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John F. Kennedy


In office
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson

In office
January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960
Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Succeeded by Benjamin A. Smith

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 11th district
In office
January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953
Preceded by James Michael Curley
Succeeded by Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.

Born May 29, 1917(1917-05-29)
Brookline, Massachusetts
Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46)
Dallas, Texas
Birth name John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy
Children Arabella Kennedy
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr.
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Alma mater Harvard University (B.S.)[1]
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature
Military service
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1941–1945
Rank US-O3 insignia.svg Lieutenant
Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109
Battles/wars World War II
Solomon Islands campaign
Awards Navy and Marine Corps Medal ribbon.svg Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Purple Heart BAR.svg Purple Heart
American Defense Service ribbon.svg American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with 3 bronze stars
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal[2]
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
.After Kennedy's military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 during World War II in the South Pacific, his aspirations turned political.^ After the United States entered the Second World War , Kennedy was transferred to the Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron where he was given command of a PT boat.

^ Kennedy, now a lieutenant, was the skipper of the motor torpedo boat.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy, "Inaugural Address" (20 January 1961) 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.voicesofdemocracy.umd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eisenhower had been the great World War II commander, and Kennedy, a mere junior officer.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With the encouragement and grooming of his father, Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., Kennedy represented Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat, and served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one of the closest in American history. .He was the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), the first President born in the 20th century, and the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43.[3][4] Kennedy is the first and only Catholic and the first Irish American president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.^ He was the youngest President ever elected, but not the youngest ever sworn in, as Theodore Roosevelt was ...
  • JFK - Ask.com 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Kennedy was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die.

^ Kennedy was in effect the first Irish Brahmin.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Events during his administration include the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War.^ This lesson served him well during the Cuban missile crisis.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His administration witnessed the Bay of Pigs Invasion , the Cuban Missile Crisis , the building of the Berlin Wall , the Space Race , the American Civil Rights Movement and early events of the Vietnam War .
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs invasion , the Cuban Missile Crisis , the building of the Berlin Wall , the Space Race , early events of the Vietnam War , and the American Civil Rights Movement .
  • John F. Kennedy 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas.^ He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963 as he rode in an open motorcade in that city.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy, President of the United States 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.arlingtoncemetery.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was our 35th President and was assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas at the age of 46.
  • JFK - Ask.com 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ November 22 , 1963 .
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before he could be put on trial.^ Oswald was KILLED before HIS VERSION of events could be told.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oswald never shot anybody that day.
  • Besmirching History: Vincent Bugliosi Assassinates Kennedy Again 20 September 2009 11:33 UTC 911research.wtc7.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Oswald was killed before being brought to trial.
  • John F. Kennedy Hub | John F. Kennedy Gay Blog Report | Towleroad, News Daily for Gay Guys. 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.towleroad.com [Source type: General]

.The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded that Oswald was the assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the probability of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence.^ The SECOND INVESTIGATION (by the House Select Committee on Assassinations) concluded that there probably was a CONSPIRACY without resolving WHO exactly WAS INVOLVED. .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ House Select Committee on Assassinations hearing, pp.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1978, the committee concluded that Kennedy "was probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy."
  • Kennedy, John Fitzgerald | Article | World Book Student 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: News]

.The event proved to be an important moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the nation and the ensuing political repercussions.^ The event proved to be a poignant moment in U.S. history due to its impact on the nation and the ensuing political repercussions.
  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The event proved to be a poignant moment in U.S. history due to its impact on the nation and the ensuing political fallout.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALLPOLITICS/1996/conventions/long.beach/perot/political.fray.shtml History of the 1992 election and the impact of Ross Perot and the Reform party.

.Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.^ President Kennedy's message resounded with all of us and continues to do so today.
  • Organizing for America | Posts with the tag John F. Kennedy 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC my.barackobama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many regard President Kennedy as an icon of American hopes and aspirations; he continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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[6]

Contents

Early life and education

Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts on Tuesday, May 29, 1917, at 3:00 p.m.,[7] the second son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Fitzgerald; Rose, in turn, was the eldest child of John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, a prominent Boston political figure who was the city's mayor and a three-term member of Congress. .Kennedy lived in Brookline for his first ten years of life.^ Kennedy, who was to be the first U.S. president born in the twentieth century, lived in Brookline for his first ten years.
  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy, who was to be the first U.S. president born in the twentieth century, lived in Brookline for his first ten years of life.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy lived in Brookline for his first ten years.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He attended Brookline's public Edward Devotion School from kindergarten through the beginning of 3rd grade, then Noble and Greenough Lower School and its successor, the Dexter School, a private school for boys, through 4th grade.^ EDWARD DEVOTION SCHOOL 1744- Public school, Brookline, Massachusetts.
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his primary school years, he attended Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys in Riverdale, for 5th through 7th grade.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He attended Brookline's public Edward Devotion School from kindergarten through the beginning of 3rd grade, then Noble and Greenough Lower School and its successor, the Dexter School , a private school for boys, through 4th grade.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.In September 1927, Kennedy moved with his family to a rented 20-room mansion in Riverdale, Bronx, New York City, then two years later moved five miles (8 km) northeast to a 21-room mansion on a six-acre estate in Bronxville, New York, purchased in May 1929. He was a member of Scout Troop 2 at Bronxville from 1929 to 1931 and was to be the first Boy Scout to become President.^ In September 1927, Kennedy moved with his family to a rented 20-room mansion in Riverdale, Bronx , New York City , then two years later moved five miles (8 km) northeast to a 21-room mansion on a six-acre estate in Bronxville, New York , purchased in May 1929.
  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a member of Scout Troop 2 at Bronxville from 1929 to 1931 and was to be the first Scout to become President.
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^ New York City- 20m.
  • Hotels Near John F. Kennedy Hospital, Hotel close to John F. Kennedy Hospital New Jersey - Somerset 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.hotelplanner.com [Source type: News]

[8] .Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannisport, Massachusetts, also purchased in 1929, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida, purchased in 1933. In his primary school years, he attended Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys in Riverdale, for 5th through 7th grade.^ John Kennedy attended elementary schools in Brookline and Riverdale.
  • Kennedy, John Fitzgerald | Article | World Book Student 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: News]

^ Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts , also purchased in 1929, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida , purchased in 1933.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannis Port , also purchased in 1929, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach , purchased in 1933.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For 8th grade in September 1930, the 13-year old Kennedy was sent fifty miles away to Canterbury School, a lay Roman Catholic boarding school for boys in New Milford, Connecticut.^ For 8th grade in September 1930, Kennedy was sent fifty miles away to Canterbury School , a lay Catholic boarding school for boys in New Milford .
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy had only one year of Catholic education at Canterbury, a private high school in Connecticut.
  • John F. Kennedy: A Catholic in the White House 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1930, when he was 13 years old, his father sent him to the Canterbury School in New Milford, Conn.
  • Kennedy, John Fitzgerald | Article | World Book Student 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: News]

.In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home.^ In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy , after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1931, Kennedy was sent to The Choate School (now Choate Rosemary Hall), an elite boys boarding school in Wallingford, Connecticut, for his 9th through 12th grade years.^ In September 1931, Kennedy was sent over sixty miles away to The Choate School , an elite private university preparatory boarding school for boys in Wallingford, Connecticut for 9th through 12th grades, following his older brother, Joe , who was two years ahead of him.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In September 1931, Kennedy was sent over sixty miles away to The Choate School, an elite private university preparatory boarding school for boys in Wallingford, Connecticut for 9th through 12th grades, following his older brother, Joe Jr., who was two years ahead of him.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 1931, Kennedy was sent over sixty miles away to The Choate School , an elite private university preparatory boarding school for boys in Wallingford for 9th through 12th grades, following his older brother, Joe , who was two years ahead of him.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His older brother Joe Jr., was already at Choate, two years ahead of him, a football star and leading student in the school. .Jack thus spent his first years at Choate in his brother's shadow.^ This 25,000 mile (0 km) trip was the first extended time they had spent together and resulted in their becoming best friends in addition to being brothers.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six days later, the carrier got underway; she spent the remainder of the year 1979 and the first half of 1980 preparing for her next deployment.

^ This trip was the first extended time they had spent together and resulted in their becoming best friends in addition to being brothers.
  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He reacted with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie. Their most notorious stunt was to explode a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the ensuing chapel assembly the autocratic headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain "muckers" who would "spit in our sea." .The defiant Jack Kennedy took the cue and named his group "The Muckers Club."^ "Black Jack" was also the name of the riderless horse that served at Kennedy's funeral .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kennedy remained close friends to the end of his life with several of his Choate fellows, including especially Kirk LeMoyne "Lem" Billings.^ BILLINGS, (Kirk LeMoyne) "LEM" 1916-1981 Kennedy family friend and associate.
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy was given the BEST MEDICAL ATTENTION available at that time which included CLOSED CHEST MESSAGE. .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For one woman, associating with Senator Kennedy ended her life.
  • wbur.org » News » Edward Kennedy, The Senate’s Last Lion, Is Dead At 77 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.wbur.org [Source type: General]

.Throughout his years at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems, culminating in 1934 with his emergency hospitalization at Yale-New Haven Hospital from January until March.^ In January 1934 during his junior year at Choate, he became ill, lost a lot of weight, was hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital until Easter, and spent most of June 1934 hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for evaluation of colitis .
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout his life, the Democrat carefully covered up not only his sexual indiscretions but his serious health problems.
  • John F. Kennedy: A Catholic in the White House 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1934 during his junior year at Choate, he became ill, lost a lot of weight, was hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital until Easter, and spent most of June 1934 hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for evaluation of colitis.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June 1934 he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota and diagnosed with colitis.^ In January 1934 during his junior year at Choate, he became ill, lost a lot of weight, was hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital until Easter, and spent most of June 1934 hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for evaluation of colitis .
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1934 during his junior year at Choate, he became ill, lost a lot of weight, was hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital until Easter, and spent most of June 1934 hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester for evaluation of colitis .
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1934 during his junior year at Choate, he became ill, lost a lot of weight, was hospitalized at Yale-New Haven Hospital until Easter, and spent most of June 1934 hospitalized at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota for evaluation of colitis.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Kennedy graduated from Choate in June 1935 his superlative in The Brief, the school yearbook (of which he had been business manager), was "Most likely to Succeed."^ Kennedy's superlative in his yearbook was "Most likely to become President".
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ He graduated from Choate in June 1935.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In June, 1963, Kennedy proposed civil-rights legislation, but this, like his tax reform program, languished until after his death.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.In September 1935, he sailed on the SS Normandie on his first trip abroad with his parents and his sister Kathleen to London with the intent of studying for a year with Professor Harold Laski at the London School of Economics (LSE) as his elder brother Joe had done.^ In September 1935, he sailed on the SS Normandie on his first trip abroad with his parents and his sister Kathleen to London with the intent of studying for a year with Professor Harold Laski at the London School of Economics (LSE) as his older brother Joe had done, but after a brief hospitalization with jaundice after less than a week at LSE, he sailed back to America only three weeks after he had arrived.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Years later it was revealed that in September 1947 when he was 30 years old and during his first term as a congressman, Kennedy had been diagnosed by Sir Daniel Davis at The London Clinic with Addison's disease , a rare endocrine disorder.
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^ In late June 1938, Kennedy sailed with his father and his brother Joe on the SS Normandie to spend July working with his father, recently appointed U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James's by President Roosevelt, at the American embassy in London , and August with his family at a villa near Cannes .
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mystery surrounds his time at LSE and there is uncertainty about how long he spent there before returning to America.^ It had me wondering about it for a long time, and I amassed many visor images from lunar photos and footage.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilcher's belief was that unless somebody like Reno found some courage, there would not be an America left before long.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Do we really care about our fellow citizens?” It was a question he asked countless times, in one form or another, during his long Senate career.

.In October 1935, Kennedy enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University.^ Kennedy spent the summer of 1935 in England.
  • Kennedy, John Fitzgerald | Article | World Book Student 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: News]

^ In October 1935, Kennedy enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University , but was then hospitalized for two months observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in January and February 1936, recuperated at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach in March and April, spent May and June working as a ranch hand on a 40,000 acre (160 km²) cattle ranch outside Benson , then July and August racing sailboats at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannis Port.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1935, Kennedy enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University , but was then hospitalized for two months observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in January and February 1936, recuperated at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach in March and April, spent May and June working as a ranch hand on a 40,000 acre (160 km) cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona , then July and August racing sailboats at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannis Port.
  • John F. Kennedy (english wiki) 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC www.wikold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was then hospitalized for two months' observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in January and February 1936. He recuperated at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach in March and April, spent May and June working as a ranch hand on a 40,000-acre (160 km²) cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona, and in July and August raced sailboats at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannisport.^ In October 1935, Kennedy enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University, but was then hospitalized for two months observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in January and February 1936.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1935, Kennedy enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University , but was then hospitalized for two months observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston in January and February 1936, recuperated at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach in March and April, spent May and June working as a ranch hand on a 40,000 acre (160 km²) cattle ranch outside Benson , then July and August racing sailboats at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannis Port.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-1963)/Biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 .
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In September 1936 he enrolled as a freshman at Harvard College, where he produced that year's annual Freshman Smoker, called by a reviewer "an elaborate entertainment, which included in its cast outstanding personalities of the radio, screen and sports world."[10] He tried out for the football, golf, and swimming teams. .He earned a spot on the varsity swim team.^ Kennedy, who had been on the varsity swim team at Harvard University , used a life jacket strap clenched between .

[11] .He resided in Winthrop House during his sophomore through senior years, again following two years behind his elder brother, Joe.^ In September 1936 he enrolled as a freshman at Harvard College, residing in Winthrop House during his sophomore through senior years, again following two years behind his older brother Joe.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 1936 he enrolled as a freshman at Harvard College , residing in Winthrop House during his sophomore through senior years, again following two years behind his older brother Joe.
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^ In September 1931, Kennedy was sent over sixty miles away to The Choate School , an elite private university preparatory boarding school for boys in Wallingford, Connecticut for 9th through 12th grades, following his older brother, Joe , who was two years ahead of him.
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.In early July 1937, Kennedy took his convertible, sailed on the SS Washington to France, and spent ten weeks driving with a friend through France, Italy, Germany, Holland, and England.^ In early July 1937, Kennedy took his convertible , sailed on the SS Washington to France, and spent ten weeks driving with a friend through France, Italy, Germany, Holland and England.
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^ The George Washington (CVN-73) Battle Group relieved John F. Kennedy and her consorts of their Enduring Freedom responsibilities on 19 July 2002.

^ After a weeks stay, John F. Kennedy sailed to the western Med to participate in Display Determination 80 , en route to Alexandria .

In late June 1938, Kennedy sailed with his father and his brother Joe on the SS Normandie to spend July working with his father, recently appointed U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James's by President Roosevelt, at the American embassy in London, and August with his family at a villa near Cannes. .From February through September 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East to gather background information for his Harvard senior honors thesis.^ From February through September 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union , the Balkans and the Middle East to gather background information for his Harvard senior honors thesis.
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^ Sorensen believes that President Kennedy’s judgment developed in the years he spent traveling abroad to Europe, the Balkans, the Soviet Union and the Middle East during his father’s tenure as Ambassador to the United Kingdom, as well as his combat service in the Pacific Ocean during the Second World War.
  • Organizing for America | Posts with the tag John F. Kennedy 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC my.barackobama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Taking a leave from his studies at Harvard, he spent the next semester traveling and assisting various American diplomats around Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East.
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.He spent the last ten days of August in Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland.^ He spent the last ten days of August in Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland.
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^ He spent the last ten days of August in Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1 , 1939 , the day Germany invaded Poland .
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^ John F. Kennedy conducted a Family Day cruise on 29 August 1999, and then settled into for an upkeep slated to last until 16 September.

.On September 3, 1939, Kennedy and his family were in attendance at the Strangers Gallery of the House of Commons to hear speeches in support of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Germany.^ On September 3 , 1939 , Kennedy, along with his brother Joe, his sister Kathleen, and his parents were in the Strangers Gallery of the House of Commons to hear speeches in support of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Germany.
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^ Kennedy and other members of the Kennedy family in five cars arrived at the Capitol from the White House at 1038.
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^ Less than four months after his son’s remarks in the House, Joseph P. Kennedy vigorously condemned U.S. foreign policy in a speech at the University of Virginia .

.Kennedy was sent as his father's representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the U.S. on Pan Am's Dixie Clipper from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight at the end of September.^ Kennedy was sent as his father's representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the U.S. on Pan Am's Dixie Clipper from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight at the end of September.
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^ Kennedy was sent as his father's representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia , before flying back to the U.S. on Pan Am 's Dixie Clipper from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight at the end of September.
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^ Kennedy was the first President to ask Congress to approve more than twenty two billion dollars for `Project Apollo ', which had the goal of landing an American man on the moon before the end of the decade.

.In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, "Appeasement in Munich," about British participation in the Munich Agreement.^ In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, "Appeasement in Munich," about British participation in the Munich Agreement .
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^ Using the access to European leaders afforded by his father's position, and with the assistance of hired secretarial help, Kennedy wrote a senior thesis called "Appeasement at Munich."
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^ Betts, Ralph, Ambassador Joseph Kennedy 1938-1940: An Anatomy of Appeasement , NY, 1985.
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.He initially intended his thesis to be private, but his father encouraged him to publish it as a book.^ He initially intended his thesis to be private, but his father encouraged him to publish it as a book.
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^ With his father's assistance and connections, the thesis was quickly transformed into a book, Why England Slept , a title inspired by Churchill's own While England Slept .
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^ He graduated cum laude from Harvard with a degree in international affairs in June 1940, and his thesis was published in July 1940 as a book entitled Why England Slept .
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.He graduated cum laude from Harvard with a degree in international affairs in June 1940, and his thesis was published in July 1940 as a book entitled Why England Slept, and became a bestseller.^ Why England slept.

^ When his memoir was published, it became a bestseller.
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^ What experiences led to Kennedy's book Why England Slept (1940)?
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[12] .From September to December 1940, Kennedy was enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.^ From September to December 1940, Kennedy was enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business .
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^ From September to December 1940, Kennedy was enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.
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^ For 8th grade in September 1930, Kennedy was sent fifty miles away to Canterbury School , a lay Catholic boarding school for boys in New Milford .
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.In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as an American ambassador.^ In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as ambassador.
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^ In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as an American ambassador.
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^ Nevertheless, in September of that year, the U.S. Navy accepted him, due to the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), a former naval attaché to the Ambassador , his father.
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.In May and June 1941, Kennedy traveled throughout South America.^ In May and June 1941, Kennedy traveled throughout South America.
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^ Kennedy Trip - President Hailed in South America Banner Welcome Mr. President at airport in Puerto Rico where he and Jackie are greeted by the governor.
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^ Disembarking Commander Carrier Strike Group 8 and his staff on 30 May, John F. Kennedy sailed for Norfolk on 1 June.

Military service

.
President Kennedy had the coconut made into a paperweight.
^ Ironically President Kennedy made this quote that .

