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John Forbes Nash Jr.

Born June 13, 1928 (1928-06-13) (age 81)
Bluefield, West Virginia, USA
Nationality American
Fields Mathematics, Economics
Institutions Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Princeton University
Alma mater Princeton University
Carnegie Institute of Technology (now part of Carnegie Mellon University)
Doctoral advisor Albert W. Tucker
Known for Nash equilibrium
Nash embedding theorem
Algebraic geometry
Notable awards Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (1994)
.John Forbes Nash, Jr. (born June 13, 1928) is an American economist and mathematician whose works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations have provided insight into the forces that govern chance and events inside complex systems in daily life.^ NICK CARPENTER John Forbes Nash Jr. June 13, 1928) is a mathematician who worked in game theory and differential geometry.

^ John Forbes Nash, Jr. June 13 1928 ) is an American mathematician who works in game theory , differential geometry , and partial differential equations , serving as a Senior Research Mathematician at Princeton University .
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ John Forbes Nash Jr. June 13, 1928) is an American mathematician and economist whose works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations have provided insight into the forces that govern chance and events inside complex systems in daily life.
  • http://getglue.com/topics/p/john_forbes_nash_jr 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC getglue.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His theories are used in market economics, computing, evolutionary biology, artificial intelligence, accounting and military theory.^ So it should not be surprising that game theory has been so useful in evolutionary biology.
  • A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His work is widely used in economics, evolutionary biology and military theory and for predicting the outcome of competition and conflict.
  • Naval Postgraduate School - PAO News Story 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nps.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His theories are still used today in market economics, computing, artificial intelligence, accounting and military theory.
  • A Beautiful Mind: John Forbes Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

.Serving as a Senior Research Mathematician at Princeton University during the later part of his life, he shared the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with game theorists Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi.^ American mathematicianin full John Forbes Nash , Jr. He shared the Nobel Prize with the Hungarian American economist John C. Harsanyi and German mathematician Reinhard Selten.

^ Nash was awarded (jointly with Harsanyi and Selten ) the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economic Science for his work on game theory.

^ He had won a Nobel Prize in economics for his work in game theory.
  • Close—and not so close—encounters with a Beautiful Mind. - By Robert Wright - Slate Magazine 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]

.Nash is the subject of the Hollywood movie A Beautiful Mind.^ Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie .
  • mentalmagazine : Message: Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Beautiful Mind was such a good movie.
  • A Beautiful Mind: John Forbes Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

^ A Beautiful Mind is one hell of a movie."
  • A Beautiful Mind (2001): Russell Crowe, Jennifer Connelly, Ed Harris, Ron Howard 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ofcs.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: General]

.The film, based very loosely on the biography of the same name, focuses on Nash's mathematical genius and his struggle with paranoid schizophrenia.^ Based loosely on the book, the film can be described as "fictionalized biography."
  • SIAM: The Ultimate Backstage Pass 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.siam.org [Source type: General]

^ Nash was a mathematical genius who suffered from...
  • John Forbes Nash, Jr., Economist and Academic - - Evri 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ The film is loosely based on the biography of the same title, written by Sylvia Nasar ( 1999 ).
  • Bambooweb: John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bambooweb: John Forbes Nash Jr. (mathematician) 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2]

Contents

Early life

.Nash's younger sister wrote that "Johnny was always different.^ Nash’s younger sister said - “Johnny was always different.
  • A Beautiful Mind: John Forbes Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]

^ She wrote later in life: “Johnny was always different.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She wrote later in life: "Johnny was always different.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[My parents] knew he was different. .And they knew he was bright.^ And they knew he was bright.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash, John Forbes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]
  • A Beautiful Mind: John Forbes Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]
  • Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC cs-exhibitions.uni-klu.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He always wanted to do things his way.^ He always wanted to do things his way.

^ He always wanted to do thinks his way.
  • Nash, John Forbes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "John was always looking for a different way to do things," said Mrs. Legg, a tall, handsome woman who is a potter in Roanoke.
  • NY Times: John Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Lost Years of a Nobel Laureate 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • mentalmagazine : Message: Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships...^ Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships.

^ Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships...
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships… but I wasn’t too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother.” .
  • A Beautiful Mind: John Forbes Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

but .I wasn't too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother."^ I wasn't too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother.

^ I wasn't too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother."
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships… but I wasn’t too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother.” .
  • A Beautiful Mind: John Forbes Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: News]
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Post-graduate life

Nash's advisor and former Carnegie Tech professor, R.J. Duffin, wrote a letter of recommendation consisting of a single sentence: "This man is a genius."[4] Nash was accepted by Harvard University, but the chairman of the mathematics department of Princeton, Solomon Lefschetz, offered him the John S. Kennedy fellowship, which was enough to convince Nash that Harvard valued him less.[5] .Thus from White Oak, he went to Princeton, where he worked on his equilibrium theory.^ Thus, from White Oak he went to Princeton University, where he worked on his equilibrium theory.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Pittsburgh he went to Princeton University where he worked on his equilibrium theory.

^ After and during graduate school at Princeton and faculty work at MIT , Nash deveolped a working thesis on game theory , which ultimately led to the Nobel Prize.
  • A Beautiful Mind@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

.He earned a doctorate in 1950 with a 28 page dissertation on non-cooperative games.^ In 1950 Nash received his doctorate from Princeton with a thesis entitled Non-cooperative Games.
  • Nash, John Forbes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash, John - Astro-Databank, John Nash horoscope, born 13 June 1928 in Bluefield WV 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.astro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1950 he received his doctorate from Princeton with a thesis Non-cooperative Games.
  • mentalmagazine : Message: Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-cooperative Games .
  • Rp./Internet » Blog Archive » Homenaje:John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.rpinternet.com.ar [Source type: General]

[6] The thesis, which was written under the supervision of Albert W. Tucker, contained the definition and properties of what would later be called the "Nash Equilibrium". These studies led to four articles:
Nash did ground-breaking work in the area of real algebraic geometry:
.
  • "Real algebraic manifolds", Annals of Mathematics 56 (1952), 405–421. MR0050928 See Proc.^ In 1952 Nash published Real algebraic manifolds in the Annals of Mathematics.
    • Nash, John Forbes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MR 0053471 Nash also did important work in the area of algebraic geometry : "Real algebraic manifolds", Annals of Mathematics 56 (1952), 405–421.
    • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

    ^ MR 0050928 See also Proc.
    • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

    Internat. Congr. Math.
    (AMS, 1952, pp 516–517).
.His most famous work in mathematics is the Nash embedding theorem, which shows that any abstract Riemannian manifold can be isometrically realized as a submanifold of Euclidean space.^ C 1 -isometric imbedding into an Euclidean space of a Riemannian manifold with a positive definite C 0 -metric.

