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John Wesley
Born 28 June [O.S. 17 June] 1703
Epworth, Lincolnshire, England
Died 2 March 1791 (aged 87)
Nationality British
Education Charterhouse School
Christ Church, Oxford
Occupation Preacher and theologian
Net worth about 30 current USD at time of death
Known for Founder of the Methodist movement
Religious beliefs Christian (Anglican and Methodist)
Spouse(s) Mary Wesley (née Vazeille)
Parents Samuel & Susanna Wesley
Signature
Part of a series on
Methodism
John Wesley clipped.png George Whitefield preaching.jpg
John Wesley George Whitefield

Background
Christianity
Protestantism
Pietism
Anglicanism
Arminianism
Wesleyanism
Calvinism

Doctrinal distinctives
Articles of Religion
Prevenient Grace
Governmental Atonement
Imparted righteousness
Christian perfection
Conditional preservation of the saints

People
Richard Allen
Francis Asbury
Thomas Coke
William Law
Albert C. Outler
James Varick
Charles Wesley
Bishops
Theologians

Largest groups
World Methodist Council
AME Church
AME Zion Church
Church of the Nazarene
CME Church
Free Methodist Church
Methodist Church of Great Britain
Uniting Church in Australia
United Methodist Church
Wesleyan Church

Related movements
Moravian Church
Holiness movement
Salvation Army
Personalism
Pentecostalism

P christianity.svg Christianity Portal

John Wesley (pronounced /ˈwɛslɪ/) (28 June [O.S. 17 June] 1703 – 2 March 1791) was an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian. Wesley is largely credited, along with his brother Charles Wesley, with founding the English Methodist movement which began when he took to open-air preaching in a similar manner to George Whitefield. In contrast to George Whitefield's Calvinism (which later led to the forming of the Calvinistic Methodists), Wesley embraced Arminianism. Methodism in both forms was a highly successful evangelical movement in the United Kingdom, which encouraged people to experience Jesus Christ personally.

Contents

Overview

Wesley helped to organize and form societies of Christians throughout England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland as small groups that developed intensive, personal accountability, discipleship and religious instruction among members. His great contribution was to appoint itinerant, unordained preachers who travelled widely to evangelise and care for people in the societies. Young men who acted as their assistants were called "exhorters" who functioned in a similar fashion to the twelve apostles after the ascension of Jesus.

Under Wesley's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social justice issues of the day, including the prison reform and abolitionism movements. Wesley's contribution as a theologian was to propose a system of opposing theological stances. His greatest theological achievement was his promotion of what he termed "Christian Perfection", or holiness of heart and life. Wesley held that, in this life, Christians could come to a state in which the love of God, or perfect love, reigned supreme in their hearts. His evangelical theology, especially his understanding of Christian perfection, was firmly grounded in his sacramental theology. He continually insisted on the general use of the means of grace (prayer, scripture, meditation, Holy Communion, etc.) as the means by which God sanctifies and transforms the believer.

John Wesley was among the first to preach for slaves rights attracting significant opposition.[1][2],[3]

Throughout his life, Wesley remained within the Church of England and insisted that his movement was well within the bounds of the Anglican tradition.[4] His maverick use of church policy put him at odds with many within the Church of England, though toward the end of his life he was widely respected.

Youth

"Remembering John Wesley", Wroot, near Epworth

John Wesley was born in 1703 in Epworth, 23 miles (37 km) northwest of Lincoln, England, the fifteenth child of Samuel Wesley and his wife Susanna Annesley. His father was a graduate of the University of Oxford and a Church of England rector. In 1689 Samuel had married Susanna Annesley, twenty-fifth child of Dr. Samuel Annesley, a Dissenter pastor. Wesley's parents had both become members of the Established Church (Church of England) early in adulthood. Susanna bore Samuel Wesley nineteen children, but only seven lived. In 1696 Wesley's father was appointed the rector of Epworth.

At the age of five, Wesley was rescued from the burning rectory. This escape made a deep impression on his mind, and he regarded himself as providentially set apart, as a "brand plucked from the burning".[5] As in many families at the time, Wesley's parents gave their children their early education. Each child, including the girls, was taught to read as soon as they could walk and talk. In 1714, at age 11, Wesley was sent to the Charterhouse School in London (under the mastership of John King from 1715), where he lived the studious, methodical and—for a while—religious life in which he had been trained at home. During his early years, Wesley had enjoyed a deep religious experience. The early biographer Tyerman said that the boy went to Charterhouse a saint but became negligent of his religious duties and left a sinner. He also experienced trauma as he was picked on by children of his own age; they took his underpants, tore them from his rear end and made him eat them. Descriptions of this in his own diary were stated to have "created a trembling in his own hands", but also gave him a more reverent "fear of God, for if mere children do these things, could not also God do worse?"

During Wesley's early adult years he was greatly influenced by the classic books: Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Holy Dying, Thomas a Kempis' The Imitation of Christ, and William Law's two books Christian Perfection and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life.

Mission in Georgia

Statue of John Wesley, Savannah, Georgia

On 14 October 1735, Wesley and his brother Charles sailed for Savannah in the Province of Georgia in the American colonies at the request of Governor James Oglethorpe. Oglethorpe wanted Wesley to be the minister of the newly formed Savannah parish.

It was on the voyage to the colonies that Wesley first came into contact with Moravian settlers. Wesley was influenced by their deep faith and spirituality rooted in pietism. At one point in the voyage a storm came up and broke the mast off the ship. While the English panicked, the Moravians calmly sang hymns and prayed. This experience led Wesley to believe that the Moravians possessed an inner strength which he lacked.[6] The deeply personal religion that the Moravian pietists practiced heavily influenced Wesley's theology of Methodism.[7]

Wesley saw Oglethorpe's offer as an opportunity to spread Christianity to the Native Americans in the colony. Wesley's mission, however, was unsuccessful, and he and his brother Charles were constantly beset by troubles in the colonies.

