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000), p. 16.
  127. ^ "The denial of Jesus' historicity has never convinced any large number of people, in or out of technical circles, nor did it in the first part of the century." Walter P. Weaver, The Historical Jesus in the Twentieth Century, 1900–1950, (Continuum International, 1999), page 71.
  128. ^ "about once every generation someone reruns the thesis that Jesus never existed and that the Jesus tradition is a wholesale invention", J. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, (Eerdmans, 2003), page 142.
  129. ^ "There is almost Universal agreement that Jesus lived." Bernard L. Ramm, An Evangelical Christology: Ecumenic and Historic, (Regent College Publishing, 1993), page 19.
  130. ^ "some judgements are so probable as to be certain; for example, Jesus really existed", Marcus Borg, 'A Vision of the Christian Life', in Marcus J. Borg and N T Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions, (HarperCollins, 1999), page 236.
  131. ^ a b Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005—article "Historical Jesus, Quest of the"
  132. ^ Meier (1991), pp. 43–4
  133. ^ For a comparison of the Jesus movement to the Zealots, see S. G. F. Brandon, Jesus and the Zealots: a study of the political factor in primitive Christianity, Manchester University Press (1967) ISBN 0684310104
  134. ^ For a general comparison of Jesus' teachings to other schools of first century Judaism, see John P. Meier, Companions and Competitors (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Volume 3) Anchor Bible, 2001. ISBN 0–385–46993–4.
  135. ^ Shaye J.D. Cohen, From the Maccabees to the Mishnah, Westminster Press, 1987, pp. 78, 93, 105, 108; Crossan, The Historical Jesus', pp. xi—xiii; Michael Grant, pp. 34–35, 78, 166, 200; Paula Fredriksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, Alfred B. Knopf, 1999, pp. 6–7, 105–110, 232–234, 266; John P. Meier, vol. 1:68, 146, 199, 278, 386, 2:726; Sanders (1993), pp. 12–13; Géza Vermes, Jesus the Jew (Philadelphia: Fortress Press 1973), p. 37.;
  136. ^ a b Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987; Vermes, Géza. Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1981; Fredriksen, Paula. From Jesus to Christ. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
  137. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Vermes, Geza. The authentic gospel of Jesus. London, Penguin Books. 2004. Chapter 10: Towards the authentic gospel. p. 370-397.
  138. ^ Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition)
  139. ^ Crossan, John Dominic. The essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books. 1998. p. 146
  140. ^ See Schwietzer, Albert The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede, pp. 370–371, 402. Scribner (1968), ISBN 0020892403; Ehrman, Bart Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press USA, 1999. ISBN 019–512474-X. Crossan, however, makes a distinction between John's apocalyptic ministry and Jesus' ethical ministry. See Crossan, John Dominic, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus, pp. 305–344. Harper Collins, 1998. ISBN 0060616598
  141. ^ a b c Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993.
