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Johor
جوهر
—  State  —
Johor Darul Ta'zim

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Kepada Allah Berserah
Anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor
Location of Johor
Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111
Johor Sultanate 14th century
British control 1914
Japanese occupation 1942
Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948
Capital Johor Bahru[a]
Royal capital Johor Bahru[b]
Government
 - Ruling party Barisan Nasional
 - Sultan of Johor Sultan Ibrahim Ismail
 - Menteri Besar Abdul Ghani Othman
Area
 - Total 19,984 km2 (7,715.9 sq mi)
Population (2009 est.)
 - Total 3,385,000
 Density 169.4/km2 (438.7/sq mi)
 - Demonym Johorean / Johorian
Human Development Index
 - HDI (2008) 0.805 (high)
Postal code 80xxx to 86xxx
Calling code 07[c]
06 (Muar and Ledang)
Vehicle registration J
Website http://www.johor.gov.my
^[a] Kota Iskandar is a state administrative centre
^[b] Town in the city of Johor Bahru
^[c] Except Muar and Ledang

Johor (Jawi script: جوهر ; also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ta'zim, or "Abode of Dignity"), also known as Johore by the British, is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most well developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri (Malay for Princess' Cape). The old state capital is Johor Lama.

Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south which separates Johor and the Republic of Singapore.

Contents

Etymology

The name "Johor" originated from the Arabic word Jauhar, 'gem/precious stone' . However the word johor is also the name of a tree shrub. Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance (eg Melaka is named after a type of tree). Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujong Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.[1]

History

The history of Modern Johor was began in the early 16th century with the foundation of the Sultanate of Johor by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca who fled from the invading Portuguese in Malacca.His former name, however, was Raja Ali. Johor sultanate is one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. Upon Malacca's defeat to the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II had established a monarchy in Johor which posed a constant threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak was the other successor state of Malacca and was established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I. Johor is the only state, apart from Melaka, that has grown into an empire. During its peak, the whole of Pahang and the present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.

Modern Johor's establishment was characterised by a series of succession struggles interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers to maintain its political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Malacca under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch. In 1641, Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.

In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire. However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. This is when the history of modern Johor began. In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the State was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was finally handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.

Flag of Johor. The colour blue represents the State Government, the colour red for warriors defending the state, the white crescent and 5-sided star represent the monarchy and Islam.

Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864-1895) was the one who implemented the state constitution and developed a British-style administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor".

The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844.[2] The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state.[3] Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently. Johor was also until recently the largest oil palm producer in Malaysia.

During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.

Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition which derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. (UMNO is currently the main component party of Malaysia's ruling Barisan Nasional coalition.) In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.

State Anthem

The Johor state anthem is called "Lagu Bangsa Johor".

Allah peliharakan Sultan
'Nugerahkan dia
Segala kehormatan
Sihat dan ria
Kekal dan makmur
Luaskan kuasa
Naungkan kami
Rakyat dipimpini
Berzaman lagi
Dengan merdeka bersatu hati
Allah berkati Johor
Allah selamatkan Sultan.

Geography

Johor is the 5th largest state by land area and 3rd most populated state in Malaysia, with a total land area and estimated population of 19,984 km2 and 3,300,000 respectively.

In the official census of 2000, the population of Johor was 2.75 million with 54% Malays, 35% Chinese, 7% Indians and 4% others. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Gunung Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor also has a 400 km coastline on both the East and the West coasts.

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aur, Pulau Besar, Pulau Dayang, Pulau Lima, Pulau Pemanggil, Pulau Rawa, Pulau Sibu, Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggi.

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Climate

Johor has a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.

On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.[4]

Links to Singapore

Malaysia's new Customs Complex (Sultan Iskandar Complex) at Johor Bahru
The water pipeline at the causeway which provides much of Singapore's water supply.

Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections: the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link. The Causeway also carries a railway line, which is now part of the main rail route linking Singapore with Thailand via Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Butterworth.

The Johor-Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. It started in 1909 as a railway link by Johor State Railway to connect Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. Construction of the road section started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.