^ His most famous work in pure mathematics was the Nash embedding theorem, which showed that any abstract Riemannian manifold can be isometrically realized as a submanifold of Euclidean space.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the problem to prove the isometric embeddability of abstract Riemannian manifolds in flat (or "Euclidean") spaces.
  • John F. Nash, Jr. - Autobiography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He made contributions to the theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations, and to singularity theory.^ He also made contributions to the theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations .
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ He also made contributions to the theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In four papers published between 1950–53 he made seminal contributions to both non-cooperative game theory and to bargaining theory.
  • AllRefer.com - Nash, John Forbes, Jr. (Mathematics, Biography) - Encyclopedia 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC reference.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

Personal life

.As per Nash's biography, from 1951 onwards, he had a liaison with a nurse, named Eleanor Stier.^ Nash's other "special friendship" was with Eleanor Stier, a Boston nurse.
  • A Beautiful Mind's John Nash is less complex than the real one. - By Chris Suellentrop - Slate Magazine 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the film (based on Sylvia Nasar's biography of the same name) takes liberties with the true story of Nash's life, he did experience hallucinations and delusions.
  • Howstuffworks "Top 5 Mad Geniuses" 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1956 Nash's parents found out about his continuing affair with Eleanor and about his son John David Stier.

.They bore a child named John David Stier.^ People were annoyed that his remarks against Jews, a relationship Nash had with another woman that bore another child, that John and Alicia divorced and remarried and more were left out.
  • DVDlaunch.com: A Beautiful Mind (widescreen) review 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dvdlaunch.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1956 Nash's parents found out about his continuing affair with Eleanor and about his son John David Stier.

^ Conoci a Eleanor Stier con la que tuvo un hijo, John David Stier, nacido el 19 de junio de 1953.
  • Grandes economistas-La verdadera vida de�John Forbes Nash, Jr.(1892-) 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.eumed.net [Source type: General]
  • Biografia de John Nash:Una Mente Brillante 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.portalplanetasedna.com.ar [Source type: General]
  • La verdadera vida de John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.isftic.mepsyd.es [Source type: General]

.Though Nash had thought of marrying her, he later decided against it and abandoned them.^ These are some of the residual thoughts after seeing A Beautiful Mind, which immerses us in the world of Nash, even though it doesnt try to be a biography.

^ In February of 1957 Nash married Alicia; by the autumn of 1958 she was pregnant but, a couple of months later near the end of 1958, Nash's mental state became very disturbed.

^ Inspired by her unwavering love and faith, Nash finally decides to fight a disease thought to be not only incurable, but degenerative.
  • The Hindu : Saga of survival 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.hindu.com [Source type: General]

.In 1955, Nash went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a C. L. E. Moore Instructor in the mathematics faculty.^ In reality, after Nash finished his Ph.D.--it was his dissertation on game theory that won the Nobel Prize--and spent a year at Princeton, he moved to MIT as a C.L.E. Moore Instructor.
  • Reviews 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.aps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After his Ph.D. from Princeton in 1950 at age 22 and working for a while, Nash joined MIT in the summer of 1951 as "the C.L.E. Moore Instructor" and carried out research in mathematics at MIT and Princeton.
  • The Hindu Business Line : Lessons from Nash and the Nobel 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thehindubusinessline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By this time, Nash is married to a former student -- Alicia, who has a beautiful mind herself -- and he's working for the military out of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • A Beautiful Mind, Maximum Russell Crowe 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.maximumcrowe.net [Source type: General]

.There, he met Alicia López-Harrison de Lardé (born January 1, 1933), a physics student from El Salvador, whom he married in February 1957. She admitted Nash to a mental hospital in 1959 for schizophrenia; their son, John Charles Martin Nash, was born soon afterward, but remained nameless for a year because his mother felt that her husband should have a say in the name.^ Tags: John Nash , alicia lópez harrison de lardé , a beautiful mind , john charles martin nash , Alicia Nash .
  • John Forbes Nash — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ When did john nash marrie?
  • WikiAnswers - When did John F Nash marry his wife Alicia Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ John Nash and Alicia Larde married in February 1957.
  • A Beautiful Mind's John Nash is less complex than the real one. - By Chris Suellentrop - Slate Magazine 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]
  • John Nash Nobel Prize - Web - Copernic 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ws.copernic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nash and Lopez-Harrison de Lardé divorced in 1963, but reunited in 1970, in a nonromantic relationship that resembled that of two unrelated housemates.^ Nash and Lopez-Harrison de Lardé divorced in 1963 and reunited in 1970, but in a nonromantic relationship that resembled that of two unrelated housemates.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ Nash and Lopez-Harrison de Lardé divorced in 1963, but reunited in 1970, in a nonromantic relationship that resembled that of two unrelated housemates.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The film depicts the Nashes as having a loving, supportive marriage, and there is no mention of their 1963 divorce or subsequent remarriage last June.
  • USATODAY.com - It's 'Beautiful,' but not factual 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.usatoday.com [Source type: News]

.De Lardé referred to him as her "boarder" and said they lived "like two distantly related individuals under one roof," according to Sylvia Nasar's 1998 biography of Nash, A Beautiful Mind.^ But she referred to him as her "boarder," Nasar writes, and "they lived essentially like two distantly related individuals under one roof" until he won the Nobel Prize, when they renewed their relationship.
  • A Beautiful Mind's John Nash is less complex than the real one. - By Chris Suellentrop - Slate Magazine 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1999, Sylvia Nasar published a biography of John Nash entitled, " A Beautiful Mind ".
  • John Nash@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ Mattuck also was quoted extensively in Sylvia Nasar's biography of Nash, also called "A Beautiful Mind."
  • MIT plays supporting role in Oscar-winning 'Beautiful Mind' 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: General]

The couple renewed their relationship after Nash won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1994. They married on June 1, 2001.

