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Joseph II
King of the Romans (King in Germany)
Reign 27 March 1764 - 20 February 1790
Coronation 3 April 1764, Frankfurt
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Leopold II
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign 18 Aug 1765 - 20 February 1790
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Leopold II
King of Hungary and Croatia
King of Bohemia
Archduke of Austria
Reign 1780 - 1790
(co-regent from 1765)
Predecessor Maria Theresa
Successor Leopold II
Spouse Isabella of Parma
Maria Josepha of Bavaria
Issue
Archduchess Maria Theresa

Archduchess Maria Christina

Full name
Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michael Adam
House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Theresa of Austria
Born 13 March 1741
Died 20 February 1790 (aged 48)
Vienna
Burial Imperial Crypt

Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine (von Habsburg-Lothringen in German). Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which eventually culminated in an ultimate failure to fully implement his programmes. He has been ranked, with Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment despots.[1]

He married Infanta Isabella of Parma, in October 1760—a union fashioned to bolster the 1756 defensive pact between France and Austria (the bride's mother was the eldest daughter of the incumbent King of France) -- with whom he had his only child, Maria Theresa.[2] Isabella died in 1763, and Maria Theresa in 1767. He was reluctant to re-marry, however, for political reasons, married Maria Josepha of Bavaria in 1765.[3] She died two years later from smallpox, and Joseph never re-married.

Contents

Heir and co-regent

Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession. His real education was given to him through the writings of Voltaire and the Encyclopedists, and by the example of King Frederick II of Prussia. His useful training was conferred by government officials, who were directed to instruct him in the mechanical details of the administration of the numerous states composing the Austrian dominions and the Empire.

He was made a member of the constituted council of state (Staatsrat) and began to draw up minutes (to which he gave the name of "Reveries") for his mother to read. These papers contain the germs of his later policy, and of all the disasters which finally overtook him. He was a friend to religious toleration, anxious to reduce the power of the church, to relieve the peasantry of feudal burdens, and to remove restrictions on trade and knowledge. In these, he did not differ from Frederick, Catherine of Russia, or his own brother and successor Leopold II, all enlightened rulers of the 18th century. He tried to liberate serfs, but that did not last after his death.[4]

Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, and where he was akin to the Jacobins, was in the intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason. As an absolutist ruler, however, he was also convinced of his right to speak for the state uncontrolled by laws, and of the sensibility of his own rule. He had also inherited from his mother the belief of the house of Austria in its "august" quality and its claim to acquire whatever it found desirable for its power or profit. He was unable to understand that his philosophical plans for the molding of humanity could meet with pardonable opposition.[5] Joseph was documented by contemporaries as being impressive, but not necessarily likeable. In 1760, his arranged consort, the well educated Isabella of Parma, was handed over to him. Joseph appears to have been completely in love with her, but Isabella preferred the companionship of Joseph's sister, Marie Christine of Austria. The overweening character of the Emperor was obvious to Frederick II of Prussia, who, after their first interview in 1769, described him as ambitious, and as capable of setting the world on fire. The French minister Vergennes, who met Joseph when he was travelling incognito in 1777, judged him to be "ambitious and despotic."[6]

Joseph II on his way to Frankfurt for his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor

Until the death of his mother in 1780, Joseph was never quite free to follow his own instincts. After the death of his father in 1765, he became emperor and was made co-regent by his mother in the Austrian dominions. As emperor, he had no real power, and his mother had resolved that neither her husband nor her son should ever deprive her of sovereign control in her hereditary dominions. Joseph, by threatening to resign his place as co-regent, could induce his mother to abate her dislike for religious toleration. He could and did place a great strain on her patience and temper, as in the case of the first partition of Poland and the Bavarian War of 1778–1779, but in the last resort, the empress spoke the final word.

During these wars, Joseph traveled much. He met Frederick the Great privately at Neisse in 1769, and again at Mährisch-Neustadt in 1770. On the second occasion, he was accompanied by Count Kaunitz, whose conversation with Frederick may be said to mark the starting point of the first partition of Poland. To this and to every other measure which promised to extend the dominions of his house, Joseph gave hearty approval. Thus, he was eager to enforce Austria's claim on Bavaria upon the death of the elector Maximilian Joseph in 1777. In April of that year, he paid a visit to his sister the queen of France, Marie Antoinette of Austria, traveling under the name of "Count Falkenstein." He was well received and much flattered by the Encyclopedists, but his observations led him to predict the approaching downfall of the French monarchy, and he was not impressed favorably by the French army or navy.