On top of his struggles with teaching, Wesley found disaster in his relations with Sophia Hopkey, a woman who had journeyed across the Atlantic on the same ship as Wesley. Wesley and Hopkey became romantically involved, but Wesley abruptly broke off the relationship on the advice of a Moravian minister in whom he confided. Hopkey contended that Wesley had promised to marry her and therefore had gone back on his word in breaking off the relationship. Wesley's problems came to a head when he refused Hopkey communion. She and her new husband, William Williamson, filed suit against Wesley. Wesley stood trial and faced the accusations made by Hopkey. The proceedings ended in a mistrial, but Wesley's reputation had already been tarnished too greatly, and he made it known that he intended to return to England. Williamson again tried to raise charges against Wesley to prevent him from leaving the colony, but he managed to escape back to England. He was left exhausted by the whole experience. His mission to Georgia contributed to a life-long struggle with self-doubt.

Moravian influence

John Wesley's house on City Road, London. (January 2006)

Wesley returned to England depressed and beaten. It was at this point that he turned to the Moravians. His Aldersgate experience of 24 May 1738, at a Moravian meeting in Aldersgate Street, London, in which he heard a reading of Martin Luther's preface to the Epistle to the Romans, and penned the now famous lines "I felt my heart strangely warmed",[8] revolutionised the character and method of his ministry.[9] The previous week he had been highly impressed by the sermon of Dr. John Heylyn, whom he was assisting in the service at St Mary-le-Strand, an occasion followed immediately by news of the death of his brother Samuel.[10] A few weeks later, Wesley preached a remarkable sermon on the doctrine of personal salvation by faith, which was followed by another, on God's grace "free in all, and free for all."

Wesley Statue at Indiana Wesleyan University

Though his understanding of both justification and the assurance varied throughout his life, Wesley never stopped preaching the importance of faith for salvation and the witness of God's Spirit with the belief that one was, indeed, a child of God.

Wesley allied himself with the Moravian society in Fetter Lane. In 1738 he went to Herrnhut, the Moravian headquarters in Germany, to study. On his return to England, Wesley drew up rules for the "bands" into which the Fetter Lane Society was divided and published a collection of hymns for them. He met frequently with this and other religious societies in London but did not preach often in 1738, because most of the parish churches were closed to him.

Wesley's Oxford friend, the evangelist George Whitefield, was also excluded from the churches of Bristol upon his return from America. Going to the neighbouring village of Kingswood, in February 1739, Whitefield preached in the open air to a company of miners. Later he preached in Whitefield's Tabernacle. Wesley hesitated to accept Whitefield's call to copy this bold step. Overcoming his scruples, he preached the first time at Whitefield's invitation sermon in the open air, near Bristol, in April 1739.

Wesley was unhappy about the idea of field preaching as he believed the Anglican Church had much to offer in its practice. Earlier in his life he would have thought that such a method of saving souls was "almost a sin."[11] Wesley recognised the open-air services were successful in reaching men and women who would not enter most churches. From then on he took the opportunities to preach wherever an assembly could be gotten together, more than once using his father's tombstone at Epworth as a pulpit. Wesley continued for fifty years — entering churches when he was invited, and taking his stand in the fields, in halls, cottages, and chapels, when the churches would not receive him.

Late in 1739 Wesley broke with the Moravians in London. Wesley had helped them organise the Fetter Lane Society, and those converted by his preaching and that of his brother and Whitefield had become members of their bands. But he believed they fell into heresy by supporting quietism, so he decided to form his own followers into a separate society. "Thus," he wrote, "without any previous plan, began the Methodist Society in England." He soon formed similar societies in Bristol and Kingswood, and wherever Wesley and his friends made converts.

Persecutions; lay preaching

From 1739 onward, Wesley and the Methodists were persecuted by clergymen and magistrates because they preached without being ordained or licensed by the Anglican Church. This was seen as a social threat that disregarded institutions. Ministers attacked them in sermons and in print, and at times mobs attacked them. Wesley and his followers continued to work among the neglected and needy. They were denounced as promulgators of strange doctrines, fomenters of religious disturbances; as blind fanatics, leading people astray, claiming miraculous gifts, attacking the clergy of the Church of England, and trying to re-establish Catholicism.

Wesley felt that the church failed to call sinners to repentance, that many of the clergymen were corrupt, and that people were perishing in their sins. He believed he was commissioned by God to bring about revival in the church; and no opposition, persecution, or obstacles could prevail against the divine urgency and authority of this commission. The prejudices of his high-church training, his strict notions of the methods and proprieties of public worship, his views of the apostolic succession and the prerogatives of the priest, even his most cherished convictions, were not allowed to stand in the way.

Unwilling that people should perish in their sins and unable to reach them from church pulpits, following the example set by George Whitefield, Wesley began field preaching. Seeing that he and the few clergymen cooperating with him could not do the work that needed to be done, he was led, as early as 1739, to approve local preachers. He evaluated and approved men and women who were not ordained by the Anglican Church to preach and do pastoral work. This expansion of lay preachers was one of the keys of the growth of Methodism.

Chapels and organizations

As his societies needed houses to worship in, Wesley began to provide chapels, first in Bristol at the New Room, then in London and elsewhere. The Bristol chapel (1739) was at first in the hands of trustees. A large debt was contracted, and Wesley's friends urged him to keep it under his own control, so the deed was cancelled, and he became sole trustee. Following this precedent, all Methodist chapels were committed in trust to him until by a "deed of declaration", all his interests in them were transferred to a body of preachers called the "Legal Hundred."

When disorder arose among some members of the societies, Wesley adopted giving tickets to members, with their names written by his own hand. These were renewed every three months. Those deemed unworthy did not receive new tickets and dropped out of the society without disturbance. The tickets were regarded as commendatory letters.

When the debt on a chapel became a burden, it was proposed that one in twelve members should collect offerings regularly from the eleven allotted to him. Out of this grew the Methodist class-meeting system in 1742. In order to keep the disorderly out of the societies, Wesley established a probationary system. He undertook to visit each society regularly in what became the quarterly visitation, or conference. As the number of societies increased, Wesley could not keep personal contact, so in 1743 he drew up a set of "General Rules" for the "United Societies." These were the nucleus of the Methodist Discipline, still the basis.