Schizophrenia

.Nash began to show signs of extreme paranoia and his wife later described his behavior as erratic, as he began speaking of characters who were putting him in danger.^ Schizophrenia Nash began to show signs of schizophrenia in 1958.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Nash Nash began to show signs of schizophrenia in 1958.
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash began to show signs of schizophrenia in 1958.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

.Nash seemed to believe that there was an organization chasing him, in which all men wore "red ties". Nash mailed letters to embassies in Washington, D.C., declaring that they were establishing a government.^ Nash goes through so much and there is so much to characterize him, and Crowe blends it all naturally, all while having great chemistry with Connolly.
  • DVDlaunch.com: A Beautiful Mind (widescreen) review 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dvdlaunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Worst, though, Dr. Nash is a twitchy, neurotic, awkward mess, and it takes all of Crowe’s considerable wit and charm to make him likeable.
  • TXReviews » Blog Archive » A Beautiful Mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC txreviews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From there, Howard talks about Nash opening himself up more.Howard seems touched about meeting Nash and then realizing all his plights.
  • DVDlaunch.com: A Beautiful Mind (widescreen) review 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dvdlaunch.com [Source type: General]

[7][8]
.He was committed to the McLean Hospital, April–May 1958, where he was diagnosed with a subtype of schizophrenia called paranoid schizophrenia.^ He was diagnosed as having paranoid schizophrenia and was committed to McLean Hospital.

^ In May 1959, he was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and resigned from MIT. .
  • MIT plays supporting role in Oscar-winning 'Beautiful Mind' 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: General]

^ He became paranoid and was admitted into the McLean Hospital, April–May 1959, where he was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and mild depression with low self-esteem.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the most common type of schizophrenia in most parts of the world.^ Eugen Bleuler, who coined the term schizophrenia in 1908, describes a "specific type of alteration of thinking, feeling and relation to the external world."
  • http://www.chapters.indigo.ca/bookExcerpt/978068485370 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chapters.indigo.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The clinical picture is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid, fixed beliefs that are either false, over-imaginative or unrealistic, usually accompanied by experiences of seemingly real perception of something not actually present—particularly auditory and perceptional disturbances, a lack of motivation for life, and mild clinical depression.^ He became paranoid and was admitted into the McLean Hospital , April–May 1959, where he was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and mild depression with low self-esteem.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]

^ But evidence suggests that Nash's perceptions of reality are cloudy at best; he is struggling to maintain his tenuous hold on sanity, and Alicia suspects a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia.
  • A Beautiful Mind - Ask.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]
  • VideoDetective.com - A Beautiful Mind Preview 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.videodetective.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Save A formal report of visual perception Title: That immediate past experiences of being presented with either images of animals or faces influence what the subject perceives in the ambiguous figure in that if presen...
  • Term Papers on Psychology - Term Papers Lab 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.termpaperslab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Upon his release, Nash resigned from MIT, withdrew his pension, and went to Europe, unsuccessfully seeking political asylum in France and East Germany.^ Upon his release, Nash abruptly resigned from MIT, withdrew his pension, and went to Europe, where he intended to renounce his US citizenship.

^ After two months in the McLean Hospital, he resigned from MIT and spent a year in Europe with his wife, unsuccessfully seeking political asylum.
  • Mathematics between genius and madness - John Nash's 80th birthday - The H: Security news and Open source developments 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.h-online.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After he was released, he resigned from MIT and withdrew his pension to move to Europe.
  • Nash Jr., John Forbes - The Free Information Society 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.freeinfosociety.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He tried to renounce his U.S. citizenship.^ He went to Europe and tried several times to renounce his U.S. citizenship.
  • Reviews 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.aps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a problematic stay in Paris and Geneva, he was arrested by the French police and deported back to the United States at the request of the U.S. government.^ After a problematic stay in Paris and Geneva, Nash returned to Princeton in 1960.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alicia followed him to Europe and had him deported back to the United States.
  • Nash Jr., John Forbes - The Free Information Society 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.freeinfosociety.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She then had Nash deported - back to the United States.

.In 1961, Nash was committed to the New Jersey State Hospital at Trenton.^ I later spent times of the order of five to eight months in hospitals in New Jersey, always on an involuntary basis and always attempting a legal argument for release.
  • John F. Nash, Jr. - Autobiography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Nash presented in Freedom section 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.newsfinder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ R.....s ceritanya ^_^ Akhirnya John dan Alicia Nash hidup bahagia di Princeton, New Jersey.
  • A Beautiful Mind : A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr. (Hardcover) by Sylvia Nasar - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ John Nash, 66, a resident of Princeton, New Jersey," a reception was held in his honor at the coffee lounge of the legendary mathematics department of Princeton University.
  • There's madness in his method / By Ariel Rubinstein 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC arielrubinstein.tau.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the next nine years, he spent periods in psychiatric hospitals, where besides receiving antipsychotic medications, he was administered insulin shock therapy.^ Insulin shock therapy .
  • A Beautiful Mind@Everything2.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ He remained in and out of mental hospitals until 1970, being given insulin shock therapy and antipsychotic medications, usually as a result of being committed rather than by his choice.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After two months in the McLean Hospital, he resigned from MIT and spent a year in Europe with his wife, unsuccessfully seeking political asylum.
  • Mathematics between genius and madness - John Nash's 80th birthday - The H: Security news and Open source developments 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.h-online.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][9][10]
.Although he took prescribed medication, Nash wrote later that he only took it under pressure.^ The thesis, which was written under the supervision of Albert W. Tucker, contained the definition and properties of what would later be called the Nash equilibrium.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Alicia filed for divorce in the early '60s—she took John back some years later, after the onset of his illness, and they only remarried last summer.
  • New York Movies - The Rules of the Game - page 1 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.villagevoice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Man Behind a Beautiful Mind: The real John Nash never saw visions, and after 1970 he never took medication.