The causeway has been a source of contention ever since Singapore seceded from Malaysia in 1965. Stagnating water caused by the Causeway has raised health concerns in Johor. Malaysia proposed to replace the causeway with a bridge, allowing water, tide movement and ship movement from Pasir Gudang, the older port in Johor to the new port in Gelang Patah through the Straits of Johor. Singapore rejected this proposal, after which Malaysia came up with the idea of what became known as "the crooked half-bridge", 25m above water level, and descending halfway to link up with the low-level causeway. The railway was to have a swing bridge. The scheme was part of the Gerbang Selatan Bersepadu project. It had been previously announced that the bridge project would go ahead, even without the agreement of the Singaporean government. The bridge would become a straight bridge if the Singaporean government accepted the project. Construction work on the bridge stopped, however, on the orders of the former Prime Minister, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who cited the unwillingness of Malaysia to sell sand and allow the use of Malaysian airspace by Singapore as a return for Singaporean consent to the bridge's construction.

Animosity between previous leaders of both countries has abated with the rise of new leaders, Abdullah Badawi as Malaysian Prime Minister replacing Mahathir Mohamad and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore replacing Goh Chok Tong. It has renewed talks and improved relations between countries.

Some analysts have concluded that replacing the causeway with a bridge would allow a creation of a comprehensive port system linking Johor Port and Tanjung Pelepas Port in Johor; some go on to suggest that this presents a threat to Singapore's port activity, thus explaining the initial reluctance of Singapore to agree to the causeway's replacement.

The second road connection, the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link, was completed in October 1997; the link consists of a 1920 m twin-deck bridge supporting a dual-three lane carriageway linking Kampong Ladang in Tanjung Kupang, Johor, to Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim in Tuas, Singapore.

Government and politics

Monarchy

Sultan's Palace in Johor Bahru

Johor is a constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Establishment Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The State's Sultan since 1981 has been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj. His Majesty passed away on Fri, 22 Jan 2010. Tunku Ibrahim Ismail Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar was proclaimed as the new Sultan of Johor on Sat, 23 Jan 2010.

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called the Royal Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.[5]

State government

See also: Breakdown of State Seats Representatives, elected in 2008

The state government is headed by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, a former civil servant. The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage.

Districts

The State of Johor is divided into the districts of:

  • Johor Bahru 1817.8 km², population 1,370,738 (2005)
    • Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru (Abbreviation as MBJB or City Council of Johor Bahru. It includes areas of Johor Bahru Downtown, Tampoi, Pelangi, Pasir Pelangi, Rinting, Tasek Utara, Pandan, Permas Jaya, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Mount Austin, Kawasan Tebrau.) (Official Website: http://www.mbjb.gov.my)
  • Kulaijaya 753.45 km², population: 192,000 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Kulaijaya (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kulai) (Includes areas of Senai, Kulai Town, Sedenak, Ayer Bemban)
  • Pontian 919.5 km², population: 160,722 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Pontian
  • Kota Tinggi 3488.7 km², population: 212,558 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi
  • Kluang 2851.8 km², population: 295,373 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Kluang (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Utara)
    • Majlis Daerah Simpang Renggam (previously known as Majlis Daerah Kluang Selatan)
  • Segamat 2851.26 km², population: 198,142 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Segamat (Majlis Daerah Segamat Utara) (Includes areas of Jementah, Buloh Kasap, Batu Enam and Gemas Baharu)
    • Majlis Daerah Labis (previously known as Majlis Daerah Segamat Selatan) (Includes areas of Tenang Station, Chaah, Bekok and Pekan Air Panas)
  • Muar 2346.12 km², population: 373,587 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Muar (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Selatan) (Includes areas of Bukit Pasir, Bukit Bakri, Parit Jawa, others)
  • Ledang 970.24 km², population: 58,501 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Tangkak (previously known as Majlis Daerah Muar Utara)(Includes areas of Bukit Gambir, Sagil, Serom, Kesang, others)
  • Batu Pahat 1878 km², population: 382,175 (2005)
    • Majlis Perbandaran Batu Pahat (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Barat)(The capital of the district is Batu Pahat (city),also known as Bandar Penggaram.)
    • Majlis Daerah Yong Peng (previously known as Majlis Daerah Batu Pahat Timur)
  • Mersing 2838.6 km², population: 73,920 (2005)
    • Majlis Daerah Mersing

Ranking Population Johor.

Rank Districts Population 2009
1 Johor Bharu 1,449,900
2 Batu Pahat 419,800
3 Muar 408,400
4 Kluang 324,800
5 Kota Tinggi 249,600
6 Segamat 217,400
7 Pontian 178,00
8 Mersing 87,400

Economy

Iskandar Malaysia

The Iskandar, Johor (also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region), encompassing Johor Bahru, Johor Bahru Tengah, Kulaijaya, Pasir Gudang and Nusajaya is a major development zone in Johor. It was named after the late Sultan Iskandar Al-haj. At 2215 km², it is two-and-a-half times bigger than Singapore and 48 times the size of Putrajaya. It is intended to draw investment and business to Johor and will be among the biggest development projects in Malaysia. As part of the project, the state administrative capital will be moved to Nusajaya.

