Joint: Wikis

  

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact.[1] They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.[2]

Contents

Classification

Depiction of an intervertebral disk, a cartilaginous joint.
Diagram of a synovial (diarthrosis) joint.

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.

Terms ending in the suffix -sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization.

Structural classification

Structural classification names and divides joints according to how the bones are connected to each other.[3] There are three structural classifications of joints:

Functional classification

Joints can also be classified functionally, by the degree of mobility they allow:[4]

Biomechanical classification

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints:[6]

  1. Simple Joint: 2 articulation surfaces (eg. shoulder joint, hip joint)
  2. Compound Joint: 3 or more articulation surfaces (eg. radiocarpal joint)
  3. Complex Joint: 2 or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (eg. knee joint)

Anatomical

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups:

  1. Articulations of hand
  2. Elbow joints
  3. Wrist joints
  4. Axillary articulations
  5. Sternoclavicular joints
  6. Vertebral articulations
  7. Temporomandibular joints
  8. Sacroiliac joints
  9. Hip joints
  10. Knee joints
  11. Articulations of foot

Arthritis

Arthritis and direct physical trauma to a joint are the causes of joint damage. Arthritis is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55.

There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease) occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This form of gout is known as pseudogout.

See also

References

  1. ^ joint at eMedicine Dictionary
  2. ^ Ellis, Harold; Susan Standring; Gray, Henry David (2005). Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. pp. 38. ISBN 0-443-07168-3. 
  3. ^ "Introduction to Joints (3)". anatomy.med.umich.edu. http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/modules/joints_module/joints_03.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  4. ^ "Introduction to Joints (2)". anatomy.med.umich.edu. http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/modules/joints_module/joints_02.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  5. ^ synovial joint at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  6. ^ "Introductory Anatomy: Joints". http://www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy4.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JOINT (through Fr. from Lat. junctum, jungere, to join), that which joins two parts together or the place where two parts are joined. (See Joinery; Joints.) In law, the word is used adjectivally as a term applied to obligations, estates, &c., implying that the rights in question relate to the aggregate of the parties joined. Obligations to which several are parties may be several, i.e enforceable against each independently of the others, or joint, i.e. enforceable only against all of them taken together, or joint and several, i.e. enforceable against each or all at the option of the claimant (see Guarantee). So an interest or estate given to two or more persons for their joint lives continues only so long as all the lives are in existence. Joint-tenants are co-owners who take together at the same time, by the same title, and without any difference in the quality or extent of their respective interests; and when one of the jointtenants dies his share, instead of going to his own heirs, lapses to his co-tenants by survivorship. This estate is therefore to be carefully distinguished from tenancy in common, when the co-tenants have each a separate interest which on death passes to the heirs and not to the surviving tenants. When several take an estate together any words or facts implying severance will prevent the tenancy from being construed as joint.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also joint

German

Noun

Joint m. (genitive Joints, plural Joints)

  1. a marijuana cigarette; joint.

Simple English

A joint (articulation) is the place at which two bones make contact (articulate). Joints allow movement and give mechanical support. Joints have cartilage in between to make the movement flexible.Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.









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