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John Fleming (January 10, 1785 – November 18, 1857) was a Scottish clergyman, zoologist and geologist. He was born near Bathgate in Linlithgowshire and died in Edinburgh.

After his studies at the University of Edinburgh in 1805, he became pastor the following year in the Church of Scotland and assigned the parish of Bressay in Scotland. He was ordained in 1808.

From 1808 in 1834, he served in various parishes in Scotland. In 1808, he participated in founding a learned society devoted to the natural history, the Wernerian Society.

John Fleming joined the Royal Society on February 25, 1813. In 1814, he becomes a doctor of theology at the University of St. Andrews. The same year he became a member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

In 1824 began the famous controversy between the geologist William Buckland (1784-1856) on the nature of The Flood as described in the Bible.

In 1828, he published his History of British Animals. This book addressed not only current species, but also fossil species. It explains the presence of fossil climate change: the extinct species to survive here otherwise if weather conditions are favorable. These theories contributed to the advancement of biogeography. They exerted some influence on Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

He was awarded the chair of natural philosophy at University College and King of Aberdeen in 1834, then 1845, teaches the natural history in New College, Edinburgh.

Partial list of publications

  • 1821: Insecta in Supplement to the fourth, fifth and sixth editions of the Encyclopae-dia Britannica, with preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciences
  • 1822: Philosophy of Zoology
  • 1828: A History of British animals, exhibiting the descriptive characters and Systematical arrangement of the genera and species of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, mollusca, and radiata of the United Kingdom, including the indigenous, extirpated , and extinct kinds, together with periodical and occasional visitants Edinburgh: i-xxiii + 1-565.
  • 1851: The Temperature of the Seasons, and Its Influence on Inorganic Objects, and on Plants and Animals

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