.After 1970 he was never committed to the hospital again and refused any medication.^ He remained in and out of mental hospitals until 1970, being given insulin shock therapy and antipsychotic medications, usually as a result of being committed rather than by his choice.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Massachusetts psychologist Patricia Deegan said she refused to believe a hospital psychiatrists grim prediction that she would never get better.
  • 'Beautiful'�but Not Rare�Recovery (washingtonpost.com) 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: News]

^ Yet Nasar is sympathetic toward those who have Nash committed to a mental hospital, although he never posed a danger to anyone.
  • There's madness in his method / By Ariel Rubinstein 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC arielrubinstein.tau.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Nash, the film A Beautiful Mind inaccurately showed him taking new atypical antipsychotics during this period.^ John Nash is the subject of the new film A Beautiful Mind .
  • Article: Troubled mind. (arts).(A Beautiful Mind ) - The Christian Century | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alicia referred to him as her "boarder" and said they lived "like two distantly related individuals under one roof", according to Sylvia Nasar's 1998 biography of Nash, A Beautiful Mind.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This breakdown is controversially covered in the 2001 film A Beautiful Mind , which in turn is based on the 1998 unauthorised biography of the same name, written by Sylvia Nasar.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A1136260 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He attributed the depiction to the screenwriter (whose mother, he notes, was a psychiatrist), who was worried about encouraging people with the disorder to stop taking their medication.^ Save A Clockwork Orange "A Clockwork Orange" "A Clockwork Orange" is a film about a gang of "droogs" who take pleasure in crime.
  • Term Papers on Psychology - Term Papers Lab 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.termpaperslab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to the movie, John Nash actualy stopped taking medication.
  • A Beautiful Mind" (article) by Larry M. Lounsbury on AuthorsDen 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.authorsden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People ask questions about schizophrenia and get replies from 'experts', some of them advising against medication.
  • Schizophrenia Daily News Blog: John Nash Interview 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.schizophrenia.com [Source type: General]

[11] .Others, however, have questioned whether the fabrication obscured a key question as to whether recovery from problems like Nash's can actually be hindered by such drugs,[12] and Nash has said they are overrated and that the adverse effects are not given enough consideration once someone is considered mentally ill.^ Alicia referred to him as her "boarder" and said they lived "like two distantly related individuals under one roof", according to Sylvia Nasar's 1998 biography of Nash, A Beautiful Mind.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I said "Both film and book have only two things in common and that is that they share a guy called John Nash and that he went to Princeton" Other than that, the rest is polar.
  • MathFiction: A Beautiful Mind (Sylvia Nasar / Akiva Goldsman) 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC kasmana.people.cofc.edu [Source type: General]

^ Norbert Wiener was one of the first to recognize that Nash's extreme eccentricities and personality problems were actually symptoms of a medical disorder.
  • Nash biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash, John Forbes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nash, John - Astro-Databank, John Nash horoscope, born 13 June 1928 in Bluefield WV 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.astro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14][15] .According to Nasar, Nash recovered gradually with the passage of time.^ According to his biographer Nasar, he recovered gradually with the passage of time.
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to his biographer Sylvia Nasar, he recovered gradually with the passage of time.
  • What is John Forbes Nash? 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: General]
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Sylvia Nasar 's biography of Nash, Alicia allowed him to live with her again in 1970 - 7 years after she divorced him - but as a boarder.
  • John Nash (V) - Biography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

.Encouraged by his then former wife, De Lardé, Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his eccentricities were accepted.^ Encouraged by Alicia, Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his eccentricities were accepted.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encouraged by his wife, Alicia, Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his eccentricities were accepted.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash and Lopez-Harrison de Lardé divorced in 1963 and reunited in 1970, but in a nonromantic relationship that resembled that of two unrelated housemates.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

De Lardé said of Nash, "it's just a question of living a quiet life".[16]
.Nash dates the start of what he terms "mental disturbances" to the early months of 1959 when his wife was pregnant.^ The mental disturbances originated in the early months of 1959 at a time when Alicia happened to be pregnant.
  • John F. Nash, Jr. - Autobiography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Nash presented in Freedom section 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.newsfinder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mental disturbances originated in the early months of 1959, at a time when Alicia happened to be pregnant.

^ Nash's `mental disturbances' began in early 1959 and he suffered from paranoid schizophrenia for the next 25-30 years.
  • The Hindu Business Line : Lessons from Nash and the Nobel 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.thehindubusinessline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He has described a process of change "from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as 'schizophrenic' or 'paranoid schizophrenic'"[17] including seeing himself as a messenger or having a special function in some way, and with supporters and opponents and hidden schemers, and a feeling of being persecuted, and looking for signs representing divine revelation.^ But life changed forever with the revelation that he was a schizophrenic.
  • ScriptStork 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC scriptstork.com [Source type: General]

^ An insightful look into the mind of a schizophrenic.
  • Movies on Facebook 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC apps.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Now I must arrive at the time of my change from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as "schizophrenic" or "paranoid schizophrenic".
  • The Gemini/Sagittarius Axis with Saturn and Pluto 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.bemyastrologer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Nash has suggested his delusional thinking was related to his unhappiness, and his striving to feel important and be recognized, and to his characteristic way of thinking such that "I wouldn't have had good scientific ideas if I had thought more normally."^ I wouldn't have had good scientific ideas if I had thought more normally.
  • Schizophrenia Daily News Blog: John Nash Interview 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.schizophrenia.com [Source type: General]

^ "Now I must arrive at the time of my change from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as "schizophrenic" or "paranoid schizophrenic".
  • The Gemini/Sagittarius Axis with Saturn and Pluto 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.bemyastrologer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I had been long enough hospitalized that I would finally renounce my delusional hypotheses and revert to thinking of myself as a human of more conventional circumstances, and return to mathematical research," Nash wrote for the Nobel autobiography that described his recovery.
  • Mathematician John Nash and family advocate for mental health care - NJ.com 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

.He has said, "If I felt completely pressureless I don't think I would have gone in this pattern".[19] He does not see a categorical distinction between terms such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.^ Until h ...more Having read the book, I don't think I can see the movie.
  • A Beautiful Mind : A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr. (Hardcover) by Sylvia Nasar - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ He said:- I would not dare to say that there is a direct relation between mathematics and madness, but there is no doubt that great mathematicians suffer from maniacal characteristics, delirium and symptoms of schizophrenia.