General Rules: It is therefore expected of all who continue therein that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation,

First: By doing no harm, by avoiding evil of every kind . . . ;

Secondly: By . . . doing good of every possible sort, and, as far as possible, to all . . . ;

Thirdly: By attending upon all the ordinances of God

As the number of preachers and preaching-places increased, doctrinal and administrative matters needed to be discussed; so John and Charles Wesley, along with four other clergymen and four lay preachers, met for consultation in London in 1744. This was the first Methodist conference; subsequently, the conference (with Wesley as its President) became the ruling body of the Methodist movement. Two years later, to help preachers work more systematically and societies receive services more regularly, Wesley appointed "helpers" to definitive circuits. Each circuit included at least thirty appointments a month. Believing that the preacher's efficiency was promoted by his being changed from one circuit to another every year or two, Wesley established the "itinerancy", and insisted that his preachers submit to its rules. When, in 1788, some objected to the frequent changes, Wesley wrote, "For fifty years God has been pleased to bless the itinerant plan, the last year most of all. It must not be altered til I am removed, and I hope it will remain til our Lord comes to reign on earth."

Ordination of ministers

Life-size statue at Asbury Theological Seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky

As the societies multiplied, they adopted the elements of an ecclesiastical system. The divide between Wesley and the Church of England widened. The question of division from the Church of England was urged by some of his preachers and societies, but most strenuously opposed by his brother Charles. Wesley refused to leave the Church of England, believing that Anglicanism was "with all her blemishes, [...] nearer the Scriptural plans than any other in Europe".[12] In 1745 Wesley wrote that he would make any concession which his conscience permitted, in order to live in peace with the clergy. He could not give up the doctrine of an inward and present salvation by faith by itself. He would not stop preaching, nor dissolve the societies, nor end preaching by lay members. As a clergyman within the established church he had no plans to go further. "We dare not", he said, "administer baptism or the Lord's Supper without a commission from a bishop in the apostolic succession."

When in 1746 Wesley read Lord King on the primitive church, he became convinced that the concept of apostolic succession in Anglicanism was a "fable".[13] He wrote that he was "a scriptural episkopos as much as many men in England." Many years later Edward Stillingfleet's Irenicon led him to decide that ordination could be valid when performed by a presbyter rather than a bishop.

In 1784 Wesley ordained preachers for Scotland, England and America, with authority to administer the sacraments. He believed he had waited long enough for the Bishop of London to ordain a minister for the American Methodists, who were without the sacraments after the American Revolutionary War. The Church of England had been disestablished in the United States, where it had been the state church in most of the southern colonies. The Church of England had not yet appointed a United States bishop to what would become the Protestant Episcopal Church in America. Wesley ordained Thomas Coke by the laying on of hands although Coke was already a priest in the Church of England. Wesley appointed him to be superintendent of Methodists in the United States. He also ordained Richard Whatcoat and Thomas Vasey as presbyters. Wesley intended that Coke and Asbury (whom Coke ordained) should ordain others in the newly founded Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States.

His brother Charles grew alarmed and begged Wesley to stop before he had "quite broken down the bridge" and not embitter his [Charles'] last moments on earth, nor "leave an indelible blot on our memory." Wesley replied that he had not separated from the church, nor did he intend to, but he must and would save as many souls as he could while alive, "without being careful about what may possibly be when I die." Although Wesley rejoiced that the Methodists in America were free, he advised his English followers to remain in the established church, and he himself died within it.

Advocacy of Arminianism

Part of a series on
Arminianism
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Jacobus Arminius

Background
Protestantism
Reformation
The Five Articles of Remonstrance
Calvinist-Arminian Debate

People
Jacobus Arminius
Simon Episcopius
Hugo Grotius
The Remonstrants
John Wesley

Doctrine
Total depravity
Conditional election
Unlimited atonement
Prevenient grace
Conditional preservation

Wesley entered controversies as he tried to enlarge church practice. The most notable of his controversies was that on Calvinism. His father was of the Arminian school in the church. Wesley came to his own conclusions while in college and expressed himself strongly against the doctrines of Calvinistic election and reprobation.

Whitefield inclined to Calvinism. In his first tour in America, he embraced the views of the New England School of Calvinism. When in 1739 Wesley preached a sermon on Freedom Of Grace, attacking the Calvinistic understanding of predestination as blasphemous, as it represented "God as worse than the devil," Whitefield asked him not to repeat or publish the discourse, as he did not want a dispute. Wesley published his sermon anyway. Whitefield was one of many who responded. The two men separated their practice in 1741. Wesley wrote that those who held to unlimited atonement did not desire separation, but "those who held 'particular redemption' would not hear of any accommodation."[14]

Whitefield, Harris, Cennick, and others, became the founders of Calvinistic Methodism. Whitefield and Wesley, however, were soon back on friendly terms, and their friendship remained unbroken although they travelled different paths.

In 1770 the controversy broke out anew with violence and bitterness, as people's view of God related to their views of men and their possibilities. Augustus Montague Toplady, Rowland, Richard Hill, and others were engaged on the one side, and Wesley and Fletcher on the other. Toplady was editor of The Gospel Magazine, which had articles covering the controversy.

In 1778 Wesley began the publication of The Arminian Magazine, not, he said, to convince Calvinists, but to preserve Methodists. He wanted to teach the truth that "God willeth all men to be saved." A "lasting peace" could be secured in no other way.

Doctrines and theology

20th century Wesley scholar Albert Outler argued in his introduction to the 1964 collection John Wesley that Wesley developed his theology by using a method that Outler termed the Wesleyan Quadrilateral. In this method, Wesley believed that the living core of the Christian faith was revealed in Scripture; and the Bible was the sole foundational source of theological or doctrinal development. The centrality of Scripture was so important for Wesley that he called himself "a man of one book"—meaning the Bible—although he was well-read for his day. However, he believed that doctrine had to be in keeping with Christian orthodox tradition. So, tradition was considered the second aspect of the Quadrilateral.

Wesley contended that a part of the theological method would involve experiential faith. In other words, truth would be vivified in personal experience of Christians (overall, not individually), if it were really truth. And every doctrine must be able to be defended rationally. He did not divorce faith from reason. Tradition, experience and reason, however, were subject always to Scripture, Wesley argued, because only there is the Word of God revealed 'so far as it is necessary for our salvation.'[15]

The doctrines which Wesley emphasised in his sermons and writings are prevenient grace, present personal salvation by faith, the witness of the Spirit, and sanctification. Prevenient grace was the theological underpinning of his belief that all persons were capable of being saved by faith in Christ. Unlike the Calvinists of his day, Wesley did not believe in pre-destination, that is, that some persons had been elected by God for salvation and others for damnation. He understood that Christian orthodoxy insisted that salvation was only possible by the sovereign grace of God. He expressed his understanding of humanity's relationship to God as utter dependence upon God's grace. God was at work to enable all people to be capable of coming to faith by empowering humans to have actual existential freedom of response to God.