In 1778, he commanded the troops collected to oppose Frederick, who supported the rival claimant to Bavaria. Real fighting was averted by the unwillingness of Frederick to embark on a new war and by Maria Theresa's determination to maintain peace. In April 1780, Joseph paid a visit to Catherine II of Russia, against the wish of his mother.

As the son of Francis I, Joseph succeeded him as titular Duke of Lorraine and Bar, which had been surrendered to France on his father's marriage, and titular King of Jerusalem and Duke of Calabria (as a proxy for the Kingdom of Naples).

Ruling emperor

The death of Maria Theresa on 29 November 1780, left Joseph free. He immediately directed his government on a new course. He proceeded to attempt to realize his ideal of enlightened despotism acting on a definite system for the good of all. The measures of emancipation of the peasantry which his mother had begun were carried on by him with feverish activity. The spread of education, the secularization of church lands, the reduction of the religious orders and the clergy in general to complete submission to the lay state, the issue of the Patent of Tolerance (1781) providing limited guarantee of freedom of worship, the promotion of unity by the compulsory use of the German language (replacing Latin or in some instances local languages)—everything which from the point of view of 18th century philosophy, the Age of Enlightenment, appeared "reasonable"—were undertaken at once. He strove for administrative unity with characteristic haste to reach results without preparation.

In addition, Joseph abolished serfdom in 1781. Later, in 1789, he decreed that peasants must be paid in cash payments rather than labor obligations. These policies were violently rejected by both the nobility and the peasants,[7] since their barter economy lacked money.

He also abolished the death penalty in 1787, and this reform remained until 1795.

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Administrative policies

When Maria Theresa died, Joseph started issuing edicts—6,000 in all, plus 11,000 new laws designed to regulate and reorder every aspect of the empire. The spirit was benevolent and paternal. He intended to make his people happy, but strictly in accordance with his own criteria.

Joseph set about building a rationalized, centralized, and uniform government for his diverse lands, a hierarchy under himself as supreme autocrat. The personnel of government was expected to be imbued with the same dedicated spirit of service to the state that he himself had. It was recruited without favor for class or ethnic origins, and promotion was solely by merit. To further uniformity, the emperor made German the compulsory language of official business throughout the Empire. The Hungarian assembly was stripped of its prerogatives, and not even called together.

As privy finance minister, Count Karl von Zinzendorf (1739–1813) introduced a uniform system of accounting for state revenues, expenditures, and debts of the territories of the Austrian crown. Austria was more successful than France in meeting regular expenditures and in gaining credit. However, the events of Joseph II's last years also suggest that the government was financially vulnerable to the European wars that ensued after 1792.[8]

Legal reform

The busy Joseph inspired a complete reform of the legal system, abolished brutal punishments and the death penalty in most instances, and imposed the principle of complete equality of treatment for all offenders. He ended censorship of the press and theatre.

In 1781–82 he extended full legal freedom to serfs. Rentals paid by peasants were to be regulated by officials of the crown and taxes were levied upon all income derived from land. The landlords, however, found their economic position threatened, and eventually reversed the policy. Indeed, in Hungary and Transylvania, the resistance of the magnates was such that Joseph had to content himself for a while with halfway measures. Of the five million Hungarians, 40,000 were nobles, of whom 4,000 were magnates who owned and ruled the land; most of the remainder were serfs legally tied to particular estates. After the collapse of the peasant revolt of Horea, 1784–85, in which over a hundred nobles were killed, the emperor acted. His Imperial Patent of 1785 abolished serfdom but did not give the peasants ownership of the land or freedom from dues owed to the landowning nobles. It did give them personal freedom. Emancipation of the peasants from the kingdom of Hungary promoted the growth of a new class of taxable landholders, but it did not abolish the deep-seated ills of feudalism and the exploitation of the landless squatters. Feudalism finally ended in 1848.[9]

To equalize the incidence of taxation, Joseph caused an appraisal of all the lands of the empire to be made so that he might impose a single and egalitarian tax on land. The goal was to modernize the relationship of dependence between the landowners and peasantry, relieve some of the tax burden on the peasantry, and increase state revenues. Joseph looked on the tax and land reforms as being interconnected and strove to implement them at the same time. The various commissions he established to formulate and carry out the reforms met resistance among the nobility, the peasantry, and some officials. Most of the reforms were abrogated shortly before or after Joseph's death in 1790; they were doomed to failure from the start because they tried to change too much in too short a time, and tried to radically alter the traditional customs and relationships that the villagers had long depended upon.

