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Jews
יהודים (Yehudim)
Jews.jpg
Total population
13,155,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Israel 5,393,000[1] – 5,569,000[2]
 United States 5,275,000[1] – 6,444,000 [3]
 France 490,000 [1]
 Canada 374,000 [1]
 United Kingdom 295,000 [1]
 Russia 225,000 [1]
 Argentina 184,000 [1]
 Germany 120,000 [1]
 Australia 104,000 [1]
 Brazil 96,000 [1]
 Ukraine 77,000 [1]
 South Africa 72,000 [1]
 Hungary 49,000 [1]
 Mexico 40,000 [1]
 Belgium 31,200 [4]
 Netherlands 30,000 [4]
 Italy 28,600 [4]
 Chile 20,700 [4]
 Belarus 18,200 [4]
 Uruguay 18,000 [4]
 Switzerland 17,900 [4]
 Turkey 17,800 [4]
 Venezuela 15,400 [4]
 Sweden 15,000 [4]
 Spain 12,000 [4]
 Iran 10,800 [4]
 Romania 10,100 [4]
 Latvia 9,800 [4]
 Austria 9,000 [4]
 Azerbaijan 6,800 [4]
 Denmark 6,400 [4]
 Panama 5,000 [4]
Languages
Historical Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Ladino · others
Liturgical languages
Hebrew · Aramaic
Predominant spoken languages
The vernacular language of each home nation in the Jewish diaspora, including, significantly, English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian.
Religion
.The Jews (Hebrew: יְהוּדִים‎, Yehudim), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.^ Their names vary in origin and probably also in point of age, and where they represent fixed territorial limits, the districts so described were in some cases certainly peopled by groups of non-Israelite ancestry.

^ As regards the Jewish people, Mark, himself a Jew, does not pass any judgement on them.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between salvation and the Jewish people becomes an explicit object of theological reflection in John: Salvation comes from the Jews (Jn 4:22).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation.^ So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.

^ The temple-tax was strictly exacted; Jews who lived the Jewish life without openly confessing their religion and Jews who concealed their nationality were brought before the magistrates.

^ The laws concerning the Jews had a repressive and preventive object: the repression of Judaism and the prevention of inroads of Jewish influences into the state religion.

[5][6][7] .Converts to Judaism, whose status as Jews within the Jewish ethnos is equal to those born into it, have been absorbed into the Jewish people throughout the millennia.^ Under Vespasian and Titus the Jews enjoyed freedom of conscience and equal political rights with non-Jewish subjects of Rome.

^ III. The Jews in the New Testament A. Different viewpoints within post-exilic Judaism .
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Once, when the Jews were at war, the people of Ashdod conquered them, took their ark, and brought it into their own temple.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In Jewish tradition, Jewish ancestry is traced to the Biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the second millennium BCE. The Jews have enjoyed three periods of political autonomy in their national homeland, the Land of Israel, twice during ancient history, and currently once again, since 1948, with the establishment of the modern State of Israel.^ These traditions of migration and kinship are in themselves entirely credible, but the detailed accounts of the ancestors Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, as given in Genesis , are inherently doubtful as regards both the internal conditions, which the (late) chronological scheme ascribes to the first half of the second millennium B.C., and the general circumstances of the life of these strangers in a foreign land.

^ So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.

^ While the Spanish period of Jewish history was thus brilliant from the point of view of public service, it was equally notable on the literary side.

.The first of the two ancient eras spanned from 1350 to 586 BCE, and encompassed the periods of the Judges, the United Monarchy, and the Divided Monarchy of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, ending with the destruction of the First Temple.^ All that can be recognized from the biblical records, however, is the period of internal prosperity which Israel and Judah enjoyed under Jeroboam and Uzziah (qq.v.

^ The traditions of the Ephraimite Joshua and of Saul the first king of (north) Israel virtually treat Judah as part of Israel and are related to the underlying representations in (a).

^ For the first two periods the history of the Jews is mainly that of Palestine.

.The second era was the period of the Hasmonean Kingdom spanning from 140 to 37 BCE. Since the destruction of the First Temple, the diaspora has been the home of most of the world's Jews.^ First it declares that the Jewish reading of the Bible is a possible one, in continuity with the Jewish Scriptures of the Second Temple period, a reading analogous to the Christian reading, which developed in parallel fashion (no.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ The final results of this revolution appear in the writings from the Second Temple period, and in the writings of Qumran.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews in the diaspora sometimes utilised this method, in particular to justify certain prescriptions of the Law which, taken literally, would appear nonsensical to the Hellenistic world.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Except in the modern State of Israel, Jews are a minority in every country in which they live, and they have frequently experienced persecution throughout history, resulting in a population that fluctuated both in numbers and distribution over the centuries.^ Samuel, and ever since it has been a religious duty for the Jews to obey and accommodate themselves as far as possible to the laws of the country in which they are settled or reside.

^ In Sweden the Jews have all the rights which are open to non- Lutherans ; they cannot become members of the council of state.

^ The Pentecost episode, curiously enough, sympathetically places Jews in this universal perspective: There were devout Jews from every nation under heaven living in Jerusalem (2:5).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.According to the Jewish Agency for Israel, as of 2007 there were 13.2 million Jews worldwide, 5.4 million of whom lived in Israel, 5.3 million in the United States, and the remainder distributed in communities of varying sizes around the world; this represents 0.2% of the current estimated world population.^ Even though it is an open secret to the rest of the world, in the US there has been no mention of Israel's secretly built nuclear weapons.

^ This speech is an explanation of the plans now being laid to throw the United States into a third world war.

^ The United States has been supplying, since the end of World War II, 32 billion dollars of the taxpayer’s money.

[1] (Other sources cite higher estimates. .For example, the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics estimates the number of Israeli Jews to be 5.6 million and the U.S. Census Bureau estimates the American Jewish population to be as many as 6.4 million.^ On the death of Herod in 4 B.C. Archelaus kept open house for mourners as the Jewish custom, which reduced many Jews to beggary, prescribed.

^ American universities have owed much to Jewish generosity, a foremost benefactor of these (as of many other American institutions) being Jacob Schiff.

^ USA, 911 and the Israel Connection Jews Reject 60 Years of Israeli Terrorism and Apartheid against Palestinians!

[2][3]) .These numbers include all those who consider themselves Jews whether or not affiliated with a Jewish organization.^ Those Jews who didn't have this are all gone now, sadly.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against those who fast the fast of the Jews and against the Jews themselves.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way you would find out that those among you who are today called patriarchs are not priests at all.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9] .The total world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure.^ According to these estimates the total Jewish population of the world in the year named was approximately 11,500,000.

^ Statistics .-Owing to the absence of a religious census in several important countries, the Jewish population of the world can only be given by inferential estimate.

^ It includes Red China; it includes every independent country in Asia and Africa; or eighty percent of the world’s total population.

.In addition to halakhic considerations, there are secular, political, and ancestral identification factors in defining who is a Jew that increase the figure considerably.^ For if there was going to be an end to the present captivity for you Jews, there was every need for the prophets to foretell this, as is clear to anyone who has even so much as glanced at the prophetic books.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And there were Jews among the murderers of the 12,000 Jews who fell.

^ To be sure, he was a great and noble man, but, in addition to hint, there were again seventy other men who, at that time, were proclaimed as prophets.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9]

Contents

Name and etymology

.The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, Iewe, a loan from Old French giu, earlier juieu, ultimately from Latin Iudaeum.^ There only was Judea, and Jesus was a Judean and the first English use of a word in an English bible to describe him was ‘gyu’ — Jew.

^ If the economy continues tanking, expect "cosmopolites" (another old code word for Jew)to be the focus of rage and blame.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the old continuity was not entirely broken; there was a return to earlier conditions, and life moved more freely in its wonted channels.

.The Latin Iudaeus simply means Judaean, "from the land of Judaea". The Latin term itself, like the corresponding Greek Ἰουδαῖος, is a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew: יְהוּדִי‎, Yehudi (sg.); יְהוּדִים, Yehudim (pl.), in origin the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah.^ In Rm 11:1, he mentions his status as an Israelite, a descendent of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin as proof that God has not rejected his people.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.

^ The term promised land is not found in the Hebrew Bible, which has no word for promise.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.The Hebrew word for Jew, יְהוּדִי, is pronounced [jəhuˈdiː], with the stress on the final syllable.^ Accordingly, for Christians, the God of revelation has pronounced his final word with the advent of Jesus Christ and the Church.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[10]
The Ladino name is ג׳ודיו, Djudio (sg.); ג׳ודיוס, Djudios (pl.); Yiddish: ייִד: Yid (sg.); ייִדן, Yidn (pl.).
.The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g., "Jude" in German, "juif" in French, "jøde" in Danish, "judío" in Spanish, etc., but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are also in use to describe a Jewish person, e.g., in Italian (Ebreo), and Russian: Еврей, (Yevrey).^ There only was Judea, and Jesus was a Judean and the first English use of a word in an English bible to describe him was ‘gyu’ — Jew.

^ But each one of these Germans had no personal animosity towards the Jewish people that they knew.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The language of Polybius suggests that he was acquainted with other Jewish communities and with the fame of the Temple: in his view they are not an organized state.

[11] The German word "Jude" is pronounced [ˈjuːdə], and is the origin of the word Yiddish.[12] (See Jewish ethnonyms for a full overview.)
According to the The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition (2000):
.It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and highly offensive.^ The formulae used by Paul seem to suggest that the death of Jesus is to be attributed to all Jews indiscriminately without distinction: anti-Jewish interpreters understand them in this sense.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Any such personal use of Company aircraft will result in the non-employee director recognizing income for tax purposes, and the Company does not reimburse the non-employee directors for any taxes incurred in connection with such personal use.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, both types use the same phrase to explain their position: "I support Israel".
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility. .Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own.^ In Sweden the Jews have all the rights which are open to non- Lutherans ; they cannot become members of the council of state.

^ Suppose he uses the cures which the Jews effect as his excuse; suppose he says: 'They promise to make me well, and so I go to them.'
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some on the left have adopted this term as a code for talking about Jews with too much power and/or Jews who they feel have more allegiance to Israel than the USA. So, it should be easy then, to point to a reference where the left has started using this term to mean Jew.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, which is unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun.^ We are going to lose that war because there is not one nation in the world that will let one of their sons fight with us for such a cause.

^ The people whom they directed were called out to fight, at the bidding of an alien , for this and that foreigner who seemed most powerful and most likely to succeed.

^ Today in certain circles there is a tendency to use First Testament to avoid any negative connotation attached to Old Testament.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[13]

Judaism

.Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not only a religion, but also a "way of life,"[14] which has made drawing a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish culture, and Jewish identity rather difficult.^ Daniel then went on to show that Antiochus destroyed the Jewish commonwealth and way of life when he said: "And through him the sacrifice was disordered by transgression; and it came to pass.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I was not without experience of the Jewish way of life under the Law and the punishment set for those who transgress it, was I? "I am a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as regards the Law, a Pharisee; as regards zeal, a persecutor of the Church.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The temple was already a den of thieves when the Jewish commonwealth and way of life still prevailed.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout history, in eras and places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world,[15] in Europe before and after The Age of Enlightenment (see Haskalah),[16] in Islamic Spain and Portugal,[17] in North Africa and the Middle East,[17] India,[18] and China,[19] or the contemporary United States[20] and Israel,[21] cultural phenomena have developed that are in some sense characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious.^ Regardless of all these feelings, I do not like or admire Israel's policies in recent years at all and I do not consider it anti-semitic or anti-Jewish to say that.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Developing this theme, the hymn of Col 1:15-20 affirms that in him all things were created and that all things have been created through him and for him; he is before all things, in him all things hold together (Col 1:16-17).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Lk 19:43-44; Mt 24:2,15-18 and par.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews or specific communities of Jews with their surroundings, others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to from the religion itself.^ Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.

