John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Viscount Gort
10 July 1886(1886-07-10) – 31 March 1946 (aged 59)
Lord Gort and Lieutenant General Pownall.jpg
Lord Gort (left) and Lieutenant-General Pownall study a map at GHQ in the Chateau at Habarcq, 26 November 1939
Place of birth Westminster, London, England
Place of death Southwark, London, England
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Years of service 1904 - 1945
Rank Field Marshal
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Awards Victoria Cross
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Distinguished Service Order & Two Bars
Member of the Royal Victorian Order
Military Cross
Mention in Despatches (8)

Field Marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort VC, GCB, CBE, DSO & Two Bars, MVO, MC (10 July 1886 - 31 March 1946) was a British and Anglo-Irish soldier who served in both World War I and II, rising to the rank of field marshal and receiving the Victoria Cross, the highest Commonwealth award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy".

Contents

Early days

Gort was born in London and grew up in County Durham and the Isle of Wight. He was educated at Malvern Link Preparatory School and Harrow School and then entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in January 1904, having succeeded his father to the family title in 1902. He was commissioned in the Grenadier Guards in July 1905.[1]

On the death of King Edward VII in 1910 Gort was a Lieutenant in command of the Grenadier NCOs detailed to bear the coffin and attend the catafalque.[1] He was made a Member of the Royal Victorian Order for his services. Later that year he went moose hunting in Canada and accidentally shot his Indian guide, prompting an immediate return.[1]

On 22 February 1911, Gort married Corinna Vereker, a second cousin, at the Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks, London. They had three children, Charles in 1912, Joscelyn in 1913, and Jacqueline in 1914. They divorced in 1925.

On 3 September 1913, he was appointed ADC to General Francis Lloyd, General Officer Commanding London District.

First World War

In August 1914, Gort was promoted to captain.[2] He fought on the Western Front and served as a staff officer achieving the brevet rank of major and acting rank of lieutenant-colonel.[3] In June 1915 he was awarded the Military Cross. [4] He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) in June 1917,[5] a bar to the DSO in September 1917[6][7] and a second bar in January 1919.[8] He was also mentioned in despatches eight times.[9]

On 27 November 1918, Gort was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 27 September 1918 at the Battle of Canal du Nord, near Flesquieres, France.[10] Gort's batman, Guardsman Ransome, was killed while helping Gort to safety.

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Victoria Cross citation

Captain (Brevet Major, Acting Lieutenant-Colonel), 1st Battalion The Grenadier Guards Citation: For most conspicuous bravery, skilful leading and devotion to duty during the attack of the Guards Division on 27th September, 1918, across the Canal du Nord, near Flesquieres, when in command of the 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards, the leading battalion of the 3rd Guards Brigade. Under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire he led his battalion with great skill and determination to the "forming-up" ground, where very severe fire from artillery and machine guns was again encountered. Although wounded, he quickly grasped the situation, directed a platoon to proceed down a sunken road to make a flanking attack, and, under terrific fire, went across open ground to obtain the assistance of a Tank, which he personally led and directed to the best possible advantage. While thus fearlessly exposing himself, he was again severely wounded by a shell. Notwithstanding considerable loss of blood, after lying on a stretcher for awhile, he insisted on getting up and personally directing the further attack. By his magnificent example of devotion to duty and utter disregard of personal safety all ranks were inspired to exert themselves to the utmost, and the attack resulted in the capture of over 200 prisoners, two batteries of field guns and numerous machine guns. Lt.-Col. Viscount Gort then proceeded to organise the defence of the captured position until he collapsed; even then he refused to leave the field until he had seen the "success signal" go up on the final objective. The successful advance of the battalion was mainly due to the valour, devotion and leadership of this very gallant officer.[10]

Subsequent to this he became known as "Tiger" Gort. [11]

Inter-war years

Gort was promoted to the substantive rank of major in November 1919.[12] After attending a short course at the Staff College, Camberley in 1919, Gort returned in 1921 as an instructor,[9] and was made a brevet lieutenant-colonel.[13] He left the Staff College in May 1923.[14]

He took up sailing in 1922 and was a keen yachtsman until the next war intervened, joining the Royal Yacht Squadron in 1922 and participating in the 1925 Fastnet race. In 1924, he rewrote the Infantry training manual.

Gort was promoted to colonel in April 1926 (with seniority back dated to January 1925).[15] In January 1927, he went to Shanghai, returning in August to give a first hand account of the Chinese situation to the King and the Prince of Wales. In June 1928, he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire.[16] He went on to command the Guards Brigade for two years from 1930 before overseeing training in India with the temporary rank of brigadier.[17] In 1932, he took up flying, buying the de Haviland Moth aeroplane Henrietta and being elected chairman of the Household Brigade Flying Club. In November 1935, he was promoted to major-general.[18] He returned to the Staff College in 1936 as Commandant.[19]

In May 1937, Gort was appointed a Companion of the Bath.[20] In September 1937, he became Military Secretary to the War Minister, Leslie Hore-Belisha, with the temporary rank of lieutenant-general.[21] On 6 December 1937, as part of a purge by Hore-Belisha of senior officers,[22] Gort was appointed to the Army Council,[23] made a general and replaced Field Marshal Sir Cyril Deverell as Chief of the Imperial General Staff.[24] On 1 January 1938, he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath[25]

As Chief of the Imperial General Staff Gort advocated the primacy of building a land army and defending France and the Low Countries over Imperial defence after France had said she would not be able on her own to defend herself against a German attack.

