John Grunsfeld: Wikis


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John Mace Grunsfeld
John Grunsfeld.jpg
NASA Astronaut
Status Active
Born October 10, 1958 (1958-10-10) (age 51)
Chicago, Illinois
Other occupation Physicist
Time in space 58 days, 15 hours, 3 minutes
Selection 1992 NASA Group
Missions STS-67, STS-81, STS-103, STS-109, STS-125
Mission insignia Sts-67-patch.png Sts-81-patch.png Sts-103-patch.png Sts-109-patch.png STS-125 patch.svg

John Mace Grunsfeld (Ph.D.) (born October 10, 1958) is an American physicist and a NASA astronaut. He is a veteran of five spaceflights and has also served as NASA Chief Scientist.



Born in Chicago, Illinois to Ernest Alton 'Tony' Grunsfeld III, an architect, and Sally Mace Grunsfeld; grandson of architect Ernest Grunsfeld Jr., builder of the Adler Planetarium. Married to the former Carol E. Schiff. They have two children. John enjoys mountaineering, flying, sailing, bicycling, and music. His father, Ernest A. Grunsfeld III, resides in Deerfield, Illinois.


Graduated from Highland Park High School, Highland Park, Illinois, in 1976; received a bachelor of science degree in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980; a master of science degree and a doctor of philosophy degree in physics from the University of Chicago in 1984 and 1988, respectively.


Awards and honors

Science career

Grunsfeld’s academic positions include that of Visiting Scientist, University of Tokyo/Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (1980-81); Graduate Research Assistant, University of Chicago (1981-85); NASA Graduate Student Fellow, University of Chicago (1985-87); W.D. Grainger Postdoctoral Fellow in Experimental Physics, University of Chicago (1988-89); and Senior Research Fellow, California Institute of Technology (1989-92). Grunsfeld’s research has covered x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, high-energy cosmic ray studies, and development of new detectors and instrumentation. Grunsfeld studied binary pulsars and energetic x-ray and gamma ray sources using the NASA Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, x-ray astronomy satellites, radio telescopes, and optical telescopes including the NASA Hubble Space Telescope.

NASA career

Grunsfeld was selected by NASA in March 1992 as an astronaut candidate and reported to the Johnson Space Center in August 1992. He completed one year of training and qualified for flight selection as a mission specialist. Grunsfeld was initially detailed to the Astronaut Office Mission Development Branch and was assigned as the lead for portable computers for use in space. Following his first flight, he led a team of engineers and computer programmers tasked with defining and producing the crew displays for command and control of the International Space Station (ISS). As part of this activity he directed an effort combining the resources of the Mission Control Center (MCC) Display Team and the Space Station Training Facility. The result was the creation of the Common Display Development Facility (CDDF), responsible for the onboard and MCC displays for the International Space Station, using object-oriented programming techniques. Following his second flight, he was assigned as Chief of the Computer Support Branch in the Astronaut Office supporting Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs and advanced technology development. Following STS-103, he served as Chief of the Extravehicular Activity Branch in the Astronaut Office. Following STS-109, Grunsfeld served as an instructor in the Extravehicular Activity Branch, and worked on the Orbital Space Plane, exploration concepts, and technologies for use beyond low earth orbit in the Advanced Programs Branch. He served as NASA Chief Scientist assigned to NASA Headquarters from 2003 to 2004.

Spaceflight experience

STS-67/Astro-2 Space Shuttle Endeavour (March 2-18,1995) was launched from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and returned to land at Edwards Air Force Base, California. It was the second flight of the Astro observatory, a unique complement of three ultra-violet telescopes. During this record-setting 16-day mission, the crew conducted observations around the clock to study the far ultraviolet spectra of faint astronomical objects and the polarization of ultraviolet light coming from hot stars and distant galaxies. Mission duration was 399 hours and 9 minutes.

STS-81 Space Shuttle Atlantis (January 12-22, 1997) was a 10-day mission, the fifth to dock with Russia’s Mir space station, and the second to exchange U.S. astronauts. The mission also carried the Spacehab double module providing additional middeck locker space for secondary experiments. In five days of docked operations more than three tons of food, water, experiment equipment and samples were moved back and forth between the two spacecraft. Grunsfeld served as the flight engineer on this flight. Following 160 orbits of the Earth the STS-81 mission concluded with a landing on Kennedy Space Center’s Runway 33 ending a 3.9 million mile journey. Mission duration was 244 hours, 56 minutes. During this flight, Grunsfeld placed a phonecall to NPR's auto-repair radio show, Car Talk.