^ Within Judaism itself two parties were formed, the Liberals and the Conservatives, and as time went on these tendencies definitely organized themselves.

^ The anti-social tendency of these councils expressed itself in the infliction of the badge, in the compulsory domicile of Jews within ghettos, and in the erection of formidable barriers against all intercourse between church and synagogue.

This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures unique to their own communities, each as authentically Jewish as the next.[22]

Who is a Jew?

.Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, and a culture, making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.^ I know it won't make sense to those of you who are on the outside looking in, because they always talk about America as the Nation of God.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was that it became almost standard to use the Jews to designate those who kept this name for themselves alone, in their opposition to the Christian faith.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Jews bore their share in the Civil War (7038 Jews were in the two armies), and have always identified themselves closely with national movements such as the emancipation of Cuba .

[23] .Generally, in modern secular usage, Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage (sometimes including those who do not have strictly matrilineal descent), and people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion.^ They are just fine with conversos and those Jews who will follow along with the program.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, do they think a secular humanist is a Jew ?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And for that matter, it's the secular non-Jews who they will go after.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .At times conversion has accounted for a substantial part of Jewish population growth.^ The population of the southern part of Mesopotamia - the strip of land enclosed between the Tigris and the Euphrates - was, according to Graetz, mainly Jewish; while the district extending for about 70 m.

^ During this period in Palestine, even in regions where the greater part of the population was Jewish, Hellenistic influence was strong, but not equally felt everywhere.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of the Gospel's redaction, the greater part of the Jewish population had followed their leaders in their refusal to believe in Christ Jesus.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.In the first century of the Christian era, for example, the population more than doubled, from 4 to 8–10 million within the confines of the Roman Empire, in good part as a result of a wave of conversion.^ And the FBI tried to frame an Egyptian for the first WTC bombing but he recorded their conversation telling him he was only part of a drill.

^ In the 17th century a considerable number of Jews had made a home in the English colonies, where from the first they enjoyed practically equal Tights with the Christian settlers.

^ For the good shepherd does more than drive away the wolves; he also is most diligent in caring for his sheep who are sick.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[25]
.Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions.^ The New Testament recognises the definitive value of arguments based on the Jewish Scriptures.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.Historical definitions of who is a Jew date back to the codification of the oral tradition into the Babylonian Talmud.^ And you put every Jew back into his former position, whether he was a Communist, no matter what he was.

^ Or do they see this as a bonanza to get secular Jews back into their congregations?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy 7:1–5, by learned Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews because "[the non-Jewish male spouse] will cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods of others." Leviticus 24:10 says that the son in a marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of the community of Israel." This contrasts with Ezra 10:2–3, where Israelites returning from Babylon vow to put aside their gentile wives and their children.[26][27] Since the Haskalah, these halakhic interpretations of Jewish identity have been challenged.[28]

Ethnic divisions

Ashkenazi Jews of late 19th century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb.
.Within the world's Jewish population there are distinct ethnic divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions.^ There are also Jews in Curacoa , Surinam, Luxemburg , Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela ; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.

^ The eastern European Jews, who form 92 per cent of the world’s population of those people who call themselves Jews, were originally Khazars.

^ In this way Mark reveals the most dramatic point of rupture between the Jewish authorities and the person of Christ, a matter that continues to be the most serious point of division between Judaism and Christianity.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.An array of Jewish communities were established by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World, often at great distances from one another resulting in effective and often long-term isolation from each other.^ He said: "Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it were better for him to have a great millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the sea."
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was that between Jewish and Christian communities a conflict situation arose that clearly left its mark on the redaction of the Gospels and Acts.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ It is common place to speak in one phrase of the greatness and wretchedness of the human person.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

During the millennia of the Jewish diaspora the communities would develop under the influence of their local environments; political, cultural, natural, and populational. .Today, manifestation of these differences among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic admixture.^ Well, that’s how the Germans felt towards these Jews.

^ Yet some of these are going to watch the festivals and others will join the Jews in keeping their feasts and observing their fasts.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To prove to you that the Jews in exile observed none of these rituals, hear what they said to those who asked them to do so.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: the Ashkenazim, or "Germanics" (Ashkenaz meaning "Germany" in Medieval Hebrew, denoting their Central European base), and the Sephardim, or "Hispanics" (Sefarad meaning "Spain/Hispania" or "Iberia" in Hebrew, denoting their Spanish, and Portuguese, base).^ One can be sure that many Jews did not belong to any of the three groups.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Letter to the Galatians, the offspring of Abraham can only be one which is identified with Christ and those who belong to him (Ga 3:16,29).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ The polemic is for the most part internal, between two groups both belonging to Judaism.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.The Mizrahim, or "Easterners" (Mizrach being "East" in Hebrew), that is, the diverse collection of Middle Eastern and North African Jews, constitute a third major group, although they are sometimes termed Sephardi for liturgical reasons.^ Paul aggressively applies to them a term of contempt, dogs, a metaphor for the ritual impurity that the Jews sometimes attributed to the Gentiles (Mt 15:26).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Because, the Eastern European Jews outnumber all the rest by so many that they create the impression that they are the Jewish ‘race’; that they are the Jewish nation; that they are the Jewish people.

^ When these groups were banned and the INC lackies elected by the default of there being no other options they factions turned to violence.

[30]
.Smaller groups include, but are not restricted to, Indian Jews such as the Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jews, and Bene Ephraim; the Romaniotes of Greece; the Italian Jews ("Italkim" or "Bené Roma"); the Teimanim from Yemen and Oman; various African Jews, including most numerously the Beta Israel of Ethiopia; and Chinese Jews, most notably the Kaifeng Jews, as well as various other distinct but now almost extinct communities.^ Full-value stock awards” are equity-based awards other than stock options or stock appreciation rights and includes awards such as restricted stock, restricted stock units, performance shares and other stock-based awards.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You now go to church on Sunday, and kneel and you worship a Jew, and we’re Jews.” Well, they were pagan Khazars who were converted just the same as the Irish [were converted].

^ Now, there was no such thing as ‘Jew’, and any theologian — I’ve lectured in maybe 20 of the most prominent theological seminaries in this country, and two in Europe — there was no such word as Jew.

[31]
.The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their boundaries are not always clear.^ But when he predicts what others will do and then makes these actions of others clear to all the world and worthy of every man's belief, it is still more astounding and marvelous.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, the universality of these characteristics excludes all superiority of one group or individual over another.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.The Mizrahim for example, are a heterogeneous collection of North African, Central Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern Jewish communities that are often as unrelated to each other as they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish groups.^ Because, the Eastern European Jews outnumber all the rest by so many that they create the impression that they are the Jewish ‘race’; that they are the Jewish nation; that they are the Jewish people.

^ It was perhaps for this reason that Jesus is presented more often in conflict with them than with any other group, an indirect acknowledgement of their importance.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ The Samaritan community was a dissident group, shunned by others (Si 50:25-26).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are sometimes termed Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent development from Sephardim proper. .Thus, among Mizrahim there are Iraqi Jews, Egyptian Jews, Berber Jews, Lebanese Jews, Kurdish Jews, Libyan Jews, Syrian Jews, Bukharian Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews, and various others.^ For many Jews, the veil with which Moses covered his face remains over the Old Testament (2 Co 3:13,15), thus preventing them from recognising Christ's revelation there.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.The Teimanim from Yemen and Oman are sometimes included, although their style of liturgy is unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim.^ The same idea is found in Ps 8:5-7, although expressed differently.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, there is a differentiation made between Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle East and North Africa after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal in the 1490s and the pre-existing Jewish communities in those regions.^ Against those who fast the fast of the Jews and against the Jews themselves.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The result was that it became almost standard to use the Jews to designate those who kept this name for themselves alone, in their opposition to the Christian faith.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ In the beginning, the apostolic preaching was addressed only to the Jews and proselytes, pagans associated with the Jewish community (cf.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.Despite this diversity, Ashkenazi Jews represent the bulk of modern Jewry, with at least 70% of Jews worldwide (and up to 90% prior to World War II and the Holocaust).^ That’s how we got into World War II. .

^ Now, when the war was ended, and the Germans went to Paris, to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, there were 117 Jews there, as a delegation representing the Jews, headed by Bernard Baruch.

^ Because after two wars fought in Europe – World War I and World War II — if it wasn’t possible for them to live in peace and harmony with the people in Europe, like their brethren are living in the United States, what were the two wars fought for ?

.As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim also represent the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents, in countries such as the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and Brazil.^ So the German bankers — the German-Jews — Kuhn Loeb and the other big banking firms in the United States refused to finance France or England to the extent of one dollar.

^ He supported abortion in Eastern Europe, in a country that's losing population, he's a self-admitted atheist, I think he's a very bad influence in the world.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This speech is an explanation of the plans now being laid to throw the United States into a third world war.

In France, emigration of Mizrahim from North Africa has led them to outnumber the Ashkenazim and Sephardim.[32] .Only in Israel is the Jewish population representative of all groups, a melting pot independent of each group's proportion within the overall world Jewish population.^ Regardless of all these feelings, I do not like or admire Israel's policies in recent years at all and I do not consider it anti-semitic or anti-Jewish to say that.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What has got to happen before the world and America awakens to the fact that this group has to be the devil and woking 24/7 to make u s all prisoners of theirs.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was only after all this that Malachi predicted the coming of the present desolation and the abolition of the Jewish sacrifices.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[33]

Jewish languages

.Hebrew is the liturgical language of Judaism (termed lashon ha-kodesh, "the holy tongue"), the language in which the Hebrew scriptures (Tanakh) were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish people for centuries.^ Its scope has been extended, since the end of the second century, to include other Jewish writings in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of this exposition, necessarily all too brief, the main conclusion to be drawn is that the Jewish people and their Sacred Scriptures occupy a very important place in the Christian Bible.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ On the contrary, they attest their rootedness in the long religious experience of the people of Israel, an experience recorded in diverse forms in the sacred books which comprise the Jewish Scriptures.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

.By the fifth century BCE, Aramaic, a closely related tongue, joined Hebrew as the spoken language in Judea.^ Its scope has been extended, since the end of the second century, to include other Jewish writings in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[34] .By the third century BCE, Jews of the diaspora were speaking Greek.^ Many of the books belonging to the third group of religious texts, not yet fixed, were regularly read in Jewish communities during the first century A.D. They were translated into Greek and circulated among Hellenistic Jews, both in Palestine and in the diaspora.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally speaking, the last third of the first century may be called the post-apostolic era.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Modern Hebrew is now one of the two official languages of the State of Israel along with Arabic.^ And according to their so-called literal interpretations of Revalations the end of the world won't come until two conditions are met: One is that Israel must be a nation.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now let us see which of the two, time or place, is more necessary, even though neither the one nor the other has the power to save.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Perle was charged with two heinous acts, spying for the state of Israel and leaking information about the CIA in regards to its nuclear deterrent program, to Russia.