Education

Kolej Matrikulasi Johor campus in Tangkak

Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat (UTHM), Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor ( UiTM) in Segamat and UiTM City Campus in Johor Bahru and several polytechnics. Johor also has a teaching college called Maktab Perguruan Temenggung Ibrahim. It has one non-profit community college called Southern College situated in Skudai. Southern College was established in 1990 owing to the generous support from the communities. It is the first non-profit community college in the country wholly funded by public donation and is open to Malaysian students of all races.[6]

Johor Education Foundation (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education oppurtunity in Johor state. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world.

At the primary level, Muslim Johorean students are required to attend Islamic religious school in addition to national school. Many Malay Johoreans have competent skills in Jawi script, the official script in Johor since 1885, which is still used in Islamic religious and Malay cultural matters.

Transportation hubs

Ports

Johor has three ports, the Pasir Gudang Port, the Port of Tanjung Pelepas and the Tanjung Langsat Port.

Airports

Johor has one international airport (30 km away from JB city centre), The Sultan Ismail International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction.

The airport is a regional hub of AirAsia, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines also operate flights from Senai airport to some local and international destinations.

Tourism

Major tourist attractions

Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:

  • Tebrau - Arulmigu Sri RajaKaliamman Glass Temple- The Worlds first Hindu Glass Temple
  • Desaru - beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
  • Johor Bahru - shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
  • Endau Rompin National Park - pristine jungle
  • Kota Tinggi 34 meter waterfall.
  • Kukup - a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
  • Muar - picturesque riverside town
  • Seribuat Archipelago - islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
  • Tanjung Piai - the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
  • Danga Bay - The new waterfront city
  • Pekan Air Panas - hot springs, waterfall, local fruits available
  • Bandar Nusajaya - new administration of Johor Government
  • Pulau Dayang - major diving attraction, snorkeling, fishing
  • Gunung Ledang - legendary mountain/highest peak in South of Peninsula Malaysia, famous of mountain hiking
  • Ayer Panas Waterfall - Malaysian "Jiu Zai Kou" with crystal clear water from the peak of Gunung Ledang
  • Tangkak - hometown of famous "Tangkak Beef Noodle", shopping paradise for fabric, served best handmade noodle in the world
  • Pulau Kukus - This island is close to Pulau Sibu Tengah and popular for snorkeling activity

National parks and forest reserves

Johor is also noted for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).

Mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang

Culture

The culture of Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. A major influence was the Bugis - who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melaka, Linggi, Selangor, Pahang and Terengganu - Javanese and the Arabs. They had a powerful impact on the politics of Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus.[7] Other visible legacies in Johor Bahru are the Arabic names of places such as Wadi Hana and Wadi Hassan in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramaut in the southeast of Yemen. Wadi means valley in Arabic.

Language

The Johorean' s Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riau, Malacca and Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malay and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within and without the Malay Archipelago, as well as the former economic might and influence of Malacca and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's lingua franca since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages.

Clothing

  • Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design for the male garment 'baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to commemorate the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine', with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1-2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.[8]
  • Kurung Johor
  • Kurung Riau
  • Belah kebaya panjang

Songs

Tanjung Puteri is the song most commonly associated with Johor.

Tanjung Puteri

Tambak Johor Tanjung Puteri

Selat Tebrau airnya biru

Di Pantai Lido tepian mandi

Sepanjang masa di hari minggu

Atas bukit Tanjung Puteri

Taman hiburan indah berseri

Pemandangan menawan hati

Jalan tambak hubungan negeri

(chorus)

Tanjung Sekijang nun di kuala

Tempat nelayan mengail gelama

Istana Hinggap di Kuala Danga

Pantai berkelah keluarga diRaja

Dari Tebrau orang berakit

Singgah Stulang membeli kopi

Pusara si Bongkok di lereng bukit

Di tepi pantai Tanjung Puteri

Folk Dances and Music

Zapin dance

Zapin is a dance form which is popular in Malaysia, especially in the state of Johor. It is believed to have been introduced by Muslim missionaries from the Middle East in the 14th century.