Wesley defined the witness of the Spirit as: "an inward impression on the soul of believers, whereby the Spirit of God directly testifies to their spirit that they are the children of God." He based this doctrine upon certain Biblical passages (see Romans 8:15-16 as an example). This doctrine was closely related to his belief that salvation had to be "personal." In his view, a person must ultimately believe the Good News for himself or herself; no one could be in relation

Sanctification he described in 1790 as the "grand depositum which God has lodged with the people called `Methodists'." Wesley taught that sanctification was obtainable after justification by faith, between justification and death. He did not contend for "sinless perfection"; rather, he contended that a Christian could be made "perfect in love". (Wesley studied Eastern Orthodoxy and particularly the doctrine of Theosis). This love would mean, first of all, that a believer's motives, rather than being self-centred, would be guided by the deep desire to please God. One would be able to keep from committing what Wesley called, "sin rightly so-called." By this he meant a conscious or intentional breach of God's will or laws. A person could still be able to sin, but intentional or willful sin could be avoided.

Secondly, to be made perfect in love meant, for Wesley, that a Christian could live with a primary guiding regard for others and their welfare. He based this on Christ's quote that the second great command is "to love your neighbor as you love yourself." In his view, this orientation would cause a person to avoid any number of sins against his neighbour. This love, plus the love for God that could be the central focus of a person's faith, would be what Wesley referred to as "a fulfillment of the law of Christ."

Wesley believed that this doctrine should be constantly preached, especially among the people called Methodists. In fact, he contended that the purpose of the Methodist movement was to "spread scriptural holiness across England." His system of thought has become known as Wesleyan Arminianism, the foundations of which were laid by Wesley and Fletcher.

Personality and activities

Statue of John Wesley at Wesley's Chapel City Road, London. (January 2006)

Wesley traveled generally on horseback, preaching two or three times each day. Stephen Tomkins writes that he "rode 250,000 miles, gave away 30,000 pounds, . . . and preached more than 40,000 sermons[.]"[16]

He formed societies, opened chapels, examined and commissioned preachers, administered aid charities, prescribed for the sick, helped to pioneer the use of electric shock for the treatment of illness,[17] superintended schools and orphanages, and received at least £20,000 for his publications but used little of it for himself.

After attending a performance in Bristol Cathedral in 1758, Wesley said: "I went to the cathedral to hear Mr. Handel's Messiah (Handel)Messiah. I doubt if that congregation was ever so serious at a sermon as they were during this performance. In many places, especially several of the choruses, it exceeded my expectation."[18]

He is described as below medium height, well proportioned, strong, with a bright eye, a clear complexion, and a saintly, intellectual face. Wesley married very unhappily at the age of forty-eight to a widow, Mary Vazeille, and had no children. Vazeille left him fifteen years later.

Despite his achievements, Wesley never quite overcame profound self-doubt. At age 63, he wrote to his brother, "I do not love God. I never did. Therefore I never believed, in the Christian sense of the word. Therefore I am only an honest heathen...And yet, to be so employed of God!"[19]

In 1770, at the death of George Whitefield, Wesley wrote a memorial sermon which praised Whitefield's admirable qualities and acknowledged the two men's differences: "There are many doctrines of a less essential nature ... In these we may think and let think; we may 'agree to disagree.' But, meantime, let us hold fast the essentials..."[20] Wesley was the first to put the phrase 'agree to disagree' in print.[21]

Wesley died on 2 March 1791, in his eighty-eighth year. As he lay dying, his friends gathered around him, Wesley grasped their hands and said repeatedly, "Farewell, farewell." At the end, he said "The best of all is, God is with us", lifted his arms and raised his feeble voice again, repeating the words, "The best of all is, God is with us."[22] Because of his charitable nature he died poor, leaving as the result of his life's work 135,000 members and 541 itinerant preachers under the name "Methodist". It has been said that "when John Wesley was carried to his grave, he left behind him a good library of books, a well-worn clergyman's gown," and the Methodist Church.[23][24]

Literary work

Wesley was a logical thinker and expressed himself clearly, concisely and forcefully in writing. His written sermons are characterised by spiritual earnestness and simplicity. They are doctrinal but not dogmatic. His Notes on the New Testament (1755) are enlightening. Both the Sermons (about 140) and the Notes are doctrinal standards. Wesley was a fluent, powerful and effective preacher. He usually preached spontaneously and briefly, though occasionally at great length.

As an organiser, a religious leader and a statesman, he was eminent. He knew how to lead and control men to achieve his purposes. He used his power, not to provoke rebellion, but to inspire love. His mission was to spread "Scriptural holiness"; his means and plans were such as Providence indicated. The course thus mapped out for him he pursued with a determination from which nothing could distract him.

Wesley's prose Works were first collected by himself (32 vols., Bristol, 1771–74, frequently reprinted in editions varying greatly in the number of volumes). His chief prose works are a standard publication in seven octavo volumes of the Methodist Book Concern, New York. The Poetical Works of John and Charles, ed. G. Osborn, appeared in 13 vols., London, 1868–72.

In addition to his Sermons and Notes are his Journals (originally published in 20 parts, London, 1740-89; new ed. by N. Curnock containing notes from unpublished diaries, 6 vols., vols. i.-ii., London and New York, 1909-11); The Doctrine of Original Sin (Bristol, 1757; in reply to Dr. John Taylor of Norwich); "An Earnest Appeal to Men of Reason and Religion (originally published in three parts; 2d ed., Bristol, 1743), an elaborate defence of Methodism, describing the evils of the times in society and the church; a Plain Account of Christian Perfection (1766).

John Wesley published a pamphlet on slavery titled, "Thoughts Upon Slavery," (1774). This pamphlet was just the start of John Wesley voicing his opinion on slavery and sharing his beliefs about how the church should respond to slavery.