[36]
Hebrew was revived as a spoken language by Eliezer ben Yehuda, who arrived in Palestine in 1881. It hadn't been used as a mother tongue since Tannaic times.[34] .For over sixteen centuries Hebrew was used almost exclusively as a liturgical language, and as the language in which most books had been written on Judaism, with a few speaking only Hebrew on the Sabbath.^ The majority of Christian writings from the second century, as well as manuscripts of the Bible from the fourth century onwards, made use of or contain a great number of Jewish sacred books, including those which were not admitted into the Hebrew canon.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Christian usage to the Hebrew canon of 2422 books using various combinations and stratagems.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ These books comprised not only writings originally composed in Hebrew and translated into Greek, but also writings composed in Greek.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[37] .For centuries, Jews worldwide have spoken the local or dominant languages of the regions they migrated to, often developing distinctive dialectal forms or branching off as independent languages.^ Honestly, while I think everybody (including Jews) would be better off if Israel had never been formed, now that it has been in place for nearly sixty years it has to stay.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Yiddish is the Judæo-German language developed by Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to Central Europe, and Ladino is the Judæo-Spanish language developed by Sephardic Jews who migrated to the Iberian peninsula.^ Judaism is a religion; but Zionism is a political movement started mainly by East European (Ashkenazi) Jews who for centuries have been the main force behind communism/socialism.

^ Yet he calls the Jews by the names of these people because, by imitating their evil lives, the Jews had developed a kinship with those who dwelt in those cities.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jews who had been there for years, the [inaudible - probably Sephardim], those who had Portuguese and Spanish ad Dutch ancestry… who were monotheists and believed in that religious belief.

.Due to many factors, including the impact of the Holocaust on European Jewry, the Jewish exodus from Arab lands, and widespread emigration from other Jewish communities around the world, ancient and distinct Jewish languages of several communities, including Gruzinic, Judæo-Arabic, Judæo-Berber, Krymchak, Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have largely fallen out of use.^ The Israelis therefore become less conspicuous as the government and media can now claim that the Israelis were just immigration violators caught in the same dragnet as many other Arabs.

^ For Hosea , idolatry is the basic sin, but reproaches extend to many others: swearing, lying, and murder, and stealing, and adultery break out, bloodshed follows bloodshed (Ho 4:2).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ It was their religion the way it was the religion of many other Pagans or Barbarians elsewhere in the world.

[38]
.The three most commonly spoken languages among Jews today are Hebrew, English and Russian.^ These three chapters in the Letter to the Romans constitute the most profound reflection in the whole of the New Testament on Jews who do not believe in Jesus.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the Jews three times endured bondage, very harsh and most severe: but none of these came upon them unpredicted.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the first Christians were for the most part Palestinian Jews, either Hebrew or Hellenistic (cf.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

Some Romance languages, such as French, and Spanish are also widely used.[38]
.Yiddish has been spoken by more Jews in history than any other language, closely followed by English and Hebrew (if modern and biblical are counted as one variety).^ Should Jews be more afraid than others?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And many JEws, as you point out, considered themselves more German than Jewish.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Jews are more savage than any highwaymen; they do greater harm to those who have fallen among them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Genetic studies

.Genetic studies indicate various lineages found in modern Jewish populations, however, most of these populations share a lineage in common, traceable to an ancient population that underwent geographic branching and subsequent independent evolutions.^ For these purposes, fair market value was calculated as the average of the high and low prices of a share of Common Stock on the NYSE on the date of grant.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these documents express only one aspect of the Jewish tradition; they come from within a particular current and do not represent the whole tradition.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[39] .While DNA tests have demonstrated inter-marriage in all of the various Jewish ethnic divisions over the last 3,000 years, it was substantially less than in other populations.^ For we could not mention a time at which these predictions were accomplished other than the long and many years already past and the years which are going to be longer and more numerous still.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the practical level of exegesis, Christians can, nonetheless, learn much from Jewish exegesis practised for more than two thousand years, and, in fact, they have learned much in the course of history.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ A very careful estimate of East Europe’s Jewish population ascertained that there were 2.6 million in Poland at the outbreak of the war - less than the total Polish ‘deaths’ given by Wikipedia.

[40 ] .The findings lend support to traditional Jewish accounts accrediting their founding to exiled Israelite populations, and counters theories that many or most of the world's Jewish populations were founded entirely by local populations that adopted the Jewish faith, devoid of any actual Israelite genetic input.^ He supported abortion in Eastern Europe, in a country that's losing population, he's a self-admitted atheist, I think he's a very bad influence in the world.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The biblical sacred texts left open many questions concerning the proper understanding of Israelite faith and conduct.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ In his writings, as was mentioned above, we find not only continual references to the Old Testament, but many traces of Jewish traditions as well.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[40 ][41]
.DNA analysis further determined that modern Jews of the priesthood tribe—"Kohanim"—share an ancestor dating back about 3,000 years.^ We again see the excellence of our priesthood when we find Abraham, the patriarch of the Jews, the ancestor of the Levites, receiving a blessing from Melchizedek and giving tithes to him.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Just as bushco do not represent true Americans, Sharon does not represent the true Jew (at least in my opinion) I want my $4billon a year back damn it!
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also the Board’s policy that non-employee directors are encouraged to own the Company’s stock and each is expected to own at least 5,000 shares of the Company’s stock within three years of joining the Board.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .This result is consistent for all Jewish populations around the world.^ The horror in the wake of the extermination of the Jews (the Shoah) during the Second World War has led all the Churches to rethink their relationship with Judaism and, as a result, to reconsider their interpretation of the Jewish Bible, the Old Testament.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[42] .The researchers estimated that the most recent common ancestor of modern Kohanim lived between 1000 BCE (roughly the time of the Biblical Exodus) and 586 BCE, when the Babylonians destroyed the First Temple.^ The Board first adopted this Policy in January 2002 and has refined it from time to time since then, most recently in February 2007.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, the return from the Babylonian Exile is described in terms that evoke the liberation from Egyptian oppression at the time of the Exodus (Is 43:16-21).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ These kids were living in Scarborough, Ontario, so what did they know about the enmity between Serbia and Croatia at that time?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[43 ] .They found similar results analyzing DNA from Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews.^ In early Christianity, an evolution similar to that of Judaism can be observed with, however, an initial difference: early Christians had the Scriptures from the very beginning, since as Jews, they accepted Israel's Bible as Scripture.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, I don't think that the right is consciously going after the Jews, but it's an end result as they put Jews on the "Them" side of the equation.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[43 ] .The scientists estimated the date of the original priest based on genetic mutations, which indicated that the priest lived roughly 106 generations ago, between 2,650 and 3,180 years ago depending whether one counts a generation as 25 or 30 years.^ General.     The elements of compensation reflect a balance between short-term and long-term compensation, a balance of cash components and equity-based components, and a focus on performance-driven compensation.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am very friendly with the heads of the government, the rulers who know me for 25-30 years, who talk to me and treat me, as a brother.

^ Paul T. Cappuccio.     The employment agreement with Mr. Cappuccio was entered into effective March 1, 2001 and had an original base term of employment ending on June 30, 2005.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43 ]
.Although individual and groups of converts to Judaism have historically been absorbed into contemporary Jewish populations — in the Khazars' case, absorbed into the Ashkenazim — it is unlikely that they formed a large percentage of the ancestors of modern Jewish groups, and much less that they represented their genesis as Jewish communities.^ Many of the books belonging to the third group of religious texts, not yet fixed, were regularly read in Jewish communities during the first century A.D. They were translated into Greek and circulated among Hellenistic Jews, both in Palestine and in the diaspora.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Jews are excluded from agriculture and small business and industry and the military, and the new and global economy they are part of represents a hyper-modernity that threatens the traditional communities that grow up around these socio-economic areas.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think we are fanning the flames and I think we are here not so much because they have oil (although thats part of it) but because of theology.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[44]
Male lineages: Y chromosomal DNA
.A study published by the National Academy of Sciences found that "the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population", and suggested that "most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora".[39] Researchers expressed surprise at the remarkable genetic uniformity they found among modern Jews, no matter where the diaspora has become dispersed around the world.^ And for that matter, it's the secular non-Jews who they will go after.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the beginning, the apostolic preaching was addressed only to the Jews and proselytes, pagans associated with the Jewish community (cf.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, there was no such thing as ‘Jew’, and any theologian — I’ve lectured in maybe 20 of the most prominent theological seminaries in this country, and two in Europe — there was no such word as Jew.

[39]
.Other Y-chromosome findings show that the world's Jewish communities are closely related to Kurds, Syrians and Palestinians.^ I suspect you'll find more of your Jewish neighbors to be more reasonable now that there's new management at the Palestinian Authority.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between the First Gospel and the Jewish world is extremely close.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ But the danger from this sickness is very closely related to the danger from the other; since the Anomians impiety is akin to that of the Jews, my present conflict is akin to my former one.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[45][42] .Skorecki and colleague wrote that "the extremely close affinity of Jewish and non-Jewish Middle Eastern populations observed ...^ The relationship between the First Gospel and the Jewish world is extremely close.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

supports the hypothesis of a common .Middle Eastern origin".[42] According to another study of the same year, more than 70% of Jewish men and half of the Arab men (inhabitants of Israel and the territories only) whose DNA was studied inherited their Y-chromosomes from the same paternal ancestors who lived in the region within the last few thousand years.^ That’s only a few years from 1800, which isn’t so very long ago!

^ We owe a debt to these men who sacrificed their lives to save this country, so let’s see what we can do.

^ So when you hear him shout and say: "Behold, I, Paul, tell you," consider that only the shout is Paul's; the thought and the teaching are Christ's, who is speaking to Paul from within his heart.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The results are consistent with the Biblical account of Jews and Arabs having a common ancestor.^ Meeks, Wayne A. and Robert L. Wilken, Jews and Christians in Antioch in the first four centuries of the common era , Scholars Press for the Society of Biblical Literature, c1978.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I never realized that there weren't a lot of Jews anywhere but on the coasts, having grown up in an area where Jews accounted for a healthy minority - say 15%.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.About two-thirds of Israeli Arabs and Arabs in the territories and a similar proportion of Israeli Jews are the descendants of at least three common ancestors who lived in the Middle East in the Neolithic period.^ The wars in the Middle East were about oil.

^ The performance stock units have a performance measure of total stockholder return (“TSR”) of the Company’s common stock relative to that of companies in the S&P 500 over a three-year period.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word, “Jew,” was coined for a purpose by the people who got us into two wars, who laid a trap to get us into a third one, and who have practically taken over the control of the world, especially the control of this country according to Senator Fulbright and others.

