January 3, 2009
|Preceded by||William J. Jefferson|
|Born||March 13, 1967
Saigon, South Vietnam
|Birth name||Cao Quang Ánh|
|Spouse(s)||Hieu "Kate" Hoang|
|Children||Sophia and Betsy|
|Residence||New Orleans, Louisiana, USA|
|Alma mater||Jersey Village High
School, near Houston, Texas
Loyola University New Orleans
Anh "Joseph" Quang Cao (Vietnamese: Cao Quang Ánh, with Cao pronounced /ˈɡaʊ/ "gow" in English; born March 13, 1967) is a New Orleans lawyer and the current U.S. Representative from Louisiana's 2nd congressional district. He is a member of the Republican Party. On December 6, 2008, Cao defeated nine-term Democratic U.S. Representative William Jefferson with 49.6 percent of the vote to Jefferson's 46.8 percent.
Cao is the first Vietnamese American, as well as the first native of Vietnam, to serve in Congress, and the first Republican to serve in his district since 1890; his district usually votes overwhelmingly Democratic. Cao is the least affluent member of Louisiana's delegation (including the state's two senators) in Congress: as of 2009 his assets were no greater than $195,000 and his potential liabilities mounting to $215,000, including student loans for himself and his wife.
Cao previously ran unsuccessfully as an independent for District 103 of the Louisiana House of Representatives. He was a delegate to the 2008 Republican National Convention during Hurricane Gustav, during which time his home was flooded. At the time of his election to Congress, Cao was a member of the Orleans Parish Board of Election Supervisors, appointed to the Board by Governor Bobby Jindal.
A devout Roman Catholic, Cao served as a board member for Mary Queen of Vietnam Catholic Church's Community Development Corporation which assists Vietnamese-Americans with hurricane relief, and is a member of the National Advisory Council of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.
Cao's father, My Quang Cao (born 1931), was a lieutenant in the South Vietnamese Army and was captured by the North Vietnamese Army at the end of the Vietnam War. His mother, Khang Thi Tran (born 1935), did not immediately flee South Vietnam, staying with five of Cao's siblings and allowed to visit her husband only five times during the seven years he was imprisoned in a Communist "re-education camp". Cao was eight years old when he went to the United States in 1975 with two other siblings and an uncle as a refugee. Once released, Cao's father joined his family in Houston, Texas, suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and diabetes.
Cao is married to Hieu “Kate” Hoang; they have two daughters — Sophia and Betsy. The Caos live in New Orleans' Venetian Isles neighborhood. Kate and Joseph met, in 1998, at the Mary Queen of Vietnam Catholic Church in New Orleans East and the family has attended there since. After the 2008 election, Kate, an alumna of the Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy and a registered pharmacist, resigned from her position at a New Orleans Walgreens pharmacy.
Cao almost became a Roman Catholic priest. He graduated from Jersey Village High School in Houston. He then earned a bachelor's degree in physics at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. He was a Jesuit seminarian for six years, but abandoned it, realizing it was not his vocation. He earned his master's degree in philosophy from Fordham University and, in 2000, his J.D. from Loyola University School of Law in New Orleans. While in law school, he also taught undergraduate courses in philosophy at Loyola.
Cao used his legal training and experience in immigration issues. He taught at a parochial school in Virginia and volunteered at Boat People SOS (BPSOS) to assist Vietnamese refugees and immigrants and help organize Vietnamese-American communities toward self-sufficiency. He served as a board member of BPSOS from September 1996 to March 2002. After working with Waltzer & Associates, Cao opened his own law practice specializing in immigration law. He decided to enter politics after seeing the government response to Hurricane Katrina, and soon became involved in leading New Orleans East residents to oppose a landfill.
The situation, endorsements, campaign dynamics, and results gave the election significance far beyond the boundaries of the district.