^ I heard that he had been relieved of his Detail by President Kennedy himself...Harvey had made some threats like, 'We'll get you'...I understand that he told the President "I'll get you, or something to that effect...
  • VINCE PALAMARA : SECRET SERVICE INFORMATION JFK+ 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC vincepalamara.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy made an important innovation upon becoming president when he allowed press conferences to be televised live.
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.It sat on his desk in the Oval Office.^ LBJ signing at Oval Office desk.
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^ JFK sitting down at Oval Office desk.
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The message reads: "NAURO ISL…COMMANDER…NATIVE KNOWS POS'IT…HE CAN PILOT…11 ALIVE…NEED SMALL BOAT…KENNEDY"
.In the spring of 1941, Kennedy volunteered for the U.S. Army, but was rejected, mainly because of his troublesome back.^ In the spring of 1941, Kennedy volunteered for the U.S. Army , but was rejected, mainly because of his troublesome back.
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^ In the spring of 1941, Kennedy volunteered for the U.S. Army, but was rejected, mainly because of his troublesome back.
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^ Main article: Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 In the spring of 1941, Kennedy volunteered for the U.S. Army , but was rejected, mainly because of his troublesome back.
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.Nevertheless, in September of that year, the U.S. Navy accepted him, because of the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), a former naval attaché to Joseph Kennedy.^ Nevertheless, in September of that year, the U.S. Navy accepted him, due to the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), a former naval attaché to the Ambassador , his father.
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^ Nevertheless, in September of that year, the U.S. Navy accepted him, because of the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), a former naval attaché to the Ambassador, his father.
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^ KIRK, ALAN G(oodrich) 1888-1963 Naval attaché for air to Joseph P. Kennedy, American Embassy, London (1939-1941); Director, Naval Intelligence (1941); Ambassador to Belgium (1946-1947).
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.As an ensign, Kennedy served in the office which supplied bulletins and briefing information for the Secretary of the Navy.^ As an ensign, Kennedy served in the office which supplied bulletins and briefing information for the Secretary of the Navy.
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^ As an ensign , Kennedy served in the office which supplied bulletins and briefing information for the Secretary of the Navy .
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^ Kennedy and his close adviser, Ted Sorensen, who had joined his Senate office staff in 1953 and would serve as a speechwriter for Kennedy until his death.
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.It was during this assignment that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred.^ It was during this assignment that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred.
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^ Instead, Roosevelt was able to proceed and develop the elements for the Pearl Harbor attack.

^ The sinking of the Maine, the sinking of the Lusitania, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the fraudulent "Gulf of Tonkin incident" are a few of the conspiracies and pretexts we know.
  • The Coup against President Kennedy 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: Original source]

.He attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center before being assigned for duty in Panama and eventually the Pacific theater.^ He attended the Naval Reserve Officers Training School and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center before being assigned for duty in Panama and eventually the Pacific theater.
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^ He attended the Naval Reserve Officers Training School and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center before being assigned for duty in Panama and eventually the Pacific theater .
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^ For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1-2, 1943.
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.He participated in various commands in the Pacific theater and earned the rank of lieutenant, commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat.^ He participated in various commands in the Pacific theater and earned the rank of lieutenant, commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat.
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^ During the war, Kennedy commanded a PT boat in the South Pacific.
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^ He participated in various commands in the Pacific theater and earned the rank of lieutenant , commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat .
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[13]
Lt. Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109
.On August 2, 1943, Kennedy's boat, the PT-109, was taking part in a nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands when it was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri.^ It was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri .
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^ Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109 On August 2 , 1943 , Kennedy's boat, the PT-109 , was taking part in a nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands .
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^ It was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri.
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[14][15] .Kennedy was thrown across the deck, injuring his already-troubled back.^ Kennedy was thrown across the deck, injuring his already-troubled back.
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^ Kennedy & McNamara w/ others walk across deck to salutes.
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^ The explosion killed 2 of his men and Kennedy was thrown into the cockpit on his bad back.
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[16] .Nonetheless, Kennedy gathered his men together and swam, towing a badly-burned crewman by using a life jacket strap he clenched in his teeth.^ Kennedy, who had been on the varsity swim team at Harvard University , used a life jacket strap clenched between .

^ Water lapped into Kennedy's mouth through his clenched teeth, and he swallowed a lot.

^ I also criticized Talbot for using questionable witnesses like Angelo Murgado and Timothy Leary to further certain dubious episodes about Kennedy's life and/or programs.
  • JFK and the Unspeakable 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ctka.net [Source type: Original source]

[17] .He towed the wounded man to an island and later to a second island from where his crew was subsequently rescued.^ Nonetheless, he swam, towing a wounded man, to an island and later to a second island where his crew was subsequently rescued.
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[18] For these actions, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal under the following citation:
.For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1–2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore.^ Eisenhower had been the great World War II commander, and Kennedy, a mere junior officer.
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^ Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade ) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore.
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^ PT-109 was a PT boat commanded by Lieutenant (Junior Grade) (LTJG) John F. Kennedy (later President of the United States) in the Pacific Theater during World War II. .....
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His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
.In October 1943, Kennedy took command of Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59 which was converted from a torpedo boat to a gunboat.^ During the war, Kennedy commanded a PT boat in the South Pacific.
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^ In March 1943 he received command of a PT boat.
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^ For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1-2, 1943.
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.On the night of November 2, 1943, the PT-59 and PT-236 took part in the rescue of ambushed Marines on Choiseul Island.^ Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109 On August 2 , 1943 , Kennedy's boat, the PT-109 , was taking part in a nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands .
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^ Ultimately, aided by friendly natives and a coastwatcher, PT-109 s surviving officers and men were rescued by PT-157 on 8 August 1943 and taken to Rendova.

^ In action off the Solomon Islands (Aug., 1943), his boat, PT 109, was sunk, and Kennedy was credited with saving the life of at least one of his crew.
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[19] .Later, Kennedy was honorably discharged in early 1945, just a few months before Japan surrendered.^ He was honorably discharged in early 1945, just a few months before Japan surrendered.
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^ Kennedy MADE ANOTHER PROPHETIC STATEMENT just HOURS before his death.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ed came back just before the Inauguration and was brought into the White House for a long presentation to Kennedy about Vietnam.

.Kennedy's other decorations in World War II included the Purple Heart, American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze service stars, and the World War II Victory Medal.^ Concise overview of World War II .

^ World War II in magnitude and enthusiasm.

^ Site dedicated the service of the Merchant Marine in World War II. .

[2]
.The incident of the PT-109 was popularized when he became president and would be the subject of several magazine articles, books, comic books, TV specials, and a feature length movie, making the PT-109 one of the most famous U.S. Navy ships of the war.^ The incident was popularized when he became president and would be the subject of several magazine articles, books, comic books, TV specials and a feature length movie, making the PT-109 one of the most famous U.S. Navy ships of the war.
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^ Kennedy and his wife, Jacqueline, were younger in comparison to presidents and first ladies that preceded them, and both were popular in ways more common to pop singers and movie stars than politicians, influencing fashion trends and becoming the subjects of numerous photo spreads in popular magazines.
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^ During his presidency, Kennedy privately admitted to friends that he didn't feel that he deserved the medals he had received, because the PT-109 incident had been the result of a botched military operation that had cost the lives of two members of his crew.
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.Scale models and even a G.I. Joe figure based on the incident were still being produced in the 2000s.^ Scale models and even G.I. Joe figures based on the incident were still being produced in the 2000s.
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^ I suspect it has more to do with the assassinated figure being a popular person in living memory, whose family members are still a part of public life.
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.The coconut which was used to scrawl a rescue message given to Solomon Islander scouts who found him was kept on his presidential desk and is still at the John F. Kennedy Library.^ The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library opened in 1979 as Kennedy's official presidential library .
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^ The coconut which was used to scrawl a rescue message given to Solomon Islander scouts who found him was kept on his presidential desk and is still at the John F. Kennedy Library.
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^ The coconut which was used to scrawl a rescue message given to Solomon Islander scouts who found him was kept on his presidential desk and is still at the John F. Kennedy Library .
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.During his presidency, Kennedy privately admitted to friends that he didn't feel that he deserved the medals he had received, because the PT-109 incident had been the result of a botched military operation that had cost the lives of two members of his crew.^ PT-109 was cut in two.

^ John Kennedy (on far right) standing with his crew on PT 109.

^ During his presidency, Kennedy privately admitted to friends he didn't feel he deserved the medals he had received, because the PT 109 incident had been the result of a botched military operation that had cost the lives of two members of his crew.

.When later asked by a reporter how he became a war hero, Kennedy (known for a sense of humor) joked: "It was involuntary.^ When asked by interviewers how he became a war hero, Kennedy's grim .

^ When asked by a reporter how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: "It was involuntary.
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^ Can't ask how he feels now that so many years later he has been pardoned can we.
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

.They sank my boat."^ They sank my boat."
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  • PRESIDENT JOHN FITZGERALD KENNEDY NATIONAL HALL OF HONOR - PRESIDENT JOHN FITZGERALD KE 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC teetee199thlibpresjfknatlhallofhonor1960-1963.webs.com [Source type: General]
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^ When a flippant high school youth asked him, as we walked down a street in Ashland, Wisconsin, in 1959, how he came to be a hero, he gaily replied, ‘It was easy—they sank my boat:’” (pp.

[20]
.In May 2002, a National Geographic expedition led by Robert Ballard, found what is believed to be the wreckage of the PT-109 in the Solomon Islands.^ Main article: The Search for Kennedy's PT 109 The wreckage of PT-109 was located in May 2002 when a National Geographic expedition headed by Dr. Robert Ballard found a torpedo .

^ In May 2002, a National Geographic expedition found what is believed to be the wreckage of the PT-109 in the Solomon Islands.
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^ Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109 On August 2 , 1943 , Kennedy's boat, the PT-109 , was taking part in a nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands .
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[21]

Early political career

Senator John F. Kennedy in his Senate Office, 1959
.After World War II, Kennedy had considered the option of becoming a journalist before deciding to run for political office.^ Concise overview of World War II .

^ World War II in magnitude and enthusiasm.

^ After World War II, Kennedy had considered the option of becoming a journalist before deciding to run for political office.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to the war, he had not strongly considered becoming a politician as a career, because his family, especially his father, had already pinned its political hopes on his elder brother.^ Prior to the war, he hadn't really considered becoming a politician because the family had already pinned its political hopes on his older brother, Joseph P. Kennedy Joseph, however, was killed in World War II, making John tops in seniority.
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^ Prior to the war, he hadn't really considered becoming a politician because the family had already pinned its political hopes on his older brother, Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Joseph, however, was killed in World War II, making John tops in seniority.
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^ The political costs were high because Kennedy already had the African American vote.
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.Joseph, however, was killed in World War II, giving John seniority.^ Concise overview of World War II .

^ World War II in magnitude and enthusiasm.

^ Joseph, however, was killed in World War II, giving John seniority.
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.When in 1946 U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in an overwhelmingly Democratic district to become mayor of Boston, Kennedy ran for the seat, beating his Republican opponent by a large margin.^ When in 1946 U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in an overwhelmingly Democratic district to become mayor of Boston, Kennedy ran for the seat, beating his Republican opponent by a large margin.
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^ In 1946, Kennedy ran successfully for a Boston-based seat in the U.S. House of Representatives; he was reelected in 1948 and 1950.

^ In 1946 he became a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives from the Massachusetts eleventh congressional district.
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.He was a congressman for six years but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President Harry S. Truman and the rest of the Democratic Party.^ He was a congressman for six years but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President Harry S. Truman and the rest of the Democratic Party.
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^ President Harry Truman once said that the Secret Service is the only boss the President really has.
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^ Although there had been attempts on the lives of President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt and President Harry Truman, no American president had been assassinated since William McKinley in 1901.
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In 1952, he defeated incumbent Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. for the U.S. Senate.
.Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12, 1953. Charles L. Bartlett, a journalist, introduced the pair at a dinner party.^ In 1953, Kennedy married Jacqueline Bouvier, a beautiful socialite twelve years his junior.
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^ On September 12, 1953, Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier.

^ Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier on September 12 , 1953 .
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[22] .Kennedy underwent several spinal operations over the following two years, nearly dying (in all he received the Roman Catholic Church's last rites four times during his life) and was often absent from the Senate.^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: In 1954, Kennedy received the last rites of the Catholic Church after an infection following spinal surgery.
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^ He underwent several spinal operations over the following two years, nearly dying (in all he received the Roman Catholic Church's "last rites" four times during his life), and was often absent from the Senate.
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^ He was also a Roman Catholic when nearly all Presidents before him were Protestant.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage, a book describing eight instances in which U.S. Senators risked their careers by standing by their personal beliefs.^ Published in early 1956, Profiles in Courage described historical instances of senators placing the national interest above parochial or self-interest.
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^ During his convalescence, he wrote Profiles in Courage , a book describing eight instances in which U.S. Senators risked their careers by standing by their personal beliefs.
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^ During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage, a book describing eight instances in which U.S. Senators risked their careers by standing by their personal beliefs.
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.The book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957.[23] From the time of publication, there have been rumors that this work was actually coauthored by his close adviser Ted Sorensen, who had joined his Senate office staff in 1953 and would serve as a speechwriter for Kennedy until his death.^ Kennedy and his close adviser, Ted Sorensen, who had joined his Senate office staff in 1953 and would serve as a speechwriter for Kennedy until his death.
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^ The book was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957.
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^ From the time of publication, there have been rumors that this work was actually coauthored by Sen.
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.In May 2008, Sorensen confirmed these rumors in his autobiography.^ In May 2008, Sorensen confirmed these rumors in his autobiography.
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^ Wall Street Journal, 9 May 2008, p W3, review of Counselor, by Ted Sorensen.
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[24]
.In the 1956 presidential election, presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson left the choice of a Vice Presidential nominee to the Democratic convention, and Kennedy finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee.^ In 1956, presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson left the choice of a Vice Presidential nominee to the Democratic convention, and Kennedy finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee.
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^ During he Democratic National Convention of that year, he almost was nominated for the vice presidency running with Adlai Stevenson, but he lost on the third ballot to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee.

^ Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, Kennedy nominated on first ballot.
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.Despite this defeat, Kennedy received national exposure from that episode that would prove valuable in subsequent years.^ Despite this defeat, Kennedy received national exposure from that episode that would prove valuable in subsequent years.
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^ On November 18th, 1963, 43 years ago today, John F. Kennedy predicted that the month of April, 1964, would bring "the longest and strongest peacetime economic expansion in our Nation's entire history."

^ Not only would U.S. trade be affected but also that of any other nation receiving financial aid from the United States .

His father, Joseph Kennedy, Sr., pointed out that it was just as well that John did not get that nomination, as some people sought to blame anything they could on Roman Catholics, even though it was privately known that any Democrat would have trouble running against Eisenhower in 1956.
.The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was put forward by President Eisenhower but he "conceded" there were aspects of it he didn't understand.^ Kennedy voted against the Eisenhower Civil Rights Act of 1957 not once, but twice.
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^ Description of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .

^ John F. Kennedy voted for final passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 after having earlier voted for the "Jury Trial Amendment", which effectively rendered the Act toothless because convictions for violations could not be obtained.
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[25] This led Southern senators to "emasculate" his bill.[26] .Kennedy voted against letting the bill bypass the Senate Judiciary Committee, which was led by Senator James Eastland, a segregationist from Mississippi.^ Report on regulatory agencies to the President-elect / submitted by the chairman of the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure to the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate.

^ The first time to send the legislation to the Judiciary committee where it would have died under the segregationist committee chairman John Stennis of Mississippi.
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^ Staunch segregationists such as senators James Eastland and John McClellan and Mississippi Governor James P. Coleman were early supporters of Kennedy's presidential campaign.
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.Kennedy argued procedure should be followed and the bill could be voted on in the full Senate after a motion to discharge by the committee,[27] but his vote was seen by some as appeasement of Southern opponents.^ The Kennedy-Douglas-Ives Bill (1957) required full disclosure and accounting of all employee pension and welfare funds.
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^ Of course, Kennedy got the help of the Chicago mob and a very generous father who literally paid for votes in some parts of the country.
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^ Senator John Kennedy (Massachusetts) voted in favor of it.
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[28] .Kennedy voted for Title III of the proposed act, which would have given the Attorney General injunctive powers, but Lyndon Johnson agreed to let the provision die as a compromise measure.^ Lyndon B Johnson, LBJ, casts vote.
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^ Lyndon B Johnson LBJ casts vote.
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^ Kennedy proposed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
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[29] .After consulting two Harvard legal scholars, Kennedy voted for Title IV, the "Jury Trial Amendment", which in cases of criminal contempt called for conviction by jury.^ John F. Kennedy voted for final passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 after having earlier voted for the "Jury Trial Amendment", which effectively rendered the Act toothless because convictions for violations could not be obtained.
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^ After that attempt failed, Kennedy voted to make all lawsuits under the act to be trial by jury.
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^ I wonder how many people have been convicted because a prosecutor has thrown a remark in which the judge has overruled because regardless of the fact that legally the jury can't use it, they still do.
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.Many civil rights advocates at the time criticized the vote as one that would lead to rendering the Act too weak.^ Kennedy proposed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
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^ Description of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .

^ Kennedy proposed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .
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[30] .A compromise final bill which Kennedy supported was passed in September.^ On September 3, 1939, Kennedy and his family were in attendance at the Strangers Gallery of the House of Commons to hear speeches in support of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Germany.
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^ Kennedy was right, Webb lined up political support in Washington for the lunar-orbit rendezvous mode and announced it as a final decision on 7 November 1962.
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^ The American Medical Association were also against it, describing the measure as an example of socialism and Kennedy was unable to persuade Congress to pass the bill.

[31][32] .Staunch segregationists such as senators James Eastland and John McClellan and Mississippi Governor James P. Coleman were early supporters of Kennedy's presidential campaign.^ Senator John McClellan speaking, w/ Robert Kennedy beside him.
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^ Staunch segregationists such as senators James Eastland and John McClellan and Mississippi Governor James Coleman were early supporters of Kennedy's presidential campaign.
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^ John F. Kennedy presidential library .

[33] .In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the United States Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin.^ Kennedy was elected to the Senate in 1952.

^ In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the United States Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin.
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^ Massachusetts - Sign to re-elect Edward Kennedy as Senator.
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.Senator Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family: Joseph Kennedy, Sr.^ HALLE, KAY (Katherine Murphy) 1904-1997 Journalist, author, socialite, and Kennedy family friend.
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^ FLOOD, RICHARD 1914-1969 Friend and classmate of Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Harvard (1935-1938); worker, John F. Kennedy's congressional campaign (1946) and Senate campaign (1952).
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^ Instead of a president, Kennedy became a major presence in the Senate, which he had joined in 1962 with the help of his politically connected family.

was a leading .McCarthy supporter; Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy's subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy.^ Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family: Joe Kennedy was a leading McCarthy supporter; Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy's subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy .
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  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family: Joe Kennedy was a leading McCarthy supporter; Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy's subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy.
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^ Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. Patricia Kennedy Lawford (m.
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.In 1954, when the Senate was poised to condemn McCarthy, John Kennedy drafted a speech calling for McCarthy's censure, but never delivered it.^ In 1954, when the Senate was poised to condemn McCarthy, John Kennedy drafted a speech calling for McCarthy's censure, but never delivered it.
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^ Speeches of John F. Kennedy [sound recording].