.However, the Palestinian Arab clade includes two Arab modal haplotypes which are found at only very low frequency among Jews, reflecting divergence and/or large scale admixture from non-local populations to the Palestinians.^ In early Christianity, an evolution similar to that of Judaism can be observed with, however, an initial difference: early Christians had the Scriptures from the very beginning, since as Jews, they accepted Israel's Bible as Scripture.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, what I would like to see is for Jews and Palestinians as well as Arabs throughout the Middle East achieve a peaceful solution.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So let me amend my earlier point: Robertson is very interested in a marriage of convenience with conservative Jews that includes bringing "only Christians and Jews into government."
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.Points in which Jewish groups differ is largely in the source and proportion of genetic contribution from host populations.^ The relations between the different groups were at times severely strained, even to the point of hostility.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

[47][48] .The proportion of male indigenous European genetic admixture in Ashkenazi Jews amounts to around 0.5% per generation over an estimated 80 generations, and a total admixture estimate "very similar to Motulsky's average estimate of 12.5%."^ The eastern European Jews, who form 92 per cent of the world’s population of those people who call themselves Jews, were originally Khazars.

^ In early Christianity, an evolution similar to that of Judaism can be observed with, however, an initial difference: early Christians had the Scriptures from the very beginning, since as Jews, they accepted Israel's Bible as Scripture.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ That was while the Eastern European Jews were still running around in the heart of Asia and then came into Europe.

[39] More recent study estimates an even lower European male contribution, and that only 5%–8% of the Ashkenazi gene pool is of European origin.[39]
Female lineages: Mitochondrial DNA
Before 2006, geneticists largely attributed the genesis of most of the world's Jewish populations to founding acts by males who migrated from the Middle East and "by the women from each local population whom they took as wives and converted to Judaism." However, more recent findings of studies of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, at least in Ashkenazi Jews, has led to a review of this archetype.[49] This research has suggested that, in addition to Israelite male, significant female founder ancestry might also derive from the Middle East.[49] .In addition, Behar (2006) suggested that the rest of Ashkenazi mtDNA is originated from about 150 women, most of those were probably of Middle Eastern origin.^ The eastern European Jews, who form 92 per cent of the world’s population of those people who call themselves Jews, were originally Khazars.

[50]
Research in 2008 found significant founder effects in many non-Asheknazi Jewish populations. In Belmonte, Azerbaijani, Georgian, Bene Israel and Libyan Jewish communities "a single mother was sufficient to explain at least 40% of their present-day mtDNA variation". In addition, "the Cochin and Tunisian Jewish communities show an attenuated pattern with two founding mothers explaining >30% of the variation." In contrast, Bulgarian, Turkish, Moroccan and Ethiopian Jews were heterogeneous with no evidence "for a narrow founder effect or depletion of mtDNA variation attributable to drift". The authors noted that "the first three of these communities were established following the Spanish expulsion and/or received large influxes of individuals from the Iberian Peninsula and high variation presently observed, probably reflects high overall mtDNA diversity among Jews of Spanish descent. Likewise, the mtDNA pool of Ethiopian Jews reflects the rich maternal lineage variety of East Africa." Jewish communities from Iraq, Iran, and Yemen showed a "third and intermediate pattern... consistent with a founding event, but not a narrow one".[51]
.In this and other studies Yemenite Jews differ from other Mizrahim, as well as from Ashkenazim, in the proportion of sub-Saharan African gene types which have entered their gene pools.^ In a country that defines difference by physicality, Jews are problematic because they defy racial difference and so it's harder for the right to classify difference without sounding too, well, academic.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[47] .African-specific Hg L(xM,N) lineages were found only in Yemenite and Ethiopian Jewish populations.^ They believe that a Jewish state can only be founded with the coming of the Messiah.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[51] .Among Yemenites, the average stands at 35% lineages within the past 3,000 years.^ It is also the Board’s policy that non-employee directors are encouraged to own the Company’s stock and each is expected to own at least 5,000 shares of the Company’s stock within three years of joining the Board.
  • Definitive Proxy Statement 25 January 2010 0:11 UTC sec.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Demographics

Population centres

.There are an estimated 13.2 million Jews worldwide.^ Today, there are an estimated 14 million Jews worldwide in over 134 countries.
  • Jewish People - Define 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.milechai.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, there are an estimated 13 million [1] to 14.6 million [2] Jews worldwide in over 134 countries.

^ There are just over 13 million Jews world-wide (2000 figures), out of a World population of 6,100 million.
  • The People of Many Names - Towards a clearer understanding of the miracle of the Jewish people : UK Christian author, software and web designer and writer on such topics as God, Jesus, Israel, the Jews, the church and helping christianity folk meet with the messianic world 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.stevemaltz.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .The table below lists countries with significant populations.^ The most significant consequence of his statement is the likely misery that will be visited on the innocent population of his country.
  • Welcome to Jews for a Just Peace 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC jewsforajustpeace.com [Source type: Original source]

.Please note that these populations represent low-end estimates of the worldwide Jewish population, accounting for around 0.2% of the world's population.^ Note: These are thoughts from the mind of the American Taliban, otherwise known as the American fascists, and do not represent the views of this station or of the station's management.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These "Christians" who take a Jewish religion based on love and end up hating the mother religion?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, these documents express only one aspect of the Jewish tradition; they come from within a particular current and do not represent the whole tradition.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

Country or Region Jewish population Total Population % Jewish Notes
Israel 5,393,000 7,117,000 75.8% [1]
United States 5,275,000 301,469,000 1.7% [1]
Europe 1,506,000 710,000,000 0.2% [4]
France 490,000 64,102,000 0.8% [1]
Canada 374,000 32,874,000 1.1% [1]
United Kingdom 295,000 60,609,000 0.5% [1]
Russia 225,000 142,400,000 0.2% [1]
Argentina 184,000 39,922,000 0.5% [1]
Germany 120,000 82,310,000 0.1% [1]
Australia 104,000 20,788,000 0.5% [1]
Brazil 96,000 188,078,000 0.05% [1]
Ukraine 77,000 46,481,000 0.2% [1]
South Africa 72,000 47,432,000 0.2% [1]
Hungary 49,000 10,053,000 0.5% [1]
Mexico 40,000 108,700,000 0.04% [1]
Asia (excl. Israel) 39,500 3,900,000,000 0.001% [4]
Belgium 31,200 10,419,000 0.3% [4]
Italy 28,600 58,884,000 0.05% [4]
Turkey 17,800 72,600,000 0.02% [4]
Iran 10,800 68,467,000 0.02% [4]
Romania 10,100 21,500,000 0.05% [4]
New Zealand 7,000 4,306,400 0.04% [4]
Greece 5,500 11,100,000 0.05% [4]
Cuba 1,500 11,450,000 0.013% [52]
Total 13,156,500 6,455,078,000 0.2% [1]

State of Israel

David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948
.Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens.^ There are many Jewish citizens of Israel that belong to various peace organizastions that rail against the policies of their gov't and sympathize with the plight of many Palestinians.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why is it that Jews and Arabs could not co-exist in Palestine after WWII without a Jewish state?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Israel was declared a state, the most Othodox Jews protested, and still do protest, Israel's right to exist.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[53][54] .Israel was established as an independent democratic state on May 14, 1948.[55] Of the 120 members in its parliament, the Knesset,[56] currently, 12 members of the Knesset are Arab citizens of Israel, most representing Arab political parties and one of Israel's Supreme Court judges is a Palestinian Arab.^ When Israel was declared a state, the most Othodox Jews protested, and still do protest, Israel's right to exist.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why do you think that no one has retired from the supreme court yet?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many Jewish citizens of Israel that belong to various peace organizastions that rail against the policies of their gov't and sympathize with the plight of many Palestinians.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[57] .Between 1948 and 1958, the Jewish population rose from 800,000 to two million.^ But the Jewish population of Germany (even after the Anschluß with Austria) was minuscule: less than 1 percent, perhaps 300,000-500,000 if I'm remembering the statistics correctly.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[58] Currently, Jews account for 75.8% of the Israeli population, or 5.4 million people.[1] .The early years of the state of Israel were marked by the mass immigration of Holocaust survivors and Jews fleeing Arab lands.^ Why is it that Jews and Arabs could not co-exist in Palestine after WWII without a Jewish state?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Holocaust, thousands of Jews entered Israel doing just that.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Israel was declared a state, the most Othodox Jews protested, and still do protest, Israel's right to exist.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] .Israel also has a large population of Ethiopian Jews, many of whom were airlifted to Israel in the late 1980s and early 1990s.^ Israel has to exist so there can be a SECOND COMING! Many, not all, fundamentalist Christian could care less about the Jews, but they need them.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For all its many faults, any Jew, self-identified or not, who doesn't support the right of Israel to exist needs to read some history.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] Between 1974 and 1979 nearly 227,258 immigrants arrived in Israel, about half being from the Soviet Union.[61] .This period also saw an increase in immigration to Israel from Western Europe, Latin America, and the United States[62] A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived, including Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of Ashkenazi Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Australia and South Africa.^ At the same time he saw that the Jews, too, who were even more imperfect than the pagans, would put aside their worship through sacrifices, holocausts, and other material things and be led to our way of life.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some on the left have adopted this term as a code for talking about Jews with too much power and/or Jews who they feel have more allegiance to Israel than the USA. So, it should be easy then, to point to a reference where the left has started using this term to mean Jew.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet some of these are going to watch the festivals and others will join the Jews in keeping their feasts and observing their fasts.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Some Jews have emigrated from Israel elsewhere, due to economic problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict. Jewish Israeli emigrants are known as yordim.[63]

Diaspora (outside Israel)