Wesley adapted the Book of Common Prayer for use by American Methodists. In his Watch Night service, he made use of a pietist prayer now generally known as the Wesley Covenant Prayer, perhaps his most famous contribution to Christian liturgy.He also was a noted hymn-writer ,translator and compiler of a hymnal[25]

In spite of the proliferation of his literary output, Wesley was challenged for plagiarism for borrowing heavily from an essay by Samuel Johnson, publishing in March 1775. Initially denying the charge, Wesley later recanted and apologised officially.[26]

Legacy

Statue of John Wesley outside Wesley Church in Melbourne, Australia

Today, Wesley's influence as a teacher persists. He continues to be the primary theological interpreter for Methodists the world over; the largest bodies being the United Methodist Church, the Methodist Church of Great Britain and the African Methodist Episcopal Church. The teachings of Wesley also serve as a basis for the Holiness movement, which includes denominations like the Wesleyan Church, the Church of the Nazarene, the Christian and Missionary Alliance, and several smaller groups, and from which Pentecostalism and parts of the Charismatic movement are offshoots. Wesley's call to personal and social holiness continues to challenge Christians who struggle to discern what it means to participate in the Kingdom of God.

Wesley's legacy is also preserved in Kingswood School, which he founded in 1748 in order to educate the children of the growing number of Methodist preachers.

He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on 2 March with his brother Charles. The Wesley brothers are also commemorated on 3 March in the Calendar of Saints of the Episcopal Church and on 24 May in the Anglican calendar.

One of the four form houses at the St Marylebone Church of England School, London, is named after John Wesley.

Wesley is listed at 50 on the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons.

In Film

In 1954 the Radio and Film Commission of the Methodist Church in cooperation with J. Arthur Rank produced the film John Wesley. The film was a live action re-telling of the story of the life of John Wesley, with Leonard Sachs as Wesley.

In 2008, the story of John Wesley was told in the documentary film Great Christian Revivals. Filmed on location, the account features many of the key places in the life of Wesley, from the places he preached at, to the homes he stayed in.[27]

In 2008 John Wesley's testimony is told in the film "Encounters with John Wesley" focusing on his ministry and the events leading up to his conversion. [3]

See also

References

  1. ^ S. R. Valentine, John Bennet & the Origins of Methodism and the Evangelical revival in England, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, 1997.
  2. ^ Carey, Brycchan. “John Wesley (1703-1791).” The British Abolitionists. Brycchan Carey, July 11, 2008. October 5, 2009. [1]
  3. ^ Wesley John, “Thoughts Upon Slavery,” John Wesley: Holiness of Heart and Life. Charles Yrigoyen, 1996. October 5, 2009. [2]
  4. ^ Thorsen, Don (2005). The Wesleyan Quadrilateral. Emeth Press. pp. 97. ISBN 1-59731-043-3.  
  5. ^ Wallace, Charles Jr (1997) Susanna Wesley : the complete writings, New York : Oxford University Press, p. 67, ISBN 0-19-507437-8
  6. ^ Ross, Kathy W.; Stacey, Rosemary. "John Wesley and Savannah". http://www.sip.armstrong.edu/Methodism/wesley.html. Retrieved 2007-09-18.  
  7. ^ Armstrong Atlantic State University
  8. ^ Dreyer, Frederick A. (1999). The Genesis of Methodism. Lehigh University Press. pp. 27. ISBN 0-934223-56-4.  
  9. ^ Hurst, J. F. (2003). John Wesley the Methodist. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 102–103. ISBN 0766154467.  
  10. ^ Journal of the Rev. John Wesley
  11. ^ Tomkins, Stephen (2003). John Wesley: A Biography. Eerdmans. pp. 69. ISBN 1-8028-2499-4.  
  12. ^ Thorsen 2005, p. 97.
  13. ^ H. W. Holden: John Wesley in company with high churchmen, READ BOOKS, 1870, ISBN 9781408606612, p. 51
  14. ^ Stevens, Abel (1858). The History of the Religious Movement of the Eighteenth Century, called Methodism: Volume I. Carlton & Porter. pp. 155.  
  15. ^ United Methodist Church (1984) The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church, 1984, Nashville, TN : United Methodist Publ. House, p. 77, ISBN 0-687-03702-6.
  16. ^ John Wesley: A Biography, by Edward T. Oakes, Copyright (c) 2004 First Things (December 2004).
  17. ^ Johnstone, Lucy (2000). Users and Abusers of Psychiatry: A Critical Look at Psychiatric Practice. Routledge. pp. 152. ISBN 0-415-21155-7.  
  18. ^ Byers, D. 2008. Handel in Ulster Orchestra programme Friday 12 & Saturday 2008. Belfast Waterfront.
  19. ^ Eerdmans 2003, p. 168.; Letter to His Brother on 27 June 1766; cp. Journal, 14 October 1738; 4 January 1739
  20. ^ Global Ministries, The United Methodist Church. Sermons. On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, page 2. Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  21. ^ The Phrase Finder. Agree to disagree. Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
  22. ^ Hurst 2003, p. 298.
  23. ^ http://www.cavandoragh.org/f/docs/ChurchMediaFiles/document-5.doc.
  24. ^ http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:lQZqnOxWtswJ:www.cavandoragh.org/f/docs/ChurchMediaFiles/document-5.doc+wesley+died+and+left+behind+his+preachers+gown,+his+books+and+the+methodist+church&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
  25. ^ A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People called Methodists,(1779) Abingdon Press,U.S.; New edition edition (30 Aug 1990) ISBN 978-0687462186
  26. ^ Abelove, H. 1997. John Wesley’s plagiarism of Samuel Johnson and its contemporary reception. The Huntington Library Quarterly, 59(1) pp.73–80
  27. ^ Great Christian Revivals - Part Three: The Evangelical Revival with John Wesley 1739 - 1791.

Further reading

  • Collins, Kenneth J., The Theology of John Wesley: Holy Love and the Shape of Grace, 2007
  • Maddox, Randy, Responsible Grace: John Wesley's Practical Theology, 1994
  • Jennings, Daniel R., "The Supernatural Occurrences of John Wesley", 2005, Sean Multimedia.
  • Oden, Thomas, John Wesley's Scriptural Christianity: A Plain Exposition of His Teaching on Christian Doctrine, 1994

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I observed, "Love is the fulfilling of the law, the end of the commandment." It is not only "the first and great" command, but all the commandments in one.

John Wesley (28 June 1703 - 2 March 1791) was an English preacher, and founder of the Methodist movement.

Contents

Sourced

Whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, if there be any virtue, if there be any praise," they are all comprised in this one word, love.
I look on all the world as my parish...
The longer I live, the larger allowances I make for human infirmities.

