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J. F. Gmelin

Johann Friedrich Gmelin (1748–1804)
Born August 8, 1748(1748-08-08)
Tübingen, Germany
Died November 1, 1804 (aged 56)
Göttingen, Germany
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Fields Naturalist, botanist and entomologist
Institutions University of Göttingen
University of Tübingen
Alma mater University of Tübingen
Doctoral advisor Philipp Friedrich Gmelin
Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger
Doctoral students Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt
Friedrich Stromeyer
Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer
Wilhelm August Lampadius
Known for Textbooks
Author abbreviation (botany) J.F.Gmel.
He was the the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin and the father of Leopold Gmelin.

Johann Friedrich Gmelin (August 8, 1748 – November 1, 1804) was a German naturalist, botanist and entomologist.



Johann Friedrich Gmelin was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen. He studied medicine under his father Philipp Friedrich Gmelin[1] at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1769, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam. His thesis however records Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger as his adviser or praeses. This is presumably because his father died the year before in 1768, and Oetinger had to take over. The role of a praeses in those days was quite significant in that the thesis was written by the praeses and not the student.


In 1769, he became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen. In 1773 he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen. He was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry, botany and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen.

Johann Friedrich Gmelin published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy and botany. He also published the 13th edition of Systema Naturae by Carolus Linnaeus in 1788.


The Artemisia plant Gmelin's Wormwood or Artemisia gmelinii is named after him.

Among his students were Georg Friedrich Hildebrandt, Carl Friedrich Kielmeyer, Friedrich Stromeyer and Wilhelm August Lampadius. He was the father of Leopold Gmelin.

He discovered the Redfin Pickerel in 1789


  • Gmelin, Johann Friedrich; Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger (1768). Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploraam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam. Thesis Tübingen. OCLC 10717434.  
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Gifte, Two Volumes, 1776/1777
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der Pflanzengifte, 1777
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der mineralischen Gifte, 1777
  • Einleitung in die Chemie, 1780
  • Beyträge zur Geschichte des teutschen Bergbaus, 1783
  • Ueber die neuere Entdeckungen in der Lehre von der Luft, und deren Anwendung auf Arzneikunst, 1784
  • Grundsätze der technischen Chemie, 1786
  • Grundriß der Pharmazie, 1792
  • Geschichte der Chemie, 1799
  • Allgemeine Geschichte der thierischen und mineralischen Gifte, 1806
Göttingen, Cheltenhampark, Grave of Johann Friedrich Gmelin


  1. ^ Mainz, Vera V.; Gregory S. Girolami (1998). "Genealogy Database Entry: Gmelin, Johann Friedrich". School of Chemical Sciences Web Genealogy. University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Retrieved 2009-01-01.  
  • Vane-Wright, R. I., 1975. The butterflies named by J. F. Gmelin (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera).Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History),Entomology, 32: 17-64.

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Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Johann Friedrich Gmelin

(8.VIII.1748 – 1.XI.1804)

German naturalist, botanist and entomologist.


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