.The waves of immigration to the United States and elsewhere at the turn of the nineteenth century, the founding of Zionism and later events, including pogroms in Russia, the massacre of European Jewry during the Holocaust, and the founding of the state of Israel, with the subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, all resulted in substantial shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the twentieth century.^ Regardless of all these feelings, I do not like or admire Israel's policies in recent years at all and I do not consider it anti-semitic or anti-Jewish to say that.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, as the entire world found out the hard way during World War II, in the short run, the people trying to turn the clock back can get a lot of people killed in their attempts to do so.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why, then, did he bring them together to that land from all over the world if he foresaw that their city would be destroyed?
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[64]
.
In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States.
^ If you think things cannot get out of hand because this is The United States, you need to read a bit more history.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer seems to ignore the fact that the main reason Jews couldn't get out of Europe is that no one would let them in, including the United States.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Over two million Jews would flee the pogroms of the Russian Empire to the safety of the US from 1881–1924.[65]
Currently, the largest Jewish community in the world is located in the United States, with 5.3 million or 6.4 million Jews by various estimates. .Elsewhere in the Americas, there are also large Jewish populations in Canada, Argentina, and Brazil, and smaller populations in Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile, and several other countries (see History of the Jews in Latin America).^ If we show the kind of backbone Pounder has, in large numbers (which are there), many others will be inspired to stand up to the insanity too.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am Jewish, and most Jews don't see any serious risk and are not unleashing their "Never Again" forces.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I can't imagine seeing Jews being herded, being around slave labor and not having a deep sense of guilt and compassion for the Jewish people and all others caught in the Nazi nets, I can't imagine seeing that and not questioning all authoritarian forms of power.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][3]
Western Europe's largest Jewish community can be found in France, home to 490,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African Arab countries such as Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia (or their descendants).[66] There are 295,000 Jews in the United Kingdom. .In Eastern Europe, there are anywhere from 350,000 to one million Jews living in the former Soviet Union, but exact figures are difficult to establish.^ After all, millions of Jews were forbidden to leave Nazi-occupied Europe in order to placate the Palestinians.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I never realized that there weren't a lot of Jews anywhere but on the coasts, having grown up in an area where Jews accounted for a healthy minority - say 15%.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He saw the unholy life the Jews were living: at one time they paid heed to God, at another they worshipped idols.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The fastest-growing Jewish community in the world, outside Israel, is the one in Germany, especially in Berlin, its capital.^ And according to their so-called literal interpretations of Revalations the end of the world won't come until two conditions are met: One is that Israel must be a nation.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Isamic vs Jewish vs Christian vs fascism vs communism...its all one big family dispute.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tens of thousands of Jews from the former Eastern Bloc have settled in Germany since the fall of the Berlin Wall.^ The Jews have mortally hurt their victim's soul, inflicted on it ten thousand wounds, and left it lying in the pit of ungodliness.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Tell him that, as is the case with circumcision, so, too, the fasting of the Jews drives from heaven the man who observes the fast, even if he has ten thousand other good works to his credit.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But the danger from this sickness is very closely related to the danger from the other; since the Anomians impiety is akin to that of the Jews, my present conflict is akin to my former one.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[67]
.The Arab countries of North Africa and the Middle East were home to around 900,000 Jews in 1945. Fueled by anti-Zionism[68] after the founding of Israel, systematic persecution caused almost all of these Jews to flee to Israel, North America, and Europe in the 1950s (see Jewish exodus from Arab lands).^ It is truer to say that the fact that these Books are to be found in the synagogues makes them more detestable, for the Jews have simply introduced these Books, ' not to honour them, but to insult them, and to dishonour them' [Sermon I:5 and VI:6].
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He said: "Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it were better for him to have a great millstone hung around his neck, and to be drowned in the sea."
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When you see that God is punishing you, do not flee to his enemies, the Jews, so that you may not rouse his anger against you still further.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Today, around 8,000 Jews remain in all Arab nations combined.[4]
Iran is home to around 10,800 Jews, down from a population of 100,000 Jews before the 1979 revolution. .After the revolution some of the Iranian Jews emigrated to Israel or Europe but most of them emigrated (with their non-Jewish Iranian compatriots) to the United States (especially Los Angeles, where the principal community is called "Tehrangeles").^ But the fundies have a very organized outreach, especially to orthodox Jews, that is not just focussed on Israel -- e.g., they contribute to Jews in places like Turkey.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Israel was declared a state, the most Othodox Jews protested, and still do protest, Israel's right to exist.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am Jewish, and most Jews don't see any serious risk and are not unleashing their "Never Again" forces.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[4][69]
.Outside Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, and the rest of Asia, there are significant Jewish populations in Australia and South Africa.^ Ironically, there were so many Jews in Germany because Germany had been so welcoming to them compared with the rest of Europe.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]

Demographic changes

Assimilation

Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, a proportion of Jews have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by either choice or force, ceasing to practice Judaism and losing their Jewish identity.[70] .Assimilation took place in all areas, and during all time periods,[70] with some Jewish communities, for example the Kaifeng Jews of China, disappearing entirely.^ You can fool some people sometimes, But you can't fool all the people all the time.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only one contemporary event is referred to at all, apart from general denunciations of the visiting of the synagogue at times of Jewish feast or fast.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And during all this time, in common with the Church, you should be discharging all your religious duties in a spirit of confidence, pleasure, good cheer, and full freedom.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[71] .The advent of the Jewish Enlightenment of the 1700s (see Haskalah) and the subsequent emancipation of the Jewish populations of Europe and America in the 1800s, accelerated the situation, encouraging Jews to increasingly participate in, and become part of, secular society.^ I am Jewish, and most Jews don't see any serious risk and are not unleashing their "Never Again" forces.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There simply is not ever going to be a situation in this country analagous to the 1930s and 1940s in Europe in regards to Jews.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As someone who's only part-Jewish I see your point.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish community.[72] Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: In the United States, they are just under 50%,[73] in the United Kingdom, around 53%, in France, around 30%,[74] and in Australia and Mexico, as low as 10%.[75][76] .In the United States, only about a third of children from intermarriages affiliate themselves with Jewish religious practice.^ It's about the only practical political action available.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They believe that a Jewish state can only be founded with the coming of the Messiah.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .The result is that most countries in the Diaspora have steady or slightly declining religiously Jewish populations as Jews continue to assimilate into the countries in which they live.^ We never realized that when they said "athiests" or "secular humanists" they were really talking, those paleocons like Buchanan and friends, about assimilated Jewish-Americans.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of us who revel in our Jewish culture (whether or not we are religious) struggle with "mitzrayim" daily, wondering whether we are truly assimilated into the US or whether we are living the same pipe dream as our pre-WWII German ancestors.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another reason many Jews stayed, ironically, is because they loved their country, just as we love ours.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

War and persecution

Related articles: Antisemitism, History of antisemitism, New antisemitism
Jews (identifiable by the distinctive hats that they were required to wear) being killed by Christian knights. French Bible illustration from 1255.
WW I poster shows a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who says, "...now let me help you set others free!"
.The Jewish people and Judaism have experienced various persecutions throughout Jewish history.^ I have experienced bits and pieces of antisemitism, having been called all kinds of names, or having people assume that because I was jewish i would be the logical person to handle the money ..
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The way you use it is completely different than what it is, and perhaps I should educate you since, as you say, you know little about Judaism (and I assume Jewish history).
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judaism, various interpretations of Jewish texts, Jewish history (which does go beyond Exodus...not-Jesus...yada yada yada...Hitler...Israel...
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.During late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages the Roman Empire (in its later phases known as the Byzantine Empire) repeatedly repressed the Jewish population, first by ejecting them from their homelands during the pagan Roman era and later by officially establishing them as second-class citizens during the Christian Roman era.^ In explanation of this text Paul said: ' He annuls the first covenant in order to establish the second.'
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meeks, Wayne A. and Robert L. Wilken, Jews and Christians in Antioch in the first four centuries of the common era , Scholars Press for the Society of Biblical Literature, c1978.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[78][79] According to James Carroll, "Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. .By that ratio, if other factors had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13 million."^ Moses had forbidden the Jews to bring their sacrifice to any place other than that which the Lord God would choose, and then he confined their sacrifices to one particular place.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He further said that the last horn signified that there would come a king who would surpass those others in wealth and glory.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These arguments would suffice to establish that, for the future, there will be no sacrifice, no priesthood, no king among the Jews.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[80] .Of course, there are many other complex demographic factors involved; the rate of population growth, epidemics, migration, assimilation, and conversion could all have played major roles in the current size of the global Jewish population.^ There's an upside & a downside to all this, of course.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were other factors, of course.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many Jewish citizens of Israel that belong to various peace organizastions that rail against the policies of their gov't and sympathize with the plight of many Palestinians.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later in medieval Western Europe, further persecutions of Jews in the name of Christianity occurred, notably during the Crusades—when Jews all over Germany were massacred—and a series of expulsions from England, Germany, France, and, in the largest expulsion of all, Spain and Portugal after the Reconquista (the Catholic Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula), where both unbaptized Sephardic Jews and the ruling Muslim Moors were expelled.^ My great grandfather was a rabbi, and all his brothers' children and grandchildren in Europe were lost, except for some cousins in France.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, millions of Jews were forbidden to leave Nazi-occupied Europe in order to placate the Palestinians.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel has to exist so there can be a SECOND COMING! Many, not all, fundamentalist Christian could care less about the Jews, but they need them.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[81][82] .In the Papal States, which existed until 1870, Jews were required to live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.^ Yet he calls the Jews by the names of these people because, by imitating their evil lives, the Jews had developed a kinship with those who dwelt in those cities.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[83] In the 19th and (before the end of World War II) 20th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church adhered to a distinction between "good antisemitism" and "bad antisemitism". The "bad" kind promoted hatred of Jews because of their descent. .This was considered un-Christian because the Christian message was intended for all of humanity regardless of ethnicity; anyone could become a Christian.^ Regardless of all these feelings, I do not like or admire Israel's policies in recent years at all and I do not consider it anti-semitic or anti-Jewish to say that.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't expect persecution on a massive scale of all non-white, non-Christians, not because I trust the fascists' motives but because of the international outrage that would ensue (morality?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Islam is especially hated by Christian bigots because Muslims are so resistant to conversion, even by otherwise-powerful Christianity (anyone got any ideas why - is it because it is the most absolute in its monotheism?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The "good" kind criticized alleged Jewish conspiracies to control newspapers, banks, and other institutions, to care only about accumulation of wealth, etc.[84]
Islam and Judaism have a complex relationship. .Traditionally Jews and Christians living in Muslim lands, known as dhimmis, were allowed to practice their religions and to administer their internal affairs, but subject to certain conditions.^ Head theocrat Pat Robertson wants (conservative) Christians and Jews in government and not Muslims and Hindus, liberals or secularists.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If he looked different from the actual Jews living in Antioch it was part of the malice of the Jew, one of the snares of the devil, set to catch the unwary Christian.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Once Bush used the word "crusade" it occurred to me that each and every time Muslims and Christians have their Jihad/Crusade thing going, Jews get killed.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[85] .They had to pay the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-Muslim males) to the Islamic state.^ The first thing they did there was to get into trouble with the Dutch authorities for refusing to pay taxes to support the Dutch Reformed Church.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[85] Dhimmis had an inferior status under Islamic rule. .They had several social and legal disabilities such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims.^ Since they stubbornly fight against GOD and resist the HOLY SPIRIT, how can we avoid the necessity of passing such sentence upon them?
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They have no hope, but they cannot bear to give up these practices.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If they refused to believe in Christ because they did not believe in the prophets, the charge against them would not be so severe.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[86] Many of the disabilities were highly symbolic. The one described by Bernard Lewis as "most degrading"[87] was the requirement of distinctive clothing, not found in the Qur'an or hadith but invented in early medieval Baghdad; its enforcement was highly erratic.[87] .On the other hand, Jews rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced compulsion to change their religion, and they were mostly free in their choice of residence and profession.^ They testified that the Law will be changed, that the old commonwealth and way of life will be transformed for the better, and that never again will a king arise for the Jews.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No necessity forced the Jews when they slew their own children with their own hands to pay honor to the avenging demons, the foes of our life.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Go to the synagogues and see if the Jews have changed their fast; see if they kept the pre-Paschal fast with us; see if they have taken food on that day.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[88] Notable exceptions include the massacre of Jews and/or forcible conversion of some Jews by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in Al-Andalus in the 12th century,[89] as well as in Islamic Persia,[90] and the forced confinement of Morrocan Jews to walled quarters known as mellahs beginning from the 15th century and especially in the early 19th century.[91] In modern times, it has become commonplace for standard antisemitic themes to be conflated with anti-Zionist publications and pronouncements of Islamic movements such as Hezbollah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other publications of Turkish Refah Partisi."[92]
Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed their Jewish populations or sought to eliminate them entirely. Methods employed ranged from expulsion to outright genocide; within nations, often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence dissent. .The history of antisemitism includes the First Crusade which resulted in the massacre of Jews;[81] the Spanish Inquisition (led by Torquemada) and the Portuguese Inquisition, with their persecution and Auto de fé against the New Christians and Marrano Jews;[93] the Bohdan Chmielnicki Cossack massacres in Ukraine;[94] the Pogroms backed by the Russian Tsars;[95 ] as well as expulsions from Spain, Portugal, England, France, Germany, and other countries in which the Jews had settled.^ Nor was it exactly like the Spanish Inquisition and Expulsion.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meeks, Wayne A. and Robert L. Wilken, Jews and Christians in Antioch in the first four centuries of the common era , Scholars Press for the Society of Biblical Literature, c1978.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Spanish Inquisition was fine with conversos (converted Jews), but the moriscos (converted Muslims) were all eventually expelled or exterminated.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[82] .The persecution reached a peak in Adolf Hitler's Final Solution, which led to the Holocaust and the slaughter of approximately 6 million Jews from 1939 to 1945.[96]According to a recent study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics 19.8% of the modern Iberian population has Sephardic Jewish ancestry,[97] indicating that the number of conversos may have been much higher than originally thought.^ Christ clearly is sprung from that tribe, namely the tribe of Judah; Christ surely is a priest according to the order of Melchizedek; Melchizedek is surely much more venerable than Abraham.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time he saw that the Jews, too, who were even more imperfect than the pagans, would put aside their worship through sacrifices, holocausts, and other material things and be led to our way of life.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not say this for no purpose but because he wanted to show that our priesthood is much greater than the Jewish priesthood.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[98]
.The most notable modern day persecution of Jews remains the Holocaust — the state-led systematic persecution and genocide of European Jews (and certain communities of North African Jews in European controlled North Africa) and other minority groups of Europe during World War II by Nazi Germany and its collaborators.^ Nazi anti-Semetic propoganda was aimed at the Muslim world by Germany and was accepted by the Muslim world that was already angry at the Zionist movement.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, as the entire world found out the hard way during World War II, in the short run, the people trying to turn the clock back can get a lot of people killed in their attempts to do so.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time he saw that the Jews, too, who were even more imperfect than the pagans, would put aside their worship through sacrifices, holocausts, and other material things and be led to our way of life.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[99] The persecution and genocide were accomplished in stages. .Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II.[100] Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labour until they died of exhaustion or disease.^ By this he meant the years to come until the consummation of the world.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ THey were more interested in shipping the Jews out of Europe at first and concentration camps were mainly filled with political prisoners.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The main point is that a lot of these hatreds are (amazingly) still very vivid for European immigrants of a certain generation and they don't accept OUR dominant narrative about World War II completely.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[101] Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.[102] .Jews and Roma were crammed into ghettos before being transported hundreds of miles by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were killed in gas chambers.^ Or do they see this as a bonanza to get secular Jews back into their congregations?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only reason Pat Robertson, for example, supports Israel is that he and his followers believe that all Jews must return to Israel before Armegeddon, the Rapture and the Second Coming (not sure of sequence) can commence, a process they believe Jews will not survive.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though they be unwilling, let us drag them into our own houses, let us sit down with them at table and put a meal before them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[103] .Virtually every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."^ And according to their so-called literal interpretations of Revalations the end of the world won't come until two conditions are met: One is that Israel must be a nation.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[104]