Miscellaneous

  • ...when Poetry thus keeps its place as the handmaiden of piety,it shall attain not a poor perishable wreath,but a crown that fadeth not away.
    • From the Preface to A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People called Methodists,(c 1779) .New edition edition (30 Aug 1990),Abingdon Press,U.S.; ISBN 978-0687462186
  • I observed, "Love is the fulfilling of the law, the end of the commandment." It is not only "the first and great" command, but all the commandments in one. "Whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, if there be any virtue, if there be any praise," they are all comprised in this one word, love.
    • Wesley quoting his own sermon on "The Circumsicion of the Heart" (1 January 1733) in the work A Plain Account Of Christian Perfection (Edition of 1777)
  • I look on all the world as my parish; thus far I mean, that, in whatever part of it I am, I judge it meet, right, and my bounden duty, to declare unto all that are willing to hear, the glad tidings of salvation.
    • Journal (11 June 1739)
  • The distinguishing marks of a Methodist are not his opinions of any sort. His assenting to this or that scheme of Religion, his embracing any particular set of notions, his espousing the judgment of one man or of another, are all quite wide of the point. Whosoever therefore imagines, that a Methodist is a man of such or such an opinion, is grossly ignorant of the whole affair; he mistakes the truth totally. We believe indeed, that all Scripture is given by the inspiration of God, and herein we are distinguished from Jews, Turks, and Infidels. We believe the written word of God to be the only and sufficient rule, both of Christian faith and practice; and herein we are fundamentally distinguished from those of the Romish church. We believe Christ to be the eternal, supreme God; and herein we are distinguished from the Socinians and Arians. But as to all opinions which do not strike at the root of Christianity, we think and let think. So that whatsoever they are, whether right or wrong, they are no distinguishing marks of a; Methodist.
    • "The Character of a Methodist" (1739); in The Works of the Rev. John Wesley in Ten Volumes (1826), Volume IV, p. 407; A portion of this is commonly quoted as "Think and let think."
  • Every one, though born of God in an instant, yet undoubtedly grows by slow degrees.
    • Letter (27 June 1760), published in The Works of the Rev. John Wesley (1813) Vol. XVI, p. 109
    • Variant: Every one, though born of God in an instant, yea, and sanctified in an instant, yet undoubtedly grows by slow degrees.
      • As quoted in an 1856 edition of Works.
  • The longer I live, the larger allowances I make for human infirmities. I exact more from myself, and less from others. Go thou and do likewise!
    • Letter to Reverend Samuel Furley (25 Janurary 1762), Published in The Life and Times of the Rev. John Wesley, M. A., Founder of the Methodists (1872) by Luke Tyerman, p. 451
  • Beware you be not swallowed up in books! An ounce of love is worth a pound of knowledge.
    • Letter to Joseph Benson (7 November 1768); published in The Letters of John Wesley (1915) edited by George Eayrs
  • Passion and prejudice govern the world; only under the name of reason. It is our part, by religion and reason joined, to counteract them all we can.
    • Letter to John Benson (5 October 1770); published in Wesley's Select Letters (1837), p. 207
  • In returning I read a very different book, published by an honest Quaker, on that execrable sum of all villanies, commonly called the Slave-trade.
    • Journal (12 February 1772) after reading Some historical accounts of Guinea by Anthony Benezet
  • Are you a man? Then you should have an human heart. But have you indeed? What is your heart made of? Is there no such principle as Compassion there? Do you never feel another's pain? Have you no Sympathy? No sense of human woe? No pity for the miserable? When you saw the flowing eyes, the heaving breasts, or the bleeding sides and tortured limbs of your fellow-creatures, was you a stone, or a brute? Did you look upon them with the eyes of a tiger? When you squeezed the agonizing creatures down in the ship, or when you threw their poor mangled remains into the sea, had you no relenting? Did not one tear drop from your eye, one sigh escape from your breast? Do you feel no relenting now? If you do not, you must go on, till the measure of your iniquities is full. Then will the Great GOD deal with You, as you have dealt with them, and require all their blood at your hands.
    • Thoughts Upon Slavery (1774)
  • No circumstances can make it necessary for a man to burst in sunder all the ties of humanity.
    • Thoughts upon Slavery (1774)
  • Permit me, sir, to give you one piece of advice. Be not so positive; especially with regard to things which are neither easy nor necessary to be determined. When I was young I was sure of everything. In a few years, having been mistaken a thousand times, I was not half so sure of most things as I was before. At present, I am hardly sure of anything but what God has revealed to man.
    • Reply to a letter signed "Philosophaster" addressed to him in the London Magazine of 1774, in London Magazine 1775, p. 26
  • I desired as many as could to join together in fasting and prayer, that God would restore the spirit of love and of a sound mind to the poor deluded rebels in America.
    • Journal entry (1 August 1777), published in The Journal of the Rev. John Wesley (1827), p. 104
  • Though I am always in haste, I am never in a hurry.
    • Letter (10 December 1777)
  • I desire to have both heaven and hell ever in my eye, while I stand on this isthmus of life, between two boundless oceans.
    • Letter to Charles Wesley
  • Having, First, gained all you can, and, Secondly saved all you can, Then give all you can.
    • Sermon 50 "The Use of Money" in The Works of the Reverend John Wesley, A.M. (1840) edited by John Emory, Vol. I, p. 446
    • Popularly paraphrased as:
      Make all you can,
      Save all you can,
      Give all you can.
  • Let it be observed, that slovenliness is no part of religion; that neither this, nor any text of Scripture, condemns neatness of apparel. Certainly this is a duty, not a sin. Cleanliness is indeed next to godliness.
    • Sermon 93 On Dress. Compare: "Cleanness of body was ever deemed to proceed from a due reverence to God", Francis Bacon, Advancement of Learning, Book ii (1605)
  • I believe that He was made man, joining the human nature with the divine in one person; being conceived by the singular operation of the Holy Ghost, and born of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as before she brought Him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin.
  • In all cases, the Church is to be judged by the Scripture, not the Scripture by the Church.
    • Popery Calmly Considered (1779): The works of the Rev. John Wesley, 1812, London : Printed at the Conference - Office ... by Thomas Cordeux, agent, vol. XV, p. 180 - Google Books
  • The best of it all is, God is with us.
    • A statement among his final words, said to have been repeated two or three times, as quoted in The Living Wesley (1891) by James Harrison Rigg
    • Variants: The best of it is, God is with us.
      Best of all, God is with us.
  • I am always in haste, but never in a hurry.
    • As quoted in the "Saturday Review" (28 November 1874)
  • As to matters of dress, I would recommend one never to be first in the fashion nor the last out of it.
    • As quoted in A Dictionary of Thoughts : Being a Cyclopedia of Laconic Quotations from the Best Authors of the World, both Ancient and Modern (1908) by Tyron Edwards, p. 127
  • The greater the share the people have in government, the less liberty, civil or religious, does a nation enjoy.
    • As quoted in England in the Eighteenth Century (1714 - 1815) (1964) by J. H. Plumb, p. 94
  • Catch on fire with enthusiasm and people will come for miles to watch you burn.
    • As quoted in The Peaceful Path of Prosperity : Practical and Spiritual Approaches to Enrich Your Life with Your Inner Wealth (2001) by Danny Babineaux
  • I value all things only by the price they shall gain in eternity.
    • As quoted in The Law of Rewards : Giving What You Can't Keep to Gain What You Can't Lose (20030 by Randy C. Alcorn, p. 18