Incumbent U.S. Representative William J. Jefferson won the Democratic primaries in 2008. Jefferson had weathered a major challenge in the Louisiana 2nd congressional district election, 2006, overcoming allegations that he had inappropriately used members of a Louisiana Army National Guard unit to reach his home during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
In 2008 Jefferson also faced federal charges of bribery involving Nigerian business interests and was perceived as vulnerable, with only 25 percent of Democrats voting for him in the Democratic primary. Jefferson faced six African-American challengers, along with newscaster Helena Moreno. In a runoff primary, Jefferson defeated Moreno by 57 percent to 43 percent in a vote largely along racial lines. Unopposed for the Republican nomination, Cao ran against Jefferson, as did Green Party candidate Malik Rahim and Libertarian Party candidate Gregory Kahn. An earlier candidate, independent Jerry Jacobs, had withdrawn.
On November 30, the New Orleans Times-Picayune endorsed Cao in an editorial, while on its op-ed page columnist James Gill stated that Jefferson's reelection "is not going to happen". The prospect of a serious general election in the heavily African American and Democratic 2nd district was startling, as the last Republican to represent the district was Hamilton D. Coleman, who left office in 1891.
Cao's candidacy received the endorsements of the Alliance for Good Government, the Family Research Council's Action PAC, Jefferson Parish Sheriff Newell Normand, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal, Jacquelyn Brechtel Clarkson, Stacy Head, and singer/entertainer Pat Boone. In the final days of the campaign, Democrats Helena Moreno, who was defeated by Jefferson in the Democratic primary runoff election, and former District Attorney Harry Connick, Sr., endorsed Cao and recorded telephone messages to be played to voters. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin announced his support for Jefferson during the Democratic primary elections. The New Orleans Gambit Weekly, citing its opposition to Jefferson's alleged corruption and to Cao's noncommittal statements on embryonic stem-cell research, made no endorsement.
The campaign was characterized by what Jefferson's campaign called "overly negative" tactics on behalf of Cao's campaign by outside organizations, such as the National Republican Congressional Committee. References were made to Democratic Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi's removal of Jefferson from the House Ways and Means Committee and entailed what USA Today termed a "barrage" of automated telephone calls, including from a woman who identified herself as "Katy" and who cited Jefferson's federal indictment on 16 counts of corruption. In a meeting of African-American ministers, Reverend Samuel Butler claimed the reason was to "disenfranchise" African-American voters, which motivated Cao advisor and political mentor, former New Orleans City Council member Bryan Wagner to reply: "with Rev. Butler's imagination, he may want to go to work for Walt Disney."
On December 6, the Times-Picayune reiterated its endorsement of Cao, pointing to President-Elect Barack Obama's efforts on behalf of Democrat Paul Carmouche in the simultaneous election in Louisiana's 4th congressional district and Obama's non-involvement in efforts to support Jefferson.
On 2009 August 5, Jefferson was found guilty on 11 of the 16 indictment counts. His lawyers immediately promised to appeal the jury decision.
CNN, at 10:20 PM CST of the election day, projected Cao to win. Complete unofficial results on the Louisiana Secretary of State's web site showed Cao with 33,122 (49.55%), Jefferson 31,296 (46.82%), Kahn 548 (0.82%), and Rahim 1,880 (2.81%). Jefferson won by 23,197 to 20,246 in Orleans Parish, where 21 of the 392 precincts showed zero votes for Cao. Cao, however, more than made up the difference with a margin of 12,696 to the incumbent's 8,099 in Jefferson Parish. A post-election map analysis by the Times-Picayune showed the election result as having depended on higher turnout in the precincts favorable to Cao.
After speaking by telephone 4 days after the election, on December 31, 2008, Wednesday, Jefferson and Cao met cordially at the home of New Orleans' Liberty Bank CEO Alden McDonald to discuss the transition.
Cao is the first Vietnamese-American elected to Congress. Cao's win rendered the 2nd District by far the most Democratic district in the nation to be represented by a Republican; the district has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+28.
Cao's victory over a tainted incumbent became a cause for celebration among many in Louisiana. As stated by Jeff Crouere in his column Ringside Politics, "The victory strikes a major blow against the reputation of Louisiana as a corrupt state".
House GOP members were particularly vocal in their glee over Cao's defeat of the Democrat. Among many other statements, House minority leader John Boehner asserted Cao's win as "a symbol of our future" in a memorandum with "The Future Is Cao" as its subject line.