Migrations

Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on August 23, 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate"
.
Jewish refugees in Shanghai, China during World War II.
^ However, as the entire world found out the hard way during World War II, in the short run, the people trying to turn the clock back can get a lot of people killed in their attempts to do so.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Arabs, filled with hatred, lashed out at Jewish refugees and war was unavoidable.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ America today -- not during World War II - as you know FDR was an anti-Semite - deliberately restricting Jewish immigration; turning away the St. Louis in 1940 carrying 900 Jewish refugess to a certain death, etc., etc., but America today, most fortunately, is a different and better country.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Shanghai offered unconditional asylum for tens of thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe escaping the Holocaust.[105]
Throughout Jewish history, Jews have repeatedly been directly or indirectly expelled from both their original homeland, and the areas in which they have resided. .This experience as both immigrants and emigrants (see: Jewish refugees) have shaped Jewish identity and religious practice in many ways, and are thus a major element of Jewish history.^ I was not without experience of the Jewish way of life under the Law and the punishment set for those who transgress it, was I? "I am a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as regards the Law, a Pharisee; as regards zeal, a persecutor of the Church.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jewish religious way of life did not have all its origins from here below; the greater number and the more solemn things came from heaven above.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Among those nationalist movements were, of course, Zionism (based on both existing and immigrant Jewish populations in the area and on an ancient claim to the land) and Palestinians (based on a current population in the area).
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[106] An incomplete list of such migrations includes:
  • The patriarch Abraham was a migrant to the land of Canaan from Ur of the Chaldees.[107]
  • .
  • The Children of Israel experienced the Exodus (meaning "departure" or "exit" in Greek) from ancient Egypt, as recorded in the Book of Exodus.^ Passover tells the story of the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, translated from "Mitzrayim," meaning "narrow place."
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    [108]
  • The Kingdom of Israel was sent into permanent exile and scattered all over the world (or at least to unknown locations) by Assyria.[109]
  • .
  • The Kingdom of Judah was exiled by Babylonia,[110] then returned to Judea by Cyrus the Great of the Persian Achaemenid Empire,[111] and then many were exiled again by the Roman Empire.^ If he should become your foe, God will be your friend and will give you in return many great blessings on that day.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [112]
  • .
  • The 2,000 year dispersion of the Jewish diaspora beginning under the Roman Empire, as Jews were spread throughout the Roman world and, driven from land to land, and settled wherever they could live freely enough to practice their religion.^ But we are not free from blame, because we have neglected them in their hour of illness; if we had shown great concern for them and they had the benefit of this care, they could not possibly still be sick.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said: "In the same manner Daniel also wrote about the empire of the Romans and that they would capture Jerusalem and devastate the temple."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Israel has to exist so there can be a SECOND COMING! Many, not all, fundamentalist Christian could care less about the Jews, but they need them.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Over the course of the diaspora the center of Jewish life moved from Babylonia[113] to the Iberian Peninsula[114] to Poland[115] to the United States[116] and, as a result of Zionism, to Israel.^ Among those nationalist movements were, of course, Zionism (based on both existing and immigrant Jewish populations in the area and on an ancient claim to the land) and Palestinians (based on a current population in the area).
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    [117]
  • .
  • Many expulsions during the Middle Ages and Enlightenment in Europe, including: 1290, 16,000 Jews were expelled from England, see the (Statute of Jewry); in 1396, 100,000 from France; in 1421 thousands were expelled from Austria.^ Rather, what I would like to see is for Jews and Palestinians as well as Arabs throughout the Middle East achieve a peaceful solution.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The writer seems to ignore the fact that the main reason Jews couldn't get out of Europe is that no one would let them in, including the United States.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Many of these Jews settled in Eastern Europe, especially Poland.^ In the past, and especially at the time when Christ entrusted to us these sacred mysteries, many a man approached the sacrificial banquet without thought or preparation.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [118]
  • .
  • Following the Spanish Inquisition in 1492, the Spanish population of around 200,000 Sephardic Jews were expelled by the Spanish crown and Catholic church, followed by expulsions in 1493 in Sicily (37,000 Jews) and Portugal in 1496. The expelled Jews fled mainly to the Ottoman Empire, the Netherlands, and North Africa, others migrating to Southern Europe and the Middle East.^ Nor was it exactly like the Spanish Inquisition and Expulsion.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When you put in the context of the historic persecution of Jews by Catholics and the Church, it's hard to see.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Spanish Inquisition was fine with conversos (converted Jews), but the moriscos (converted Muslims) were all eventually expelled or exterminated.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    [119]
  • During the 19th century, France's policies of equal citizenship regardless of religion led to the immigration of Jews (especially from Eastern and Central Europe).[120 ]
  • .
  • The arrival of millions of Jews in the New World, including immigration of over two million Eastern European Jews to the United States from 1880–1925, see History of the Jews in the United States and History of the Jews in Russia and the Soviet Union.^ There is much concern among Jews I know (including myself) that the next pope will follow the same pattern as the rest of history - whenever there's been a "Pro-Jew" pope, it's been followed by harsh anti-Jew popes.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you think things cannot get out of hand because this is The United States, you need to read a bit more history.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The writer seems to ignore the fact that the main reason Jews couldn't get out of Europe is that no one would let them in, including the United States.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    [121]
  • .
  • The Pogroms in Eastern Europe,[95 ] the rise of modern antisemitism,[122 ] the Holocaust,[123] and the rise of Arab nationalism[124] all served to fuel the movements and migrations of huge segments of Jewry from land to land and continent to continent, until they arrived back in large numbers at their original historical homeland in Israel.^ The sight of Cain's palsied limbs was a lesson for all he met; it served to teach all men and exhort them never to dare do what he had done, so that they might not suffer the same punishment.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ '"If you will not serve the Lord your God, I shall lead forth against you a shameless national l, a nation whose tongue you will not understand, and you will be few in number."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So I have two statistics that I can't substantiate, but I believe they refuse the "eastern europe catholicism."
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    [117]
  • The Islamic Revolution of Iran forced many Iranian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US (particularly Los Angeles, CA) and Israel. Smaller communities of Persian Jews exist in Canada and Western Europe.[125]
  • .
  • When the Soviet Union collapsed, many of the Jews in the affected territory (who had been refuseniks) were suddenly allowed to leave.^ Many of the Jews did leave.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I'm not Jewish, but I wonder where that leaves all the Jews I know, who are secular, liberal or left wing, and "cosmopolitan?"
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That if things get so bad here that many Jews feel threatened enough to leave, where can we go?
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    This produced a wave of migration to Israel in the early 1990s.[63]

Growth

.Israel is the only country with a consistently growing Jewish population due to natural population increase, though the Jewish populations of other countries in Europe and North America have recently increased due to immigration.^ He supported abortion in Eastern Europe, in a country that's losing population, he's a self-admitted atheist, I think he's a very bad influence in the world.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others who responded to my post didn't really understand this - that the irony is that the ONLY place we can be sure we will be welcomed is Israel.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Personally, I think Pat Robertson is only "Pro-Israel" in his own mind, in the same way he imagines he's pro-America.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In the Diaspora, in almost every country the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, but Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.[126]
.Orthodox and Conservative Judaism discourage proselytization to non-Jews, but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order for them to reconnect to their Jewish roots.^ John Paul the 2nd was the first pope to really reach out to Jews and he was criticized from within for doing it.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I agree that Jews are one group among MANY groups of "others" that those in power would like us to fear and loathe.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Iowans have little exposure to secular or reform/conservative Jews; they've only ever heard of Lubavitchers and other Orthodox jews who are indeed mysterious and out of the mainstream.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried couples.[127] .There is also a trend of Orthodox movements pursuing secular Jews in order to give them a stronger Jewish identity so there is less chance of intermarriage.^ And again, there was another text, where the Jews were saying: 'Will the Lord receive it in place of holocausts if I give my first-born for my wickedness, the fruit of my body for the sin of my souls?'
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Israel has to exist so there can be a SECOND COMING! Many, not all, fundamentalist Christian could care less about the Jews, but they need them.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not Jewish, but I wonder where that leaves all the Jews I know, who are secular, liberal or left wing, and "cosmopolitan?"
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.As a result of the efforts by these and other Jewish groups over the past twenty-five years, there has been a trend of secular Jews becoming more religiously observant, known as the Baal Teshuva movement, though the demographic implications of the trend are unknown.^ It is truer to say that the fact that these Books are to be found in the synagogues makes them more detestable, for the Jews have simply introduced these Books, ' not to honour them, but to insult them, and to dishonour them' [Sermon I:5 and VI:6].
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For we could not mention a time at which these predictions were accomplished other than the long and many years already past and the years which are going to be longer and more numerous still.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Should Jews be more afraid than others?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[128] .Additionally, there is also a growing movement of Jews by Choice by gentiles who make the decision to head in the direction of becoming Jews.^ For if there was going to be an end to the present captivity for you Jews, there was every need for the prophets to foretell this, as is clear to anyone who has even so much as glanced at the prophetic books.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And there is a kingship because the Jews and the Anomians make the same accusation.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Let it also become known to those who side with the Jews, even though they pretend to be ranked with us.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[129]