In the old days only males were allowed to perform it, but nowadays female dancers are included. It used to be performed exclusively for religious ceremonies but through the years it has become a form of traditional entertainment.

The dancers usually perform in pairs and are accompanied by a traditional music ensemble normally consisting of the gambus, accordion, violin, marwas (bongos), rebana (drum) and dok.

There are various types of Zapin in Johore namely Zapin Melayu, Zapin Pekajang, Zapin Tenglu, Zapin Pulau, Zapin Parit Mastar, Zapin Lenga and so on. These variants are caused by the districts and on how the dance is performed.

Kuda Kepang

Kuda Kepang is a dance or game performed by Johoreans, especially of Javanese descent. Kuda kepang is a legless horse-shaped puppet that is straddled by the performers. Usually, a troupe of performers consists of 10 to 15 people. It is performed at wedding ceremonies and cultural celebrations. There are several possible origins of Kuda Kepang. It is said to derive from the struggles of “Wali Songo”, a group of nine Islamic preachers in Java. Others said it originated from the movement of horses commanded by Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. There are several dance rhythms or patterns: the 'Sola', 'Selendang', 'Pak Tani', 'Pucuk Rebung', 'Perjuangan', and 'Mempertahankan Diri'. The bobbing movement of the performers and their horse puppet is called 'Lenggang Kiprah'.

The musical instruments used in kuda kepang performance are 'angklong', 'gendang', 'gong', 'kinong', 'jidor', 'soron kecil' and 'bonang'.

Barongan

Baronganis a traditional dance originated from the island of Java in Indonesia performed by Malays of Javanese origin, the Barongan is largely limited to the Muar, Batu Pahat, Rengit and Pontian districts of the southern Malaysian state of Johor, which is closely related to Kuda Kepang dance (Mohd. Ghouse, 1992). Like Kuda Kepang dance, the 'dragon-headed' Barongan dance has strong elements of trance and totemic worship. The Barongan is said to depict the dance of a hybrid (or mystical multifaceted) creature of diverse origins. Legend has it that the Barongan is a mystical creature which was once a manwho often amused himself by teasing fairies who turned him into a Barongan creature and cursed him to forever follow the Kuda Kepang which is why the Kuda Kepang dance is always followed by a Barongan performance. In 2009 when a Malaysian tourism commercial aired on Discovery Channel has sparked an uproar in Indonesia because it featured the Barongan dance which is a similar version of traditional Balinese dance called "Pendet".

=Keroncong

Keroncong originated and developed in Java with great Portuguese influence using the ukelele and other stringed instruments. It was brought to Malaysia from Java in the 15th century by the flock of Javanese immigrants and settlers especially the Malaysia southern state of Johor is a very popular and favourite musical play untill today. One style of keroncong which developed is called 'langgam jawa' which uses many of the rhythmic patterns heard typically in gamelan music along with the pelog scale. In this style there is a great amount of gamelan influence. In its original form, it consisted of songs sung with the accompaniment of the Indian sitar, the rebab or bowed chordaphone, the suling or bamboo flute, the gendang, kenong and saron of the gamelan ensemble, and a gong. Today, these instruments are sometimes replaced by the guitar (for sitar), violin (for rebab), modern flute, cello (which takes on the role of the gamelan instruments) and the bass (which substitutes the gong). Modern keroncong groups may even include the accordian and the vibraphone to add extra colour. The vocals however still remain traditional, based mainly on the Javanese pelog or slendro scales. Keroncong style music is also found among the repertoire of nationalistic Malaysian songs, as well as modern day pop-influenced tunes.

Legends

Legend of Badang

This is a story of Badang, a slave who gained super human strength by eating the vomitous of a river spirit. He used this to win his release from his master. Contrary to popular belief, Badang was born in Sayong Pinang, Johor, not Singapore or Temasik as it was known then. Upon hearing his strength, he was summoned by the Seri Rama Wira Kerma of Temasik where he displayed his skills. Challengers were sent by foreign kingdoms to defeat him. Among them were King of Kalinga I from India who sent Nadi Bijaya Pikrama, a fierce wrestler, and the noblemen of Perlak who sent Benderang. Badang emerged victorious from both fights and eventually stayed in Temasik until his death.

Legend of Malim Deman

Malim Deman is a king in Segamat who was in love with Princess Santan Bertapis. The princess was kidnapped by a spirit and Malim Deman swore that as long as the princess is not returned, the Segamat area shall experience floods for all eternity. However, with modern town planning and irrigation, flooding is now a rare occurrence in Segamat.