  142. ^ Theissen, Gerd and Annette Merz. The historical Jesus: a comprehensive guide. Fortress Press. 1998. translated from German (1996 edition). Retrospect: a short life of Jesus. p. 569-572-.
  143. ^ "Pharisees", Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  144. ^ Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Talmud and other Jewish literature. Maccoby, Hyam Jesus the Pharisee, Scm Press, 2003. ISBN 0334029147; Falk, Harvey Jesus the Pharisee: A New Look at the Jewishness of Jesus, Wipf & Stock Publishers (2003). ISBN 1592443133.
  145. ^ Neusner, Jacob (2000). A Rabbi Talks With Jesus. Montreal; Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-2046-2. Rabbi Neusner contends that Jesus' teachings were closer to the House of Shammai than the House of Hillel.
  146. ^ "Sadducees". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  147. ^ Based on a comparison of the Gospels with the Dead Sea Scrolls, especially the Teacher of Righteousness and Pierced Messiah. Eisenman, Robert James the Brother of Jesus: The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Penguin (Non-Classics), 1998. ISBN 014025773X; Stegemann, Hartmut The Library of Qumran: On the Essenes, Qumran, John the Baptist, and Jesus. Grand Rapids MI, 1998. See also Broshi, Magen, "What Jesus Learned from the Essenes", Biblical Archaeology Review, 30:1, pg. 32–37, 64. Magen notes similarities between Jesus' teachings on the virtue of poverty and divorce, and Essene teachings as related in Josephus' The Jewish Wars and in the Damascus Document of the Dead Sea Scrolls, respectively. See also Akers, Keith The Lost Religion of Jesus. Lantern, 2000. ISBN 1930051263
  148. ^ Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI, Jesus of Nazareth, p. 14
  149. ^ a b "Zealots". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  150. ^ "Jesus Christ". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  151. ^ "The New Testament was complete, or substantially complete, about AD 100, the majority of the writings being in existence twenty to forty years before this...the situation is encouraging from the historian's point of view, for the first three Gospels were written at a time when many were alive who could remember the things that Jesus said and did... At any rate, the time elapsing between the evangelic events and the writing of most of the New Testament books was, from the standpoint of historical research, satisfactorily short." Bruce, F. F.: The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?, pp. 12–14, InterVarsity Press, USA, 1997.
  152. ^ "There is no reason to doubt that we have in the Gospel tradition several authentic fragments of His [Jesus Christ's] teaching (albeit in Greek translation)." "Jesus Christ". Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  153. ^ Peter, Kirby (2001–2007). "Early Christian Writings: Gospel of Mark". http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/mark.html. Retrieved January 15, 2008. 
  154. ^ Achtemeier, Paul J. (1991–). "The Gospel of Mark". The Anchor Bible Dictonary. 4. New York, .New York: Doubleday.^ New York: Doubleday.
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    p. 545. ISBN 0385193629.
     
