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Jonathan Bayard Smith (February 21, 1742 – June 16, 1812) was an American merchant from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served as a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress in 1777 and 1778.

Jonathan was the son of Samuel Smith of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, who had moved to Philadelphia and conducted a successful mercantile business. He graduated from Princeton in 1760 and joined his father in business. He also became an early advocate for American Independence.

Smith became a member of the Committee of Safety, and in 1775 was made its secretary. He was elected a delegate to the Congress in 1777, and served from April 4 that year until November of 1778. While in Congress he endorsed to Articles of Confederation for Pennsylvania, but his role as a civic leader and advocate seems more important. Having advocated taking up arms (a sometimes unpopular stance in largely Quaker Pennsylvania) he also joined the militia, becoming a Lt. Colonel of John Bayard's regiment.

After his congressional career, he returned his attention to business, but remained active in civic affairs. He became a great promoter of education, and in 1779 was one of the founders and a trustee of the University of the state of Pennsylvania. In 1795, when it merged with two other schools to become the University of Pennsylvania, he became a trustee of the new school, serving until his death. He also served as a trustee for Princeton for thirty years.

Smith also served in other fraternal and civic organizations. He became an alderman in Philadelphia, a grand master of the Masons, and a member of the American Philosophical Society. He died at home in 1812 at Philadelphia and is buried in the Second Presbyterian Church Graveyard there.

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