Legend of Gunung Ledang

See main article Legend of Gunung Ledang

Awang's spear returned to Dayang

Lembing Awang Pulang ke Dayang (Awang's spear Returned to Dayang) is an incident that occurred in Parit Raja, Muar.

It occurred in 1776 when a man called Awang returned to Padang (now known as Parit Raja, Muar) after more than 3 years abroad to marry his fiancee Dayang. Upon his return, he found out that another man called Bachok @ Pa'achok had told Dayang of Awang's death and she was to be married to him the next day. Awang showed up at the wedding and using a twin spear given by Raja Bugis, he speared Bachok in the stomach. Bachok, fatally injured, grabbed the spear in his stomach and speared his best man. The man then speared the next man he saw and this was repeated until the 99th person was speared. It was Dayang's father who was protecting Dayang. He did not continue the repeated spearing and died. Awang ran away to Endau and Dayang did not marry another until she died.

Black Tongue Warrior

Panglima Lidah Hitam (the Black Tongue Warrior) ia a lagendary warrior in Johor state.

Hamdolok

Hamdolok originated from the exposure of Middle East culture introduced by Arabs in Johor. It is a traditional theatre performed during weddings and festivals. It is a blend of artistic characters of both the Middle-East and local Malay communities. Instruments used include the gambus, tambourine, maracas and conga drums. It was also inspired by the Bedouin celebrating the birth of Islamic prophet Muhammad playing musical instruments and reciting poetry.

Cuisine

Dishes and cuisine in Johor are influenced by Arabs and the surrounding Malay archipelago. Some of the dishes are a unique blend of ingredients not found anywhere else in Malaysia. Due to their difficult and sometimes complicated recipes, some can only be sampled during celebrations and state banquets.

  • Laksa Johor is a cuisine originated from Johor. It differs from Laksa Penang by having coconut milk added during cooking. It also differs from other laksas by using spaghetti instead of rice-based noodles.
  • Mee Bandung Muar is also a dish originated from Johor, specifically from Muar. The term 'bandung' is not derived from Bandung, Indonesia but is a term for anything that is mixed from many ingredients. One of the most important ingredient is dried shrimp.
  • Penganan Kacau keledek is a dessert normally reserved for the Johor monarch and elites. It is made from sweet potatoes, a lot of eggs (at least 40), fresh coconut milk (not instant ones) and huge amounts of sugar. It is mixed together and stirred on a simmering heat for at least 4 hours.
  • Mee rebus is the famous noodle dish which consists of Mee (a spaghetti like mixture of flour, salt and egg) and is served with a tangy, spicy brown sauce. Usually crumbs and boiled eggs are added.
  • Arisa - A unique chicken dish that is very rare nowadays, and is normally served to the royalties and social elites of Johor at formal functions and celebrations.
  • Satay - is a popular food in Malaysia. Made from marinated meat or chicken and burnt on charcoal grill. Cooked satay is dipped in special peanut sauce. A favourite Malay food in Johor, mostly found in Johor Bahru and Muar.
  • Telur pindang - Eggs boiled together with herbs and spices, popular during wedding feasts in Johor.
  • Roti Jala or Roti Kirai(Wendy Li) - The name is derived from the Malay word 'roti' (bread) and 'jala' (net). A special ladle with a five-hole perforation used to make the bread looks like a fish net (picture in the works). It is usually eaten spicy with curry or sweet with 'serawa'. Serawa is made from a mixture of boiled coconut milk, brown sugar and pandan leaf.
  • Nasi Beriani Gam - A biryani rice dish originating from India with a cooking method very similar to Hyderabad biryani but with spices adjusted to suit the Malay palate. This dish is very popular in Batu Pahat District.
  • Kacang Pol- This dish is influenced by Arab Culture where special baked bread was served with special sauce and a 'sunny side up' egg.
  • Pisang Salai or Gimpi smoked banana cooked into perfection
  • Otak-otak - Steamed/Grilled fish cake usually served wrapped in sticks of coconut leaves. Two of the most popular varieties are Otak-otak Muar (spicy) and Otak-otak Gelang Patah (sweet).
  • Mee Soto[9] - This Indonesian origin food is very popular in Johor. People may have change noodles with rice or vermicelli rice according to their preference. Combination of either noodle, rice or vermicelli rice is added with peanut, beansprout and chicken meat. These combination then is poured with special soup. This soup was made from chicken stock and some other spice. Enjoy it while its hot.
  • Mee Bakso - This is almost identical with soto, only this dish have meatball instead of slices of chicken meat.
  • Lontong - Dish using combination of pressed rice and special coconut soup with vegtables. Enjoy it with boiled egg and chili.
  • Burasak - It is a type of Buginese food.
  • Halwa Maskat This dessert type food may be originated from muscat, Oman.
  • Kerutup ikan - Fish is steamed with variety of local fragrant leaves.
  • Pecal - It is a Javanese traditional cuisine which consists of long beans, slice of cucumber, beansprout, tauhu, tempe mix with special peanut sauce.
  • Tauhu bakar- it is made from soybean where it is burnt on a grill and cut into cubes and dip with special sauce.
  • Pendaram
  • Mee Siput - It is a mixture of flour that will expand in term of size when deep fried.
  • Rojak Petis - It is a combination of local vegetables mix with special black colored sauce made mostly from shrimp(Otak Udang).
  • ABC - ABC is abbreviation of 'Air Batu Campur' or known as Ice Kacang Johor. It is a special desserts created from shaved ice added with corn, jelly, redbeans, groundnut, syrup, pasteurized milk, and liquid chocolate.

