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Joseph Galloway.

Joseph Galloway (1731 – August 10, 1803) was an American Loyalist during the American Revolution, after serving as delegate to the First Continental Congress from Pennsylvania.

He was born near West River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and moved with his father to Pennsylvania in 1749, where he received a liberal schooling. He studied law, was admitted to the bar and began practice in Philadelphia. Galloway was a member of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly from 1757 to 1775 and served as Speaker of the House from 1766 to 1774.

Galloway was a member of the Continental Congress in 1774, where he proposed a compromise plan for Union with Great Britain which would provide the colonies with their own parliament subject to the Crown. He signed the nonimportation agreement, but was opposed to independence of the Thirteen colonies and remained loyal to the King. Ferling (1977) argues that Galloway's conduct was motivated partly by opportunism, and partly by genuine philosophical principles. A resident of cosmopolitan Philadelphia and an associate of Benjamin Franklin, Galloway was throughout his career a British-American nationalist, believing that the British Empire offered a citizen greater liberties than any nation on earth. Galloway urged reform of the imperial administration and was critical of the trade laws, the Stamp Act of 1765, and the Townshend Acts enacted in 1767; and as early as 1765 he had a conciliatory plan to end the disputes between London and the colonies. He basically believed that the British had the right to tax and govern the colonies, they should keep peace, and the British helps the colonies to survive and flourish. (although he did also believe the colonies' words should be heard)

In December of 1776, Galloway joined the British General Howe and accompanied him on his capture of Philadelphia. During the British occupation, he was appointed Superintendent of Police, and headed the civil government. He had a reputation as a highly efficient administrator, but one who repeatedly interfered in military affairs. He aggressively organized the Loyalists in the city, but was dismayed when the British army decided to abandon the city. When the British army withdrew, he went with them, and, in 1778, he moved to London. He was influential in convincing the British that a vast reservoir of Loyalist support could be tapped by aggressive leadership, thus setting up the British invasion of the South. The General Assembly of Pennsylvania convicted him of treason and confiscated his estates.

He died in Watford, Hertfordshire, England on August 29, 1803.

Galloway Township, New Jersey, may have been named for him, although there is another possible source of the name.[1]

References

  1. ^ History of Galloway Township, accessed July 4, 2006

Further reading

  • Ferling, John H. The Loyalist Mind: Joseph Galloway and the American Revolution 1977, Pennsylvania State Univ Press; ISBN 0-271-00514-9.
  • Newcomb, Benjamin H. Franklin and Galloway: A Political Partnership. Yale U. Press., 1972.

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JOSEPH GALLOWAY (1731-1803), American lawyer and politician, one of the most prominent of the Loyalists, was born in West River, Anne Arundel county, Maryland, in 1731. He early removed to Philadelphia, where he acquired a high standing as a lawyer. From 1756 until 1774 (except in 1764) he was one of the most influential members of the Pennsylvania Assembly, over which he presided in 1766-1773. During this period, with his friend Benjamin Franklin, he led the opposition to the Proprietary government, and in 1764 and 1765 attempted to secure a royal charter for the province. With the approach of the crisis in the relations between Great Britain and the American colonies he adopted a conservative course, and, while recognizing the justice of many of the colonial complaints, discouraged ,radical action and advocated a compromise. As a member of the First Continental Congress, he introduced (28th September 1774) a "Plan of a Proposed Union between Great Britain and the Colonies," and it is for this chiefly that he is remembered. It provided for a president-general appointed by the crown, who should have supreme executive authority over all the colonies, and for a grand council, elected triennially by the several provincial assemblies, and to have such "rights, liberties and privileges as are held and exercised by and in the House of Commons of Great Britain"; the president-general and grand council were to be "an inferior distinct branch of the British legislature, united and incorporated with it." The assent of the grand council and of the British parliament was to be "requisite to the validity of all ... general acts or statutes," except that "in time of War, all bills for granting aid to the crown, prepared by the grand council and approved by the president-general, shall be valid and passed into a law, without the assent of the British parliament." The individual colonies, however, were to retain control over their strictly internal affairs. The measure was debated at length, was advocated by such:influential members as John Jay and James Duane of New York and Edward Rutledge of South Carolina, and was eventually defeated only by the vote of six colonies to five. Galloway declined a second election to Congress in 1775, joined the British army at New Brunswick, New Jersey (December 1776), advised the British to attack Philadelphia by the Delaware, and during the British occupation of Philadelphia (1777-1778) was superintendent of the port, of prohibited articles, and of police of the city. In October 1778 he went to England, yvhere he remained until his death at Watford, Hertfordshire, on the 29th of August 1803. After he left America his life was attainted, and his property, valued at £40,000, was confiscated by the Pennsylvania Assembly, a loss for which he received a partial recompense in the form of a small parliamentary pension. He was one of the clearest thinkers and ablest political writers among the American Loyalists, and, according to Prof. Tyler, "shared with Thomas Hutchinson the supreme place among American statesmen opposed to the Revolution." Among his pamphlets are A Candid Examination of the Mutual Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies (1775); Historical and Political Reflections on the Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion (1780); Cool Thoughts on the Consequences to Great Britain of American Independence (1780); and The Claim of the American Loyalists Reviewed and Maintained upon Incontrovertible Principles of Law and Justice (1788).

See Thomas Balch (Ed.), The Examination of Joseph Galloway by a Committee of the House of Commons (Philadelphia, 18 55); Ernest H. Baldwin, Joseph Galloway, the Loyalist Politician (New Haven, 1903); and M. C. Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution (2 vols., New York, 1897).


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