^ Staunch segregationists such as senators James Eastland and John McClellan and Mississippi Governor James P. Coleman were early supporters of Kennedy's presidential campaign.
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.When on December 2, 1954, the Senate rendered its highly publicized decision to censure McCarthy, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital.^ When on December 2, 1954, the Senate rendered its highly publicized decision to censure McCarthy, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital.
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^ When on December 2 , 1954 , the Senate rendered its highly publicized decision to censure McCarthy, Senator Kennedy was in the hospital.
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^ Many regard President Kennedy as an icon of American hopes and aspirations; he continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.
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.Though absent, Kennedy could have "paired" his vote against that of another senator, but chose not to; neither did he ever indicate then nor later how he would have voted.^ Though absent, Kennedy could have "paired" his vote against that of another senator, but chose not to; neither did he ever indicate then nor later how he would have voted.
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^ Who did John Fitzgerald Kennedy run against twin a seat in the Senate?
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^ Robert F. Kennedy (D-N.Y.), both of whom were assassinated — Edward Kennedy became the patriarch of his clan and a towering figure in the U.S. Senate to a degree neither of his siblings had been.

.The episode damaged Kennedy's support in the liberal community, especially with Eleanor Roosevelt, as late as the 1956 and 1960 elections.^ The episode seriously damaged Kennedy's support in the liberal community, especially with Eleanor Roosevelt, as late as the 1960 election.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The episode seriously damaged Kennedy's support in the liberal community, especially with Eleanor Roosevelt , as late as the 1960 election.
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^ After John Kennedy’s election to the presidency in 1960, Edward Kennedy became an assistant to the district attorney of Suffolk County, Mass.; he was paid a dollar a year.

[34]

1960 presidential election

.On January 2, 1960, Kennedy officially declared his intent to run for President of the United States.^ Main article: United States presidential election, 1960 John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton , March 1960 On January 2 , 1960 , Kennedy declared his intent to run for President of the United States.
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^ Main article: United States presidential election, 1960 John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin , March 1960 On January 2 , 1960 , Kennedy declared his intent to run for President of the United States.
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^ From then on, however, Kennedy was running for the presidency.
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.In the Democratic primary election, he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon.^ In the Democratic primary election, he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon.
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^ In the Democratic primary election , he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon .
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^ Formally announcing his candidacy in January 1960, Kennedy made whirlwind tours and won the Democratic primaries in New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Oregon, Maryland, and Nebraska, plus an upset victory over Hubert Humphrey in West Virginia.
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.Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia and Morse in Maryland and Oregon, although Morse's candidacy is often forgotten by historians.^ Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia and Morse in Maryland and Oregon, although Morse's candidacy is often forgotten by historians.
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^ Formally announcing his candidacy in January 1960, Kennedy made whirlwind tours and won the Democratic primaries in New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Oregon, Maryland, and Nebraska, plus an upset victory over Hubert Humphrey in West Virginia.
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^ Kennedy defeated his only Democratic opponent, Hubert Humphrey, in Wisconsin and West Virginia, which had the only contested primary elections in 1960.
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.He also defeated token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana, and Nebraska.^ He also defeated token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana and Nebraska.
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^ He also defeated token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire , Indiana and Nebraska .
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^ Kennedy won Democratic primaries in New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Oregon, Maryland, Nebraska and West Virginia.

.In West Virginia, Kennedy visited a coal mine and talked to mine workers to win their support; most people in that conservative, mostly Protestant state were deeply suspicious of Kennedy's Roman Catholicism.^ In West Virginia, Kennedy visited a coal mine and talked to mine workers to win their support; most people in that conservative , mostly Protestant state were deeply suspicious of Kennedy's Catholicism.
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^ In West Virginia, Kennedy visited a coal mine and talked to mine workers to win their support; most people in that conservative, mostly Protestant state were deeply suspicious of Kennedy's Roman Catholicism.
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^ Kennedy unequivocally stated that the United States would not abandon West Berlin.
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.His victory in West Virginia cemented his credentials as a candidate with broad popular appeal.^ His victory in West Virginia cemented his credentials as a candidate with broad popular appeal.
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.At the Democratic Convention, he gave the well-known "New Frontier" speech, which represented the changes America and the rest of the world would be going through.^ At the Democratic Convention, he gave the well-known "New Frontier" speech, which represented the changes America and the rest of the world would be going through.
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^ None of these historical events are ones that we would promote or relish within our patriotism, but they're still there, and they're never going to change.
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^ And I look forward to an America which commands respect throughout the world not only for its strength but for its civilization as well.
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John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin, March 1960
.With Humphrey and Morse out of the race, Kennedy's main opponent at the convention in Los Angeles was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.^ Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, Kennedy nominated on first ballot.
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^ With Humphrey and Morse out of the race, Kennedy's main opponent at the convention in Los Angeles was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas .
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^ With Humphrey and Morse out of the race, Kennedy's main opponent at the convention in Los Angeles was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
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.Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, was not officially running but had broad grassroots support inside and outside the convention hall.^ Adlai Stevenson , the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, was not officially running but had broad grassroots support inside and outside the convention hall.
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^ Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, was not officially running but had broad grassroots support inside and outside the convention hall.
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^ In 1956, presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson left the choice of a Vice Presidential nominee to the Democratic convention, and Kennedy finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee.
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.Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri was also a candidate, as were several favorite sons.^ Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri was also a candidate, as were several favorite sons .
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^ Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri was also a candidate, as were several favorite sons.
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^ FIKE, STANLEY R(edfield) 1913-1989 Executive director, Symington for President campaign (1960); administrative assistant to Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri (1952-1976).
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.On July 13, 1960, the Democratic convention nominated Kennedy as its candidate for President.^ On July 13, 1960, the Democratic convention nominated Kennedy as its candidate for President.
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^ At the national convention in July 1960, Kennedy was nominated on the first ballot.

^ Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, Kennedy nominated on first ballot.
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.Kennedy asked Johnson to be his Vice Presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy's own staff, including Robert Kennedy.^ Kennedy asked Johnson to be his Vice Presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy's own staff, including Robert Kennedy.
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^ To balance the ticket, he selected Lyndon B. Johnson as his vice-presidential candidate.
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^ In 1956, presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson left the choice of a Vice Presidential nominee to the Democratic convention, and Kennedy finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee.
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.He needed Johnson's strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916.^ He needed Johnson's strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916.
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^ He needed Johnson's strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916 .
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^ Fueling this speculation are statements made by Kennedy's and Johnson's Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election.
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.Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy's Roman Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his Roman Catholicism would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960, "I am not the Catholic candidate for President.^ Kennedy as president had little direct interest in the U.S. space program.
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^ Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy's Roman Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his Roman Catholicism would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960, "I am not the Catholic candidate for President.
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^ Mrs Kennedy went in with the living President and less than an hour later came out with the dead man in a bronze coffin, which arrived shortly after two priests had administered the last rites of the Roman Catholic Church.

.I am the Democratic Party candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic.^ I am the Democratic Party's candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic.
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^ In contrast, Richard Nixon , the Republican Party candidate, had served for eight years as vice president under Dwight Eisenhower .

^ In the '60 Presidential election, Lyndon JOHNSON was a SOUTHERNER who ran for the VICE PRESIDENT on the DEMOCRATIC ticket.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.I do not speak for my Church on public matters — and the Church does not speak for me."^ I do not speak for my Church on public matters — and the Church does not speak for me."
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^ To re-create such an event for anyone, (even children) to try their hand at murder, does not speak well for the mentality of the American public.
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[35] .Kennedy also brought up the point of whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Roman Catholic.^ Kennedy also brought up the point of whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Roman Catholic.
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^ Kennedy also brought up the point of whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic.
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^ Kennedy responded through words and deeds, including at one point calling up American military reserves.
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.In September and October, Kennedy debated Republican candidate and Vice President Richard Nixon in the first televised U.S. presidential debates in U.S. history.^ Statement by Senator John F. Kennedy on Vice President Nixon's "White Paper" .

^ John F. Kennedy, Memorandum for Vice President, 20 April 0, 1961, Presidential Files, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, MA. 17.
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^ Special Labor Day Message from Democratic Presidential Candidate John F. Kennedy .

.During these programs, Nixon, nursing an injured leg and sporting "five o'clock shadow", looked tense and uncomfortable, while Kennedy appeared relaxed, leading the huge television audience to deem Kennedy the winner.^ During these programs, Nixon, nursing an injured leg and sporting "five o'clock shadow", looked tense and uncomfortable, while Kennedy appeared relaxed, leading the huge television audience to deem Kennedy the winner.
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^ Few of Kennedy's major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65.
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^ During the campaign Nixon highlighted his opponent's lack of experience but when the votes were counted, Kennedy won by 34,226,925 votes to 34,108,662.

.Radio listeners, however, either thought Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.^ Radio listeners, however, either thought Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.
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^ Kennedy listened to the debate, and finally sided with those who believed that either we had succeeded, or were succeeding, and therefore could begin our withdrawal; or alternatively we hadn't succeeded, but that ...

[36] .Nixon did not wear make-up during the initial debate, unlike Kennedy.^ Nixon did not wear make-up during the initial debate, unlike Kennedy.
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^ Neither man was the clear victor in the debates, but Nixon in a sense was the loser, for his campaign had stressed his advantage over Kennedy in experience and through the debates Kennedy established himself as Nixon's equal.
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^ The rest of th exhibits are bright and interesting and make you feel like you're actuallyat the convention, the debate or watching Kennedy become elected President.
  • John F Kennedy Library & Museum - South Boston - Boston, MA 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.yelp.com [Source type: General]

.The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history—the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in national politics.^ The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history—the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in national politics.
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^ The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history--the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in national politics.
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^ To my knowledge, no American television station has ever played it, except for a small alternative station .
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[23] .After the first debate Kennedy's campaign gained momentum and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls.^ After the first debate Kennedy's campaign gained momentum and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls.
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^ COLBERT, MARY S. 1890-1982 Co-chairman John F. Kennedy's first congressional campaign, Charlestown, Massachusetts (1946).
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^ LUPINO, KEN(neth) J(ohn) 1940- First Vice-President, Merrill Lynch Corporation; campaign worker, Robert F. Kennedy´s Senate campaign (1964).
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.On Tuesday, November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century.^ Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election, one of the closest in American history.
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^ On Tuesday, November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century.
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^ Kennedy's defeated opponent, Richard Nixon .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the national popular vote Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College he won 303 votes to Nixon's 219 (269 were needed to win).^ Kennedy won the election with LESS THAN 50% of the popular VOTE. .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 19 the electoral college cast 303 votes for Kennedy and 219 for Nixon.
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^ Kennedy won by over 70,000 votes.
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Another 14 electors from Mississippi and Alabama refused to support Kennedy because of his support for the civil rights movement; they voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. of Virginia.

Presidency

John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President at noon on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying, "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." He also asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the "common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself." In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: "Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you."[37]

Foreign policy

.President Kennedy's foreign policy was dominated by American-Soviet relations.^ Hero, Alfred, American Religious Groups View Foreign Policy: Trends in Rank-and-File Opinion, 1937-1969 , Durham, NC, 1973.
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^ At the time of the announcement of Project Apollo by President Kennedy in May 1961 NASA was still consumed with the task of placing an American in orbit through Project Mercury.
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^ The central theme of American foreign policy, said Kennedy, was “the prevention of Russian domination of Europe and Asia .

.Much foreign policy revolved around proxy interventions in the context of the early stage Cold War.^ Cubans in Miami stage rally thanking America for its support Cuban Crisis / Cold War .
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^ Graebner, Norman, Cold War Diplomacy: American Foreign Policy, 1945-1975 , 2nd ed., NY, 1977.
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^ This meant that much of his foreign policy was reactive, though in his last year he showed some initiative in trying to reduce Cold War tensions and improve American-Soviet relations.
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Africa

.John F. Kennedy gave a speech at Saint Anselm College on May 5, 1960, regarding America's conduct in the new realities of the emerging Cold War.^ Nixon and Kennedy together Cold War .
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^ Cold_War_Calm_and_Calamity/ Cold War speeches .

^ Election Campaign; ca 11Jul60; 1960s; Democrats; Speech; Speaking; Cold War; .
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.Kennedy's speech detailed how American foreign policy should be conducted towards African nations, noting a hint of support for modern African nationalism by saying that "For we, too, founded a new nation on revolt from colonial rule"[38].^ He then segues to Kennedy's American University speech.
  • JFK and the Unspeakable 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ctka.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the foreign policy that I support most vigorously.

^ Larson, David, United States Foreign Policy Toward Yugoslavia, 1945-1963 , Washington, 1979.
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Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion

.Prior to Kennedy's election to the presidency, the Eisenhower Administration created a plan to overthrow the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba.^ Eisenhower and Kennedy were presidents.
  • The Coup against President Kennedy 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.oilempire.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion Prior to Kennedy's election to the presidency, the Eisenhower Administration created a plan to overthrow the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba.
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^ In return, Fidel Castro dismantled the missile sites in Cuba and Kennedy was portrayed as a hero to the American public when, in reality, his lack of knowledge regarding foreign affairs could have wiped out mankind.
  • RFFM.ORG: February 2008 16 September 2009 0:45 UTC rffm.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Central to such a plan, which was structured and detailed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with approval from the US Military [39] but with minimal input from the United States Department of State, was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cubans.^ Central to such a plan, which was structured and detailed by the CIA with minimal input from the State Department , was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cubans.
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^ Central to such a plan, which was structured and detailed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with minimal input from the United States Department of State, was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cubans.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Intelligence Agency Office of current intelligence .
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .U.S.-trained Cuban insurgents, led by CIA paramilitary officers from the Special Activities Division,[41] were to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.^ U.S.-trained Cuban insurgents were to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.
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^ Central to such a plan, which was structured and detailed by the CIA with minimal input from the State Department , was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cubans.
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^ Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles subject to U.N. inspections if the U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and quietly remove US missiles stationed in Turkey.
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.On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed.^ In '62, Kennedy ordered a BLOCKADE of Cuba.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 17 , 1961 , Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed.
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  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With support from the CIA, in what is known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1,500 U.S.-trained Cuban exiles, called "Brigade 2506," returned to the island in the hope of deposing Castro.^ The CIA later recruited him to train Cuban exiles to assassinate Castro.
  • JFK and the Unspeakable 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ctka.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With support from the CIA, in what is known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1,500 U.S.-trained Cuban exiles, called "Brigade 2506," returned to the island in the hope of deposing Castro.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ On a related note, during the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Cuban "freedom fighters" who sailed back to Cuba to assault Castro were ferried over on two boats officially paid for by a "rich, Texas oilman."
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Kennedy ordered the invasion to take place without U.S. air support.^ However, Kennedy ordered the invasion to take place without U.S. air support.
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^ An April 29, 2000 Washington Post article, "Soviets Knew Date of Cuba Attack", reported that the CIA had information indicating that the Soviet Union knew the invasion was going to take place and did not inform Kennedy.

^ On April 17 , 1961 , Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed.
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.By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors.^ By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By April 19 , 1961 , the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors.
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  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt , March 1961 Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided.
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.The failure of the plan originated in a lack of dialog among the military leadership, a result of which was the complete lack of naval support in the face of organized artillery troops on the island who easily incapacitated the exile force as it landed on the beach.^ The failure of the plan originated in a lack of dialog among the military leadership, a result of which was the complete lack of naval support in the face of organized artillery troops on the island who easily incapacitated the exile force as it landed on the beach.
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  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor Africans who land daily on beaches of the Spanish Canary Islands come from countries that have seen no economic growth in 50 years ( 06M2 ).
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^ One event that Cooper wants to testify to is when his squadron filmed a landed UFO at Edwards Air Force Base, which Cooper is certain was not of earthly origin.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[40] .After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.^ After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.
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^ After 20 months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.
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^ By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors.
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.Furthermore, the incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.^ Furthermore, the incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.
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^ Those were routine calls for him, and they would have believed him.

^ "I believe that if I ever meet another Prince, I shall bite him."
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 28 January 2010 0:11 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

[42]

Cuban Missile Crisis

Problems listening to this file? See media help.
Meeting Nikita Khrushchev in 1961
.The Cuban Missile Crisis began on October 14, 1962, when American U-2 CIA spy planes took photographs of a Soviet intermediate-range ballistic missile site under construction in Cuba.^ The Cuban Missile Crisis began on October 14, 1962, when American U-2 spy planes took photographs of a Soviet intermediate-range ballistic missile site under construction in Cuba.
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^ In Oct., 1962, U.S. reconnaissance planes discovered Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
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^ The Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 was the turning point in the Cold War.

.The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, 1962. The United States would soon be posed with a serious nuclear threat.^ America would soon be posed with a serious nuclear threat.
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^ The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16 , 1962 .
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  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, 1962.
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.Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would endure the threat of nuclear weapons being launched from close range.^ Kennedy faced a dilemma : if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would endure the threat of nuclear weapons being launched from close range.
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^ Kennedy faced a dilemma : if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R. , but if the U.S. did nothing, it would endure the threat of nuclear weapons being launched from close range.
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^ Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would endure the threat of nuclear weapons being launched from close range.
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.Because the weapons were in such proximity, the U.S. might have been unable to retaliate if they were launched pre-emptively.^ Because the weapons were in such proximity, the U.S. might have been unable to retaliate if they were launched pre-emptively.
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^ They have evidence that such a notion might be true, and Grissoms son Scott is calling for an official investigation into the matter as of 2002.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy reassured the public that offensive weapons would not be permitted in Cuba and that Soviet representatives had repeatedly assured him that they were not installing such weapons in Cuba.
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.Another consideration was that the U.S. would appear to the world as weak in its own hemisphere.^ Another consideration was that the U.S. would appear to the world as weak in its own hemisphere.
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^ Another consideration was that the U.S. would appear to the world as weak in its own hemisphere .
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^ Conversely, the Soviets would appear to be monopolizing space for their own personal, and presumably military, benefit.
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.Many military officials and cabinet members pressed for an air assault on the missile sites, but Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine in which the U.S. Navy inspected all ships arriving in Cuba.^ Many military officials and cabinet members pressed for an air assault on the missile sites, but Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine in which the U.S. Navy inspected all ships arriving in Cuba.
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^ In '62, Kennedy ordered a BLOCKADE of Cuba.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the context of the Cold War, Kennedy wisely used sea power to meet global crises during the ideological struggle with the Soviet Union, including a quarantine of Cuba in the autumn of 1962 that choked off the flow of military supplies to that island and persuaded the Soviet Union to remove its offensive missiles.