Javanese-influenced cuisine

There are a few Johorean dishes with Javanese influences. These include lontong, nasi ambeng and bontrot or berkat - both traditionally served after feasts like wedding ceremonies, Yasinan and others; and ungkep.[10]

References

  1. ^ Ancient names of Johor, 2 March 2009, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  2. ^ Roads to fame, Fauziah Ismail, Johor Buzz, New Straits Times
  3. ^ Ancient temple steeped in history, Peggy Loh, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  4. ^ Mother Nature hits back, December 29, 2006, The Star (Malaysia)
  5. ^ An army of its own, Fauziah Ismail, JohorBuzz, New Straits Times
  6. ^ About Southern College, Message from the Executive Advisor, retrieved February 21, 2009
  7. ^ Folk dance with religious origin, 14 April 2005, Peggy Loh, Travel Times, New Straits Times
  8. ^ Kenali Gaya: Mata lalat, tulang belut bezakan baju Melayu, Berita Harian Online, September 2008
  9. ^ Little touches for unique dishes, GEETHA KRISHNAN, June 26, 2006, The Star (Malaysia)
  10. ^ Hidangan dan Masakan Johor, 11 December 2006, Official Portal of the Johor State Government

Bibliography

  • Trocki, Carl A., Prince of Pirates: the Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885, University of Hawaii Press, 1979, ISBN 9789971693763 ISBN 9971693763

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Map of Johor in Malaysia
Map of Johor in Malaysia

Johor [1], formerly Johore, is the southernmost state of Peninsular Malaysia.

Understand

Despite its large size, most of Johor is covered with rubber and oil palm plantations, with few historical attractions or natural wonders. Most people just pass through on their way between Kuala Lumpur, Singapore and the islands of the East Coast.

Get in

Johor Bahru is on the Malaysian rail network and has an airport with good connections around Malaysia.

Get around

Virtually all transport in Johor radiates out from Johor Bahru.

Eat

Johor's culinary specialities include mee rebus, spicy noodles in sweet potato soup, and Johor laksa, an offbeat version of the ubiquitous noodle dish: in Johor's version, the usual rice noodles are replaced with yellow egg noodles (not spaghetti) and topped with a thick paste of fish, onion, peanuts, chili peppers and spices.

Mee Rebus Stulang, Kacang Pol Haji, Sayur kangkung Cincin Mas and others will surely bring up the mood plus with the nicely done ABC special, cendol and other varieties of hot drink to choose from.

