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Joaquim de Sousa Andrade

A photograph depicting Andrade
Born 9 July 1833(1833-07-09)
Guimarães, Maranhão, Brazil
Died 20 April 1902 (aged 68)
São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Pen name Sousândrade
Occupation Poet
Nationality Brazil Brazilian
Ethnicity White
Alma mater Sorbonne
Literary movement Romanticism
Notable work(s) Harpas Selvagens, Guesa

Joaquim de Sousa Andrade, better known by his pseudonym Sousândrade (July 9, 1833April 20, 1902), was a Brazilian poet, adept of the "Condorist" movement.


Andrade was born in the city of Guimarães, in the Brazilian State of Maranhão, in 1833.

He published his first poetry book, Harpas Selvagens (Wild Harps), in 1857. He travelled to many countries, such as France (where he was graduated in Linguistics and mining engineering at Sorbonne) and the United States, where he settled down in 1871. It was in the U.S.A. where he wrote Guesa, an epic poem based on a Quechua legend about a teenager Indian who is going to be sacrificed to the Sun God. Guesa is characterized by the employment of neologisms and vertiginous metaphores; thus, it's considered by some critics a precursor work of the Modernism, however this was only acknowledged decades after his death. From 1871 to 1879 he was secretary and collaborator for the periodic O Novo Mundo, directed by José Carlos Rodrigues in New York City.

Returning to Maranhão, in order to commemorate the proclamation of the republic in Brazil, he becomes president of the mayor office of São Luís in 1890. He founded many schools, realized reforms at the teaching and idealized the flag of Maranhão. He also planned to be a senator in 1890, but quit before the elections.

Sousândrade died poor, forgotten and allegedly insane in São Luís, in 1902. His works were only rediscovered in the 1960s and the 1970s.


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