  155. ^ Meier, John P. (1991). A Marginal Jew. New York, .New York: Doubleday.^ New York: Doubleday.
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    • Jesus - Wikiquote 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    pp. v.2 955–6. ISBN 0385469934.
     
  156. ^ A. Harnack, The Date of Acts and the Synoptic Gospels (1911), p. 90; J. A. T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament, pp. 86–92; I. H. Marshall, Luke, p. 35; A. J. Mattill Jr., ‘The Date and Purpose of Luke-Acts: Rackham reconsidered, in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 40 (1978), pp. 335–350.
  157. ^ "Matthew, Gospel acc. to St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  158. ^ Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Doubleday: 1991. vol 1: pp. 168–171.
  159. ^ a b Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. Introduction, pp. 1–38
  160. ^ Kenneth Keulman, Critical Moments in Religious History, Mercer University Press, p. 56
  161. ^ Andrew F. Gregory, Christopher Mark Tuckett, The Reception of the New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers, Oxford University Press, p. 178
  162. ^ Powell, Mark Allan (1998). Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from Galilee. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-664-25703-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=IJP4DRCVaUMC&pg=PA168&. 
  163. ^ Weaver, Walter P. (1999). The historical Jesus in the twentieth century. Harrisburg, Pa.: Trinity Press International. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-56338-280-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=1CZbuFBdAMUC&pg=PA71&l#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  164. ^ Voorst, Robert E., Van (2000). Jesus outside the New Testament: an introduction to the ancient evidence. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=lwzliMSRGGkC&pg=PA16#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  165. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/profile/james-g-dunn
  166. ^ http://www.britac.ac.uk/fellowship/elections/2006/dunn_j.cfm
  167. ^ Durant 1944:553–7
  168. ^ "…if we apply to the New Testament, as we should, the same sort of criteria as we should apply to other ancient writings containing historical material, we can no more reject Jesus' existence than we can reject the existence of a mass of pagan personages whose reality as historical figures is never questioned. ... To sum up, modern critical methods fail to support the Christ myth theory. It has 'again and again been answered and annihilated by first rank scholars.' In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary." M. Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review, pp. 199–200. 1977
  169. ^ http://www.biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/rh/death-of-jesus_dunn.pdf
  170. ^ J. G. D. Dunn, The Christ and the Spirit, Volume I: Christology, (Eerdmans / T & T Clark, 1998), page 191. see also Bruce, FF (1982). New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? InterVarsity Press, ISBN 087784691X
  171. ^ Herzog II, WR (2005). Prophet and Teacher. WJK, ISBN 0664225284
  172. ^ This section draws on a number of sources to determine the doctrines of these groups, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book of Concord, and others.
  173. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §436–40; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Irenaeus Adversus Haereses in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 7/1, 93; Luke 2:1; Matthew 16:16
  174. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §606–618; Council of Trent (1547) in Denzinger-Schönmetzer, Enchiridion Symbolorum, definitionum et declarationum de rebus fidei et morum (1965) §1529;John 14:2–3
  175. ^ Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 9; Augsburg Confession, article 2; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 8; Romans 5:12–21; 1 Corinthians 15:21–22.
  176. ^ Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed;Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9
  177. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §638–655; Byzantine Liturgy, Troparion of Easter; Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 4 and 17; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Second Helvetic Confession, chapter 9.
  178. ^ Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §668–675, 678–679; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; Matthew 25:32–46
  179. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §1021–1022
  180. ^ Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §441–451; Augsburg Confession, article 3; Luther's Small Catechism, commentary on Apostles' Creed; Matthew 16:16–17; 1 Corinthians 2:8