^ Schizophrenia is also distinct from manic depressive illness (currently known as bipolar disorder), the illness with which it has most often been confounded in the past.
  • http://www.chapters.indigo.ca/bookExcerpt/978068485370 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chapters.indigo.ca [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Nash reports that he did not hear voices until around 1964, later engaging in a process of rejecting them.^ The film has Nash saying around the time of his Nobel prize in 1994: "I take the newer medications", when in fact Nash did not take any medication from 1970 onwards, something Nash's biography highlights.
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie | Download And Watch Full Movies. Page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alfamovie.com [Source type: General]
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^ From a perspective of half a century later, Nash did much more than that.
  • Sample Chapter for Nash, J.; Kuhn, H.W. and Nasar, S., eds.: The Essential John Nash. 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC pup.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash continues to hear his voices on occasion but for the most part is able to ignore them.
  • Nash, John - Astro-Databank, John Nash horoscope, born 13 June 1928 in Bluefield WV 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.astro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .Nash reports that he was always taken to hospitals against his will, and only temporarily renounced his "dream-like delusional hypotheses" after being in a hospital long enough to decide to superficially conform, behave normally or experience "enforced rationality". Only gradually on his own did he "intellectually reject" some of the "delusionally influenced" and "politically-oriented" thinking as a waste of effort.^ Then gradually I began to intellectually reject some of the delusionally influenced lines of thinking which had been characteristic of my orientation.
  • John F. Nash, Jr. - Autobiography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Nash presented in Freedom section 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.newsfinder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A Beautiful Mind" (article) by Larry M. Lounsbury on AuthorsDen 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.authorsden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash, incidentally, sees his period of "irrationality" as a period of "dream-like delusional hypotheses."
  • There's madness in his method / By Ariel Rubinstein 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC arielrubinstein.tau.ac.il [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gradually I began to intellectually reject some of the delusionally influenced lines of ...

.However, by 1995, he felt that although he was "thinking rationally again in the style that is characteristic of scientists", he felt more limited.^ I seem to be thinking rationally again in the style that is characteristic of scientists.

^ So at the present time I seem to be thinking rationally again in the style that is characteristic of scientists.
  • John F. Nash, Jr. - Autobiography 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Nash presented in Freedom section 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.newsfinder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now I must arrive at the time of my change from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as “schizophrenic” or “paranoid schizophrenic”.
  • John F. Nash presented in Freedom section 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.newsfinder.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][22]

Recognition and later career

.In Princeton campus legend, Nash became "The Phantom of Fine Hall" (Princeton's mathematics center), a shadowy figure who would scribble arcane equations on blackboards in the middle of the night.^ There he became the Phantom of Fine Hall, a mute figure who scribbled strange equations on blackboards in the mathematics building and searched anxiously for secret messages in numbers.
  • NY Times: John Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Lost Years of a Nobel Laureate 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • mentalmagazine : Message: Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afterward, Nash became a mysterious, ghostlike figure at Princeton.
  • A Beautiful Mind's John Nash is less complex than the real one. - By Chris Suellentrop - Slate Magazine 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]

^ When he later returned to Princeton, he became known as "the Phantom", a figure seen scribbling away on blackboards late into the night.
  • Schizophrenia Daily News Blog: John Nash Interview 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.schizophrenia.com [Source type: General]

.The legend appears in a work of fiction based on Princeton life, The Mind-Body Problem, by Rebecca Goldstein.^ The legend appears in a work of fiction based on Princeton life, The Mind-Body Problem, by Rebecca Goldstein.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He roamed about Europe and America, finally, returning to Princeton where he became a sad, ghostly character on the campus - "the Phantom of Fine Hall" as Rebecca Goldstein described him in her novel, Mind-Body Problem.
  • Nash, John - Astro-Databank, John Nash horoscope, born 13 June 1928 in Bluefield WV 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.astro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash became a sad, ghostly presence around Princeton and a mysterious character, the Phantom of Fine Hall, in a novel set in Princeton's mathematics community, "The Mind-Body Problem" by Rebecca Goldstein (Penguin).
  • NY Times: John Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Lost Years of a Nobel Laureate 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • mentalmagazine : Message: Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1978, Nash was awarded the John von Neumann Theory Prize for his discovery of non-cooperative equilibria, now called Nash equilibria.^ In 1978 Nash was awarded the John Von Neumann Theory Prize for his invention of non-cooperative equilibria, now called Nash equilibria.

^ Foundations of non-cooperative game theory.
  • Game Theory Books: A Core Collection & More - Business Library - University of Florida 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Game Theory Books: A Core Collection & More - Business Library - University of Florida 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hermann Weyl and John von Neumann...

He won the Leroy P. Steele Prize in 1999.
.In 1994, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (along with John Harsanyi and Reinhard Selten) as a result of his game theory work as a Princeton graduate student.^ Nash was awarded (jointly with Harsanyi and Selten ) the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economic Science for his work on game theory.

^ In 1994 he was awarded the Nobel prize in Economics for his revolutionary work on "game theory" -- most of the study had been done while he was a graduate student at Princeton.
  • Mathematician John Nash and family advocate for mental health care - NJ.com 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ He had won a Nobel Prize in economics for his work in game theory.
  • Close—and not so close—encounters with a Beautiful Mind. - By Robert Wright - Slate Magazine 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.slate.com [Source type: General]

.In the late 1980s, Nash had begun to use email to gradually link with working mathematicians who realized that he was the John Nash and that his new work had value.^ In the late 1980s, Nash had begun to use electronic mail to gradually link with working mathematicians who realized that he was "the" John Nash and that his new work had value.
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in the midst of it all is the work of a mathematician named John Forbes Nash.
  • A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There really is a lot to John Nash.
  • DVDlaunch.com: A Beautiful Mind (widescreen) review 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dvdlaunch.com [Source type: General]

.They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted the Bank of Sweden's Nobel award committee and were able to vouch for Nash's mental health ability to receive the award in recognition of his early work.^ They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted...
  • John Forbes Nash, Jr., Academic and Economist - News - Evri 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.evri.com [Source type: General]

^ They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted the Bank of Sweden's Nobel award committee and were able to vouch for Nash's mental health ability to receive the award in recognition of his early work.
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted the Bank of Sweden's Nobel award committee and were able to vouch for Nash's ability to receive the award in recognition of his early work.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Nash's recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory, including partial agency, that show that, as in his early career, he prefers to select his own path and problems.^ Nash's recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory, including partial agency, that show that, as in his early career, he prefers to select his own path and problems.
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash’s recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory, including partial agency, that show that, as in his early career, he prefers to select his own path and problems.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nash's recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory including partial agency which show that, as in his early career, he prefers to select his own path and problems.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 1945 and 1996, he published 23 scientific studies.^ Between 1945 and 1996, he published 23 scientific studies.
  • John Forbes Nash 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC book.nurnia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A beautiful mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alienmania.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1945 and 1996, Nash published ...