Sermons on Several Occasions (1771)

  • “And Festus said with a loud voice, Paul, thou art beside thyself.”
    Acts 26:24.
    And so say all the world, the men who know not God, of all that are of Paul’s religion: of every one who is so a follower of him as he was of Christ. It is true, there is a sort of religion, nay, and it is called Christianity too, which may be practised without any such Imputation, which is generally allowed to be consistent with common sense, —that is, a religion of form, a round of outward duties, performed in a decent, regular manner. You may add orthodoxy thereto, a system of right opinions, yea, and some quantity of heathen morality; and yet not many will pronounce, that “much religion hath made you mad.” But if you aim at the religion of the heart, if you talk of “righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost,” then it will not be long before your sentence is passed, “Thou art beside thyself.”
  • As to the word itself, it is generally allowed to be of Greek extraction. But whence the Greek word, enthousiasmos, is derived, none has yet been able to show. Some have endeavoured to derive it from en theoi, in God; because all enthusiasm has reference to him. ... It is not improbable, that one reason why this uncouth word has been retained in so many languages was, because men were not better agreed concerning the meaning than concerning the derivation of it. They therefore adopted the Greek word, because they did not understand it: they did not translate it into their own tongues, because they knew not how to translate it; it having been always a word of a loose, uncertain sense, to which no determinate meaning was affixed.
    It is not, therefore, at all surprising, that it is so variously taken at this day; different persons understanding it in different senses, quite inconsistent with each other. Some take it in a good sense, for a divine impulse or impression, superior to all the natural faculties, and suspending, for the time, either in whole or in part, both the reason and the outward senses. In this meaning of the word, both the Prophets of old, and the Apostles, were proper enthusiasts; being, at divers times, so filled with the Spirit, and so influenced by Him who dwelt in their hearts, that the exercise of their own reason, their senses, and all their natural faculties, being suspended, they were wholly actuated by the power of God, and “spake” only “as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”
    Others take the word in an indifferent sense, such as is neither morally good nor evil: thus they speak of the enthusiasm of the poets; of Homer and Virgil in particular. And this a late eminent writer extends so far as to assert, there is no man excellent in his profession, whatsoever it be, who has not in his temper a strong tincture of enthusiasm. By enthusiasm these appear to understand, all uncommon vigour of thought, a peculiar fervour of spirit, a vivacity and strength not to be found in common men; elevating the soul to greater and higher things than cool reason could have attained.
    But neither of these is the sense wherein the word “enthusiasm” is most usually understood. The generality of men, if no farther agreed, at least agree thus far concerning it, that it is something evil: and this is plainly the sentiment of all those who call the religion of the heart “enthusiasm.” Accordingly, I shall take it in the following pages, as an evil; a misfortune, if not a fault. As to the nature of enthusiasm, it is ,undoubtedly a disorder of the mind; and such a disorder as greatly hinders the exercise of reason. Nay, sometimes it wholly sets it aside: it not only dims but shuts the eyes of the understanding. It may, therefore, well be accounted a species of madness; of madness rather than of folly: seeing a fool is properly one who draws wrong conclusions from right premisses; whereas a madman draws right conclusions, but from wrong premisses. And so does an enthusiast suppose his premisses true, and his conclusions would necessarily follow. But here lies his mistake: his premisses are false. He imagines himself to be what he is not: and therefore, setting out wrong, the farther he goes, the more he wanders out of the way.
    • Sermon 37 "The Nature of Enthusiasm"
  • Beware you are not a fiery, persecuting enthusiast. Do not imagine that God has called you (just contrary to the spirit of Him you style your Master) to destroy men’s lives, and not to save them. Never dream of forcing men into the ways of God. Think yourself, and let think. Use no constraint in matters of religion. Even those who are farthest out of the way never compel to come in by any other means than reason, truth, and love.
    • Sermon 37 "The Nature of Enthusiasm"
  • Beware, lastly, of imagining you shall obtain the end without using the means conducive to it. God can give the end without any means at all; but you have no reason to think He will. Therefore constantly and carefully use all those means which He has appointed to be the ordinary channels of His grace. Use every means which either reason or Scripture recommends, as conducive (through the free love of God in Christ) either to the obtaining or increasing any of the gifts of God. Thus expect a daily growth in that pure and holy religion which the world always did, and always will, call “enthusiasm;” but which, to all who are saved from real enthusiasm, from merely nominal Christianity, is “the wisdom of God, and the power of God;” the glorious image of the Most High; “righteousness and peace;” a “fountain of living water, springing up into everlasting life!”
    • Sermon 37 "The Nature of Enthusiasm"
  • In order to examine ourselves thoroughly, let the case be proposed in the strongest manner. What, if I were to see a Papist, an Arian, a Socinian casting out devils? If I did, I could not forbid even him, without convicting myself of bigotry. Yea, if it could be supposed that I should see a Jew, a Deist, or a Turk, doing the same, were I to forbid him either directly or indirectly, I should be no better than a bigot still.
    O stand clear of this! But be not content with not forbidding any that casts out devils. It is well to go thus far; but do not stop here. If you will avoid all bigotry, go on. In every instance of this kind, whatever the instrument be, acknowledge the finger of God. And not only acknowledge, but rejoice in his work, and praise his name with thanksgiving. Encourage whomsoever God is pleased to employ, to give himself wholly up thereto. Speak well of him wheresoever you are; defend his character and his mission. Enlarge, as far as you can, his sphere of action; show him all kindness in word and deed; and cease not to cry to God in his behalf, that he may save both himself and them that hear him.
    I need add but one caution: Think not the bigotry of another is any excuse for your own. It is not impossible, that one who casts out devils himself, may yet forbid you so to do. You may observe, this is the very case mentioned in the text. The Apostles forbade another to do what they did themselves. But beware of retorting. It is not your part to return evil for evil. Another’s not observing the direction of our Lord, is no reason why you should neglect it. Nay, but let him have all the bigotry to himself. If he forbid you, do not you forbid him. Rather labour, and watch, and pray the more, to confirm your love toward him. If he speak all manner of evil of you, speak all manner of good (that is true) of him.
  • Though we cannot think alike, may we not love alike? May we not be of one heart, though we are not of one opinion? Without all doubt, we may. Herein all the children of God may unite, notwithstanding these smaller differences.