  181. ^ Augsburg Confession, article 3; John 1:1
  182. ^ Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §461–463;Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, article 2; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed; John 1:14, 16; Hebrews 10:5–7
  183. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church §456–460; Gregory of Nyssa, Orat. catech. 15 in Patrologia Graeca ed. J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857–1866) 45, 48B; St. Irenaeus, Adversus Haereses 3.19.1 in ibid. 7/1, 939; St. Athanasius, De inc., 54.3 in ibid. 25, 192B. St. Thomas Aquinas, Opusc. in ibid. 57: 1–4; Galatians 4:4–5
  184. ^ Apostles' Creed; Nicene Creed; Catechism of the Catholic Church §484–489, 494–507; Luther's Small Catechism commentary on Apostles' Creed
  185. ^ a b c "Isa", Encyclopedia of Islam
  186. ^ Fasching, deChant (2001) p. 241
  187. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, p. 158
  188. ^ in India
  189. ^ Rice, Edward (1978). Eastern Definitions: A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient. New York. p. 7. ISBN 038508563X. .
  190. ^ http://reluctant-messenger.com/issa.htm The Life of Saint Issa, Nicolas Notovitch
  191. ^ Schäfer, Peter; Cohen, Mark R. (1998). Toward the Millennium: Messianic Expectations from the Bible to Waco. Leiden/Princeton: Brill/Princeton UP. p. 306. ISBN 90-04-11037-2. .
  192. ^ Günter Grönbold, Jesus In Indien, München: Kösel 1985, ISBN 3466202701.
  193. ^ Norbert Klatt, Lebte Jesus in Indien?, Göttingen: Wallstein 1988.
  194. ^ Emunoth ve-Deoth, II:5
  195. ^ Simmons, Shraga, "Why Jews Do not Believe in Jesus", Retrieved April 15, 2007; "Why Jews Do not Believe in Jesus", Ohr SamayachAsk the Rabbi, Retrieved April 15, 2007; "Why do not Jews believe that Jesus was the Messiah?", AskMoses.com, Retrieved April 15, 2007
  196. ^ "Even Jesus the Nazarene who imagined that he would be Messiah and was killed by the court, was already prophesied by Daniel. So that it was said, "And the members of the outlaws of your nation would be carried to make a (prophetic) vision stand. And they stumbled." (Daniel 11.14) Because, is there a greater stumbling-block than this one? So that all of the prophets spoke that the Messiah redeems Israel, and saves them, and gathers their banished ones, and strengthens their commandments. And this one caused (nations) to destroy Israel by sword, and to scatter their remnant, and to humiliate them, and to exchange the Torah, and to make the majority of the world err to serve a divinity besides God. However, the thoughts of the Creator of the world — there is no force in a human to attain them because our ways are not God's ways, and our thoughts not God's thoughts. And all these things of Jesus the Nazarene, and of (Muhammad) the Ishmaelite who stood after him — there is no (purpose) but to straighten out the way for the King Messiah, and to restore all the world to serve God together. So that it is said, "Because then I will turn toward the nations (giving them) a clear lip, to call all of them in the name of God and to serve God (shoulder to shoulder as) one shoulder."(Zephaniah 3.9) Look how all the world already becomes full of the things of the Messiah, and the things of the Torah, and the things of the commandments! And these things spread among the far islands and among the many nations uncircumcised of heart. "Hilchot Malachim (laws concerning kings) (Hebrew)", MechonMamre.org, Retrieved April 15, 2007
  197. ^ Waxman, Jonathan (2006). "Messianic Jews Are Not Jews". United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism. http://www.uscj.org/Messianic_Jews_Not_J5480.html. Retrieved January 15, 2008. "Judaism has held that the Mashiach will come and usher in a new era; not that he will proclaim his arrival, die and wait centuries to finish his task. To continue to assert that Jesus was the Mashiach goes against the belief that the Mashiach will transform the world when he does come, not merely hint at a future transformation at some undefined time to come... Judaism rejects the claim that a new covenant was created with Jesus and asserts instead that the chain of Tradition reaching back to Moshe continues to make valid claims on our lives, and serve as more than mere window dressing." 
  198. ^ Contemporary American Reform Responsa, #68, "Question 18.3.4: Reform's Position On...What is unacceptable practice?", faqs.org. Retrieved April 15, 2007.
  199. ^ Stockman, Robert (1992). "Jesus Christ in the Baha'i Writings". Bahá'í Studies Review (1). OCLC 30061083. http://bahai-library.com/index.php5?file=stockman_jesus_bahai_writings. 