.He began negotiations with the Soviets and ordered the Soviets to remove all defensive material that was being built on Cuba.^ He began negotiations with the Soviets and ordered the Soviets to remove all defensive material that was being built on Cuba.
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^ The Soviet Union, he said, had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba, and the United States had declared a quarantine on all shipments of offensive military equipment into Cuba.
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^ They slowed, then stopped, and on October 28 the news came that the Soviet Union would remove its missiles from Cuba.
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.Without doing so, the Soviet and Cuban peoples would face naval quarantine.^ Without doing so, the Soviet and Cuban peoples would face naval quarantine.
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^ It was predicated on an assumption that the Cuban people would rise up to welcome the invaders and when that proved to be false, the attack could not succeed.
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^ The Soviet commander in charge of the Cuban nukes admitted that if the United States had invaded Cuba, he would have fired the nukes.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.A week later, he and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev reached a basically cordial, lasting agreement.^ A week later, he and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev reached an agreement.
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^ On April 18 Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev sent a note to Kennedy stating that his government was prepared to come to the aid of the Cuban government to help it resist armed attack.
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^ Just prior to Kennedy's inauguration, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev made a speech promising to support wars of national liberation, and such wars were under way in Southeast Asia.
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.Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles subject to U.N. inspections if the U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and quietly removed US missiles stationed in Turkey.^ Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles subject to U.N. inspections if the U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and quietly removed US missiles stationed in Turkey.
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^ Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles subject to U.N. inspections if the U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and quietly remove US missiles stationed in Turkey.
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^ On October 28, 1962, after receiving word from Khrushchev that he agreed on a plan to end the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy remarked: .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following this crisis, which brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point before or since, Kennedy was more cautious in confronting the Soviet Union.^ Following this crisis, which brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point before or since, Kennedy was more cautious in confronting the Soviet Union.
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^ What is more immoral than war?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:11 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plus he got more tail than Kennedy.
  • The 5 Most Badass Presidents of All-Time | Cracked.com 28 January 2010 0:11 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

Latin America and communism

.Arguing that "those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,"[43] Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent foreign aid to troubled countries in the region and sought greater human rights standards in the region.^ Arguing that "those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,"[22] Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent foreign aid to troubled countries in the region and sought greater human rights standards in the region.
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^ Latin America and communism .
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^ Main article: Kennedy and Latin America Arguing that "those who make peaceful revolution impossible, make violent revolution inevitable", Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress , which sent foreign aid to troubled countries in the region and sought greater human rights standards in the region.
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.He worked closely with Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, as well as developments in the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.^ MUÑOZ MARÍN, (José) LUIS (Alberto) 1898-1980 Governor of Puerto Rico (1949-1965).
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^ He worked closely with Puerto Rican Governor Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, as well as developments in the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
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^ Ambassador to Venezuela (1961); United States Coordinator, Alliance for Progress, Agency for International Development (1961-1964).
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Peace Corps

.As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy asked Congress to create the Peace Corps.^ As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy created the Peace Corps.
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^ He was the the first director of the Peace Corps and was a 1972 vice presidential candidate.

^ As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy created the Peace Corps .
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[4] .Through this program, Americans volunteer to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care, and construction.^ Through this program, Americans volunteered to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care and construction.
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^ Through this program, Americans volunteered to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education , farming , health care and construction .
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^ Through the Apollo program, all the astronauts had military backgrounds, and as such, national security laws could be held over their heads to keep them silent.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

Vietnam

.The extent of Kennedy's involvement in Vietnam remained classified until the release of the Pentagon Papers in 1971.[44] In Southeast Asia, Kennedy followed Eisenhower's lead by using limited military action as early as 1961 to fight the Communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh.^ In South East Asia, Kennedy followed Eisenhower's lead by using limited military action to fight the Communist forces ostensibly led by Ho Chi Minh .
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^ In South East Asia, Kennedy followed Eisenhower's lead by using limited military action to fight the Communist forces ostensibly led by Ho Chi Minh.
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^ (Words found written on a slip of paper by Evelyn Lincoln, Kennedy's secretary, following a disappointing meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev in Vienn in June 1961) .
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.Proclaiming a fight against the spread of Communism, Kennedy enacted policies providing political, economic, and military support for the unstable French-installed South Vietnamese government, which included sending 16,000 military advisors and U.S. Special Forces to the area.^ Proclaiming a fight against the spread of Communism, Kennedy enacted policies providing political, economic, and military support for the unstable French-installed South Vietnamese government, which included sending 16,000 military advisors and U.S. Special Forces to the area.
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^ The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers and other professionals as well as military and political figures.
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^ The Kennedy Administration increased military support, but the South Vietnamese military was unable to make headway against the pro-independence Viet-Minh and Viet Cong forces.
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.Kennedy also authorized the use of free-fire zones, napalm, defoliants, and jet planes.^ Kennedy also agreed to the use of free-fire zones, napalm, defoliants and jet planes.
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.February 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] U.S. involvement in the area escalated until Lyndon Johnson, his successor, directly deployed regular U.S. forces for fighting the Vietnam War.^ U.S. involvement in the area continually escalated until regular U.S. forces were directly fighting the Vietnam War in the next administration.
  • John F. Kennedy - un knol de Mathias Kimmling 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But then, days after Kennedy's assassination, newly sworn-in President Johnson signed his own executive order reversing Kennedy's executive order thereby committing America to war in Vietnam.
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^ Kennedy embraced a universalistic conception of the country's international responsibilities that his successor and the Vietnam War's critics alike cited as a major reason for America's involvement in the war.
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.By July 1963, Kennedy faced a crisis in Vietnam: despite increased U.S. support, the South Vietnamese military was only marginally effective against pro-Communist Viet Minh and Viet Cong forces.^ Kennedy increased the number of U.S. military in Vietnam from 800 to 16,300.
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^ The Kennedy Administration increased military support, but the South Vietnamese military was unable to make headway against the pro-independence Viet-Minh and Viet Cong forces.
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^ By July 1963, Kennedy faced a crisis in Vietnam.
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.Regarding Ngo Dinh Diem, the Roman Catholic President of South Vietnam, as insufficiently anti-Communist, the U.S. gave secret assurances of non-interference for an impending coup d'état.^ The Administration's response was to assist in the coup d'état of the Roman Catholic President of South Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem.
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^ To South Vietnam, where the United States already had a substantial commitment to the anti-Communist government of Ngo Dinh Diem when Kennedy took office, he increased American aid and eventually sent sixteen thousand military advisers, some of whom saw combat, to train Diem's troops in counterinsurgency warfare against the threatening guerrilla forces that had begun to operate there.
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^ During the Vietnam WAR , President Nixon conducted a costly WAR OF ATTRITION against the COMMUNISTS .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

[45] .On November 1, 1963, South Vietnamese generals overthrew the Diem government, arresting and soon killing Diem (though the circumstances of his death were obfuscated).^ In 1963, South Vietnamese generals overthrew the Diem government, arresting Diem and later killing him (though the exact circumstances of his death remain unclear) [21] Kennedy sanctioned Diem's overthrow.
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^ In 1963, South Vietnamese generals overthrew the Diem government, arresting Diem and later killing him (though the exact circumstances of his death remain unclear)[24] Kennedy sanctioned Diem's overthrow.
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^ During his electoral battle tour in the south of the States, John F. Kennedy visited Dallas (Texas) on November 22nd, 1963.

[46] .Kennedy sanctioned Diem's overthrow.^ In 1963, South Vietnamese generals overthrew the Diem government, arresting Diem and later killing him (though the exact circumstances of his death remain unclear)[24] Kennedy sanctioned Diem's overthrow.
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[47] One reason to support the coup was a fear that Diem might negotiate a neutralist coalition government which included Communists, as had occurred in Laos in 1962. Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, remarked "This kind of neutralism…is tantamount to surrender."
.During his time in office, Kennedy increased the number of U.S. military in Vietnam from 800 to 16,300. It remains a point of some controversy among historians whether or not Vietnam would have escalated to the point it did had Kennedy served out his full term and been re-elected in 1964.[48] Fueling the debate are statements made by Kennedy and Johnson's Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election.^ Kennedy makes statement re US statement to UN re South Vietnam.
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^ He would be impeached, Robert Kennedy said.
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^ Kennedy increased the number of U.S. military in Vietnam from 800 to 16,300.
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.In the film "The Fog of War", not only does McNamara say this, but a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson confirms that Kennedy was planning to withdraw from Vietnam, a position Johnson states he strongly disapproved of.^ In the film "The Fog of War", not only does McNamara say this, but a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson confirms that Kennedy was planning to withdraw from Vietnam, a position Johnson states he disapproved of.
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^ But then, days after Kennedy's assassination, newly sworn-in President Johnson signed his own executive order reversing Kennedy's executive order thereby committing America to war in Vietnam.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy embraced a universalistic conception of the country's international responsibilities that his successor and the Vietnam War's critics alike cited as a major reason for America's involvement in the war.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] Additional evidence is Kennedy's National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, dated October 11, 1963, which ordered withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963.[50][51] Nevertheless, given the stated reason for the overthrow of the Diem government, such action would have been a policy reversal, but Kennedy was generally moving in a less hawkish direction in the Cold War since his acclaimed speech about World Peace at American University the previous June 10, 1963.[52] According to historian Lawrence Freedman, regarding Kennedy's statements about withdrawing from Vietnam, it was, "less of a definite decision than a working assumption, based on a hope for stability rather than an expectation of chaos".[53]
After Kennedy's assassination, the new President Lyndon B. Johnson immediately reversed his predecessor's order to withdraw 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963 with his own NSAM 273 on November 26, 1963.[54]

American University speech

Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963.
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.On June 10, 1963, Kennedy delivered the commencement address at American University in Washington, D.C., proclaiming that "The United States, as the world knows, will never start a war.^ He then segues to Kennedy's American University speech.
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^ On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from enrolling.
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^ John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States , was born on 29 May 1917 in Brookline , Massachusetts , and graduated cum laude from Harvard University in 1940.

We do not want a war. We do not now expect a war," but cautioning that, "We shall be prepared if others wish it. .We shall be alert to try to stop it.^ We shall be alert to try to stop it.
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.But we shall also do our part to build a world of peace where the weak are safe and the strong are just."^ Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right -- not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom here in this hemisphere , and, we hope, around the world.

^ "I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations.

West Berlin speech

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Kennedy delivering his speech in Berlin
Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt, March 1961
.Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided.^ Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided.
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^ Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt , March 1961 Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided.
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^ Nelson, Keith, Victors Divided: America and the Allies in Germany, 1918-1923 , Berkeley, 1975.
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.The Berlin Wall separated West and East Berlin, the latter being under the control of the Soviets.^ The Berlin Wall separated West and East Berlin, the latter being under the control of the Soviets.
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^ West Berlin & East Berlin titlees over.
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^ Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt , March 1961 Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided.
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.On June 26, 1963, Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech criticizing communism.^ West Berlin speech .
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^ When Kennedy traveled to West Berlin on 26 June 1963, he received the most overwhelming public reception of his life.
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^ On June 26 , 1963 , Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech criticizing communism.
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Kennedy used the construction of the Berlin Wall as an example of the failures of communism: "Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in." The speech is known for its famous phrase "Ich bin ein Berliner". .Nearly five-sixths of the population was on the street when Kennedy said the famous phrase.^ Nearly five-sixths of the population was on the street when Kennedy said the famous phrase.
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[55] .He remarked to aides afterwards: "We'll never have another day like this one."^ He remarked to aides afterwards: "We'll never have another day like this one."
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^ It was so good that my Yelp Skeptical friend said "I think i'll join yelp for experiences like this one".
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^ Eventhough I never knew them, but in the past few days I got to know that these young human beings were wonderful and beautyfull human beings that everyone would like to have as friends and would like to have known.

[56][57]

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

.Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy pushed for the adoption of a Limited or Partial Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but did not prohibit testing underground.^ In Aug., 1963, tension with the USSR was eased by conclusion of a treaty that prohibited the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons.
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^ Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation , Kennedy pushed for the adoption of a Limited or Partial Test Ban Treaty , which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but did not prohibit testing underground.
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^ Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy pushed for the adoption of a Limited or Partial Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but did not prohibit testing underground.
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.The United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to the treaty.^ The United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to the treaty.
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^ Stanley, Max, The United States, Great Britain, and the Sovietization of Hungary, 1945-1948 , Boulder, CO, 1985.
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^ GREWE, WILHELM (Georg) 1911-2000 West German Ambassador to the United States (1957-1962); West German Ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1962-1971).
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Kennedy signed the treaty into law in August 1963.

Ireland

President Kennedy in motorcade in the Republic of Ireland on June 27, 1963
.On the occasion of his visit to the Republic of Ireland in 1963, President Kennedy joined with Irish President Éamon de Valera to form The American Irish Foundation.^ Further information: The Ireland Funds President Kennedy in motorcade in Ireland on June 27 , 1963 On the occasion of his visit to Ireland in 1963, President Kennedy joined with Irish President Éamon de Valera to form The American Irish Foundation.
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^ On June 11 , 1963 , President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood , from enrolling.
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^ Kennedy responded through words and deeds, including at one point calling up American military reserves.
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.The mission of this organization was to foster connections between Americans of Irish descent and the country of their ancestry.^ The mission of this organization was to foster connections between Americans of Irish descent and the country of their ancestry.
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.Kennedy furthered these connections of cultural solidarity by accepting a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland.^ Kennedy furthered these connections of cultural solidarity by accepting a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland .
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^ Johnson accepted these recommendations and passed them to Kennedy who approved the overall plan.
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.Kennedy had near-legendary status in Ireland, due to his ancestral ties to the country.^ Kennedy had near-legendary status in Ireland, as the first person of Irish heritage to have a position of world power.
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.Irish citizens who were alive in 1963 often have very strong memories of Kennedy's momentous visit.^ Irish citizens who were alive in 1963 often have very strong memories of Kennedy's momentous visit.
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^ During his electoral battle tour in the south of the States, John F. Kennedy visited Dallas (Texas) on November 22nd, 1963.

^ The park in Eyre Square, Galway City, Ireland is called John F. Kennedy Park, after his visit in 1963.
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[58] .He also visited the original cottage at Dunganstown, near New Ross, where previous Kennedys had lived before emigrating to America, and said: "This is where it all began …" On December 22, 2006, the Irish Department of Justice released declassified police documents that indicated that Kennedy was the subject of three death threats during this visit.^ I think all of America has these two families on their minds and in their hearts .They had their whole lives ahead of them and it's a real tragedy to have them cut short, so fast.

^ John F. Kennedy then enjoyed a six-day port visit at St. Maartin before hoisting anchor and participating in another CompTUEx from 7-17 July.

^ Kennedy MADE ANOTHER PROPHETIC STATEMENT just HOURS before his death.
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Though these threats were determined to be hoaxes, security was heightened.[59]

Iraq

.In 1963, the Kennedy administration backed a coup against the government of Iraq headed by General Abdel Karim Kassem, who five years earlier had deposed the Western-allied Iraqi monarchy.^ On the other hand, the industrialists who defrauded the banks adorn the government committees and even headed the Federation of the Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
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^ The exercise concluded on 5 February 1990 and John F. Kennedy headed back to Norfolk .

^ Kennedy's subordinates, if not Kennedy himself, gave a green light to a coup by South Vietnamese generals in the fall of 1963, which resulted in Diem's assassination.
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.The CIA helped the new Ba'ath Party government led by Abdul Salam Arif in ridding the country of suspected leftists and Communists.^ The CIA helped the new Baath Party government in ridding the country of suspected leftists and Communists.
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^ In a Baathist bloodbath, the government used lists of suspected Communists and other leftists provided by the CIA, to systematically murder untold numbers of Iraq's educated elite--killings in which Saddam Hussein himself is said to have participated.
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^ He had been sent back there in 1950 by the CIA(OPC) to create a new leader of the Philippines and to get rid of Querino.

.In a Baathist bloodbath, the government used lists of suspected Communists and other leftists provided by the CIA, to systematically murder untold numbers of Iraq's educated elite—killings in which Saddam Hussein himself is said to have participated.^ All murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets.
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^ Earlier in 1963, he was arrested for the attempted murder of Edwin Walker, and he obviously would have been suspect number one if he really shot JFK, employed in the building where the shots were fired, with a rifle he not only bought months earlier, but used in another assassination attempt.
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^ While the other evidence may provide supporting evidence of fakery, the lines of evidence listed above seem the most impressive, and are also areas where the official explanations sometimes dealt with the evidence in an unsatisfactory manner.
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.The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers, and other professionals as well as military and political figures.^ The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers and other professionals as well as military and political figures.
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^ STILLMAN, JOHN S(terling) 1918- Lawyer, New York political figure, government official.
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^ PEABODY, ENDICOTT 1920-1997 Lawyer, Massachusetts political figure.
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[60][61][62] .According to an op-ed in the New York Times, the U.S. sent arms to the new regime, weapons later used against the same Kurdish insurgents the U.S. supported against Kassem and then abandoned him.^ The New York Times(13) wrote, .

^ The New York Times March 6 '89 pC5(N) pD5(L) col 4 Insider inquiry on Squibb deal.
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^ The New York Times June 13 '91 pC3(N) pD5(L) col 1 Garcia jury still deliberates in extortion and bribery trial.
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.American and UK oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel, and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.^ American and UK oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.
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^ American and U.K. oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.
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^ Stivers, William, Supremacy and Oil: Iraq, Turkey, and the Anglo-American World Order, 1918-1930 , Ithaca, 1982.
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[60]

Domestic policy

.Kennedy called his domestic program the "New Frontier". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession.^ It ambitiously promised federal funding for education , medical care for the elderly, and government intervention to halt the recession.
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^ Kennedy called his domestic program the " New Frontier ".
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^ At Kennedy's behest, the federal government began to provide aid for educational television.
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.Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination.^ As he had in the past, Kennedy marshaled economic justifications for eliminating racial discrimination, and he emphasized that the problem was national, not sectional, in scope (which was not only true but politically wise).
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^ Kennedy also took significant measures against racial discrimination in federal employment and among federal contractors.
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^ In his campaign for president, Kennedy promised executive, moral, and legislative leadership to combat racial discrimination.
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.In 1963, he proposed a tax reform which included income tax cuts, but this was not passed by Congress until 1964, after his death.^ In 1963, he proposed a tax reform which included income tax cuts , but this was not passed by Congress until 1964, after his death.
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^ Therefore, most of his program — tax reform, civil rights, a Medicare system, and the establishment of a department of urban affairs — bogged down in Congress.
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^ Few of Kennedy's major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65.
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Few of Kennedy's major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65.