Cao was sworn into office on January 6, 2009, with his family and a group of Vietnamese-Americans in attendance. After the official swearing-in by Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Jefferson Parish Judge Robert Murphy readministered the oath in Cao's new office.
Despite the tardiness of the election date, Cao was able to set up his office and staff and to gain committee assignments for the 111th Congress. On March 24, 2009, 11 weeks to the day after he was sworn in as a new member, Cao delivered his first speech on the House floor—a statement supporting a bill by California Democrat Linda Sanchez to express congressional support of Welcome Home Vietnam Veterans Day.
Cao, with the support of congressional Republicans who collectively had an entitlement to 40 percent of earmarks for federal projects, soon set about to "bring home the bacon" for his district. His requested projects totaled $1.2 billion, approximately three times the average for the other six members of Louisiana's U.S. House delegation. Support by Louisiana's Democratic United States Senator Mary Landrieu and by lobbyist and former United States Representative Bob Livingston rendered several of the projects credible for congressional approval.
Livingston represented the adjoining First Congressional District of Louisiana from 1977 to 1998. Cao has also shown interest in environmental issues, saying in a meeting at Loyola University New Orleans on April 16, 2009: "I recognize there is an issue of global warming that we have to address."
Cao was invited to a White House reception on April 23, 2009, at which time Cao presented the President with a letter requesting $490 million for post-Katrina restoration of New Orleans' Charity Hospital (FEMA had offered $150 million). Cao also spoke with Vice President Joe Biden regarding the recovery and met with White House social secretary Desiree Rogers.
The late date of Cao's election meant that he inherited Jefferson's office, 2113, in the Rayburn House Office Building, despite the difference in seniority. Writing in the Times-Picayune, Jonathan Tilove observed the notability of 2113 in the Rayburn Building due to its being, as Jefferson's former location, the only congressional office ever raided by the FBI. By the middle of February 2009 Cao had hired most of his staff.
In April 2009 Cao's district staff moved into what was reputed to be—by Kenner, Louisiana, mayor Ed Muniz — "Kenner's first-ever office for a sitting congressman". The office was formerly a storeroom in Kenner's Community Services Department at 624 Williams Boulevard (LA 49).
From the outset of Cao's congressional service, his relationship to the Congressional Black Caucus remained uncertain. George Mason University political scientist Michael K. Fauntroy described Cao's expressed interest in joining as "a very smart move"
|“||It sends a message to black voters in his district that, even though he's a Republican, he is doing more than just paying lip service to the history of the district ... I don't expect it to work out, but if it doesn't, to me the caucus will look bad on this.||”|
Cao told the Times-Picayune that President Obama should receive a letter grade of "A" for his first 100 days in office. Cao cited as his reason for such a high mark Obama's "working with us in this whole recovery process" (in reference to Hurricane Katrina). 
Among the bills which came to the floor during Cao's first days in Congress, Cao voted against the Obama Administration's stimulus package. Cao justified his votes on expressed dissatisfaction that his 2nd congressional district of Louisiana ranked dead last among the 435 congressional districts in outlays provided by the legislation even though the district was one of the most seriously damaged by hurricanes. His vote provoked a petition to recall Cao, which formally began on February 16, 2009. Louisiana Secretary of State Jay Dardenne and other Louisiana officials, as well as congressional analysts, perceived it as having little or no prospect of succeeding. Although the petition collected over 13,000 signatures on the first day, it needs over 100,000 within 180 days to fulfill Louisiana requirements, and Congress has never removed, and has no constitutional provision for removal of, a member because of constituents' recall. Several leaders of the recall campaign, specifically the Reverends Samuel Butler and Toris Young, claimed to have been supporters of Cao, but Cao and his campaign manager Bryan Wagner asserted that they had never met them. After Louisiana Attorney General Buddy Caldwell issued an opinion that the state cannot recall federal officials, Butler and Young announced that they would pursue the matter in the federal courts. Young's ability to criticize Cao was mocked by Times-Picayune columnist James Gill because of his 11 convictions for fraud and identity theft.