Second World War

At the outbreak of war he was given command of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in France, arriving on 19 September 1939.[26] During this time he played a part in a political scandal, the Pillbox affair, that led to the dismissal of Hore-Belisha. Following the Phony War, the 1940 German breakthrough in the Ardennes split the Allied forces and communications between the British Expeditionary Force and the French broke down, and on 25 May 1940 Gort took the unilateral decision to abandon his orders for a southward attack by his forces.[27] Gort's command position was difficult, serving under French high, theatre, and army group command while also being responsible to London. Withdrawing northwards, the BEF together with many French soldiers were evacuated during the Battle of Dunkirk.[28]

Gort is credited by some as reacting efficiently to the crisis and saving the British Expeditionary Force.[27] Others hold a more critical view of Gort’s leadership in 1940, seeing his decision not to join the French in organizing a large scale counter-attack as defeatist.[29]

Gort served in various positions for the duration of the war. On the day of his return, 1 June 1940, he was made an ADC General to King George VI. On 25 June 1940 he went by flying boat, with Duff Cooper, to Rabat, Morocco, to rally anti-Nazi French cabinet ministers, but was instead held on his flying boat. He quickly returned to Britain.[30]

Gort was given the post of Inspector of Training and the Home Guard,[26] and with nothing constructive to do visited Iceland, Orkney, and Shetland. He went on to serve as Governor of Gibraltar (1941-42).[31] He pushed ahead with extending the airfield into land reclaimed from the sea, against the advice of the British government, but was later thanked by the War Cabinet for his foresight when the airfield proved vital to the British Mediterranean campaign. As Governor of Malta (1942-44) his courage and leadership during the siege was recognized by the Maltese giving him the Sword of Honour. The King gave Gort his field marshal's baton on 20 June 1943 at Malta. On 29 September, Gort, together with Generals Eisenhower and Alexander, witnessed Marshal Badoglio signing the Italian surrender in Valetta harbour.

He ended the war as High Commissioner for Palestine and Transjordan.[31]. He served at this office only one year. In 1945 he nominated the Chief Justice of Palestine William James Fitzgerald to enquire into the Jewish-Arab conflict in Jerusalem. Judge Fitzgerald issued his report in which he proposed to divide the city into separate Jewish and Arab Quarters.

During a meeting in November 1945 with Field Marshals Brooke and Montgomery, Gort collapsed and was flown to London where the diagnosis was cancer.

In February 1946, he was created a Viscount in the Peerage of the United Kingdom under the same title as his existing Viscountcy in the Peerage of Ireland. Upon his death on 31 March 1946 without a son, the Irish Viscountcy of Gort passed to his brother, and the British creation became extinct.

He was the father-in-law of Major William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle VC, and first cousin-once-removed to General Sir Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton. Gort was present when his son-in-law received the VC from Alexander on 3 March 1944 in Italy (the VC ribbon was cut from one of Gort's uniforms).

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Heathcote 1999, p. 279.
  2. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 28884, p. 6880, 29 August 1914. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  3. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30106, p. 5403, 1 June 1917. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  4. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29202, p. 6118, 23 June 1915. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  5. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30111, pp. 5468–5470, 4 June 1917. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  6. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30308, p. 9967, 26 September 1917. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  7. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30466, pp. 557–558, 9 January 1918. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  8. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31119, pp. 577–578, 11 January 1919. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  9. ^ a b Heathcote 1999, p. 280.
  10. ^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31034, p. 14039, 27 November 1918. Retrieved on 2009-02-14.
  11. ^ "Tiger for Old Dob Dob". Time. 18 May 1942. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,849818,00.html. Retrieved 2009-02-14.  
  12. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31643, p. 13876, 14 November 1919. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  13. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32334, p. 4170, 25 May 1921. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  14. ^ London Gazette: no. 32819, pp. 3147–3148, 1 May 1923. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  15. ^ London Gazette: no. 33155, p. 2861, 27 April 1926. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  16. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 33390, p. 3851, 4 June 1928. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  17. ^ London Gazette: no. 33904, p. 442, 20 January 1933. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  18. ^ London Gazette: no. 34226, p. 7671, 3 December 1935. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  19. ^ Heathcote 1999, p. 281.
  20. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34396, pp. 3078–3079, 11 May 1937. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  21. ^ London Gazette: no. 34438, p. 5957, 24 September 1937. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  22. ^ "Belisha Purge". Time. 13 December 1937. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758599,00.html?imw=Y. Retrieved 2009-02-14.  
  23. ^ London Gazette: no. 34464, p. 7915, 17 December 1937. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  24. ^ London Gazette: no. 34464, p. 7917, 17 December 1937. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  25. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34469, p. 3, 1 January 1938. Retrieved on 2009-02-15.
  26. ^ a b Heathcote 1999, p. 282.
  27. ^ a b Ellis 1954, p.149.
  28. ^ Gardner 2000, p. 56.
  29. ^ Moure & Alexander 2001, p. 24.
  30. ^ World at War
  31. ^ a b Heathcote 1999, p. 283.

Further reading

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Cyril Deverell
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
1937–1939
Succeeded by
Sir Edmund Ironside
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir Clive Liddell
Governor of Gibraltar
1941–1942
Succeeded by
Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane
Preceded by
General Sir William Dobbie
Governor of Malta
1942–1944
Succeeded by
Lieut.-General Sir Edmond Charles Acton Schreiber
Preceded by
Sir Harold MacMichael
High Commissioner of Palestine
1944–1945
Succeeded by
Sir Alan G Cunningham
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
(new creation)
Viscount Gort
1946–1946
Succeeded by
Extinct
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
John Vereker
Viscount Gort
1902–1946
Succeeded by
Standish Vereker

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