Economy

.Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and encourage growth of the economy.^ Retrospectively, the Kennedy-initiated tax cuts have been viewed variously as triumphs of modern economic analysis and rational, technically based public policy or as the beginning of the end of fiscal responsibility and the start of an inflationary spiral.
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^ Lincoln decided to end the current banking system, which gave control to international bankers over the U.S. government and the public, and ordered a NEW MONETARY POLICY .
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^ On the other hand, the Bay of Pigs did not teach Kennedy to stay out of the internal affairs of foreign countries, only to keep down the "noise level."
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[63] .Kennedy presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark, in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 led to the country's first non-war, non-recession deficit.^ Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt , March 1961 Under simultaneous and opposing pressures from the Allies and the Soviets, Germany was divided.
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^ But then, days after Kennedy's assassination, newly sworn-in President Johnson signed his own executive order reversing Kennedy's executive order thereby committing America to war in Vietnam.
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^ At the time of the announcement of Project Apollo by President Kennedy in May 1961 NASA was still consumed with the task of placing an American in orbit through Project Mercury.
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[64] .The economy, which had been through two recessions in three years and was in one when Kennedy took office, accelerated notably during his brief presidency.^ It dropped again during President Kennedy's last year in office.
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^ Grant was one of two Presidents arrested while in office.
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^ During his presidency, Kennedy privately admitted to friends that he didn't feel that he deserved the medals he had received, because the PT-109 incident had been the result of a botched military operation that had cost the lives of two members of his crew.
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.Despite low inflation and interest rates, GDP had grown by an average of only 2.2% during the Eisenhower presidency (scarcely more than population growth at the time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower's last twelve months in office.^ It dropped again during President Kennedy's last year in office.
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^ The more the poverty levels, the more the rate of interest.
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^ Despite the striking fact that most of the scientists that the world has ever known are alive & working today, despite the fact that this Nation's own scientific manpower is doubling every 12 years in a rate of growth more than three times that of our population as a whole, despite that, the vast stretches of the unknown & the unanswered & the unfinished still far out-strip our collective comprehension.
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[65] Stagnation had taken a toll on the nation's labor market, as well: unemployment had risen steadily from under 3% in 1953 to 7%, by early 1961.[66]
.The economy turned around and prospered during the Kennedy administration.^ Discussion of the effects of the decision to turn over control of the Panama Canal during the Carter administration.

^ After Kennedy's leadership as commander of the USS PT-109 during World War II in the South Pacific , his aspirations turned political .
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^ It turns out that during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when everybody was nudging Kennedy in the ribs and saying "Let's bomb Cuba!
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.GDP expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963,[65] while inflation remained steady at around 1% and unemployment began to ease;[66][67] industrial production rose by 15% and motor vehicle sales leapt by 40%.^ The remaining half not only covers the cost of production, transportation and refining, but provides profits comparable to those earned in other industries.
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^ Labor productivity in Mexico's export industries is typically 80% to 100% of US levels, while wages are 10-15% of US levels.
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^ (In fact, Middle East production rose from 6 billion barrels in 1958 to 9.7 billion barrels in 1963.
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[68] .This rate of growth in GDP and industry continued until around 1966, and has yet to be repeated for such a sustained period of time.^ Those continued until 28 January, when the carrier turned around and began transit out of the region.

^ As a matter of fact, the phenomenal growth of the crude oil industry dates back to the year 1940, the year in which the wartime rates were first brought into the statute."
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^ So Hill said, "I am not sure they have arrived yet, Tom," and we had to drive around the block a time or two.
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[65]

Federal and military death penalty

As President, Kennedy oversaw the last pre-Furman federal execution,[69] and, as of 2008, the last military execution. .Governor of Iowa Harold Hughes, a death penalty opponent, personally contacted Kennedy to request clemency for Victor Feguer,[70] who was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa, but Kennedy turned down the request[71] and Feguer was executed on March 15, 1963. Kennedy commuted a death sentence imposed by military court on seaman Jimmie Henderson on February 12, 1962, changing the penalty to life in prison.^ In both cases he refused to ask for commutation of the death sentences ( Iowa governor Harold Hughes personally contacted Kennedy to request clemency for Victor Feguer , who was sentenced to death under federal law in Iowa, and executed on March 15 , 1963 ).
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^ Released to proceed to Bridgetown , Barbados , John F. Kennedy remained there from 12 to 15 March.

^ Grand Hyatt DFW 15.70 miles from John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial Nightly Rates: ( 168.65 - 168.65 ) Service and personal guest attention are synonymous with the Grand Hyatt DFW. The Grand Hyatt DFW is...
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[72]
.On March 22, 1962, Kennedy signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), abolishing the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction in the United States with a mandatory death sentence for first degree murder, replacing it with life imprisonment with parole if the jury could not decide between life imprisonment and the death penalty, or if the jury chose life imprisonment by a unanimous vote.^ Kennedy signed the treaty into law in August 1963.
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^ The United States was the only country to vote against it.
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^ California, Texas, Florida, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, New Mexico, New Hampshire, Georgia, Alabama, Oklahoma, Maryland, New York State, Ohio, New Jersey and Massachusetts would not be the only states to suffer.

[73][74] The death penalty in the District of Columbia has not been applied since 1957, and has now been abolished.[75]

Civil rights

.The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of Kennedy's era.^ Kennedy delivers the 1963 State of the Union Address , January 14 The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of Kennedy's era.
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^ Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination .
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^ Kennedy, spreading damaging stories to the press about Caroline’s supposed tax issues, nanny issues, and marital issues (stories Paterson now admits were totally false)?

The United States Supreme Court had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. .Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.^ The United States Supreme Court had ruled in 1954 that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
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.However, many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's judgment.^ Secretary of Labor (1961-1962); Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court (1962-1965).
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^ DOUGLAS, WILLIAM O(rville) 1898-1980 Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court (1939-1975).
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^ FRANKFURTER, FELIX 1882-1965 Associate Justice, United States Supreme Court (1939-1962).
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.Segregation on buses, in restaurants, movie theaters, bathrooms, and other public places remained.^ President, I am deeply concerned for your personal safety and would respectfully urge you to strengthen your bodyguard, especially when you are in the streets and other public places."
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Kennedy supported racial integration and civil rights, and during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the jailed Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., which perhaps drew some additional black support to his candidacy. .John and Robert Kennedy's intervention secured the early release of King from jail.^ John and Robert Kennedy come out.
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^ Personalities in the News - Kennedy Children Kennedy children, John, Robert, 19:55:37 Edward, etc with mother on board ship to sail to England.
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^ O'DONNELL, KENNETH P. "KENNY" 1924-1977 Assistant and friend to Robert and John F. Kennedy, government official, politician, author, businessman.
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[76]
.In September 1962, James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi, but he was prevented from doing so by white students and other Mississippians.^ In 1962, James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi , but he was prevented from doing so by white students.
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^ On June 11 , 1963 , President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood , from enrolling.
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^ U.S. vs Mississippi - Campus Riots Mark Integration James H Meredith first black student enrolled in University Gvs streets in Oxford, USA; Crowds; Governor; President Kennedy (JFK) appealing to students and people to agree with the law; Soldiers on streets; Edwin Walker in car; Troops through streets (Civil Rights) .
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.Robert Kennedy, then Attorney General, responded by sending some 400 U.S. Marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly sent about 3,000 federal troops after the situation on campus turned violent.^ Again, federal marshals were sent instead.
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^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: President Kennedy served exactly 1,000 days in office.
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^ General Ayub Khan s Arrival At Newport September 24, 1962 Out of Marine helicopter, President John F Kennedy & others walking across runway.
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[77] Riots at the campus left two dead and dozens injured. .Meredith finally enrolled in his first class.^ Kennedy responded by sending some 400 federal marshals and 3,000 troops to ensure that Meredith could enroll in his first class.
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.Kennedy also assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Riders.^ They sent 600 Federal marshals to Alabama in 1961 to protect the "Freedom Riders."
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^ Kennedy also assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Riders .
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^ In the area of civil rights and integration the administration assigned federal marshals to protect Freedom Ride demonstrations and used federal troops in Mississippi (1962) and a federalized National Guard in Alabama (1963) to quell disturbances resulting from enforced school desegregation.
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.As President, Kennedy initially believed the grass roots movement for civil rights would only anger many Southern whites and make it even more difficult to pass civil rights laws through Congress, which was dominated by conservative Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it.^ Chronology of the civil rights movement with links.

^ Kennedy's civil rights bills bogged down in Congress.
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^ As President, Kennedy initially believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would only anger many Southern whites and make it even more difficult to pass civil rights laws through Congress, which was dominated by Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it.
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.As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as unsupportive of their efforts.^ As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as unsupportive of their efforts.
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^ Kennedy's decision to postpone promised civil rights legislation reflected his recognition of congressional realities.
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^ This event was widely credited for encouraging President Kennedy to initiate the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
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[78]
.On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from enrolling.^ The confrontation came on 11 June 1963.
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^ York University, June 11-12.

^ James Hood escorted into building; followed by Vivian Malone.
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.George Wallace moved aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard.^ George Wallace moved aside after being confronted by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard .
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^ Alabama Story - Negroes Enrolled as Governor Yields Crowds on University of Alabama campus - Governor George Wallace appeals for calm - Nicholas Katzenbach from the Attorney General s Office and Federal officers with letter from Kennedy urging Wallace to end his efforts to prevent two Black students from registering at the last all white university.
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^ KATZENBACH, NICHOLAS DeB(elleville) 1922- Assistant Attorney General (1961-1962), Deputy Attorney General (1962-1964), Attorney General of the United States (1964-1966).
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.That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio.^ That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio.
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^ Kennedy addressed the nation on a grave matter.
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^ In a 1963 radio and television report on Civil Rights, Kennedy stated: .
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[79] .Kennedy proposed what would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.^ Description of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .

^ Kennedy's decision to postpone promised civil rights legislation reflected his recognition of congressional realities.
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^ This event was widely credited for encouraging President Kennedy to initiate the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
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[80]
.Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women in 1961.[81] Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination.^ LESTER, RICHARD A(llen) 1908-1997 Economic advisor, John F. Kennedy's Presidential campaign (1960); alternate delegate from New Jersey, Democratic National Convention (1960); Vice Chairman, President's Commission on the Status of Women (1961-1963).
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^ But then, days after Kennedy's assassination, newly sworn-in President Johnson signed his own executive order reversing Kennedy's executive order thereby committing America to war in Vietnam.
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^ COGLEY, JOHN 1916-1976 Journalist, executive editor, Commonweal (1950-1955); adviser to John F. Kennedy's Presidential campaign staff (1960).
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.Their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963, a month before Kennedy's assassination.^ Laos, which probably took more of Kennedy's time than any other issue in his first several months in office, had the potential to become another Bay of Pigs.
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^ Following this are investigative reports from volume X of the Final Report of the SELECT COMMITTEE ON ASSASSINATIONS which relate directly to portions of the Oliver Stone movie .

^ Kennedy's subordinates, if not Kennedy himself, gave a green light to a coup by South Vietnamese generals in the fall of 1963, which resulted in Diem's assassination.
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Civil liberties

In 1963, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who hated civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker,[82] presented the Kennedy Administration with allegations that some of King's close confidants and advisers were communists. .Concerned that the allegations, if made public, would derail the Administration's civil rights initiatives, Robert Kennedy warned King to discontinue the suspect associations, and later felt compelled to issue a written directive authorizing the FBI to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King's civil rights organization.^ He would be impeached, Robert Kennedy said.
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^ Descriptionl of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, with links.

^ KING, MARTIN LUTHER 1929-1968 Civil rights movement leader; president, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957-1968).
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[83] .Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so"[84], Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy.^ I have looked at this area of evidence at great length.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The three men are looking to the rear either because they had been looking to the rear, as they are supposed to do at all times, or because they may have heard something from that direction.

^ The death of Robert Kennedy , only shortly after Dr. King's death on June 5th, 1968, was a brazen act which gave notice to this entire nation .

[85] The wire tapping continued through June 1966 and was revealed in 1968.[86]
.Due to a recession, Kennedy used the power of federal agencies to influence US Steel not to institute a price increase.^ Los Angeles Times Oct 23 '90 pD1 col 5 A federal fugitive's uses of power.
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^ Chairman of Board of US Steel gives press conference the following day outlining his economic reasons for increase.
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^ Steel Increase - Industry Defies Irate Kennedy President John F Kennedy walks into news conference.
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[87] The Wall Street Journal wrote that the administration had set prices of steel "by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police."[88] Yale law professor Charles Reich wrote in The New Republic that the administration had violated civil liberties by calling a grand jury to indict US Steel so quickly.[88]

Immigration

.John F. Kennedy initially proposed an overhaul of American immigration policy that later was to become the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, sponsored by Kennedy's brother Senator Edward Kennedy.^ Edward M. Kennedy , one of the most powerful and influential senators in American history and one of three brothers whose political triumphs and personal tragedies captivated the nation for decades, died late Tuesday at his home in Hyannis Port, Mass., at age 77.

^ This event was widely credited for encouraging President Kennedy to initiate the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who did John Fitzgerald Kennedy run against twin a seat in the Senate?
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.It dramatically shifted the source of immigration from Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America and Asia and shifted the emphasis of selection of immigrants towards facilitating family reunification.^ Within the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy established (1961) the Alliance for Progress , which provided economic assistance to Latin American countries.
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^ Human Rights and United States Policy toward Latin America , Princeton, 1981.
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^ Krenn, Michael, US Policy Toward Economic Nationalism in Latin America, 1917-1929 , Wilmington, DE, 1990.
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[89] .Kennedy wanted to dismantle the selection of immigrants based on country of origin and saw this as an extension of his civil rights policies.^ Kennedy wanted to dismantle the selection of immigrants based on country of origin and saw this as an extension of his civil rights policies.
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^ It dramatically shifted the source of immigration from Northern and Western European countries towards immigration from Latin America and Asia and shifted the emphasis of selection of immigrants towards facilitating family reunification.
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^ Kennedy's decision to postpone promised civil rights legislation reflected his recognition of congressional realities.
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[90]

Space program

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.Kennedy was eager for the United States to lead the way in the space race.^ President Kennedy looks at the spacecraft Friendship 7 , which made three earth orbits piloted by astronaut John Glenn , February 23 , 1962 , Cape Canaveral, Florida Kennedy was eager for the United States to lead the way in the space race .
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy unequivocally stated that the United States would not abandon West Berlin.
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^ The tax cut's evident success in bolstering the economic expansion that had begun under Kennedy redounded to the credit of professional economists and neo-Keynesian economics in the United States.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sergei Khrushchev says Kennedy approached his father, Nikita, twice about a "joint venture" in space exploration—in June 1961 and autumn 1963. On the first occasion, the Soviet Union was far ahead of America in terms of space technology.^ Sergei Khrushchev says Kennedy approached his father, Nikita, twice about a "joint venture" in space exploration—in June 1961 and autumn 1963.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the first occasion, Russia was far ahead of America in terms of space technology.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Words found written on a slip of paper by Evelyn Lincoln, Kennedy's secretary, following a disappointing meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev in Vienn in June 1961) .
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Kennedy first announced the goal for landing a man on the Moon in speaking to a Joint Session of Congress on May 25, 1961, saying
."First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him back safely to the earth.^ Then he added: "I believe this Nation should commitment itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth.
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^ It was the first soft-landing ever made on the moon.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.
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.No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish."^ No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish."
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^ All a man needs to do is swing his arms and bend his knees (bending the knees is more important), something easily accomplished in the A7LB suits.
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^ NASA Administrator James Webb, well known as a skilled political operator who could seize an opportunity, organized a short-term effort to accelerate and expand a long-range NASA master plan for space exploration.
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[91]
Kennedy later made a speech at Rice University on September 12, 1962, in which he said
."No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space."^ Packed to nearly overflowing with funny, interesting, unusual information about our nation's leaders from George W. to George Dubya and is a history lesson like no other.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If some peoples pretend that history or geography gives them the right to subjugate other races, nations, or peoples, there can be no peace.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:11 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

and
."We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard."^ He knew that they were putting out defective product because of that practice (and others), and overcharging the government.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is awe-inspiring to ponder all the things that had to go right for the moon landings to be successful, and when even Robert Seamans says that it is hard to believe that we went, for the moon hoax theorists to have doubts is understandable.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Back in those glory days, I was very uncomfortable when they asked us to say things we didn't want to say and deny other things.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.On the second approach to Khrushchev, the Ukrainian was persuaded that cost-sharing was beneficial and American space technology was forging ahead.^ On the second approach to Khrushchev, the Russian was persuaded that cost-sharing was beneficial and American space technology was forging ahead.
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^ Sergei Khrushchev says Kennedy approached his father, Nikita, twice about a "joint venture" in space exploration—in June 1961 and autumn 1963.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technology; American Propaganda; 1962; 1960s; Diplomacy; Americana; Space Satellite Broadcast Transmission; .
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.The U.S. had launched a geostationary satellite and Kennedy had asked Congress to approve more than $25 billion for the Apollo Project.^ Plus he got more tail than Kennedy.
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^ His father's strong views evidently influenced his older brother, Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., more than they did him.
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^ The Apollo 6 mission was launched in April 1968, less than two years before Kennedys announced deadline.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

Kennedy speaks at Rice University on September 12, 1962
.Khrushchev agreed to a joint venture in late 1963, but Kennedy was assassinated before the agreement could be formalized.^ Khrushchev agreed to a joint venture in late 1963, but Kennedy died before the agreement could be formalized.
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^ On October 28, 1962, after receiving word from Khrushchev that he agreed on a plan to end the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy remarked: .
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^ DAYS BEFORE his assassination, Kennedy was given a PREMONITION of his DEATH from his secretary, Evelyn Lincoln, who said his trip to Dallas could have tragic consequences and urged him not to go.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.On July 20, 1969, almost six years after JFK's death, Project Apollo's goal was finally realized when men landed on the Moon.^ On July 20 , 1969 , almost six years after JFK's death, Project Apollo's goal was finally realized when men landed on the Moon.
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^ It was the second launch of the Saturn V rocket, and the goal was to simulate the events needed to send the craft to the moon, and man rate the Apollo V rocket.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Kaysing admitted that his work was purely speculative, and was about the first to question whether men really landed on the moon.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

Native American relations

.Construction of the Kinzua Dam flooded 10,000 acres (4,047 ha) of Seneca nation land that they occupied under the Treaty of 1794, and forced approximately 600 Seneca to relocate to the northern shores upstream of the dam at Salamanca, New York.^ The New York Times July 10 '88 sec 1 p36(L) col 6 Ex-Cubic executive pleads guilty.
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^ The New York Times Oct 10 '90 pC1(N) pD1(L) col 1 Prosecutors seek prison to spur Milken's help.
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^ The New York Times March 10 '89 pA1(N) pA1(L) col 5 Ex-Unisys official is sentenced in bribery case.
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.Kennedy was asked by the American Civil Liberties Union to intervene and halt the project but he declined citing a critical need for flood control.^ Kennedy embraced a universalistic conception of the country's international responsibilities that his successor and the Vietnam War's critics alike cited as a major reason for America's involvement in the war.
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^ Kennedy called for a reexamination of American attitudes toward the Soviet Union and said that both sides in the Cold War had "a mutually deep interest in a just and genuine peace and in halting the arms race."
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^ Although the Bay of Pigs taught Kennedy the need to control the CIA, later investigations made it clear that he was much less than completely successful in achieving it.
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.He did express concern for the plight of the Seneca, and directed government agencies to assist in obtaining more land, damages, and assistance to help mitigate their displacement.^ When political considerations forced De Gaulle to give the Sahara back to the Algerians, the government, desirous of obtaining oil independence, began looking in other directions.
  • John F. Kennedy, Oil, and the War on Terror - Signs of the Times - Mon, 20 Nov, 2006 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: Original source]

[93][94]

Assassination

JFK, Jackie, and the Connallys in the presidential limousine before the assassination
.President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 p.m.^ Homewood Suites Dallas-Addison 4451 Beltline Road Addison, TX 75001 Nightly Rates (149.00 - 149.00) 3 Star 12.30 miles from John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial .
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^ If you want to stay close to John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas, Texas, here you can compare the distance to each hotel.
  • Reserve Hotels near John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

^ During his electoral battle tour in the south of the States, John F. Kennedy visited Dallas (Texas) on November 22nd, 1963.