Stay safe

Crime Rates are high in the recent years. Do take care of your personal belongings while strolling along the streets. Do not dress inappropriately and do not show expensive jewellery.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JOHOR (Johore is the local official, but incorrect spelling), an independent Malayan state at the southern end of the peninsula, stretching from 2° 40' S. to Cape Romania (Ramunya), the most southerly point on the mainland of Asia, and including all the small islands adjacent to the coast which lie to the south of parallel 2° 40' S. It is bounded N. by the protected native state of Pahang, N.W. by the Negri Sembilan and the territory of Malacca, S. by the strait which divides Singapore island from the mainland, E. by the China Sea, and W. by the Straits of Malacca. The province of Muar was placed under the administration of Johor by the British government as a temporary measure in 1877, and was still a portion of the sultan's dominions in 1910. The coast-line measures about 250 m. The greatest length from N.W. to S.E. is 165 m., the greatest breadth from E. to W. 100 m. The area is estimated at about 9000 sq. m. The principal rivers are the Muar, the most important waterway in the south of the peninsula; the Johor, up which river the old capital of the state was situated; the Endau, which marks the boundary with Pahang; and the Batu Pahat and Sedeli, of comparative unimportance. Johor is less mountainous than any other state in the peninsula. The highest peak is Gunong Ledang, called Mt Ophir by Europeans, which measures some 4000 ft. in height. Like the rest of the peninsula, Johor is covered from end to end by one vast spread of forest, only broken here and there by clearings and settlements of insignificant area. The capital is Johor Bharu (pop. about 20,000), situated at the nearest point on the mainland to the island of Singapore. The fine palace built by the sultan Abubakar is the principal feature of the town. It is a kind of Oriental Monte Carlo, and is much resorted to from Singapore. The capital of the province of Ali - tar is Bandar Maharani, named after the wife of the sultan before he had assumed his final title. The climate of Johor is healthy and equable for a country situated so near to the equator; it is cooler than that of Singapore. The shade temperature varies from 98.5° F. to 68.2° F. The rainfall averages 97.28 in. per annum. No exact figures can be obtained as to the population of Johor, but the best estimates place it at about 200,000, of whom 150,000 are Chinese, 35,000 Malays, 15,000 Javanese. We are thus presented with the curious spectacle of a country under Malay rule in which the Chinese outnumber the people of the land by more than four to one. It is not possible to obtain any exact data on the subject of the revenue and expenditure of the state. The revenue, however, is probably about 750,000 dollars, and the expenditure under public service is comparatively small. The revenue is chiefly derived from the revenue farms for opium, spirits, gambling, &c., and from duty on pepper and gambier exported by the Chinese. The cultivation of these products forms the principal industry. Areca-nuts and copra are also exported in some quantities, more especially from Muar. There is little mineral wealth of proved value.

History

It is claimed that the Mahommedan empire of Johor was founded by the sultan of Malacca after his expulsion from his kingdom by the Portuguese in 1511. It is certain that Johor took an active part, only second to that of Achin, in the protracted war between the Portuguese and the Dutch for the possession of Malacca. Later we find Johor ruled by an officer of the sultan of Riouw (Riau), bearing the title of Tumenggong, and owing feudal allegiance to his master in common with the Bendahara of Pahang. In 1812, however, this officer seems to have thrown off the control of Riouw, and to have assumed the title of sultan, for one of his descendants, Sultan Husain, ceded the island of Singapore to the East India Company in 1819. In 1855 the then sultan, Ali, was deposed, and his principal chief, the Tumenggong, was given the supreme rule by the British. His son Tumenggong Abubakar proved to be a man of exceptional intelligence. He made numerous visits to Europe, took considerable interest in the government and development of his country, and was given by Queen Victoria the title of maharaja in 1879. On one of his visits to England he was made the defendant in a suit for breach of promise of marriage, but the plaintiff was non-suited, since it was decided that no action lay against a foreign sovereign in the English law courts. In 1885 he entered into a new agreement with the British government, and was allowed to assume the title of sultan of the state and territory of Johor. He was succeeded in 1895 by his son Sultan Ibrahim. The government of Johor has been comparatively so free from abuses under its native rulers that it has never been found necessary to place it under the residential system in force in the other native states of the peninsula which are under British control, and on several occasions Abubakar used his influence with good effect on the side of law and order. The close proximity of Johor to Singapore has constantly subjected the rulers of the former state to the influence of European public opinion. None the less, the Malay is by nature but ill fitted for the drudgery which is necessary if proper attention is to be paid to the dull details whereby government is rendered good and efficient. Abubakar's principal adviser, the Dato 'Mentri, was a worthy servant of his able master. Subsequently, however, the reins of government came chiefly into the hands of a set of young men who lacked either experience or the serious devotion to dull duties which is the distinguishing mark of the English civil service. Muar, in imitation of the British system, is ruled by a raja of the house of Johor, who bears the title of resident. (H. Cr..)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Johor

Plural
-

Johor

  1. State in western Malaysia which has Johor Bahru as its capital.

Simple English

Johor (last time known as Johore, Jawi script: جوهر) is a state of Malaysia between 1°20"N and 2°35"N. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The capital city and royal seat of Johor is Johor Bahru, once known as Tanjung Puteri. The old state capital is Johor Lama. The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Ta'zim ("Abode of Dignity'). Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south which is divided by the international border between Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore. Tanjung Piai, in the district of Pontian, is the most southerly point of mainland Asia.