Unsourced

  • When I have money, I get rid of it quickly, lest it find a way into my heart.

Disputed

  • Do all the good you can,
    By all the means you can,
    In all the ways you can,
    In all the places you can,
    At all the times you can,
    To all the people you can,
    As long as ever you can.
    • Statement commonly known as "John Wesley's Rule"
    • Variant Do all the good you can, in all the ways you can, to all the souls you can, in every place you can, at all the times you can, with all the zeal you can, as long as ever you can.
      • According to Richard Heitzenrater, Professor of Church History and Wesleyan Studies at Duke Divinity School, there is no evidence that John Wesley ever wrote the rule that is attributed to him.
  • You may be as orthodox as the devil and as wicked.
    • This may be a paraphrase or summary of Wesley's thoughts that originated with Hugh Price Hughes; in his preface to Ethical Christianity : A Series of Sermons (1892) he states "It is really quite surpising that one could honestly confound Orthodoxy with Christianity, because, as John Wesley used to say in his emphatic and decisive manner, you may be as orthodox as the devil and as wicked." He does not place the statement itself in quotes, though his daughter, Dorothea Price Hughes, in her book The Life of Hugh Price Hughes (1904), p. 146, states "The saying of Wesley's that a man may be as orthodox as the devil and as wicked, was one in which he delighted, and which he often quoted." No published sources of the statement prior to 1892 have yet been located.

Misattributed

  • God buries his workmen, but carries on his work.
    • Charles Wesley, as quoted in Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (1889). This appears with two quotes of John Wesley on the monument to both men in Westminster Abbey, and is commonly attributed to John.
  • The Church recruited people who had been starched and ironed before they were washed.

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John Wesley
File:John Wesley
Born June 29, 1703(1703-06-29)
Epworth, Lincolnshire, England
Died March 2, 1791 (aged 87)
Nationality British
Education Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford
Religion Christian (Methodist)
Spouse Mary Wesley (née Vazeille)
Parents Samuel & Susanna Wesley

John Wesley (1703, Epworth, England-1791) was one of the founders of the Methodist church. Anglikanish minister and christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. Methodism had three rises: the first at Oxford University with the founding of the "Holy Club" the second while Wesley was priest in Savannah, Georgia; and the third in London after Wesley's return to England.Throughout his life, Wesley remained within the Church of England, and insisted that his movement was well within yet bounds of the Anglican Church.[1]

Contents

Early life

File:John
John Wesley

John Wesley was born in Epworth, England 23 miles (37 km) north west of Lincoln., the son of Samuel Wesley, a graduate of Oxford, and minister of the Church of England. At the age of five, John was rescued from the burning rectory. This escape made deep impression on his mind, and he regarded himself as proventially set apart, as a "brand plucked from burning". [2]In 1869 Samuel married Susanna Annesley. Both Samuel and Susanna had been raised in Disseling. In 1696 Samuel Welsey was appointed rector of Epworth, where John, the fifteenth child, was born. The Wesley children's early education was given by their parents in the Epworth rector. Each child including the girls, was taught to read as they can could walk, and talk. John was admitted to Charterhouse school, London, when he lived the stations methodical and (for a while) religious life in which he had been trained at here. During his early youth, John Wesley had an a deep religious experience. His biographer, Tyerman, says that he went to charterhouse a saint, but he became negelient of religious duties and left a sinner.

Oxford and Georgia

In June 1720, Wesley entered Christ church, Oxford, with an annual allowance of 40 pound as charterhouse scholar. His health was poor and it hard to keep out of debt.A scheme of study which he drew up for 1721 with a time-table for each day of the week is still to be seen in his earlist diary. This first diary thus from April 15. 1725, to February 12, 1727. A Friend describes Wesley at this god humor. He was reading of William Law's Christian Perfektion and Serious call gave him, he said, I note sublience view of the law God: and he resoled to keep it, inwardly and outwardly, as sacredly as possible.

Personality and activities

Wesley travelled constantly, usually on horseback.[3] He examined and sent out preachers, began aid charities, prescribed for the sick, helped the use of electric shock for the treatment of illness.[4]

Beginning of Revival

His Aldergate Street London 1n 1738, in which he heard a reading of Luther's preface to Epistle to the Romans, and penned the new famous lines"I felt my heart strangely warmed", revolutionized the character and method of his ministry[5] Wesley wrote many books about Scripture and the Christian life. John Wesley's brother Charles Wesley helped him with many hymns he wrote.

References

  1. Thorsen, Don (2005). The Wesleyen Quadrikteul. Emeth Press. pp. p.97. ISBN 1-59731-043-333. 
  2. Wallace,Charles JR (1997) Susanna Wesley:the Complete writings, New York:Oxford University Press, p.. 67.ISBN 0-19-507437-8
  3. Koontz, Terri; Mark Sidwell, S.M.Bunker. World Studies. Greenville, South Carolina 29614: Bob Jones University Press. ISBN 1-59166-431-4. 
  4. Johnstone (2003). users and Abusers of psychiatry:A Criticial Look at Psychiatric Practise. Routledge. p. p.152. 
  5. The Genesis of Methodism


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