^ Between 1945 and 1996, he published twenty-three scientific studies.
  • Nash John 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC geneticmatrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nash has suggested hypotheses on mental illness.^ Between the time Nash recorded some really remarkable achievements in the field of mathematics and economics and the time that he was awarded the Nobel Prize, he had a horrible period of mental illness.
  • A Beautiful Mind, Maximum Russell Crowe 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.maximumcrowe.net [Source type: General]

^ "As John Nash, Russell Crowe projects the 'warts-and-all' persona of a genius trying to conquer mental illness.
  • A Beautiful Mind (2001): Russell Crowe, Jennifer Connelly, Ed Harris, Ron Howard 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC ofcs.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: General]

^ At thirty years of age, Nash suffered the first shattering episode of paranoid schizophrenia, the most catastrophic, protean, and mysterious of mental illnesses.
  • http://www.chapters.indigo.ca/bookExcerpt/978068485370 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chapters.indigo.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He has compared not thinking in an acceptable manner, or being "insane" and not fitting into a usual social function, to being "on strike" from an economic point of view.^ His peers called the results he was able to obtain "beautiful" and "striking", perhaps his greatest achievement being his work on game theory, which led to a Nobel Prize for economics in 1994.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: A Beautiful Mind : A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr. 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ This film, directed by Ron Howard , is touching without being sappy and is a somewhat frightening view into the world of mental illness.
  • A Beautiful Mind …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: General]

^ A bnormal Behavior I believe that socially, Nash could function in the outside world, but he became engrossed in his science to the point where he became distracted.
  • A Beautiful Mind" (article) by Larry M. Lounsbury on AuthorsDen 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.authorsden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He has advanced evolutionary psychology views about the value of human diversity and the potential benefits of apparently nonstandard behaviors or roles.^ Nash's fiance, later wife, Alicia, apparently wasn't concerned that the man she was about to marry was capable of this kind of behavior.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: A Beautiful Mind : A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr. 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ For the most part, this merger of network math and statistical mechanics has been exploring human behavior without recourse to the modern views of game theory built on Nash’s math.
  • A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, the view presented in this analysis is about the broad sweep of technological advance in a transportation industry.
  • NASA & Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC science.ksc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Nash has developed work on the role of money in society.^ Nash continued to develop this work in the paper The imbedding problem for Riemannian manifolds published in 1956.

^ Many of us have the power to develop existing ideas,” said Mikhail Gromov, a geometer whose work was influenced by Nash.
  • Sample Chapter for Nash, J.; Kuhn, H.W. and Nasar, S., eds.: The Essential John Nash. 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC pup.princeton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the context that people can be so controlled and motivated by money that they may not be able to reason rationally about it, he has criticized interest groups that promote quasi-doctrines based on Keynesian economics that permit manipulative short-term inflation and debt tactics that ultimately undermine currencies.^ Both poker and economic competition require a certain type of reasoning, namely the rational calculation of advantage and disadvantage based on some internally consistent system of values ("more is better than less").
  • http://www.chapters.indigo.ca/bookExcerpt/978068485370 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chapters.indigo.ca [Source type: Original source]
  • A Beautiful Mind: A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr., Winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, 1994: Amazon.ca: Sylvia Nasar: Books 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.amazon.ca [Source type: General]

^ Whether we are analysing candidates' election strategies, the causes of war, agenda manipulation in legislatures, or the actions of interest groups, predictions about events reduce to a search for and description of equilibria.

^ Whether we are analyzing candidates' election strategies, the causes of war, agenda manipulation in legislatures, or the actions of interest groups, predictions about events reduce to a search for and description of equilibria.
  • mentalmagazine : Message: Beautiful Mind - the book and the movie 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He has suggested a global "industrial consumption price index" system that would support the development of more "ideal money" that people could trust rather than more unstable "bad money". He notes that some of his thinking parallels economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek's thinking regarding money and a nontypical viewpoint of the function of the authorities.^ "I think the clients have more answers than we do."
  • Beautiful minds: South Sound mental health community reacts to film's look at schizophrenia 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC news.theolympian.com [Source type: General]

^ Often we hear of some guy with numerous degrees and responsibilities who loves nothing more than to go home and play video games over the responsibility of family.
  • A Beautiful Mind" (article) by Larry M. Lounsbury on AuthorsDen 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.authorsden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You could argue that if they two alliances cooperate they might still score more points than they would have scored if the match had been played with both alliances trying to get the most points.
  • 9.3.4 Match Seeding Points - Page 4 - Chief Delphi 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chiefdelphi.com [Source type: General]

[24][25]
Nash received an honorary degree, Doctor of Science and Technology from Carnegie Mellon University in 1999.
Nash received an honorary degree in economics from the University of Naples Federico II on March 19, 2003.[citation needed]
.Nash received an honorary doctorate in economics from the University of Antwerp in April 2007 and was keynote speaker at a conference on Game Theory.^ Game theory was the subject of Nash's doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
  • John Forbes Nash, Jr 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John Forbes Nash Jr Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about John Forbes Nash Jr 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economics and the theory of games.
  • Game Theory Books: A Core Collection & More - Business Library - University of Florida 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Game Theory Books: A Core Collection & More - Business Library - University of Florida 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Theory of games and economic behavior.
  • Game Theory Books: A Core Collection & More - Business Library - University of Florida 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Game Theory Books: A Core Collection & More - Business Library - University of Florida 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC web.uflib.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

Film controversy

.In 2001, aspects of Nash's personal life were brought to international attention when "mudslinging" ensued over screenwriter Akiva Goldsman's semifictional interpretation of Sylvia Nasar's biography of Nash's life in A Beautiful Mind in relation to the film of the same name.^ The same disease long afflicted Nash, subject of the film "A Beautiful Mind."
  • Mathematician John Nash and family advocate for mental health care - NJ.com 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ Written by: Sylvia Nasar (book) Akiva Goldsman .
  • Beautiful Mind, A reviews at Metacritic.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www2.metacritic.com [Source type: General]

^ The film has been criticized for its inaccurate portrayal of some aspects of Nash's life..