Jewish leadership

.There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine.^ I suspect you'll find more of your Jewish neighbors to be more reasonable now that there's new management at the Palestinian Authority.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jewish people stay there and don't change their current, pretty-much-right-wing government.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[130] Instead, a variety of secular and religious institutions at the local, national, and international levels lead various parts of the Jewish community on a variety of issues.[131]

Notable Jews

.Jews have made contributions in a broad range of human endeavors, including the sciences, arts, politics, and business.^ Bush political activities has made him the modern-day equivalent of those evil Jews behind the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It discusses a variety of facets of identity politics, including the role foisted upon Jews (among other Others) in the big war...and in this 'new' war, the meta-war, the ongoing war.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[132][133] .The number of Jewish Nobel prize winners is far out of proportion to the percentage of Jews in the world's population.^ And many JEws, as you point out, considered themselves more German than Jewish.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Jews find this out, it will be they, rather than we, who thrust out those of our number who frequent their synagogue.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[134][133]

See also

More complete guides to topics related to the Jews is available from the guide at the top or bottom of this page. Some topics of interest include:

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah (PDF) Annual Assessment, Jewish People Policy Planning Institute (Jewish Agency for Israel), 2007, p. 15, http://www.jpppi.org.il/JPPPI/SendFile.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&GID=489  , based on American Jewish Year Book. 106. American Jewish Committee. 2006. http://www.ajcarchives.org/main.php?GroupingId=10142.  
  2. ^ a b (PDF) Statistical Abstract of Israel, Central Bureau of Statistics, 2009, p. 88, http://www.cbs.gov.il/reader/shnaton/templ_shnaton_e.html?num_tab=st02_02&CYear=2009  
  3. ^ a b c (PDF) Statistical Abstract, U.S. Census Bureau, 2007, http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/09s0076.pdf  
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "The Jewish Population of the World (2006)". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/jewpop.html.  , based on American Jewish Year Book. 106. American Jewish Committee. 2006. http://www.ajcarchives.org/main.php?GroupingId=10142.  
  5. ^ [1] "The Jewish Problem: How To Solve It," U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, "Jews are a distinctive nationality of which every Jew, whatever his country, his station or shade of belief, is necessarily a member" (April 25, 1915), University of Louisville Louis D. Brandeis School of Law, Retrieved on June 15, 2009
  6. ^ [2] Palmer, Henry, A History of the Jewish Nation (1875), D. Lothrop & Co., Retrieved on June 15, 2009
  7. ^ [3] "The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol. 7: Berlin Years," U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, "The Jewish Nation is a living fact" (June 21, 1921), Princeton University Press, Retrieved on June 15, 2009
  8. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 82.
  9. ^ a b Pfeffer, Anshel (September 12, 2007). "Jewish Agency: 13.2 million Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/903585.html. Retrieved January 24, 2009.  
  10. ^ Grintz, Yehoshua M. (2007). "Jew". in Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. p. 253. ISBN 0-02-865928-2.  
  11. ^ Falk, Avner (1996). A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 131. ISBN 0-8386-3660-8.  
  12. ^ "Yiddish". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. 2004. p. 1453. ISBN 0-87779-809-5.  
  13. ^ "Jew", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition (2000). Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved on October 26, 2009.
  14. ^ Neusner (1991) p. 64
  15. ^ Patai, Raphael (1996) [1977]. The Jewish Mind. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8143-2651-X.  
  16. ^ Johnson, Lonnie R. (1996). Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-19-510071-9.  
  17. ^ a b Sharot (1997), pp. 29–30.
  18. ^ Sharot (1997), pp. 42–43.
  19. ^ Sharot (1997), p. 42.
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    • Saving Jews: Polish Righteous 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.savingjews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Witness the despicable co-opting of New York's and DC's tragedy for monetary gain in red states.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York, Hippocrene Books, 1981; "The Polish Underground State - a Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945".
    • Saving Jews: Polish Righteous 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.savingjews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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  74. ^ Cohen, Erik H.. "Les Juifs de France: La Lente Progression des Mariages Mixtes" (in French). http://www.akadem.org/photos/contextuels/1027_357_Rapport_Erik_Cohen.pdf. Retrieved March 25, 2009.  
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  78. ^ Goldenberg (2007), pp. 131, 135–136.
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  80. ^ Carroll, James. Constantine's Sword (Houghton Mifflin, 2001) ISBN 0-395-77927-8 p.26
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  83. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 243–244.
  84. ^ "A Catholic Timeline of Events Relating to Jews, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust, From the 3rd century to the Beginning of the Third Millennium"
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  86. ^ Lewis (1987), p. 9, 27
  87. ^ a b Lewis (1999), p.131
  88. ^ Lewis (1999), p.131; (1984), pp.8,62
  89. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 52; Stillman (1979), p.77
  90. ^ Lewis (1984), pp. 17–18, 94–95; Stillman (1979), p. 27
  91. ^ Lewis (1984), p. 28.
  92. ^ Muslim Anti-Semitism by Bernard Lewis (Middle East Quarterly) June 1998
  93. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 226–229.
  94. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 259–260.
  95. ^ a b Johnson (1987), pp. 364–365.
  96. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 512.
  97. ^ Study: 20 Percent of Spanish, Portuguese Have Jewish Ancestry. FoxNews.com. December 8, 2008.
  98. ^ DNA study shows 20 percent of Iberian population has Jewish ancestry. The New York Times. December 4, 2008.
  99. ^ Donald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." However, the Holocaust usually includes all of the different victims who were systematically murdered.
  100. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 484–488.
  101. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 490–492.
  102. ^ Ukrainian mass Jewish grave found
  103. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 493–498.
  104. ^ Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know," United States Holocaust Museum, 2006, p. 103.
  105. ^ Melvin, Sheila; Jindong Cai (2004). Rhapsody in Red. New York: Algora Publishing. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-87586-179-2.  
  106. ^ de Lange (2002), pp. 41–43.
  107. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 10.
  108. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 30.
  109. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 70–71.
  110. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 78–79.
  111. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 85–86.
  112. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 147.
  113. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 163.
  114. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 177.
  115. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 231.
  116. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 460.
  117. ^ a b Gartner (2001), p. 431.
  118. ^ Gartner (2001), pp. 11–12.
  119. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 229–231.
  120. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 306.
  121. ^ Johnson (1987), p. 370.
  122. ^ Gartner (2001), pp. 213–215.
  123. ^ Gartner (2001), pp. 357–370.
  124. ^ Johnson (1987), pp. 529–530.
  125. ^ Netzer, Amnon (2007). "Iran". in Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 10 (2d ed. ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. pp. 13. ISBN 0-02-865928-2.  
  126. ^ Gartner (2001), pp. 400–401.
  127. ^ Kaplan (2003), p. 301.
  128. ^ Danzger (2003), pp. 495–496.
  129. ^ de Lange (2002), p. 220.
  130. ^ Eisenstadt, S.N. (2004). Explorations in Jewish Historical Experience: The Civilizational Dimension. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 75. ISBN 90-04-13693-2.  
  131. ^ Lewis, Hal M. (2006). From Sanctuary to Boardroom: A Jewish Approach to Leadership. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 1. ISBN 0-7425-5229-2.  
  132. ^ Schwartz, Richard H. (2001). Judaism and Global Survival. New York: Lantern Books. p. 153. ISBN 1-930051-87-5.  
  133. ^ a b Brooks, David (January 12, 2010). "The Tel Aviv Cluster". The New York Times. p. A23. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/12/opinion/12brooks.html. Retrieved January 13, 2010. " Jews are a famously accomplished group. They make up 0.2 percent of the world population, but 54 percent of the world chess champions, 27 percent of the Nobel physics laureates and 31 percent of the medicine laureates. Jews make up 2 percent of the U.S. population, but 21 percent of the Ivy League student bodies, 26 percent of the Kennedy Center honorees, 37 percent of the Academy Award-winning directors, 38 percent of those on a recent Business Week list of leading philanthropists, 51 percent of the Pulitzer Prize winners for nonfiction."  
  134. ^ Dobbs, Stephen Mark (October 12, 2001). "As the Nobel Prize marks centennial, Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates". j.. http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/17015/edition_id/335/format/html/displaystory.html. Retrieved January 23, 2009. "Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel Prize -- perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably, Jews constitute almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population."  

References

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  • Dekmejian, R. Hrair (1975). Patterns of Political Leadership: Egypt, Israel, Lebanon. .State University of New York Press.^ New York, Columbia University Press, 1978 and "The Jews and the Poles in World War II".
    • Saving Jews: Polish Righteous 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.savingjews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Witness the despicable co-opting of New York's and DC's tragedy for monetary gain in red states.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York, Hippocrene Books, 1981; "The Polish Underground State - a Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945".
    • Saving Jews: Polish Righteous 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.savingjews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 087395291X.
     
  • de Lange, Nicholas (2002) [2000]. An Introduction to Judaism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46073-5.  
  • Dosick, Wayne (2007). Living Judaism. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-062179-6.  
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  • Feldman, Louis H. (2006). Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 90-04-14906-6.  
  • Gartner, Lloyd P. (2001). .History of the Jews in Modern Times.^ Similar developments occurred in other countries, though it becomes impossible to treat the history of the Jews, from this time onwards, in general outline.

    Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-289259-2.
     
  • Goldenberg, Robert (2007). The Origins of Judaism: From Canaan to the Rise of Islam. .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge, England: The University Press, 1973 Welcome corrections to my original attempt supplied by Michael Blanc.
    • The Jew of Malta, by Christopher Marlowe 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www2.prestel.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-521-84453-3.
     
  • Goldstein, Joseph (1995). .Jewish History in Modern Times.^ Modern times have made Christians more aware of the close fraternal bonds that unite them to the Jewish people.
    • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

    Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1898723060.
     
