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John Nash
Architectural model, about 1826 designed by John Nash V&A Museum no. A.14-1939

John Nash (18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was an Anglo-Welsh architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London.

Contents

Early life

Born in Lambeth, London, as the son of a Welsh millwright, Nash trained with architect Sir Robert Taylor, but his own career was initially unsuccessful and short-lived. After inheriting a substantial fortune, he retired to live in Wales, but he lost much of his fortune through bad investments and was declared bankrupt in 1783. This forced him to resume work as an architect, focusing initially on the design of country houses, in a successful partnership with landscape garden designer, Humphry Repton; the pair would collaborate to carefully place the Nash-designed building in grounds designed by Repton. Eventually, Nash returned to work in London, in 1792.

Work in Ireland

Nash came to work in Ireland as an architect after 1793. He designed Caledon House, County Tyrone; Killymoon Castle, near Cookstown, County Tyrone, and Kilwaughter Castle, Larne, County Antrim.[1]

Work in London and Brighton

Nash's work came to the attention of the Prince Regent (later King George IV) who, in 1811 commissioned him to develop an area then known as Marylebone Park. With the Regent's backing (and major inputs from Repton), Nash created a master plan for the area, put into action from 1818 onwards, which stretched from St James’s northwards and included Regent Street, Regent's Park and its neighbouring streets, terraces and crescents of elegant town houses and villas. Nash did not complete all the detailed designs himself; in some instances, completion was left in the hands of other architects such as James Pennethorne and the young Decimus Burton. Nash was employed by the Prince to develop his Ocean Pavilion Palace in Brighton, originally designed by Henry Holland. By the early 19th century Nash finished his work on the Ocean Pavilion, which was now transformed into the Royal Pavilion. The Royal Pavilion still stands in Brighton today.

Nash was also a director of the Regent's Canal Company set up in 1812 to provide a canal link from west London to the River Thames in the east. Nash's masterplan provided for the canal to run around the northern edge of Regent's Park; as with other projects, he left its execution to one of his assistants, in this case James Morgan. The first phase of the Regent's Canal opened in 1816.

Further London commissions for Nash followed, including the remodelling of Buckingham House to create Buckingham Palace (1825-1835), plus the Royal Mews and Marble Arch (originally designed as a triumphal arch to stand at the entrance to Buckingham Palace. There is an urban myth which says that it was found to be too narrow for the royal State Coach and was moved in 1851 to its current location at the western end of Oxford Street). The arch was moved when the fourth wing was built, designed by Edward Blore, at the request of Queen Victoria whose growing family required additional domestic space. Marble Arch became the entrance to Hyde Park and The Great Exhibition.

Other London and Brighton projects included:

The changes wrought by John Nash on the streetscape of London are documented in the film, "John Nash and London", featuring Edmund N. Bacon and based on sections of his book Design of Cities.

Other architectural work

Elsewhere in England, Wales and Ireland, his work included:

He advised on work to the buildings of Jesus College, Oxford, for which he required no fee but asked that the college should commission a portrait of him from Sir Thomas Lawrence to hang in the college hall.[3]

Death and burial

John Nash died in May 1835[4] and is buried at St. James's Church, East Cowes.

References

  1. ^ "John Nash". Dictionary of Ulster Biography. http://www.ulsterbiography.co.uk/biogsN.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-09.  
  2. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus Cornwall; Buildings of England series. (1951; 1970) (rev. Enid Radcliffe) Penguin Books (reissued by Yale U. P.) ISBN 0-300-09589-9; p. 192
  3. ^ Baker, J. N. L. (1954). "Jesus College". in Salter, H. E.; Lobel, Mary D.. A History of the County of Oxford Volume III – The University of Oxford. Victoria County History. Institute of Historical Research, University of London. p. 275. ISBN 9780712910644. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63887. Retrieved 23 June 2009.  
  4. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/403844/John-Nash

Simple English

John Nash
File:John
Personal information
Name John Nash
Nationality British
Birth date 18 January 1752(1752-01-18)
Birth place Lambeth
Date of death 13 May 1835
Place of death Isle of Wight
Work
Buildings Royal Pavilion
Buckingham Palace

John Nash (Lambeth, 18 January 1752 – Isle of Wight, 13 May 1835) was a British architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London. He was the most important architect of the period 1800–1830.

Contents

Nash in London

From 1810 Nash would take very few private commissions. Nash was a dedicated Whig and was a friend of Charles James Fox through whom Nash probably came to the attention of the Prince Regent (later King George IV). For the rest of his career he would largely work for the Prince. His first major commissions in 1811 from the Prince was Regent Street and the development of an area then known as Marylebone Park.

With the Regent's backing Nash created a master plan for the area, put into action from 1818 onwards, which stretched from St James’s northwards and included Regent Street, Regent's Park and its neighbouring streets, terraces and crescents of elegant town houses and villas. Nash did not complete all the detailed designs himself; in some instances, completion was left in the hands of other architects. Nash was employed by the Prince to develop his Ocean Pavilion Palace in Brighton, originally designed by Henry Holland. By 1822 Nash had finished his work on the Ocean Pavilion, which was now transformed into the Royal Pavilion.

His works

Examples of his work include:

London

  • Buckingham Palace: the state rooms and western front
  • Regent Street
  • Regent's Park
  • Park Square
  • Park Crescent
  • Regent's Canal
  • Carlton House Terrace, London
  • St James Park
  • Marble Arch
  • Haymarket Theatre
  • Clarence House
  • Cumberland Terrace
  • Trafalgar Square (first version)
  • The Royal Mews

England & Wales

  • Cardigan Gaol
  • The Brighton Royal Pavilion
  • Luscombe Castle
  • Sandridge Park
  • Guildhall, Newport, Isle of Wight
  • Castle House, later extended to form Old College Aberystwyth University
  • Hereford Gaol
  • Whitson Court, near Newport
  • Sandridge Park
  • Caerhays Castle, Cornwall
  • Ravensworth Castle

Ireland

  • Ballindoon House
  • Killymoon Castle, near Cookstown, County Tyrone
  • Shanbally Castle, near Clogheen, South Tipperary
  • Rockingham House, Boyle, County Roscommon
  • Lough Cutra Castle, County Galway








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