[26] .The film, nominated for eight Oscars, credits Goldsman under "written by" rather than "screenplay by", which is a Writers Guild distinction meaning a significant departure from source material.^ But the film, which earned eight Oscar nominations Tuesday, is also the culmination of an intensely...
  • John Forbes : John Forbes News and Photos - chicagotribune.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

^ Writers guild honors top screenplays .
  • John Forbes : John Forbes News and Photos - chicagotribune.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

^ Films nominated for Writers Guild .
  • John Forbes : John Forbes News and Photos - chicagotribune.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

[1][27] According to the Writers Guild, Goldsman's "omissions are glaring and peculiar", including Nash's "extramarital sexual activities,[1][28] his racial attitudes and anti-Semitic remarks."[29] Nash later claimed any anti-Semitic remarks must have been made while he was delusional.[29]
In the mid-1950s Nash was arrested in a Santa Monica restroom on a morals charge related to a homosexual encounter and "subsequently lost his post at the RAND Corporation along with his security clearance."[30][31] According to Nasar, "After this traumatic series of career-threatening events, he decided to marry."[31]
.Nasar stated that the filmmakers had "invented a narrative that, while far from a literal telling, is true to the spirit of Nash's story."^ Sylvia Nasar stated that the filmmakers "invented a narrative that, while far from a literal telling, is true to the spirit of Nash's story".
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie | Download And Watch Full Movies. Page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alfamovie.com [Source type: General]
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^ Akiva Goldsman has invented a narrative that, while far from a literal re-telling, is true to the spirit of Nash's story.
  • Interview with Sylvia Nasar: Maximum Russell Crowe 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.maximumcrowe.net [Source type: General]

^ According to the countingdown.com interview with screenwriter Akiva Goldsman, Crowe contributed to the development of the character of “John Forbes Nash, Jr.” and to the story in general, and John and Alicia Nash approved of the script, stating that it was "really true to the spirit of our lives."
  • Detail view of Movies Page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.afi.com [Source type: General]

[32] .Others suggested that the material was "conveniently left out of the movie in order to make Nash more sympathetic,"[33] possibly in an effort to more fully focus on the "debilitating longevity" of living with paranoid schizophrenia on a day-to-day basis.^ But evidence suggests that Nash's perceptions of reality are cloudy at best; he is struggling to maintain his tenuous hold on sanity, and Alicia suspects a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia.
  • A Beautiful Mind - Ask.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]
  • A Beautiful Mind 2001 | Movie Trailer, Reviews, Photos, Cast | Hollywood.com 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.hollywood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though it is never a strong argument for recommending a film, one must consider the other mindless tripe which is pouring out of Hollywood these days.
  • A Beautiful Mind …review and/or viewer comments | Christian Spotlight™ on the Movies | ChristianAnswers.Net 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC christiananswers.net [Source type: General]

^ People were annoyed that his remarks against Jews, a relationship Nash had with another woman that bore another child, that John and Alicia divorced and remarried and more were left out.
  • DVDlaunch.com: A Beautiful Mind (widescreen) review 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dvdlaunch.com [Source type: General]

[33] .Contrary to the film, Nash claims to have never had visual hallucinations.^ Although the film (based on Sylvia Nasar's biography of the same name) takes liberties with the true story of Nash's life, he did experience hallucinations and delusions.
  • Howstuffworks "Top 5 Mad Geniuses" 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Mark R. Leeper of rec.arts.movies.reviews (8/0) Where the film attempts to visualize Nash's thought, it is not perfect but does a very interestin...
  • Movie Review for A Beautiful Mind 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.flicks.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the real Nash has said he experienced primarily auditory hallucinations, the film employs visual hallucinations -- people, places, things.
  • Beautiful minds: South Sound mental health community reacts to film's look at schizophrenia 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC news.theolympian.com [Source type: General]

[22]
.New York Times critic A. O. Scott pointed to a different perspective.^ It is like a continuous process rather than just waking up from a dream, he told a New York Times reporter recently.
  • Review - A Beautiful Mind - Schizophrenia Schizoaffective Online - Symptoms, Treatments, Resources 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Another New York Times article described Nash as "a newly minted pop legend" [15, p.
  • http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~cherlin/History/Papers2002/popular.html 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.math.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://math.rutgers.edu/courses/436/Honors02/popular.html 17 September 2009 9:56 UTC math.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My 1994 New York Times story, my own synopsis of Nash's life, concentrated on those same elements.
  • Interview with Sylvia Nasar: Maximum Russell Crowe 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.maximumcrowe.net [Source type: General]

Scott wrote of the Oscar scandal and the artistic choices made in the omissions as well as choices, such as casting actors, that have to be made so that "the cold war in A Beautiful Mind in which the paranoia and uncertainty of McCarthy-era academic life is reduced to spy-movie clichés" smoothed over "and made palatable and familiar" a "difficult passage in American history."[34] Thus, the Cold War's effects on Nash's life and career were left unexplored.[34] .Goldsman won the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.^ It was well-received by critics, grossed over $300 million worldwide, and went on to win four Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Supporting Actress.
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie | Download And Watch Full Movies. Page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alfamovie.com [Source type: General]
  • Download | Watch A Beautiful Mind movie | Download movies. DVD, DivX, iPod and PDA formats available 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.movies-view.com [Source type: General]

^ Director Ron Howard delivers his finest effort with his extraordinary film, A BEAUTIFUL MIND, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 2001.
  • Rent A-Beautiful-Mind from 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC dvdrental.cd-wow.com [Source type: General]
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com.edgesuite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also nominated the film for Best Film, Best Screenplay, and the David Lean Award for Direction.
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie | Download And Watch Full Movies. Page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alfamovie.com [Source type: General]
  • Download | Watch A Beautiful Mind movie | Download movies. DVD, DivX, iPod and PDA formats available 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.movies-view.com [Source type: General]

[29] .The film won Best Picture, Best Director (Ron Howard) and Best Supporting Actress (Jennifer Connelly).^ It was well-received by critics, grossed over $300 million worldwide, and went on to win four Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Supporting Actress.
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie | Download And Watch Full Movies. Page 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.alfamovie.com [Source type: General]
  • Download | Watch A Beautiful Mind movie | Download movies. DVD, DivX, iPod and PDA formats available 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.movies-view.com [Source type: General]