On March 1, 2009, the Times-Picayune reported that Obama had tried to reach Cao on his cellphone prior to the vote on the stimulus package but was unsuccessful; Cao acknowledged that Obama "might have been persuasive" with a "concrete commitment" to help the 2nd district and New Orleans. Cao averred that the Obama administration's $410 billion omnibus spending bill for the final 7 months of Fiscal Year 2009 (ending September 30, 2009) "would provide important benefits for his 2nd Congressional District" and became one of 16 Republicans voting in favor of that bill.
Before the recall petition, a separate petition had been started to recall New Orleans City Councilwoman Stacy Head, who is white but represents a predominantly black constituency after defeating Jefferson protégé Renée Gill Pratt in 2006. Head, a Democrat, supported Cao in the election on December 6, 2008. James Gill defended Head's support for Cao (who also is not white, but Asian) and asserted it was based not on race but on that "Jefferson ... is morally unfit for any public office." The petition to recall Head failed to meet its statutory deadline.
On February 25, 2009, Cao grabbed headlines by announcing that his staff members were investigating the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) office in New Orleans. Cao, whose aversive relationship with the agency had started during his time as a community activist for victims of Hurricane Katrina, accused FEMA of a host of malfeasance charges, including "widespread complaints of discrimination, sexual harassment, ethics violations, nepotism and cronyism." Cao conveyed his concerns to the Obama administration's Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, who promised that "we will obviously follow up." The next day Cao's call for the resignation of Doug Whitmer, head of FEMA's New Orleans office, was bolstered by United States Senator Mary Landrieu, whereupon the story spread on CBS News. Popular reaction quickly pervaded New Orleans blogsites, one of them calling its discussion FEMA having a Cao. On February 27, 2009, acting FEMA Director Nancy L. Ward replaced Whitmer with Tony Russell, previously an administrator in FEMA's Denver office. Ward stripped Jim Stark of his immediate responsibilities for Louisiana's FEMA district, leaving him as FEMA assistant administrator for Gulf Coast recovery. Cao had also been critical of John Connolly, FEMA chief for Gulf Coast public assistance, whom Stark cited as his source of information on "how much public-assistance money FEMA should approve for local projects" (in a congressional hearing with Cao on February 25, 2009). Connolly was previously with FEMA's Philadelphia office, and Cao asked rhetorically, "How many times has Philadelphia been hit by a hurricane?" On March 5, 2009, Cao joined Napolitano, Jindal, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan, Louisiana Lieutenant Governor Mitch Landrieu, U.S. Representative Charlie Melancon, and other federal, state, and local officials on a tour of damaged areas in New Orleans, including the campus of Southern University at New Orleans (SUNO), where the group was led by SUNO President Victor Ukpolo. Eleven days later, on March 16, Cao again visited the SUNO campus, pledging full support of Ukpolo's mission to rebuild the campus. The seguing event on Cao's agenda during the same day was a fund-raising cocktail party at the home of bankers Stephen and Dana Hansel at which the admission contribution was $1000 a person and an unexpected guest was former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich who was en route to lead a discussion in James Carville's political science class at Tulane University. The Times-Picayune, in an editorial on March 19, 2009, praised Ukpolo and Cao in their efforts to secure funding for restoration of SUNO's campus.
Louisiana State Representative, 103rd Representative District, 2007
Threshold > 50%
|Reed S. Henderson||Democratic||1,376 (21.61%)||Runoff|
|Mark Madary||Republican||1,188 (18.66%)||Runoff|
|"Mike" Bayham||Republican||1,154 (18.13%)||Defeated|
|Clay Cosse||Republican||1,144 (17.97%)||Defeated|
|Anh "Joseph" Cao||Independent||895 (14.06%)||Defeated|
|"Rob" Ruffino||Democratic||609 (9.57%)||Defeated|
|Reed S. Henderson||Democratic||3,143 (52.37%)||Elected|
|Mark Madary||Republican||2,858 (47.63%)||Defeated|
U. S. Representative, 2nd Congressional District, 2008
|Anh "Joseph" Cao||Republican||33,132 (49.54%)||Elected|
|Bill Jefferson||Democratic||31,318 (46.83%)||Defeated|
|United States House of Representatives|
William J. Jefferson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 2nd congressional district
January 3, 2009 – present
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