.Central Standard Time on November 22, 1963, while on a political trip to Texas to smooth over factions in the Democratic Party between liberals Ralph Yarborough and Don Yarborough (no relation) and conservative John Connally.^ November 22 , 1963 .
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^ Kennedy was assassinated on November 22 , 1963 , in Dallas , Texas .
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^ DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE Political party.
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[95] .He was shot once in the upper back and was killed with a final shot to the head.^ You can see him reach back with the pistol and shoot the final shot to JFK, right above the low seat of the presidential car.
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly all the medical personnel who attended to JFK at the Parkland Hospital, where he was taken after he was shot, testified that the back of his head was blown out.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The back of his head being blown out is nearly irrefutable evidence of a shot hitting him from the front, which brings up the legendary grassy knoll gunman.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was pronounced dead at 1:00 p.m.^ He was pronounced dead at 1:00 p.m.
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.Only 46, President Kennedy died younger than any U.S. president to date.^ Kennedy was uncharacteristically YOUNGER than his VICE PRESIDENT. .
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^ An atmosphere was developing in which Kennedy could only weakly respond to events rather than shape and direct them.
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^ In 1968, a “Draft Ted” campaign emerged only a few months after Robert Kennedy’s death, but he demurred, realizing he was not prepared to be president.

.Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the schoolbook depository from which the shots were suspected to have been fired, was arrested on charges of the murder of a local police officer and was subsequently charged with the assassination of Kennedy.^ Lee Harvey Oswald was the only assassin and acted on his own.

^ Oswald shot police officer Tippit.

^ Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested, in a theatre about 80 minutes after the assassination and was charged by Dallas police for the murder of Dallas policeman J.D. Tippit , before eventually being charged for the murder of Kennedy.
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.He denied shooting anyone, claiming he was a patsy,[96][97] but was killed by Jack Ruby on November 24, before he could be indicted or tried.^ Oswald was KILLED before HIS VERSION of events could be told.
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^ Shortly after dark on Sunday night, November 24, 1963, after Ruby had killed Lee Harvey Oswald, a meeting took place in Jack Ruby's apartment in Oak Cliff, a suburb of Dallas, Texas.

^ Could it be that the CIA hired the Mafia to kill JFK and the Mafia called in a favor that Ruby owed so Ruby was the guy that put a lid on Oswald.
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.Ruby was then arrested and convicted for the murder of Oswald.^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: Oswald entered the theater without paying and this aroused the suspicions of the theater manager which led to Oswald's arrest and later murder by Jack Ruby.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ruby murdered Oswald, and Gary presents intriguing evidence regarding the organized crime connection with the JFK assassination.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Ruby successfully appealed his conviction and death sentence but became ill and died of cancer while the date for his new trial was being set.^ Jack Ruby died of cancer.

^ Paul Dyer , of the New Orleans Police force, died of cancer.

^ David Ferrie , of New Orleans, before he could be brought to trial for his involvement in the Kennedy assassination, died of a brain hemorrhage .

.President Johnson created the Warren Commission—chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren—to investigate the assassination, which concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin.^ The Warren Commission , appointed by his successor Lyndon Johnson to investigate the murder, eventually concluded that it was the work of a single assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald .
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^ Less than a year later, a presidential commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded that Oswald had acted alone in killing Kennedy, that Oswald had not been part of a conspiracy.
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^ The U.S. House of Representatives authorized two separate investigations into the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln.
  • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

The results of this investigation are disputed by many.

Burial

.On November 25, 1963, John F. Kennedy's body was buried in a small plot, (20 ft.^ All three major U.S. television networks suspended their regular schedules and switched to all-news coverage from 22 November through 25 November 1963.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 11 to 19 November 1998, John F. Kennedy participated in Exercise Fuertes Defensas 98/99 at Dam Neck, Virginia in a simulated battle space.

^ Ramada - Dallas Market Center 1.76 miles from John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial Nightly Rates: ( 55.20 - 79.00 ) Welcome to The Ramada - Dallas Market Center!
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial - Dallas, TX, Texas hotels 3 February 2010 16:15 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

by 30 ft.), in .Arlington National Cemetery.^ Lincoln's PRESIDENTIAL MEMORIAL is aligned with the Presidential Memorial of JOHN KENNEDY at Arlington National Cemetery across from MEMORIAL BRIDGE. .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: On November 11, 1963, while touring Arlington National Cemetery, Kennedy prophetically remarked : "The view up here is so beautiful.
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^ Remarks at the Veterans Day Ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery.

.Over a period of 3 years, (1964–1966), an estimated 16 million people had visited his grave.^ John F. Kennedy then visited Portland (13-16 October 1989) after which she carried out a Tiger Cruise that concluded at Norfolk on 18 October, from which she operated locally for the remainder of the year, interspersing operational periods with in-port upkeep.

^ In the period between 1930 and 1966, energy consumption doubled every 15 years, and oil consumption rose from 19 to 60%.
  • John F. Kennedy, Oil, and the War on Terror - Signs of the Times - Mon, 20 Nov, 2006 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Millions of people saw it live back in 1969, including me, but it has been an unknown event in all the debates on the issue during the past ten years.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.On March 14, 1967, Kennedy's body was moved to a permanent burial plot and memorial at Arlington National Cemetery.^ Kennedy's son Patrick was buried in ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY next to him.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy was laid to rest beside his brothers Jack and Bobby at Arlington Cemetery .

^ After the conclusion of National Week XXII , John F. Kennedy became the first U.S. carrier to call at Dubrovnik , Yugoslavia (28 March to 2 April 1977).

The funeral was officiated by Father John J. Cavanaugh.
.The honor guard at JFK`s graveside was the 37th Cadet Class of the Irish Army.^ JFK walks up red carpet past Honor Guard to Air Force One Presidential jet - taxiing & take-off shots.
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^ JFK & French general walk to review platform; follow shot as they review Honor Guard & return to platform.
  • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.JFK was greatly impressed by the Irish Cadets on his last official visit to the Republic of Ireland, so much so that Jackie Kennedy requested the Irish Army to be the honor guard at the funeral.^ Posted in JFK , JFK Jr. John F. Kennedy , caroline kennedy , jackie kennedy , john f.

^ Kennedy had near-legendary status in Ireland, as the first person of Irish heritage to have a position of world power.
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^ Main article: John F. Kennedy assassination JFK, Jackie, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine before the assassination President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 p.m.
  • What is John F. Kennedy? 30 January 2010 2:28 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kennedy's wife, Jacqueline and their two deceased minor children were buried with him later.^ Ted Kennedy laying on stomach is joined by wife and two children.
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^ As the oldest surviving Kennedy male, he was not only father to his own three children but also surrogate father to more than two dozen nieces and nephews.

^ Two days later, on 16 June 2002, off the coast of Oman , elements of John F. Kennedy s Battle Group transitioned from warriors to good Samaritans.

.His brother, Senator Robert Kennedy, was buried nearby in June 1968. In August 2009 his brother, Senator Edward M. Kennedy, was also buried near his two brothers.^ KENNEDY, EDWARD M(oore) 1932-2009 Brother of President Kennedy, Senator from Massachusetts (1963-2009).
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^ Edward Kennedy , ted kennedy , Ted Kennedy death on August 26, 2009 by Editor .

^ Kennedy is buried with his wife and their deceased minor children, and his brother, the late Senator Robert Kennedy is also buried nearby.
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JFK's grave is lit with an "Eternal Flame." Kennedy and William Howard Taft are the only two U.S. Presidents buried at Arlington.[98][99]

Administration, Cabinet and judicial appointments 1961–1963

The Kennedy Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President John F. Kennedy 1961–1963
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson 1961–1963
State Dean Rusk 1961–1963
Treasury C. Douglas Dillon 1961–1963
Defense Robert S. McNamara 1961–1963
Justice Robert F. Kennedy 1961–1963
Postmaster General J. Edward Day 1961–1963
  John A. Gronouski 1963
Interior Stewart L. Udall 1961–1963
Agriculture Orville L. Freeman 1961–1963
Commerce Luther H. Hodges 1961–1963
Labor Arthur J. Goldberg 1961–1962
  W. Willard Wirtz 1962–1963
HEW Abraham A. Ribicoff 1961–1962
  Anthony J. Celebrezze 1962–1963

The official White House portrait of John F. Kennedy by Aaron Shikler

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

Kennedy appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Other courts

.In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Kennedy appointed 21 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 102 judges to the United States district courts.^ (United States Court of Appeals) 4 col in.
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^ Kennedy unequivocally stated that the United States would not abandon West Berlin.
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^ The tax cut's evident success in bolstering the economic expansion that had begun under Kennedy redounded to the credit of professional economists and neo-Keynesian economics in the United States.
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Image, social life and family

The Kennedy family in 1963.
.John Kennedy met his future wife, Jacqueline Bouvier, when he was a congressman.^ In 1953, Kennedy married Jacqueline Bouvier, a beautiful socialite twelve years his junior.
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^ In 1953, Kennedy married Jacqueline Lee Bouvier (see Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy ).
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^ Kennedy's maternal grandfather, John Francis Fitzgerald, had been a state legislator, mayor of Boston, and U.S. congressman.
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.They were married a year after he was elected senator, on September 12, 1953. Kennedy and his wife were younger in comparison to presidents and first ladies that preceded them, and both were popular in ways more common to pop singers and movie stars than politicians, influencing fashion trends and becoming the subjects of numerous photo spreads in popular magazines.^ Kennedy was uncharacteristically YOUNGER than his VICE PRESIDENT. .
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^ Yet this very fact suggests that in his relatively brief presidency — less than three years — Kennedy exerted a profound influence upon both popular and expert hopes and expectations, which endured long after his death.
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^ Rowley would become the first and only Secret Service Chief to lose a President.
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.Although Eisenhower had allowed presidential press conferences to be filmed for television, Kennedy was the first president to ask for them to be broadcast live and made good use of the medium.^ President Kennedy at press conference says Keating claims unsubstantiated.
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^ Kennedy made an important innovation upon becoming president when he allowed press conferences to be televised live.
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^ The live press conference became Kennedy's communications forte.
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[100] .Jacqueline brought new art and furniture to the White House, and directed a restoration.^ Agent Floyd M. Boring (ASAIC of the White House Detail, Behn’s direct assistant): “When I got to the Kennedy detail I was actually in charge of that detail at first, and then they sent up the agent from the White House Detail [Behn].
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^ Ed came back just before the Inauguration and was brought into the White House for a long presentation to Kennedy about Vietnam.

^ News In Brief - Democrats and JFK celebrate end of Deficit White House at night.
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.They invited a range of artists, writers and intellectuals to rounds of White House dinners, raising the profile of the arts in America.^ He honored leading writers, artists, poets, and musicians, and invited them to the White House.
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^ Agent Floyd M. Boring (ASAIC of the White House Detail, Behn’s direct assistant): “When I got to the Kennedy detail I was actually in charge of that detail at first, and then they sent up the agent from the White House Detail [Behn].
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^ Martineau stated, "Any time they [the White House Detail] came thru Chicago, [he] worked very close with the advance team from Washington."
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.The Kennedy family is one of the most established political families in the United States, having produced a President, three senators, and multiple other Representatives, both on the federal and state level.^ Today, one of the members of this Commission is President of the United States.

^ John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States , was born on 29 May 1917 in Brookline , Massachusetts , and graduated cum laude from Harvard University in 1940.

^ Kennedy unequivocally stated that the United States would not abandon West Berlin.
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Jack Kennedy's father, Joseph P. Kennedy was a prominent American businessman and political figure, serving in multiple roles, including Ambassador to the United Kingdom, from 1938 to 1940.
.Outside on the White House lawn, the Kennedys established a swimming pool and tree house, while Caroline attended a preschool along with 10 other children inside the home.^ Kennedy had a CHILD who rode a PONY on the WHITE HOUSE LAWN .
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^ Agent Floyd M. Boring (ASAIC of the White House Detail, Behn’s direct assistant): “When I got to the Kennedy detail I was actually in charge of that detail at first, and then they sent up the agent from the White House Detail [Behn].
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^ Ed came back just before the Inauguration and was brought into the White House for a long presentation to Kennedy about Vietnam.

The Kennedy brothers in Palm Beach, Florida, 1957
.The president was closely tied to popular culture, emphasized by songs such as "Twisting at the White House."^ Martineau stated, "Any time they [the White House Detail] came thru Chicago, [he] worked very close with the advance team from Washington."
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^ The power of the oil lobby was a concern to every President who entered the White House after the accession to power of Jersey Standard and its little brothers and sisters.
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^ Crowd waiting at gates White House; Glenn w/ JFK & Vice-President Johnson and in motorcade through cheering crowds.
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.Vaughn Meader's First Family comedy album—an album parodying the President, First Lady, their family and administration—sold about four million copies.^ The true mystery of how four American presidents were assassinated and each time a member of the Lincoln family was present.
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^ The bodies of the President, First Lady, the Governer and his wife are strewn lke ragdolls across the train-tracks.
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^ On May 9, a portrait of her was unveiled at the Smithsonian’s National Portrait Gallery in Washington – the first commissioned portrait of an individual who has not served as president or first lady.

On May 19, 1962, Marilyn Monroe, with whom Kennedy likely had a long-term relationship, sang for the president at a large birthday party in Madison Square Garden. .The charisma of Kennedy and his family led to the figurative designation of "Camelot" for his administration, credited by his wife to his affection for the contemporary Broadway musical of the same name.^ Kennedy was the SECOND child in the family BIRTH ORDER and was named after his GRANDFATHER .
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^ VAUGH, WILTON 1897-1973 Massachusetts political figure; Kennedy Family neighbor, East Boston; correspondent, political editor, Boston Post (1917-1956).
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^ John F. Kennedy, JR.- his beautiful wife, and his sister-in-law were my contemporaries and peers.

[101]
.Behind the glamorous facade, the Kennedys also experienced many personal tragedies.^ Speculation and rumor are rampant as to what was behind the move, and Kennedy’s “personal reasons” for ending her aggressive senate bid.

^ John F. Kennedy Jr. It is a tragedy that is both deeply personal and widely Universal, but this time, the manevolent will of the brutal assassins will be denied.

.Jacqueline had a miscarriage in 1955 and a stillbirth in 1956. Their newborn son, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, died in August 1963. Kennedy had two children who survived infancy.^ That August, when his boat was sliced in two by a Japanese destroyer, two of his crew were killed, while Kennedy and four others clung to the half of the PT boat that remained afloat.
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^ KENNEDY, JOSEPH PATRICK 1952- Son of Robert F. Kennedy, Representative from Massachusetts (1987-1999).
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^ Of all Kennedy's CHILDREN, only one SURVIVED past the AGE 40 - Caroline Bouvier-Kennedy .
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.One of the fundamental aspects of the Kennedy family is a tragic strain which has run through the family, as a result of the deaths of many of its members.^ To all the members of the Kennedy Family...

^ Your entire family has our heartfelt sympathy for tragic death of John Jr,, Carolyn, and Lauren Bissett.

^ One of Robert F. Kennedy Jr.’s family mementos is a boyhood photo of himself in the Oval Office with his uncle President John F. Kennedy .

John's eldest brother, Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., died in World War II, at the age of 29. It was Joe Jr. who was originally to carry the family's hopes for the Presidency. .Then of course both John himself, and his brother Robert died as a result of assassinations.^ One of Robert F. Kennedy Jr.’s family mementos is a boyhood photo of himself in the Oval Office with his uncle President John F. Kennedy .

^ Robert F. Kennedy (D-N.Y.), both of whom were assassinated — Edward Kennedy became the patriarch of his clan and a towering figure in the U.S. Senate to a degree neither of his siblings had been.

^ Kennedy's subordinates, if not Kennedy himself, gave a green light to a coup by South Vietnamese generals in the fall of 1963, which resulted in Diem's assassination.
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.Edward had brushes with death, the first in a plane crash and the second as a result of a car accident, known as the Chappaquiddick incident.^ Then blast the third car behind the limo (hit the driver) and watch the fun as the limo crashes into the first car, and all the others pile up.
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^ UN HQ, New York, following death of Hammarskjold in plane crash; Hammarskjold on peace mission with troops in the Congo; UN flags at half mast.
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^ The Zapruder film was used to determine the speed of the President's car, the elapsed time between events, especially between the first and last shots (6.8 seconds), and the timing of events in the background."

.Edward died, at age 77, on August 25, 2009 from the effects of a malignant brain tumor.^ Nicholas J. Chetta, M.D. , age 50, Orleans Parish coroner since 1950, died at Mercy Hospital on May 25, 1968.

^ Posted in JFK , JFK Jr. John F. Kennedy , RFK , RFK Jr. Edward Kennedy , Kennedy funeral , Senator Edward M. Kennedy , Ted Kennedy funeral , vicki kennedy on August 30, 2009 by Editor .

^ Edward Kennedy , ted kennedy , Ted Kennedy death on August 26, 2009 by Editor .

.Years after his death, it was revealed that in September 1947, at age 30 and while in his first term in Congress, President Kennedy was diagnosed by Sir Daniel Davis at The London Clinic with Addison's disease, a rare endocrine disorder.^ It dropped again during President Kennedy's last year in office.
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^ General Ayub Khan s Arrival At Newport September 24, 1962 Out of Marine helicopter, President John F Kennedy & others walking across runway.
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^ For years, many Democrats considered Kennedy’s own presidency a virtual inevitability.

.In 1966, his White House doctor, Janet Travell, revealed that Kennedy also had hypothyroidism.^ Agent Floyd M. Boring (ASAIC of the White House Detail, Behn’s direct assistant): “When I got to the Kennedy detail I was actually in charge of that detail at first, and then they sent up the agent from the White House Detail [Behn].
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^ Ed came back just before the Inauguration and was brought into the White House for a long presentation to Kennedy about Vietnam.

^ In addition, Abraham Bolden told the author: "I had heard that there was some conflict between Kennedy and the White House Detail, that he was trying to scale them back".
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.The presence of two endocrine diseases, Addison's Disease and hypothyroidism, raises the possibility that Kennedy had autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (APS 2).^ AM gallowglass Yu did not mention that Kennedy had Addison's disease and had to take steroids every day.
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^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: During the convention, John Connally publically revealed that Kennedy would be unable to serve as president for a full term because of Addison's disease .
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[102] .Details of these and other medical problems were not publicly disclosed during Kennedy's lifetime.^ During Oswald's lifetime, the CONTROVERSIAL ISSUE was over COMMUNISM. Oswald wrote a SPEECH on the issue but NEVER DELIVERED IT. It was the issue of communism that motivated Oswald to kill Kennedy.
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^ Neither was it out of the ordinary for a politician to be less than candid about health problems, which in Kennedy's case were much more serious than was publicly acknowledged.
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^ President Kennedy's Secret Service White House Detail + various other important/ temp/ PRS agents, as compiled from the massive collection of the leading authority on the Secret Service, especially during the JFK era: Vince Palamara Secret Service JFK .
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[103]
.Caroline Bouvier Kennedy was born in 1957 and is the only surviving member of JFK's immediate family.^ To all the members of the Kennedy Family...