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  • Kaplan, Dana Evan (2003) [2000]. "Reform Judaism". in Neusner, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan J.. The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-57718-058-5.  
  • Katz, Shmuel (1974). Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. Taylor Productions. ISBN 0-929093-13-5.  
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  • Sharot, Stephen (1997).^ Interesting, because I associate the hatred of Hollywood, Liberals, New York and San Fran, as an anti-gay sentiment.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Distributor (2007) (USA) (DVD) The Complete History of the New York Jets (2007) (V) ...
    • Warner Bros. Pictures [us] 15 January 2010 12:13 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: News]
    • Warner Bros. Pictures [us] 26 January 2010 0:32 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: News]

    ^ I suppose the Turks, formerly known as guest-workers, are the new Jews among the anti-semites there now.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    "Religious Syncretism and Religious Distinctiveness: A Comparative Analysis of Pre-Modern Jewish Communities". in Endelman, Todd M.. Comparing Jewish Societies. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-06592-0.  
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. .Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.^ Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 199962.  Heschel, A., Man Is Not Alone .
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    ^ Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1990, p.
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External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also jew

Contents

English

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Etymology

c.1175 (in plural, giwis), from Anglo-Fr. iuw, from O.Fr. giu, from L. Judaeum (nom. Judaeus), from Gk. Ἰουδαῖος (Ioudaios), from Aramaic jehudhai (Heb. y'hudi "Jew," from Y'hudah "Judah," lit. ."celebrated," name of Jacob's fourth son and of the tribe descended from him.^ A tribe was named after each of Jacob's sons: for example, the tribe of Ruben, of Simeon, of Levi, of Judah, of Naphthali, of Gad, of Asher, of Benjamin.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Melchizedek, who was not of their descent, because he was not a descendant of Abraham, and who was not of the tribe of Levi but from another nation, exacted a tenth part from Abraham, that is, he took tithes from him.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So also in Joseph's case, his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, gave their names to two tribes; one was called the tribe of Ephraim and the other the tribe of Manasseh.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Replaced O.E. Iudeas "the Jews." .Originally, "Hebrew of the kingdom of Judah."^ The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.

Jews' harp "simple mouth harp" is from 1584, earlier Jews' trump (1545); the connection with Jewishness is obscure. .Jew-baiting first recorded 1853, in reference to German Judenhetze.^ So in the first translation he used the word, in referring to Jesus, as ‘gyu’, “jew”.

.In uneducated times, inexplicable ancient artifacts were credited to Jews, based on the biblical chronology of history: e.g.^ Biblical, or rather Palestinian, thought has been brought into the world of ancient Oriental life, and this life, in spite of the various forms in which it has from time to time been shaped, still rules in the East.

.Jews' money (1577) "Roman coins found in England."^ The pro-Syrian faction of the Palestinian Jews found their opportunity in this emergency and informed the governor of Coele-Syria that the treasury in Jerusalem contained untold sums of money.

^ Under Ventidius Cumanus (48-52) the mutual hatred of Jews and Romans, Samaritans and Jews, found vent in insults and bloodshed.

.In Greece, after Christianity had erased the memory of classical glory, ruins of pagan temples were called "Jews' castles."^ In 2:9, these so-called Jews are accused of defaming the Christian community of Smyrna.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ These Jews call the Christian faith into question; they do not accept that Jesus is their Messiah ( Christ) and the Son of God.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ When he learned that the Jews had writings which treated of God and the ideal state, he sent for men from Judea and had them translate those books, which he then had deposited in the temple of Serapis, for he was a pagan.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
Jew
Plural
Jews
Jew (plural Jews)
.
  1. An adherent of Judaism.
  2. A person who claims a cultural or ancestral connection to the Jewish people (see secular Jew).^ What is it that you are rushing to see in the synagogue of the Jews who fight against God?
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But each one of these Germans had no personal animosity towards the Jewish people that they knew.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I'm not scared only for Jews, by any means, but I can see the point in the coded message of which these people pride themselves.
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    • William Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice (Act III, scene I)
      Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs
      dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with
      the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject
      to the same diseases, heal'd by the same means,
      warm'd and cool'd by the same winter and summer
      as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed?
      If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us,
      do we not die? And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?

Usage notes

  • The Jewish community overall has a common religion, culture, identity, and ethnicity, but individual Jews do not necessarily share all of these; therefore, a person might be a Jew by one standpoint but not by another.
  • Additionally, there are some religious groups that identify themselves as part of Judaism, but that other Jewish groups might not; hence, use of the term Jew often depends on the speaker's opinions.
  • The noun Jew is not offensive, and the overwhelming majority of English-speaking Jews use the noun Jew to identify themselves.
  • That said, it has become offensive for historical reasons to use the word Jew attributively, in modifying another noun (as in "Jew lawyer"); the adjective Jewish is preferred for this purpose.
  • Additionally, the derived verbs jew and jew down are considered offensive, as they reflect stereotypes considered offensive.

Synonyms

Translations

Derived terms

Verb

Infinitive
to Jew
Third person singular
Jews
Simple past
Jewed
Past participle
Jewed
Present participle
Jewing
to Jew (third-person singular simple present Jews, present participle Jewing, simple past and past participle Jewed)
  1. (offensive) Alternative spelling of jew.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.The name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of Judah (2Kg 16:6; 25:25; Jer 32:12; 38:19; 40:11; 41:3), in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites.^ The latter were called the uncircumcision' by those who are called the circumcision' (2:11).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Decalogue Ex 20:1-17; Dt 5:6-21; Covenant Code Ex 20: 22-23:19; the collection of Ex 34; Deuteronomic Law Dt 12-28; Holiness Code Lv 17-26; Priestly Laws Ex 25-31; 35-40; Lv 1-7; 8-10, 11-16, etc.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way you would find out that those among you who are today called patriarchs are not priests at all.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation without distinction (Est 3:6, 10; Dan 3:8, 12; Ez 4:12; 5:1, 5).^ However, since you think that all Zionists are nutjobs, without understanding what the term means, I'd say that you are the nutjob.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The true seed of Israel separated themselves from all foreigners (not, however, without some opposition) and formed an exclusively religious body or " congregation ."

.Originally this people were called Hebrews (Gen 39:14; 40:15; Ex 2:7; 3:18; 5:3; 1Sam 4:6, 9, etc.^ Chosen by God, Israel is called a holy people (Dt 7:6; 14:2).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Ex 15:18; Nu 23:21; Dt 33:5.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ Gn 28:16-18; Ex 3:5; Jos 5:15.
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

), but after the Exile this name fell into disuse. But Paul was styled a Hebrew (2Cor 11:22; Phil 3:5).
.The history of the Jewish nation is interwoven with the history of Palestine and with the narratives of the lives of their rulers and chief men.^ The keen interest taken by the great prophets in the world around them is not prominent in the national records; political history has been subordinated, and the Palestine which modern discovery is revealing is not conspicuous in the didactic narratives.

^ The temple-tax was strictly exacted; Jews who lived the Jewish life without openly confessing their religion and Jews who concealed their nationality were brought before the magistrates.

.They are now [1897] dispersed over all lands, and to this day remain a separate people, "without a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and without an image [R.V. 'pillar,' marg.^ Aided by the religious reform of Josiah (640-609), 179 the deuteronomic law prescribed one sanctuary in the land for all the people (Dt 12:2-7).
  • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ If he turns away from you now because of your sins, lie should have done so all the more in those days.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is noteworthy, also, that an Ahaziah and a Jehoram appear as kings of Israel, and (in the reverse order) of Judah, and somewhat similar incidents recur in the now separate histories of the two kingdoms.

'obelisk'], and without an ephod, and without teraphim" (Hos 3:4). .Till about the beginning of the present century [1800] they were everywhere greatly oppressed, and often cruelly persecuted; but now their condition is greatly improved, and they are admitted in most European countries to all the rights of free citizens.^ In Sweden the Jews have all the rights which are open to non- Lutherans ; they cannot become members of the council of state.

^ And those who are convinced that they hold the absolute truth are the most dangerous of all."
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They refused to betray their faith in those most difficult times [of persecution]; would they sink to pretense and deceit on the question of the Easter observance?
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

In 1860 the "Jewish disabilities" were removed, and they were admitted to a seat in the British Parliament. .Their number in all is estimated at about six millions, about four millions being in Europe.^ After all, millions of Jews were forbidden to leave Nazi-occupied Europe in order to placate the Palestinians.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If somewhere around fifty million people died during WW2, that Jewish mortality comprised some 2% of this total: which is about the average for Europe, i.e.

^ Sixty years and several generations later, that number has swelled to an estimated seven million.

There are three names used in the New Testament to designate this people,
.
  1. Jews, as regards their nationality, to distinguish them from Gentiles.
  2. Hebrews, with regard to their language and education, to distinguish them from Hellenists, i.e., Jews who spoke the Greek language.
  3. Israelites, as respects their sacred privileges as the chosen people of God.^ For God has not rejected his people (11:2); witness to that is the existence of a Remnant, who believe in Christ; Paul himself is part of that Remnant (11:1,4-6).
    • The Jewish People and their Sacred Scriptures in the Christian Bible 6 February 2010 11:46 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My old grandmother is right-how can they do this to God's chosen people?
    • Daily Kos: UPDATE It's the Jews 15 January 2010 11:43 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I was not without experience of the Jewish way of life under the Law and the punishment set for those who transgress it, was I? "I am a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as regards the Law, a Pharisee; as regards zeal, a persecutor of the Church.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Saint John Chrysostom: Eight Homilies Against the Jews 28 January 2010 0:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    "To other races we owe the splendid inheritance of modern civilization and secular culture; but the religious education of mankind has been the gift of the Jew alone."
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Facts about JewRDF feed

Simple English

File:Star of
The Star of David is a symbol of the Jewish faith

A Jew is a person who is of Jewish heritage. Jews typically consider themselves as a separate nation rather than just adherents of a religion, therefore a Jew is not only one that practices the religion of Judaism, but it is also one who is of Jewish heritage. According to the Jewish Halakha, someone is Jewish if their mother was a Jew.[1]

The word Jew originally meant people from the ancient Kingdom of Judea (where Israel is today). After most Judeans were forced out by the Romans, the word started to mean people of the Jewish religion, and not just those from Judea.

Israel is the only Jewish country, but there are Jewish minorities in many places in the world. Most of them live in large cities in the United States, Argentina, Europe and Australia. Both Israel and the U.S. have over five million Jews.[2]Russia used to also have millions of Jews, but most of them moved to Israel or the U.S., or were killed in the Holocaust.

Jews have been victims of various persecutions. The one that happened during the Second World War is known as The Holocaust.

Jewish Ethnic Groups

There are different Jewish ethnic groups. The two biggest are called Ashkenazi (European Jews) and Sephardic (Jews from the lands around the Mediterranean Sea). There are also African Jews (Beta Israel or Mizrahi), Indian Jews (Bene Israel) and even some Chinese Jews (Kai-feng Jews). Many of these groups have moved from one place to another. For example, many Ashkenazi Jews live in the United States, and many Mizrahi Jews live in France.[3]

Jews speak many languages, but the most common are Hebrew (the official language of the Jewish faith) and Yiddish.

Famous Jews

File:Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer
Albert Einstein, who came up with the equation e=mc2, was Jewish.
See also: Category:Jewish people

Many Jews have gone on to do great things in science, literature, business, and the arts. Some of the most famous include:

References

  1. Dosick, Wayne (2007). Living Judaism. New York: HarperCollins. p. 56-57. ISBN 0-06-062179-6. 
  2. (PDF) Annual Assessment, Jewish People Policy Planning Institute (Jewish Agency for Israel), 2007, p. 15, http://www.jpppi.org.il/JPPPI/SendFile.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&GID=489 , based on American Jewish Year Book. 106. American Jewish Committee. 2006. http://www.ajcarchives.org/main.php?GroupingId=10142. 
  3. Schmelz, Usiel Oscar; Sergio DellaPergola (2007). "Demography". Encyclopaedia Judaica (2d ed.) 5. Ed. Fred Skolnik. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 571–572. 
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Citable sentences

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