^ Next up are eighteen Deleted Scenes with optional commentary from Director/Producer Ron Howard .
  • DVDlaunch.com: A Beautiful Mind (widescreen) review 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.dvdlaunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Director Ron Howard delivers his finest effort with his extraordinary film, A BEAUTIFUL MIND, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 2001.
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com.edgesuite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A Beautiful Mind Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes 12 January 2010 4:44 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Oscar race scrutinizes movies based on true stories". USA Today. March 6, 2002. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/oscar2002/2002-03-06-true-stories.htm. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  2. ^ "List of Oscar Winners". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/oscar2002/2002-03-24-winners.htm. Retrieved August 30, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c Nasar, Sylvia. A Beautiful Mind, page 32. Simon & Schuster, 1998
  4. ^ Kuhn W., Harold; Sylvia Nasar (Eds.). "The Essential John Nash" (PDF). Princeton University Press. pp. Introduction, xi. http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7238.pdf. Retrieved April 17, 2008. 
  5. ^ Nasar, Sylvia. A Beautiful Mind, page 46-47. Simon & Schuster, 1998
  6. ^ M. J. Osborne (2004). An Introduction to Game Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 23.
  7. ^ Nash Jr., John Forbes - The Free Information Society
  8. ^ NY Times: John Nash
  9. ^ Ebert, Roger (2002). Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2003. Andrews McMeel Publishing. http://books.google.com/books?id=HJGZOs4S4_EC. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  10. ^ Beam, Alex (2001). Gracefully Insane: The Rise and Fall of America's Premier Mental Hospital. PublicAffairs; ISBN 1586481614. http://books.google.com/books?id=M2ZrduulEAwC. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  11. ^ John Nash Interview by Marika Greihsel September 1, 2004
  12. ^ Whitaker, R. (2002) Mind drugs may hinder recovery. USA Today.
  13. ^ John Nash PBS Interview: Medication
  14. ^ John Nash PBS Interview: Paths to Recovery
  15. ^ John Nash PBS Interview: How does Recovery Happen?
  16. ^ Nasar, S. (1994) The Lost Years of a Nobel LaureateNew York Times
  17. ^ a b John Nash (1995) Autobiography From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1994, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1952
  18. ^ John Nash PBS Interview: Delusional Thinking
  19. ^ John Nash PBS Interview: The Downward Spiral
  20. ^ John Nash (2005) Glimpsing inside a beautiful mind Interview by Shane Hegarty
  21. ^ John Nash PBS Interview: Hearing voices
  22. ^ a b John Nash PBS Interview: My experience with mental illness
  23. ^ By David Neubauer (2007) John Nash and a Beautiful Mind on Strike Yahoo Health
  24. ^ John Nash (2002) Ideal Money Southern Economic Journal, 69(1), p4-11
  25. ^ Julia Zuckerman (2005) Nobel winner Nash critiques economic theory The Brown Daily Herald
  26. ^ Levy, Emanuel (2003, page 16). All about Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0826414524. http://books.google.com/books?id=dH2Lb_YhIhAC&dq=%22John+Forbes+Nash%22+%22homosexual%22. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  27. ^ Friedman, Roger (February 15, 2002). "Exclusive: Ron Howard Changed His Mind; and Screenwriter Admits to 'Semi-Fictional Movie'". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,45670,00.html. Retrieved March 28, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Eleanor Stier, 84". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/obituaries/articles/2005/04/10/eleanor_stier_84_brookline_nurse_had_son_with_nobel_laureate_mathematician_john_f_nash_jr. Retrieved December 5, 2007. 
  29. ^ a b c Levy, Emanuel (2003, page 145). All about Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0826414524. http://books.google.com/books?id=dH2Lb_YhIhAC&dq=%22John+Forbes+Nash%22+%22homosexual%22. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  30. ^ Leebaert, Derek (2002, page 117). The Fifty-Year Wound: How America's Cold War Victory Shapes Our World. Back Bay, ISBN 0316164968. http://books.google.com/books?id=_Ywjc0FvFCIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22John+Forbes+Nash%22+%22homosexual%22. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  31. ^ a b Johnson, David K. (2004, page 160). The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in The Federal Government. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226404811. http://books.google.com/books?id=ivCo3yph63QC&dq=%22John+Forbes+Nash%22+%22homosexual%22. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  32. ^ "A Real Number". Slate Magazine. http://www.slate.com/id/2060110/. Retrieved August 16, 2007. 
  33. ^ a b Wehner, Chris C. (2003, page 40). Who Wrote That Movie?: Screenwriting in Review: 2000 - 2002. iUniverse, ISBN 0595292690. http://books.google.com/books?id=q3V0pPkwDEsC&dq=%22John+Forbes+Nash%22+%22homosexual%22. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  34. ^ a b Scott, A. O. (March 21, 2002). "Critic's Notebook: A 'Mind' Is a Hazardous Thing to Distort". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/movies/bestpictures/mind-ar2.html. Retrieved January 22, 2008. 

External links


Simple English

John Forbes Nash Jr. (born June 13, 1928) is an American mathematician who works in game theory and differential geometry. He shared the 1994 Memorial Prize in Economics with two other game theorists, Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi.

The winner of a Westinghouse scholarship, he attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology, where he received both his bachelor's degree and his master's degree in 1948. From Pittsburgh he went to Princeton University where he worked on his equilibrium theory. He received a Ph.D. in 1950 with a dissertation on non-cooperative games. The thesis, which was written under the supervision of Albert W. Tucker, contained the definition and properties of what would later be called the Nash equilibrium. His studies on this subject led to three articles:

  • "Equilibrium Points in N-person Games", published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) (1950);
  • "The Bargaining Problem" (April 1950) in Econometrica, and
  • "Two-person Cooperative Games" (January 1953), also in Econometrica.

John Nash also did important work in the area of manifolds (complex spatial structures):

  • "Real algebraic manifolds", (1952) Ann. Math. 56 (1952), 405 – 421. (See also Proc. Internat. Congr. Math., 1950, (AMS, 1952), pp. 516 – 517.)

This work led to Nash embedding theorem.."Two real algebraic manifolds are equivalent if and only if they are analytically homeomorphic." [1]

He is best known in popular culture as the subject of the Hollywood movie, A Beautiful Mind, about his mathematical genius and his struggles with mental illness.

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