^ KENNEDY, CAROLINE BOUVIER 1957- Daughter of President Kennedy, lawyer.
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^ Posted in JFK , JFK Jr. John F. Kennedy , caroline kennedy , jackie kennedy , john f.

John F. Kennedy, Jr. was born in 1960, just a few weeks after his father was elected. .John died in 1999 when the small plane he was piloting crashed en route to Martha's Vineyard, killing him, his wife and his sister-in-law.^ Three days before Casolaro died, he told an FBI agent that he was warned that his pursuit of the Octopus would kill him.
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^ We all mourn with you the loss of a sterling young man and his wife and sister-in-law.

^ After a weeks stay, John F. Kennedy sailed to the western Med to participate in Display Determination 80 , en route to Alexandria .

[104]
.In October 1951, during his third term as Massachusetts's 11th district congressman, the then 34-year-old Kennedy embarked on a seven-week Asian trip to India, Japan, Vietnam, and Israel with his then 25-year-old brother Robert (who had just graduated from law school four months earlier) and his then 27-year-old sister Patricia.^ He was just 41 years old.

^ Shriver is survived by her husband, R. Sargent Shriver; a daughter, Maria Owings Shriver, a television newscaster, and her husband, California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger; four sons, Robert Sargent Shriver III, Timothy Perry Shriver, Mark Kennedy Shriver and Anthony Paul Kennedy Shriver; a brother, Sen.

^ It dropped again during President Kennedy's last year in office.
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.Because of their eight-year separation in age, the two brothers had previously seen little of each other.^ In our fiscal system some people pay too much because others pay too little.
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^ Eight months later, John F. Kennedy got underway for the first time in over two years, her underway period prolonged briefly by the presence of Hurricane Felix .

^ I lost my brother at the age of 27, 18 years ago.

.This 25,000-mile (40,000 km) trip was the first extended time they had spent together and resulted in their becoming best friends in addition to being brothers.^ Laos, which probably took more of Kennedy's time than any other issue in his first several months in office, had the potential to become another Bay of Pigs.
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^ The Wards were said to be close friends with Caroline’s late brother, John, going back to the days when John was dating Daryl Hannah, and they all went on a trip out West to go helicopter skiing.

^ Edward Kennedy, who had grown close to his brother during their time in the Senate together, advised against it.

.Robert was campaign manager for Kennedy's successful 1952 Senate campaign and later successful 1960 presidential campaign.^ CRAMER, ROBERT P. 1917-1995 Massachusetts political figure, friend of John F. Kennedy; Massachusetts state representative and state senator; campaign aide, John F. Kennedy's Senate campaign (1952), and Presidential campaign (1960); President Kennedy's economic adviser for the Virgin Islands; president, Virgin Islands Corp.
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^ SEIGENTHALER, JOHN L(awrence) 1927- Reporter (1949-1960), editor (1962-1972), The Tennessean, Nashville; aide to Robert F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy's Presidential campaign (1960) and U.S. Senate Select Committee to Investigate Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field (1960); Administrative Assistant to the Attorney General, Department of Justice (1961).
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^ TUCKER, HERBERT E. 1915- Assistant attorney general, Massachusetts (1959-1968); chairman, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Boston; worker in John F. Kennedy's Senate campaigns (1952, 1958) and presidential campaign (1960).
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.The two brothers worked closely together from 1957 to 1959 on the Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor and Management Field when Robert was its chief counsel.^ (His brother Robert served as chief counsel to the McClellan investigating committee, of which he was a member.
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^ SEIGENTHALER, JOHN L(awrence) 1927- Reporter (1949-1960), editor (1962-1972), The Tennessean, Nashville; aide to Robert F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy's Presidential campaign (1960) and U.S. Senate Select Committee to Investigate Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field (1960); Administrative Assistant to the Attorney General, Department of Justice (1961).
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^ Assistant Counsel, Select Committee to Investigate Improper Activities in Labor-Management Relations in the Senate (1957-59), Campaign Director, Kennedy for President (1960), Appointment secretary to the President (1961-1963); Special Assistant to the President (1961-1965); President, Kenneth P. O'Donnell and Associates (1965-1977), Massachusetts gubernatorial candidate (1966, 1970); co-author (with David F. Powers and Joe McCarthy), "Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye" (1972).
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.During Kennedy's presidency, Robert served in his cabinet as Attorney General and was his closest advisor.^ It dropped again during President Kennedy's last year in office.
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^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: President Kennedy served exactly 1,000 days in office.
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^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: When President Kennedy appointed his brother Robert to serve as America's new attorney general in 1961, charges of nepotism naturally abounded.
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.Kennedy is reported to have had affairs, with individuals including Marilyn Monroe[105] and Mimi Beardsley Alford, author of Once Upon A Secret.^ On November 28, 1963, less than one week after Kennedy's death, the Secret Service, the agency closest to the scene, reported that three shots were fired.

^ A week before his assassination, KENNEDY was in MARILYN MONROE ."
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^ Statement by Senator John F. Kennedy on the Report of the Urban Affairs Conference .

[106][107] .Mary Pinchot Meyer, a serious paramour of JFK, claimed she was using LSD to change the awareness of men in power; her supplier was Timothy Leary, the LSD guru.^ PM tartcouplet Dude, if u were as suave as JFK i garuntee u could use the "serious discussion" line.
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^ Presidential Aides Kenneth O'Donnell and Dave Powers used the agents as errand boys and JFK treated them as "lookouts" and "go-fors," as his romantic dalliances dictated .
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[108]
Kennedy came in third (behind Martin Luther King, Jr. and Mother Teresa) in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the twentieth century.[109][110]

Legacy

.Television became the primary source by which people were kept informed of events surrounding John F. Kennedy's assassination.^ Robert F. Kennedy (D-N.Y.), both of whom were assassinated — Edward Kennedy became the patriarch of his clan and a towering figure in the U.S. Senate to a degree neither of his siblings had been.

^ CONSPIRACY THEORIES soon arose and became POPULAR surrounding the assassination itself and a government COVER-UP that followed.
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^ In 1956, Senator JOHN KENNEDY submitted legislation to Congress to transform the ARMY MEDICAL LIBRARY into the " National Library of Medicine " which eventually became the world's largest medical library .
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Newspapers were kept as souvenirs rather than sources of updated information. .In this sense it was the first major "tv news event" of its kind, the tv coverage uniting the nation, interpreting what went on and creating memories of this space in time.^ I couldn't consider this a game unless you could improve upon or alter the events in any way, aside from timing, such as moving to a different position, or somehow creating a new chain of events.
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^ The New York Times April 6 '90 pC1(N) pD1(L) col 3 First Chicago unit former officials face fraud, bribery counts.
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^ A basic look at all of the American Presidents, the context of their time, the major events that shaped them, and includes timelines, photographs, trivia and other details of their lives.
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.All three major U.S. television networks suspended their regular schedules and switched to all-news coverage from November 22 through November 25, 1963, being on the air for not more than 70 hours, and it was the longest uninterrupted news event on American tv until 9/11. The record was broken only just before 13:00 UTC, September 14, 2001, by which time the networks had been on for 72 hours straight, covering the terror attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon.^ As Americans have been staying in denial, cognitive dissonance has become more evident, particularly after the World Trade Center attacks of September 2001.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Americas radical left made their ideology explicit after the World Trade Center attacks of September 2001.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He is more than 70 years old.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

[111] .Kennedy's state funeral procession and the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald were all broadcast live in America and in other places around the world.^ Lee Harvey Oswald owned the rifle.
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have seen it all around the world.
  • VINCE PALAMARA : SECRET SERVICE INFORMATION JFK+ 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC vincepalamara.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Police arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, who had been seen in the nearby Texas Schoolbook Depository building, later that day.

.The state funeral was the first of three in a span of 12 months: The other two were for General Douglas MacArthur and Herbert Hoover.^ Laos, which probably took more of Kennedy's time than any other issue in his first several months in office, had the potential to become another Bay of Pigs.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these oil wells produce only two or three weeks per month.
  • John F. Kennedy, Oil, and the War on Terror - Signs of the Times - Mon, 20 Nov, 2006 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Texas, Oklahoma, and some other oil-producing states limit the number of days a month that oil wells may operate or the amount that they may produce.
  • John F. Kennedy, Oil, and the War on Terror - Signs of the Times - Mon, 20 Nov, 2006 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: Original source]

.The assassination had an effect on many people, not only in the U.S. but also among the world population.^ If Garys tale is true, many people around the fake assassination project were unaware that it would turn into a real assassination, especially Lee Harvey Oswald.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Japanese aircraft carriers of World War II. This is an excellent site—many photographs that have never been seen by most people.

^ How many people know that a civil case has proven that the guy who supposedly assassinated King Jnr, in fact didn't.
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many vividly remember where they were when first learning of the news that Kennedy was assassinated, as with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 before it and the September 11 attacks after it.^ This company should and I think would be doing a public service if they created a simulation concerning the September 11, 2001 attacks with the same type of scientific scrutiny.
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Agent Floyd M. Boring (ASAIC of the White House Detail, Behn’s direct assistant): “When I got to the Kennedy detail I was actually in charge of that detail at first, and then they sent up the agent from the White House Detail [Behn].
  • VINCE PALAMARA : SECRET SERVICE INFORMATION JFK+ 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC vincepalamara.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important to remember that the first such games were not held in a large arena before thousands of people with television cameras rolling as it was in 1968.

U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson said of the assassination: "all of us… will bear the grief of his death until the day of ours." Many people have also spoken of the shocking news, compounded by the pall of uncertainty about the identity of the assassin(s), the possible instigators and the causes of the killing as an end to innocence, and in retrospect it has been coalesced with other changes of the tumultuous decade of the 1960s, especially the Vietnam War.
Special Forces have a special bond with Kennedy. ."It was President Kennedy who was responsible for the rebuilding of the Special Forces and giving us back our Green Beret," said Forrest Lindley, a writer for the newspaper Stars and Stripes who served with Special Forces in Vietnam.^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: During the convention, John Connally publically revealed that Kennedy would be unable to serve as president for a full term because of Addison's disease .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy was the FRIEND of an ILLINOIS DEMOCRAT named ADLAI E. STEVENSON who would twice run for the U.S. presidency in 1952 and 1956.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What such a mentality seeks is to seemingly relieve us of our responsibility for what is happening, making us the victims of powerful forces, but the only power those forces have is what we gave them.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

This bond was shown at JFK's funeral. At the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of JFK's death, Gen. Michael D. Healy, the last commander of Special Forces in Vietnam, spoke at Arlington Cemetery. .Later, a wreath in the form of the Green Beret would be placed on the grave, continuing a tradition that began the day of his funeral when a sergeant in charge of a detail of Special Forces men guarding the grave placed his beret on the coffin.^ Two days later, she began carquals.

^ The men running it were Lansdale types, Special Forces background.

^ BEHN, GERALD A. 1916-1993 Agent (1939-1967), Special Agent in Charge, White House detail (1961-65), Secret Service.
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ultimately, the death of President Kennedy and the ensuing confusion surrounding the facts of his assassination are of political and historical importance insofar as they marked a turning point and decline in the faith of the American people in the political establishment—a point made by commentators from Gore Vidal to Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. and implied by Oliver Stone in several of his films, such as his landmark 1991 JFK.
.Kennedy's continuation of Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower's policies of giving economic and military aid to the Vietnam War preceded President Johnson's escalation of the conflict.^ Military Aide to the President (1961-1963).
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This comment rivals Behn’s shocking statements to the author due to the source: President Kennedy’s longtime friend and aide and a man who was on countless trips with the President.
  • VINCE PALAMARA : SECRET SERVICE INFORMATION JFK+ 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC vincepalamara.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But then, days after Kennedy's assassination, newly sworn-in President Johnson signed his own executive order reversing Kennedy's executive order thereby committing America to war in Vietnam.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

This contributed to a decade of national difficulties and disappointment on the political landscape.
.Many of Kennedy's speeches (especially his inaugural address) are considered iconic; and despite his relatively short term in office and lack of major legislative changes coming to fruition during his term, Americans regularly vote him as one of the best presidents, in the same league as Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, and Franklin D. Roosevelt.^ The short-term risk is relatively uncontroversial.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a 1960 speech during a Lincoln Monument Rally, Kennedy stated: .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy’s inaugural address.

.Some excerpts of Kennedy's inaugural address are engraved on a plaque at his grave at Arlington.^ Kennedy addressed the nation on a grave matter.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy’s inaugural address.

^ United States Information Agency Capitol Building; Inaugural address w/ Kennedy speaking excerpt.
  • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was posthumously awarded the Pacem in Terris Award. .It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of goodwill to secure peace among all nations.^ Through the Apollo program, all the astronauts had military backgrounds, and as such, national security laws could be held over their heads to keep them silent.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ How can anybody argue with waiving the national securities laws so people can tell what they know?
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After the conclusion of National Week XXII , John F. Kennedy became the first U.S. carrier to call at Dubrovnik , Yugoslavia (28 March to 2 April 1977).

Pacem in Terris is Latin for 'Peace on Earth.'
.President Kennedy is the only president to have predeceased both his mother and father.^ His presidency saw a rise in both radical and conservative movements, but Kennedy was comfortable with neither extreme.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strange deaths after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, in my estimate, number over 100, but I am certain I know of only a fraction .

^ On November 9 Kennedy became the youngest man in American history to win the presidency and the only Roman Catholic to do so.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He is also the only president to have predeceased a grandparent. .His grandmother, Mary Josephine Hannon Fitzgerald, died in 1964, just over eight months after his assassination.^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: Kennedy was shot just a few months shy of the 99th anniversary of the Lincoln assassination .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bowers last remembered seeing it about eight minutes before the shooting, pausing "just above the assassination site .

Memorials

Coat of Arms

In 1961, Kennedy was presented with a grant of arms for all the descendants of Patrick Kennedy from the Chief Herald of Ireland. .The arms of the Kennedy family are black with three gold helmets depicted upon it, within a border that is divided into red and ermine segments, and strongly alludes to the symbols in the coats of arms of the O'Kennedys of Ormonde and the Fitzgeralds of Desmond from whom the family is believed to be descended.^ John F. Kennedy conducted a Family Day cruise on 29 August 1999, and then settled into for an upkeep slated to last until 16 September.

^ I remember JFK (the movie) was surrounded by quite a bit of controversy when it was released as well, and I believe that any time this subject is brought back into mainstream, it will be considered as insensitive to the Kennedy family.
  • Ian Bogost - Water Cooler Games - JFK Reloaded 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.bogost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy's picture was ominously bordered in black like an announcement of mourning.
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

.The crest is an armored hand holding four arrows between two olive branches, elements taken from the coat of arms of the United States of America and also symbolic of Kennedy and his brothers.^ Business confidence in the administration was shaken in the spring of 1962 when Kennedy became embroiled in a bitter controversy with the head of the United States Steel Corporation.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That August, when his boat was sliced in two by a Japanese destroyer, two of his crew were killed, while Kennedy and four others clung to the half of the PT boat that remained afloat.
  • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days later, on 16 June 2002, off the coast of Oman , elements of John F. Kennedy s Battle Group transitioned from warriors to good Samaritans.

.The coat of arms is described in heraldic terms as, Sable three helmets in profile Or within a bordure per saltire gules and ermine, and the crest is, Between two olive branches a cubit sinister arm in armor erect the hand holding a sheaf of four arrows points upward all proper on a torse Or and sable, while the mantling is gules doubled argent.^ Brian found a neutral point discrepancy all right, but it apparently was a discrepancy between the less sophisticated equation that Brian and many others used, and the one that Roy derived.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It shows Jackie's gloved hand holding his left arm just above the wrist (she begins to sense something is wrong).

^ The last area of evidence that I found compelling, but other investigators often have not, is in the area of his hands, arms and the newspapers and rifle he is holding.
  • Investigating Possible Conspiracies and Cover-ups 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.ahealedplanet.net [Source type: Original source]

.Kennedy received a signet ring engraved with his arms for his forty-fourth birthday as a gift from his wife, and the arms were incorporated into the seal of the USS John F. Kennedy.^ John F. Kennedy conducted a Family Day cruise on 29 August 1999, and then settled into for an upkeep slated to last until 16 September.

^ Following Syrian intervention in Jordan on 18 September, John F. Kennedy and elements of the 8th Marine Amphibious Brigade (MAB), received orders to return to the Med.

^ Crowds outside Boston Pubic Library, John F Kennedy arrives w/ wife Jackie to vote.
  • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following his assassination, Kennedy was honored by the Canadian government by having a mountain, Mount Kennedy, named for him, which his brother, Robert Kennedy, climbed in 1965 to plant a banner of the arms at the summit.^ Kennedy had two brothers named EDWARD and ROBERT .
  • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O'DONNELL, KENNETH P. "KENNY" 1924-1977 Assistant and friend to Robert and John F. Kennedy, government official, politician, author, businessman.
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bernard Selinger, a Canadian citizen, had fallen while mountain-climbing near Delphi , Greece , and broken his back.

[112]

See also

References

  • Brauer, Carl. .John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction (1977)
  • Burner, David.^ After the conclusion of National Week XXII , John F. Kennedy became the first U.S. carrier to call at Dubrovnik , Yugoslavia (28 March to 2 April 1977).

    ^ Camp David 31 Mar 1963 - Kennedy children Caroline and John with horse.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ HIGHLEY, DAVID P. 1893-1971 John F. Kennedy's Washington barber (1947-1961).
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .John F. Kennedy and a New Generation (1988)
  • Casey, Shaun.^ Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy, Street Rally, New Haven, CT .

    ^ Remarks via Telephone by Senator John F. Kennedy to the New York State AFLO-CIO .

    ^ Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy, Senior Citizens Rally, City Center, New York City .

    The Making of a Catholic President: Kennedy vs. Nixon 1960 (2009)
  • Dallek, Robert (2003). .An Unfinished Life : John F. Kennedy, 1917–1963.^ During his electoral battle tour in the south of the States, John F. Kennedy visited Dallas (Texas) on November 22nd, 1963.

    ^ MacDONALD, TORBERT (Hart) 1917-1976 Roommate of John F. Kennedy at Harvard; Representative from Massachusetts (1955-1976).
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Fitzgerald Kennedy 1917-63, 35th President of the United States (1961-63), b.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Brown, Little. ISBN 0-316-17238-3.
     
  • Collier, Peter & Horowitz, David. .The Kennedys (1984)
  • Cottrell, John.^ DONELAN, PAUL G(erard) 1919-1984 Artist; member, Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Post, American Legion; aide in John F. Kennedy's 1952 Senate campaign.
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On 2 September 1984, Vice President George H.W. Bush visited John F. Kennedy .

    ^ John F. Kennedy arrived in Norfolk on 2 May 1984, and before months end, was underway on 30 May for Boston to participate in the Parade of Sail event.

