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John Adams Dix

In office
January 1, 1873 – December 31, 1874
Lieutenant John C. Robinson
Preceded by John Thompson Hoffman
Succeeded by Samuel J. Tilden

In office
January 15, 1861 – March 6, 1861
President James Buchanan
Preceded by Philip Thomas
Succeeded by Salmon P. Chase

United States Senator
from New York
In office
January 27, 1845 – March 3, 1849
Preceded by Henry A. Foster
Succeeded by William H. Seward

Born July 24, 1798(1798-07-24)
Boscawen, New Hampshire, U.S.
Died April 21, 1879 (aged 80)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political party Democratic, Republican
Spouse(s) Catherine Morgan Dix
Profession Politician, Lawyer, Railroad President
Religion Episcopalian
Military service
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 1812 - 1828; 1861 - 1863
Rank Major General

John Adams Dix (July 24, 1798 – April 21, 1879) was an American politician from New York. He served as Secretary of the Treasury, U.S. Senator, and the 24th Governor of New York. He was also a Union major general during the Civil War.


Early life and career

Dix was born in Boscawen, New Hampshire. He joined the Artillery as a military cadet at the age of 14. He served in the United States Army, having attained the rank of captain.

In 1826, Dix married Catherine Morgan, the adopted daughter of Congressman John J. Morgan, who gave Dix a job overseeing his upstate New York land holdings in Cooperstown. Dix and his wife moved to Cooperstown in 1828, and he practiced law in addition to overseeing the land holdings. He was appointed Adjutant General of New York State by Governor Throop, he moved to Albany, New York, in 1830, and served as Secretary of State of New York from 1833 to 1839.

U.S. Senator

Dix was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Silas Wright, Jr., and served from 1845 to 1849. He was not a candidate for reelection, having become a candidate for Governor of the Van Buren wing (Barnburner/Free-Soil) of the Democratic Party. He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor in 1848 losing to Hamilton Fish in a three way race.

Railroad president and postmaster

In 1853 Dix was president of the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad. He was appointed postmaster of the City of New York and served from 1860 to 1861.

In addition to his military and public duties, Dix was the president of the Union Pacific from 1863 to 1868 during construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. He was the figurehead for rail baron Thomas C. Durant, in both of his railroad presidencies.

Civil War service


Secretary of the Treasury

Dix was appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury by President James Buchanan in 1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he sent a telegram to the Treasury agents in New Orleans ordering that: "If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." Although the telegram was intercepted by Confederates, and was never delivered to the Treasury agents, the text found its way to the press, and Dix became one of the first heroes of the North during the Civil War. The saying is found on many Civil War tokens minted during the war, although the wording is slightly modified.

Major General John Adams Dix.
Carte de visite, c. 1861

Major General

At the start of the American Civil War, Dix was appointed a major general in the New York Militia. He joined the Union Army as the highest ranking major general of volunteers during the war, effective May 16, 1861.[1] In the summer of 1861, he commanded the Department of Maryland and the Department of Pennsylvania. His importance at the beginning of the Civil War was in arresting and thereby preventing the Maryland legislature from meeting. This prevented Maryland from seceding, and earned him President Lincoln's gratitude. That winter, he commanded a regional organization known as "Dix's Command" within Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Department of the Potomac.[2] Dix commanded the Department of Virginia from June 1862 until July 1863, and the Department of the East from July 1863 until April 1865.

On July 22, 1862, Dix and Confederate Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill concluded an agreement for the general exchange of prisoners between the Union and Confederate armies.[3] This agreement became known as the Dix-Hill Cartel.

Considered too old for field command, Dix's most distinguished contribution during the war was the suppression of the New York Draft Riots in July 1863.[4] He was also active in the defense of Suffolk, which was part of his department. He served as the temporary chairman of the 1866 National Union Convention.

Late career

Minister to France

He was the United States Minister to France from 1866 to 1869.

Governor of New York

He served as the Governor of New York as a Republican in his seventies, as one of the oldest governors of New York, from January 1873 to December 1874; he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in November 1874. He suffered another defeat when he ran for the mayor of New York City in 1876.

Death and legacy

Dix died in New York City and was interred in the Trinity Church Cemetery.

Fort Dix, New Jersey, a United States Army post, is named for Dix, as is Dix, Illinois, and several revenue cutters, John A. Dix.