  200. ^ Beverley, James A., Hollywood's Idol, Christianity Today, "Jesus Christ also lived previous lives", he said. "So, you see, he reached a high state, either as a Bodhisattva, or an enlightened person, through Buddhist practice or something like that", Retrieved April 20, 2007
  201. ^ 101 Zen Stories; #16
  202. ^ "Mandaean Scriptures and Fragments: The Haran Gawaitha". http://www.gnosis.org/library/haran.htm. Retrieved April 20, 2007. 
  203. ^ Bevan, A. A. (1930). "Manichaeism". Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume VIII Ed. James Hastings. London
  204. ^ Wills, Garry, What Jesus Meant (2006) ISBN 0670034967
  205. ^ Crossan, The Historical Jesus'; Robert Funk, The Five Gospels: What did Jesus really say? The search for the authentic words of Jesus, Harper San Francisco (1997), ISBN 006063040X; Robert Funk, The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?, The Jesus Seminar, Harper San Francisco (1998), ISBN 0–06–062978–9; The Jesus Seminar, The Gospel of Jesus: According to the Jesus Seminar, Robert Walter Funk (Editor), Polebridge Press (1999), ISBN 0944344747
  206. ^ Sniegocki, John. "Review of Joseph GRASSI, Peace on Earth: Roots and Practices from Luke's Gospel," Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2004 (repentance, forgiveness); Bock, Darrell L. "Major Themes of Jesus' life", (coming of the Kingdom of God); Brussat, Frederic and Mary Ann. "Review of If Grace Is So Amazing, Why Do not We Like It?," (grace); Hughes, F. A. "Grace and Truth", Stem Publishing 1972 (grace)
  207. ^ Duhaime, Jean; Blasi, Anthony J.; Turcotte, Paul-André (2002). Handbook of early Christianity: social science approaches. Walnut Creek, Calif: AltaMira Press. p. 434. ISBN 0759100152. 
  208. ^ "The Jefferson Bible". http://www.angelfire.com/co/JeffersonBible/jeffintr.html. Retrieved April 20, 2007. 
  209. ^ "Paul, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  210. ^ a b c "Christology." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  211. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article "Strauss, David Frederick"
  212. ^ Nicholls, William. "Christian Antisemitism: A History of Hate," 1993. Jason Aronson Inc., 1995; "Mature Christianity: The Recognition and Repudiation of the Anti-Jewish Polemic in the New Testament." Norman A. Beck, Susquehanna University Press, 1985; "The Satanizing of the Jews: Origin and development of mystical anti-Semitism" Joel Carmichael, Fromm, 1993; "The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity" John G. Gager, Oxford Univ. Press, 1983; "What Did They Think of the Jews?" Edited by Allan Gould, Jason Aronson Inc., 1991; "The New Testament's Anti-Jewish Slander and Conventions of Ancient Polemic", Luke Johnson, Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 3, 1989; "Three Popes and the Jews" Pinchas E. Lapide, Hawthorne Books, 1967; "National Socialism and the Roman Catholic Church" Nathaniel Micklem, Oxford Univ. Press, 1939; Theological Anti-Semitism in the New Testament", Rosemary Radford Ruether, Christian Century, Feb. 1968, Vol. 85; "John Chrysostom and the Jews" Robert L. Wilken, Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, 1983
  213. ^ Of Revelation and Revolution, Volume 1: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa by Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff 1991 University of Chicago Press; A Violent Evangelism: The Political and Religious Conquest of the Americas by Luis Rivera Pagan 1992 Westminster Press; The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in the 17th century by James Muldoon 1994 University of Pennsylvania Press; An Empire Divided: Religion, Republicanism, and the Making of French Colonialism, 1880–1914 by J.P. Daughton 2006 Oxford University Press; Contracting Colonialism: Translations and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule by Vicente L. Rafael 1988 Cornell University Press; Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-Cultural Communication Since 1500; With Special Reference to Caste, Conversion, and Colonialism (Studies in the History of Christian Missions) edited by Robert Eric Frykenberg and Alaine Low 2003 Wm. B. Eerdmans
  214. ^ Conor Gearty, Doing Human Rights: Social Justice in a Post-Socialist Age; Iván A. Castro, 100 Hispanics You Should Know, p. 49-51: Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, Missionary, Human Rights Activist; Central and South American Chronology; Prospect High School Library Technology Center
  215. ^ a b Nosotro, Rit. "Church and State: Constantine 313 and Charlemagne 800." Hyperhistory.net Web: 19 Jan 2009. Church and State: Constantine 313 and Charlemagne 800.
  216. ^ Barrs, Ian. "Constantine to Charlemagne: The Medieval Church creates Christendom." Web: 19 Jan 2010 Constantine to Charlemagne: The Medieval Church creates Christendom