    Assassination! The World Stood Still (1964)
  • Douglass, James W., JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why it Matters (Orbis Books, 2008), positive assessment
  • Donovan, Robert J. PT-109: John F. Kennedy in WW II, 40th Anniversary Edition, McGraw Hill (reprint), 2001, ISBN 0-07-137643-7
  • Fay, Paul B., Jr. The Pleasure of His Company (1966)
  • Freedman, Lawrence. .Kennedy's Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam (2000)
  • Fursenko, Aleksandr and Timothy Naftali.^ But then, days after Kennedy's assassination, newly sworn-in President Johnson signed his own executive order reversing Kennedy's executive order thereby committing America to war in Vietnam.
    • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Kennedy embraced a universalistic conception of the country's international responsibilities that his successor and the Vietnam War's critics alike cited as a major reason for America's involvement in the war.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cold War, Cuba 10:29:20 Berlin Wall Barbed wire with guard post behind, guard, flashing light at DMZ, wall.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy, 1958–1964 (1997)
  • Giglio, James.^ Legislative assistant to Senator John F. Kennedy (1958-1961); Deputy Special Counsel to the President (1961-1964); Counsel to the President (1964-1965).
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Summaries - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum 9 February 2010 14:57 UTC www.jfklibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In these communications, Kennedy demonstrated considerable skill and forbearance, ignoring a tough message from Khrushchev and responding to a more conciliatory one.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Of the 27 current official presidential memorials , one of them is the KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS established on December 1964 in Washington, D.C. It is only ONE OF TWO presidential memorials established for the performing arts.
    • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Presidency of John F. Kennedy (1991), standard scholarly overview of policies
  • Goldzwig, Steven R. and Dionisopoulos, George N., eds.^ President John Kennedy arrival.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Report on the subject of the examination of the handwriting and fingerprint evidence in the investigation of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, VIII appendix to the hearings.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ General Ayub Khan s Arrival At Newport September 24, 1962 Out of Marine helicopter, President John F Kennedy & others walking across runway.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In a Perilous Hour: The Public Address of John F. Kennedy, text and analysis of key speeches (1995)
  • Harper, Paul, and Joann P. Krieg eds.^ Speech of Senator John F. Kennedy, VFW Convention, Detroit, MI - (Advance Release Text) .

    ^ Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy, Youngstown, Ohio, Public Square .

    ^ Excerpts of Remarks by Senator John F. Kennedy, Clothing Workers' Rally, Garment Section, Los Angeles, CA - (Advance Release Text) .

    .John F. Kennedy: The Promise Revisited (1988), scholarly articles on presidency
  • Harris, Seymour E. The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy (1962)
  • Heath, Jim F. Decade of Disillusionment: The Kennedy–Johnson Years (1976), general survey of decade
  • Hellmann, John.^ Statement by Senator John F. Kennedy on Vice President Nixon's "White Paper" .

    ^ It dropped again during President Kennedy's last year in office.
    • John F. Kennedy, Oil, and the War on Terror - Signs of the Times - Mon, 20 Nov, 2006 23 January 2010 15:25 UTC www.sott.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy .
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Kennedy Obsession: The American Myth of JFK (1997), negative assessment
  • Hersh, Seymour.^ Hersh, Seymour, The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy , NY, 1991.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ JFK CU at League of Latin American Citizens; Jackie Kennedy addresses league (MOS).
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ End A-Tests - U.S. Ban Until Big 3 Talks President John Kennedy (JFK) at American University graduation.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Dark Side of Camelot (1997), highly negative assessment
  • House Select Committee on Assassinations.^ House Select Committee on Assassinations hearing, pp.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ FBI material delivered to the House Select Committee on Assassinations, Nov.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ House Select Committee on Assassinations, pp.
    • References: JFK Assassination Investigation 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Reference]

    .Final Assassinations Report (1979)
  • Kunz, Diane B. The Diplomacy of the Crucial Decade: American Foreign Relations during the 1960s (1994)
  • Manchester, William.^ Bartlett, Ruhl J., Power and Policy: Two Centuries of American Foreign Relations , NY, 1963.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Trask, David, Victory Without Peace: American Foreign Relations in the Twentieth Century , NY, 1968.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Manchester, William, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964 , Boston, 1978.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Portrait of a President: John F. Kennedy in Profile (1967)
  • Manchester, William.^ President John F. Kennedy (JFK) - brief shot with cadets.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AN INTERESTING NOTE: During the convention, John Connally publically revealed that Kennedy would be unable to serve as president for a full term because of Addison's disease .
    • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President Calls for Economic Co-Operation John F Kennedy speaking at Yale University commencement.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Death of a President: November 20-November 25 (1967)
  • Newman, John M., JFK and Vietnam: Deception, Intrigue, and the Struggle for Power (1992)
  • O'Brien, Michael.^ Newman, John M., JFK and Vietnam: Deception, Intrigue, and he Struggle for Power , NY, 1992.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Slusser, Robert, The Berlin Crisis of 1961: Soviet-American Relations and the Struggle for Power in the Kremlin, June-November 1961 , Baltimore, 1973.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Upon completion of those trials, John F. Kennedy returned to the yard and wrapped up her overhaul on 25 November, one week earlier than scheduled.

    .John F. Kennedy: A Biography (2005), the most detailed biography
  • Parmet, Herbert.^ The most compelling moral cause of Kennedy's years as president was civil rights, and it is therefore worth looking at his handling of it in some detail.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ TWENTY years after John F. Kennedy was assassinated, a public opinion poll indicated that he was rated best overall of the nine presidents since Herbert Hoover.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After punctuating that training with a visit to St. Thomas, John F. Kennedy ultimately returned to Norfolk on 6 June, where remained for most of the rest of the month.

    .Jack: The Struggles of John F. Kennedy (1980)
  • Parmet, Herbert.^ After pausing briefly at Augusta Bay on 23 September 1980, John F. Kennedy headed for Barcelona .

    ^ Herbert S. Parmet has written the biographies Jack: The Struggles of John F. Kennedy (New York, 1980) and JFK: The Presidency of John F. Kennedy (New York, 1983).
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Days later, President John " JACK " Kennedy was assassinated.
    • The Reincarnation of Abraham Lincoln and John Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.near-death.com [Source type: Original source]

    .JFK: The Presidency of John F. Kennedy (1983)
  • Piper, Michael Collins.^ Statement by Senator John F. Kennedy on Vice President Nixon's "White Paper" .

    ^ President Calls for Economic Co-Operation John F Kennedy speaking at Yale University commencement.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John F Kennedy (JFK) Inauguration Arrival Nixon and Eisenhower (Ike) band plays - Kennedy arrives - prayer - Marian Anderson sings Star Spangled Banner.
    • Footage Farm: JFK 12 January 2010 3:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Final Judgment (2004: sixth edition). American Free Press
  • Reeves, Richard. .President Kennedy: Profile of Power (1993), balanced assessment of policies
  • Reeves, Thomas.^ Richard Reeves, President Kennedy: Profile of Power (New York, 1993), is a well-researched assessment, critical but judicious.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Patterson, Thomas, ed., Kennedy's Quest for Victory: American Foreign Policy, 1961-1963 , NY, 1989.
    • Richard Immerman's United States Foreign RelationsBibliography, 1918-1975 22 September 2009 22:10 UTC astro.temple.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the area of fiscal policy, Kennedy presided over a significant change.
    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Fitzgerald Kennedy 31 January 2010 13:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy (1991) hostile assessment of his character flaws
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (1965), by a close advisor
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr. Robert Kennedy And His Times (2002 re-print)
  • Smith, Jean Edward. Kennedy and Defense: The Formative Years. Air University Review (March–April 1967)
  • Sorensen, Theodore. Kennedy (1966), by a close advisor

Footnotes

  1. ^ 5, 2008 "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (HHTML). http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2008/11/obama-joins-list-of-seven-presidents-with-harvard-degrees/=November 5, 2008. 
  2. ^ a b http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/John+F.+Kennedy+Miscellaneous+Information.htm
  3. ^ Theodore Roosevelt was 9 months younger when he first assumed the presidency on September 14, 1901, but he was not elected to the presidency until 1904, when he was 46.
  4. ^ a b "The Sixties". Junior Scholastic. February 11, 1994. 
  5. ^ Pulitzer.org FAQ
  6. ^ American Experience: John F. Kennedy, PBS. Retrieved on February 25, 2007.
  7. ^ "John Fitzgerald Kennedy National Historic site" (HHTML). http://www.nps.gov/jofi/faqs.htm. Retrieved February 8, 2008. 
  8. ^ "John F. Kennedy Miscellaneous Information". JFK library. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/John+F.+Kennedy+Miscellaneous+Information.htm. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  9. ^ Nigel Hamilton, JFK: Reckless Youth (New York, 1992)
  10. ^ "Memorial Hall Auditorium Filled to Capacity at Annual Freshman Smoker," The Harvard Crimson, May 5, 1937
  11. ^ Donovan, Robert J. PT-109: John F. Kennedy in WW II, p. 7.
  12. ^ Kennedy, John F. (October 16, 1981). Why England Slept. Greenwood Press Reprint. ISBN 9780313228742. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24144268. ; Jean Edward Smith, "Kennedy and Defense: The Formative Years", Air University Review, (Mar-Apr, 1967)
  13. ^ "Lieutenant John F. Kennedy, USN". Naval Historical Center. June 18, 2002. http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq60-2.htm. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  14. ^ Hove, Duane (2003) American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II Bard Street Press ISBN 1-57249-307-0
  15. ^ Hove, Duane T. "Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II". http://www.americanwarriorsfivepresidents.com/. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  16. ^ Donovan, Robert J. PT-109: John F. Kennedy in WW II, pp. 106-107.
  17. ^ Donovan, Robert J. PT-109: John F. Kennedy in WW II, pp. 123-124.
  18. ^ Donovan, Robert J. PT-109: John F. Kennedy in WW II, pp. 125-126, 141-142, 162-164.
  19. ^ Donovan, Robert J. PT-109: John F. Kennedy in WW II, pp. 172–184.
  20. ^ "John F. Kennedy and PT109". JFK library. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/JFK+in+History/John+F.+Kennedy+and+PT109.htm. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  21. ^ Ted Chamberlain (July 11, 2002) JFK's PT-109 Found, U.S. Navy Confirms (National Geographic News).
  22. ^ Cover story, Time magazine, January 20, 1961
  23. ^ a b Edward Smith, Dr. Jean (1967-03). "Kennedy and Defense The formative years". Air University Review. http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/aureview/1967/mar-apr/smith.html. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  24. ^ Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2008, p W3, review of Counselor, by Ted Sorensen.
  25. ^ O'Brien (2005) p 370.
  26. ^ O'Brien (2005) p 370.
  27. ^ O'Brien (2005) p 370,
  28. ^ O'Brien (2005) p 370.
  29. ^ O'Brien (2005) pp 370, 371.
  30. ^ O'Brien (2005) p 372.
  31. ^ O'Brien (2005) p 374.
  32. ^ Schlesinger (2002) (re-print), p 214.
  33. ^ T. Reeves, A Question of Character, p 140.
  34. ^ O'Brien (2005) pp 274–79, 394–99.
  35. ^ Kennedy, John F. (June 18, 2002). "Address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association". American Rhetoric. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkhoustonministers.html. Retrieved September 17, 2007. 
  36. ^ Tyner Allen, Erika. "The Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates, 1960". museum.tv. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/K/htmlK/kennedy-nixon/kennedy-nixon.htm. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  37. ^ "Inaugural Address of President John F. Kennedy". JFK library. January 20, 1961. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/003POF03Inaugural01201961.htm. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  38. ^ http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/JFK+Pre-Pres/1960/002PREPRES12SPEECHES_60MAR05a.htm
  39. ^ Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story, By Peter Wyden, Published by Simon and Shuster,1979
  40. ^ a b Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy and His Times
  41. ^ Decision for Disaster Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs, Grayston L. Lynch, Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.,Pub. Date: January 2000ISBN 9781574882377
  42. ^ Jean Edward Smith, "Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions", The Nation, April 13, 1964
  43. ^ JFK's "Address on the First Anniversary of the Alliance for Progress," White House reception for diplomatic cors of the Latin American republics, March 13, 1962. Public Papers of the Presidents – John F. Kennedy (1962), p. 223.
  44. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. 40–41. ISBN 0465041957. 
  45. ^ LeFeber, "America, Russia and the Cold War", p.233
  46. ^ "CIA Memo: "Press Version of How Diem and Nhu Died"" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency Office of Current Intelligence. Central Intelligence Agency. November 12, 1963. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB101/vn28.pdf. Retrieved September 18, 2007. See also Arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm
  47. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. pp. 43–46. ISBN 0465041957. 
  48. ^ Ellis, Joseph J. (2000), "Making Vietnam History", Reviews in American History 28 (4): 625–629, doi:10.1353/rah.2000.0068 
  49. ^ The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara
  50. ^ NSAM 263, Oct. 11, 1963
  51. ^ See John M. Newman, JFK and Vietnam: Deception, Intrigue, and the Struggle for Power (1992).
  52. ^ "1963 Commencement" June 10, 1963. Retrieved February 14, 2010
  53. ^ Lawrence Freedman, Kennedy's wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam (2002) p. 399
  54. ^ NSAM 273, Nov. 26, 1963
  55. ^ Air Force One: Planes and the Presidents: Flight II, hosted and narrated by Charlton Heston. AP White House Correspondent Frank Cormier said that 5/6 of the population was on the street when Kennedy gave that famous phrase.
  56. ^ Jean Edward Smith, The Defense of Berlin, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963; Jean Edward Smith, The Wall as Watershed, Arlington, Virginia: Institute for Defense Analysis, 1966.
  57. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (2003). Air Force One: A History of the Presidents and Their Planes. New York: Hyperion. 
  58. ^ "1963: Warm welcome for JFK in Ireland". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/27/newsid_4461000/4461115.stm. Retrieved October 4, 2007. 
  59. ^ "JFK faced 3 death threats during '63 visit to Ireland| Deseret News (Salt Lake City)| Find Articles at BNET.com". Findarticles.com. December 29, 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20061229/ai_n17092126. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  60. ^ a b "A Tyrant 40 Years in the Making". New York Times. December 15, 2003. http://readthese.blogspot.com/2003_12_15_readthese_archive.html. Retrieved September 18, 2007. 
  61. ^ "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq", Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978; Peter and Marion Sluglett, "Iraq Since 1958" London, I.B. Taurus, 1990
  62. ^ Regarding the CIA's "Health Alteration Committee's work in Iraq, see U.S. Senate's Church Committee Interim Report on Assassination, page 181, Note 1
  63. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 293. ISBN 0465041957. 
  64. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 324. ISBN 0465041957. 
  65. ^ a b c BEA: quarterly GDP figures by sector, 1953-1964
  66. ^ a b Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment & Unemployment
  67. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States: Historical price indices
  68. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1964
  69. ^ Executions 1790 to 1963
  70. ^ Carey Goldberg (May 6, 2001). "Federal Executions Have Been Rare but May Increase". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800E3DF1F38F935A35756C0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. 
  71. ^ Letter from Kennedy to the Attorney General
  72. ^ Riechmann, Deb (July 29, 2008). "Bush: Former Army cook's crimes warrant execution". ABC News. Associated Press. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory?id=5468945. Retrieved July 29, 2008. 
  73. ^ Whealan, Ronald E. (December 5, 2005). "March 22, 1962 - The White House Diary". John F. Kennedy Library. http://www.jfklibrary.org/White+House+Diary/1962/March/22.htm. Retrieved August 28, 2009. 
  74. ^ Whealan, Ronald E. (January 19, 2006). "Kennedy Legislative Record, Page 2 - Summary of the Three Year Kennedy Record (Legislation)". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/jfk_leg_record2.html.htm. Retrieved August 28, 2009. 
  75. ^ "Norton Letter to U.S. Attorney Says Death Penalty Trial That Begins Today Part of Troubling and Futile Pattern". Office of Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton. January 8, 2007. http://www.norton.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=478. Retrieved August 28, 2009. 
  76. ^ Brown, Mitchell. "Martin Luther King, Jr. Chronology". Louisiana State University. http://www.lib.lsu.edu/hum/mlk/srs216.html. Retrieved September 20, 2007. 
  77. ^ Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53): 71. 
  78. ^ Bryant, Nick (Autumn 2006). "Black Man Who Was Crazy Enough to Apply to Ole Miss". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (53): 60, 66. 
  79. ^ Kennedy, John F.. "Civil Rights Address". AmericanRhetoric.com. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkcivilrights.htm. Retrieved September 20, 2007. 
  80. ^ "Nation Celebrates Anniversary Of Landmark Civil Rights Law". US Department of State. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2004/June/20040624160152jmnamdeirf0.1434442.html. Retrieved 2008-11-214. 
  81. ^ Davis, F. (1999). Moving the mountain: The women's movement in America since 1960. Chicago: University of Illinois. See also: Martin, J. M. (2003). The presidency and women: Promise, performance, and illusion. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M.
  82. ^ "The FBI's War on King". American Public Radio. http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/king/d1.html. 
  83. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 41. ISBN 0465041957. 
  84. ^ Herst, Burton (2007). Bobby and J. Edger, Carroll & Graf: New York, New York. ISBN 0-78671-982-6. p 372
  85. ^ Herst, Burton, (2007) pp 372-374
  86. ^ Garrow, David J. (2002-07/08). "The FBI and Martin Luther King". The Atlantic Monthly. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200207/garrow. 
  87. ^ "Smiting the Foe". TIME. April 20, 1962. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,873526-3,00.html. 
  88. ^ a b O'Brien, Michael. John F. Kennedy. Macmillan. http://books.google.com/books?id=gFRzBSBmGaIC&pg=PA645&lpg=PA645&dq=kennedy+steel+price+increase+fbi&source=web&ots=NAVCuXPhhp&sig=9esGMVdDa19Iz-pvv2FSn4b5fnk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result. 
  89. ^ Ludden, Jennifer. "Q&A: Sen. Kennedy on Immigration, Then & Now". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5393857. Retrieved September 20, 2007. 
  90. ^ "From Press Office: Senator John F. Kennedy, Immigration and Naturalization Laws, Hyannis Inn Motel, Hyannis, MA". americanpresidency.org. August 6, 1960. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=60440. Retrieved September 20, 2007. 
  91. ^ Kennedy, John F. (May 25, 1961). "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs Page 4". John F. Kennedy Library. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/Urgent+National+Needs+Page+4.htm. Retrieved September 20, 2007. 
  92. ^ Kennedy, John F. (September 12, 1962). "President John F. Kennedy". Rice University. http://webcast.rice.edu/speeches/19620912kennedy.html. Retrieved September 20, 2007. 
  93. ^ Bilharz, Joy Ann (1998). The Allegany Senecas and Kinzua Dam: forced relocation through two generations. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 55. ISBN 0-8032-1282-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=LhMW6prEUpIC&pg=PA54&lpg=PA54&dq=kinzua+dam+approval&source=bl&ots=vcICl5wfxe&sig=vqBxEuslwr5QDJ7Ljb94eUppidU&hl=en&ei=NzLdSqGsJIHCsQO4n5HXDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=kinzua%20dam%20approval&f=false. Retrieved October 19, 2009. 
  94. ^ 320 - Letter to the President of the Seneca Nation of Indians Concerning the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River
  95. ^ 26, 2009#P12844 Life in Legacy
  96. ^ Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film), Youtube.com
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