See also


  1. ^ Eicher, p. 773. Also appointed on that day were Nathaniel P. Banks and Benjamin Butler, but Dix's name appeared first on the promotion list, meaning that he had seniority over all major generals of volunteers.
  2. ^ Eicher, pp. 210-11.
  3. ^ From Dix's report to Union Secretary of War E. Stanton, July 23, 1862, Official Records, Series II, Vol. 4, pp. 265-68.
  4. ^ Warner, p. 126.


John Adams Dix, portrait by Imogene Robinson Morrell. Oil on canvas, 1883

Secondary sources

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Union Pacific Railroad, UP - History of the UP logo. Retrieved June 8, 2005. Timeline that also includes UP presidency successions.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.

Primary sources

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Azariah Cutting Flagg
New York Secretary of State
1833 – 1839
Succeeded by
John Canfield Spencer
Preceded by
Philip Thomas
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: James Buchanan

Succeeded by
Salmon P. Chase
Preceded by
John T. Hoffman
Governor of New York
1873 – 1874
Succeeded by
Samuel J. Tilden
United States Senate
Preceded by
Henry A. Foster
United States Senator (Class 3) from New York
1845 – 1849
Served alongside: Daniel S. Dickinson
Succeeded by
William H. Seward
Business positions
Preceded by
William Butler Ogden
President of Union Pacific Railroad
1863 – 1865
Succeeded by
Oliver Ames, Jr.
Preceded by
Jay Gould
President of Erie Railroad
Succeeded by
Peter H. Watson
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John Bigelow
U.S. Minister to France
1866 – 1869
Succeeded by
Elihu B. Washburne

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JOHN ADAMS DIX (1798-1879), American soldier and political leader, was born at Boscawen, New Hampshire, on the 24th of July 1798. He studied at Phillips Exeter Academy in1810-1811and at the College of Montreal in 1811-1812, and as a boy took part in the War of 1812, becoming a second lieutenant in March 1814. In July 1828, having attained the rank of captain, the resigned from the army, and for two years practised law at Cooperstown, New York. In1830-1833he was adjutantgeneral of New York. He soon became prominent as one of the leaders of the Democratic party in the state, and for many years was a member of the so-called "Albany Regency," a group of Democrats who between about 1820 and 1850 exercised a virtual control over their party in New York, dictating nominations and appointments and distributing patronage. From 1833 to 1839 he was secretary of state and superintendent of schools in New York, and in this capacity made valuable reports concerning the public schools of the state, and a report (1836) which led to the publication of the Natural History of the State of New York (1842-1866). In 1842 he was a member of the New York assembly. In1841-1843he was editor of The Northern Light, a literary and scientific journal published in Albany. From 1845 to 1849 he was a United States senator from New York; and as chairman of the committee on commerce was author of the warehouse bill passed by Congress in 1846 to relieve merchants from immediate payment of duties on imported goods. In 1848 he was nominated for governor of New York by the Free Soil party, but was defeated by Hamilton Fish. His acceptance of the nomination, however, earned him the enmity of the southern Democrats, who prevented his appointment by Pierce as secretary of state and as minister to France in 1853. In this year Dix was for a few weeks assistant U.S. treasurer in New York city. In May 1860 he became postmaster of New York city, and from January until March 1861 he was secretary of the treasury of the United States, in which capacity he issued (January 29, 1861) to a revenue officer at New Orleans a famous order containing the words, "if any one attempts to haul down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." He rendered important services in hurrying forward troops in 1861, was appointed major-general of volunteers in June 1861, and during the Civil War commanded successively the department of Maryland (July 1861-May 1862), Fortress Monroe (May 1862-July 1863), and the department of the East (July 1863-July 1865). He was minister to France from 1866 to 1869, and in 1872 was elected by the Republicans governor of New York, but was defeated two years later. He had great energy and administrative ability, was for a time president of the Chicago & Rock Island and of the Mississippi & Missouri railways, first president of the Union Pacific in 1863-1868, and for a short time in 1872 president of the Erie. He died in New York city on the 21st of April 1879. Among his publications are A Winter in Madeira and a Summer in Spain and Florence (1850), and Speeches and Occasional Addresses (1864). He wrote excellent English versions of the Dies irae and the Stabat mater. His son, Morgan Dix (1827-1908), graduated at Columbia in 1848 and at the General Theological Seminary in 1852, and was ordained deacon (1852) and priest (1853) in the Protestant Episcopalian church. In 1855--1859 he was assistant minister, and in1859-1862assistant rector, of Trinity Church, New York city, of which he was rector from 1862 until his death. He published sermons and lectures; A History of the Parish of Trinity Church, New York City (4 vols., 1898-1905); and a biography of his father, Memoirs of John Adams Dix (2 vols., New York, 1883).

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