Singaporeans and Johoreans often use the word JB to refer to the city of Johor Bahru.

Contents

History

The name "Johor" came from the Arabic word Jauhar, 'gem/precious stone' . Before the name Johor was taken up, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujung Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southerly point of the Asian continental mainland.

Transportation centres

Ports

Johor has three ports: Pasir Gudang Port, Port of Tanjung Pelepas and Tanjung Langsat Port.

Airports

Johor has one international airport (30 km away from the city centre), The Sultan Ismail International Airport in Senai (01’38’26’ N, 103’40’13’ E). It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times ever since. Currently, it has a 5 million passenger capacity with parallel taxiway under construction.

The airport is also a regional hub of AirAsia, a regional low-cost no-frills airline. Malaysia Airlines also operate flights from Senai airport to some local and international destinations.

Government structure of Johor

Monarchy

Johor is a constitutional monarchy. It was the first state in Malaysia which adopted the constitutional monarchy system, and its laws are stated in Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Establishment Constitution), written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This position can only be passed down and held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The State's Sultan since 1981 has been Sultan Iskandar Al-Haj.

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor paid by the state government.

State government

  • See Also:Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2008

The state government is led by the Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. The current Chief Minister is Dato' Abdul Ghani Othman, a former civil servant. The Chief Minister is assisted by an executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters on the state. Members of the assembly are elected every five years in an election.

Places of interest

Major tourist attractions

Among the popular tourist destinations in Johor are:

  1. Desaru - beaches & golf courses along the South China Sea
  2. Johor Bahru - shopping, night market, colonial/royal district
  3. Endau Rompin National Park - pristine jungle
  4. Kota Tinggi 34 meter waterfall.
  5. Kukup - a fishing village with seafood restaurants built over water
  6. Muar - picturesque riverside town
  7. Seribuat Archipelago - islands with beautiful beaches, coral reefs
  8. Tanjung Piai - the southernmost tip of mainland Asia
  9. Danga Bay - The new waterfront city
  10. Pekan Air Panas - hot springs,waterfall,local fruits available
  11. Bandar Nusajaya - new admistration of Johor Government

National parks and forest reserves

Johor is also known for its national parks. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²).

Geography

Physical

In the official census of 2000, the population of Johor was 2.75 million people with 54% Malays, 35% Chinese, 7% Indians and 4% others. It is the fifth largest state (18,984 km²) of Malaysia. It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia being South of Melaka, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang and North of Singapore from which it is separated by the Straits of Johor. The highest point in Johor is Gunung (mountain) Ledang (1276 m). Gunung Ledang is also known as Mount Ophir. Johor is the only state in Malaysia which has a 400 km beach stretching on both the East and the West coast.

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones.

  1. Pulau Tinggi
  2. Pulau Rawa
  3. Pulau Sibu
  4. Pulau Tengah
  5. Pulau Pemanggil
  6. Pulau Aur
  7. Pulau Besar
  8. Pulau Lima

Weather

Johor experiences wet equatorial weather with monsoon rain from Nov until Feb blowing from the South China Sea. Average annual rainfall is 1778 mm with average temperature of between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.

Hundred Year Peak Rain Fall

On 19 December 2006, continuously heavy downpour occurred in Johor. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions were destroyed and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.

Links to Singapore

Johor is linked to Singapore by two road connections: the Johor-Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link.

The Johor-Singapore Causeway (length: 1038 m) was designed by Messrs Coode, Fizmaurice, Wilson and Mitchell of Westminster, while the construction contract was awarded to Topham, Jones & Railton Ltd of London. It started in 1909 as a railway link by Johor State Railway to connect Johor Bahru to Singapore, then the administrative headquarters of British interests in South-East Asia. Construction of the road section started in 1919 and was completed in 1923.

See also Geography and climate of Singapore.

Other websites

States and Federal Territories of Malaysia
States: Johor | Kedah | Kelantan | Malacca | Negeri Sembilan | Pahang | Perak | Perlis | Penang | Sabah | Sarawak | Selangor | Terengganu
Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur | Labuan | Putrajaya

Coordinates: 1°29′14″N, 103°46′52″Ebjn:Johor


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