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John James Richard Macleod

J.J.R. Macleod ca. 1928
Born 6 September 1876(1876-09-06)
Perth and Kinross, Scotland
Died 16 March 1935 (aged 58)
Aberdeen, Scotland
Citizenship United Kingdom
Fields Medicine
Institutions Case Western Reserve University
Alma mater University of Aberdeen
Known for Co-discover of insulin
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1923)

John James Rickard Macleod (6 September 1876 – 16 March 1935) was a Scottish physician and physiologist. He was noted as one of the co-discoverers of insulin and given the Nobel Medal for this discovery.



Macleod was born at Clunie, Perth and Kinross, Scotland. He was the son of the Rev. Robert Macleod.

During 1898 he received his medical degree from University of Aberdeen and went to work for a year at the University of Leipzig. During 1899 he was appointed Demonstrator of Physiology at the London Hospital Medical School and in 1902 he was appointed Lecturer in Biochemistry at the school. During 1903 he was appointed Professor of Physiology at, what is now called, Case Western Reserve University at Cleveland, Ohio. During 1918 he was elected Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto, Canada. In 1928 he returned to the University of Aberdeen as Regius Professor of Physiology, where he remained until his death in 1935.

Macleod's main work was on carbohydrate metabolism and his efforts with Frederick Banting and Charles Best in the discovery of insulin used to treat diabetes. For this Banting and Macleod were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1923. Macleod was awarded half of the Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin, even though many people (including Banting) publicly insisted that Macleod's involvement was minimal and Best's work had been essential. However, it was MacCleod's research plan and his suggestion to inject intravenous degenerated pancreas into depancreatinized dog sugar that ultimately led to the successful isolation of insulin. There is currently a controversy regarding the role of Banting and Best in attempting to 'write out' Macleod and his colleague James Collip from the history books. Macleod's receiving the Nobel Prize over Best was controversial at the time (see Nobel Prize controversies). He wrote eleven books, including Recent Advances in Physiology (1905); Diabetes: its Pathological Physiology (1925); and Carbohydrate Metabolism and Insulin. (1926)

Macleod shared his Nobel award money with James Collip.

The auditorium of the Medical Science Building at University of Toronto is named after J.J.R. Macleod. In 2005 Diabetes UK named its offices in London in honour of J.J.R. Macleod.

See also

See also


  • Raju, Tonse N K (October 2006). "A mysterious something: the discovery of insulin and the 1923 Nobel Prize for Frederick G. Banting (1891-1941) and John J.R. Macleod (1876-1935)". Acta Paediatr. 95 (10): 1155–6. doi:10.1080/08035250600930328. PMID 16982482. 
  • Shampo, Marc A; Kyle Robert A (August 2006). "John J. R. Macleod: Nobel prize for discovery of insulin". Mayo Clin. Proc. 81 (8): 1006. PMID 16901021. 

External links


Simple English

John James Richard Macleod
File:J.J.R. Macleod ca.
BornSeptember 6, 1876
Cluny, Scotland
DiedMarch 16, 1935
InstitutionsUniversity of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Alma materUniversity of Aberdeen
University of Leipzig
Known forInsulin
Notable prizesNobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1923)

John James Richard Macleod (September 6, 1876 - March 16, 1935) was an Scottish physiologist.[1] He won the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Frederick Banting, for the discovery of insulin.[2]



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