References

  • Allison, Dale. .Jesus of Nazareth: Millenarian Prophet. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1999. ISBN 0800631447
  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN 0385247672
  • Cohen, Shaye J.D..^ It's not just that Paul didn't have details about the life of Jesus, many of the books in the New Testament contain no hint of information about a historical Jesus.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jesus and Christian Origins outside the New Testament ; F.F Bruce, 1974 .
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987. ISBN 978-0-664-21911-6
  • Cohen, Shaye J.D. The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. ISBN 0520226933
  • Crossan, John Dominic. .
    • The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1993. ISBN 0060616296
    • Who Killed Jesus?: exposing the roots of anti-semitism in the Gospel story of the death of Jesus.^ JESUS said, The heavens will be rolled up, and the Earth, in your presence, and he who lives as a result of HIM who lives, he will not see death.

      ^ Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
      • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Those who accept JESUS, and HIS instructions, are a part of the family of the HOLY SPIRIT. They will not taste death!

      San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995. ISBN 978-0-06-061671-7
  • Davenport, Guy; and Urrutia, Benjamin (trans.) The Logia of Yeshua: The sayings of Jesus. Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1996. ISBN 978-1-887178-70-9
  • De La Potterie, Ignace. The hour of Jesus: The passion and the resurrection of Jesus according to John. New York: Alba House, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8189-0575-9
  • Durant, Will. Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944. ISBN 0671115006
  • Ehrman, Bart. The Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0195141830
  • Ehrman, Bart. .The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0195154622
  • Fredriksen, Paula.^ For the majority of time Christians have believed that Matthew was written first, hence the reason that it is the first book in the New Testament.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Early Christian Writings.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unlike the writings of the Old Testament, which cover a time span of hundreds, if not thousands, of years, the writings of the New Testament cover a very brief period of time.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity. New York: Vintage, 2000. ISBN 0679767460
  • Fredriksen, Paula.^ The religious Christian view takes the Gospels as accurate and reliable accounts of the life of Jesus, including all of the miracles.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The secular historical view, which may also be held by some Christians, takes the Gospels as exaggerated accounts of the life of a real Jesus.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Matthew 2: 1 In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, magi from the East came to Jerusalem, 2 asking, Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews?
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    .From Jesus to Christ: The origins of the New Testament images of Christ. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-300-08457-3
  • Finegan, Jack.^ The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sadly, the early CHURCH leaders changed the original New Testament Scriptures to fit their desires.

    ^ Philippians 3: 12 Not that I have already obtained this or have already been made perfect; but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    Handbook of Biblical Chronology, revised ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1565631439
V. 1, The Roots of the Problem and the Person, 1991. ISBN 0385264259
V. 2, Mentor, Message, and Miracles, 1994. ISBN 0385469926
V. 3, Companions and Competitors, 2001. ISBN 0385469934
  • O'Collins, Gerald. Interpreting Jesus. "Introducing Catholic theology". London: G. Chapman; Ramsey, NJ: Paulist Press, 1983. ISBN 978-0-8091-2572-2
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. .Jesus Through the Centuries: His Place in the History of Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. ISBN 0300079877
  • Robinson, John A. T. Redating the New Testament. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001 (original 1977).^ Some of these supposed evidences for the existence of Jesus, and more, have been relatively recent forgeries, produced at various times from the Middle Ages through to the 20th century.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Then, when JESUS (or HOLY SPIRIT) finds the person worthy the following will take place, John 14:15-16.

    ISBN 1579105270.
  • Sanders, E.P. The Historical Figure of Jesus. London: Allen Lane Penguin Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-7139-9059-1
  • Sanders, E.P. Jesus and Judaism. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1987. ISBN 0800620615
  • Theissen, Gerd; Merz, Annette (1998). The historical Jesus : a comprehensive guide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 0800631226. 
  • Vermes, Géza. Jesus in his Jewish Context. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0800636236
  • Vermes, Géza. .Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1981. ISBN 0800614437
  • Vermes, Géza.^ Surely a Jew from Galilee would have made at least some comment about Jesus if he existed as described in the Gospels, or anything even remotely close to the Gospels, would he not?
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Secular historians who believe that Jesus existed rely on the Gospels as essentially historical, but inflated, accounts of his life.
    • Jesus Myth - The Case Against Historical Christ 16 January 2010 15:10 UTC www.rationalrevolution.net [Source type: Original source]

    The Religion of Jesus the Jew. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1993. ISBN 0800627970
  • Wilson, A.N. Jesus. London: Pimlico, 2003. ISBN 0712606971
  • Wright, N.T. Jesus and the Victory of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1997. ISBN 0800626826
  • Wright, N.T. The Resurrection of the Son of God: Christian Origins and the Question of God. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2003. ISBN 0800626796

External links

Religious views
Historical and skeptical views