STS-103 Space Shuttle Discovery (December 19-27, 1999) was an eight-day mission during which the crew successfully installed new gyroscopes and scientific instruments and upgraded systems on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Enhancing HST scientific capabilities required three space walks (EVA). Grunsfeld performed two space walks totaling 16 hours and 23 minutes. The STS-103 mission was accomplished in 120 Earth orbits, traveling 3.2 million miles in 191 hours and 11 minutes.

STS-109 Space Shuttle Columbia (March 1-12, 2002) was the fourth Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission. The crew of STS-109 successfully upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope installing a new digital camera, a cooling system for the infrared camera, new solar arrays and a new power system. HST servicing and upgrades were accomplished by four crewmembers during a total of five EVAs in five consecutive days. Grunsfeld served as the Payload Commander on STS-109 in charge of the space walking activities and the Hubble payload. He also performed three space walks totaling 21 hours and 9 minutes, including the installation of the new Power Control Unit. STS-109 orbited the Earth 165 times, and covered 3.9 million miles in over 262 hours.

STS-125 Atlantis was the fifth and final servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. Atlantis launched from Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A May 11, 2009 at 2:01 p.m. EDT, and landed on May 24, 2009 at California's Edwards Air Force Base.[1][2] During the mission, Grunsfeld performed three of the mission's five back-to-back spacewalks, which installed two new instruments to the Hubble Space Telescope: The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, and the Wide Field Camera 3. The mission also replaced a Fine Guidance Sensor, six new gyroscopes, and two battery unit modules, to allow the telescope to continue to function at least through 2014.[3][4]. One issue Grunsfeld and his crew experienced during the overhaul was the stripping of 10mm bolts due to improper assembly and technique which he discussed again on Car Talk.

Grunsfeld has logged over 58 days in space, including five space walks totaling 37 hours and 32 minutes.[5][6]

Space Telescope Science Institute

According to a NASA press release in January 2010, Grunsfeld indicated he would be leaving the agency to begin work as deputy director of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore[7] where he will also help preparing the institute for operations with NASA's planned James Webb Space Telescope.[8]


Grunsfeld appeared on the PBS NOVA episode "Deadly Ascent", which showed him climbing Mount McKinley, the highest peak in North America, in June 2000. Grunsfeld, along with Dr. Howard Donner, (a consultant to NASA) conducted research into the effects of body temperature at high altitudes by using internal thermometers swallowed in pill form. He was able to climb to an altitude of 17,200 feet before acute altitude sickness forced him to turn back.

In June 2004, Grunsfeld returned to McKinley while on vacation from NASA and successfully led a team that summitted. He is the only astronaut to have climbed all the way to the top of Mount McKinley.


  1. ^ NASA (May 11, 2009). "STS-125 MCC Status Report #01". NASA. Retrieved May 11, 2009.  
  2. ^ William Harwood (May 24, 2009). "Shuttle Atlantis glides to smooth California landing". CNET. Retrieved May 26, 2009.  
  3. ^ John Matson (May 8, 2009). "Last Dance with the Shuttle: What's in Store for the Final Hubble Servicing Mission". Scientific American. Retrieved May 18, 2009.  
  4. ^ Dennis Overbye (May 18, 2009). "As Tasks at Hubble End, No Tears, but It Was Close". New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2009.  
  5. ^ Tariq Malik (May 18, 2009). "Astronauts Give Hubble Telescope One Last Hug". Retrieved May 18, 2009.  
  6. ^ Dennis Overbye (April 13, 2009). "Scientist at Work: John Grunsfeld - Last Voyage for the Keeper of the Hubble". New York Times. Retrieved May 19, 2009.  
  7. ^ "NASA Astronaut John Grunsfeld, Instrumental to Hubble Telescope Repair, Will Help Oversee its Science Operations". January 4,2010. Retrieved January 7, 2010.  
  8. ^ Morring, Frank (January 11, 2010). "In Orbit "Dr. Fixit"". Aviation Week (McGraw-Hill): 14.  

External links



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