In the cities the new economic principles of the Enlightenment called for the destruction of the autonomous guilds, already weakened during the age of mercantilism. Joseph II's tax reforms and the institution of Katastralgemeinde (tax districts for the large estates) served this purpose, and new factory privileges ended guild rights while customs laws aimed at economic unity. Physiocratic influence also led to the inclusion of agriculture in these reforms.

Education and medicine

To produce a literate citizenry, elementary education was made compulsory for all boys and girls, and higher education on practical lines was offered for a select few. He created scholarships for talented poor students, and allowed the establishment of schools for Jews and other religious minorities. In 1784 he ordered that the country change its language of instruction from Latin to German, a highly controversial step in a multilingual empire.

By the 18th century, centralization was the trend in medicine because more and better educated doctors were requesting improved facilities. Cities lacked the budgets to fund local hospitals, and the monarchy wanted to end costly epidemics and quarantines. Joseph attempted to centralize medical care in Vienna through the construction of a single, large hospital, the famous Allgemeines Krankenhaus, which opened in 1784. Centralization, however, worsened sanitation problems causing epidemics and a 20% death rate in the new hospital, but the city became preeminent in the medical field in the next century.[10]

Religion

Joseph's policy of religious toleration was the most advanced of any state in Europe.

Probably the most unpopular of all his reforms was his attempted modernization of the highly traditional Roman Catholic Church. Calling himself the guardian of Catholicism, Joseph II struck vigorously at papal power. He tried to make the Catholic Church in his empire the tool of the state, independent of Rome. Clergymen were deprived of the tithe and ordered to study in seminaries under government supervision, while bishops had to take a formal oath of loyalty to the crown. He financed the large increase in bishoprics, parishes, and secular clergy by extensive sales of monastic lands. As a man of the Enlightenment he ridiculed the contemplative monastic orders, which he considered unproductive. Accordingly, he suppressed a third of the monasteries (over 700 were closed) and reduced the number of monks and nuns from 65,000 to 27,000. Church courts were abolished and marriage was defined as a civil contract outside the jurisdiction of the Church.

Joseph sharply cut the number of holy days and reduced ornamentation in churches. He greatly simplified the manner of celebration. Opponents of the reforms blamed them for revealing Protestant tendencies, with the rise of Enlightenment rationalism and the emergence of a liberal class of bourgeois officials. Anti-clericalism emerged and persisted, while the traditional Catholics were energized in opposition to the emperor.

His anticlerical and liberal innovations induced Pope Pius VI to pay him a visit in July 1782. Joseph received the pope politely and showed himself a good Catholic, but refused to be influenced. On the other hand, Joseph was very friendly to Freemasonry, as he found it highly compatible with his own Enlightenment philosophy, although he apparently never joined the Lodge himself. Joseph's feelings towards religion are reflected in a witticism he once spoke in Paris. While being given a tour of the Sorbonne's library, the archivist took Joseph to a dark room containing religious documents, and lamented the lack of light which prevented Joseph from being able to read them. Joseph put the man at rest by saying "Ah, when it comes to religion, there is never much light." Thus, Joseph was undoubtedly a much laxer Catholic than his mother, perhaps even to the point of being Catholic in name only simply because it was a requirement for the throne.

In 1789 he issued a charter of religious toleration for the Jews of Galicia, a region with a large Yiddish-speaking traditional Jewish population. The charter abolished communal autonomy whereby the Jews controlled their internal affairs; it promoted Germanization and the wearing of non-Jewish clothing.

Foreign policy

The Habsburg Empire also had a policy of war and trade as well as intellectual influence across the borders. While opposing Prussia and Turkey, Austria was friendly to Russia though trying to remove the Danubian Principalities from Russian influence.

In foreign policy, there was no Enlightenment, only greed for more territory and willingness to undertake unpopular wars. Joseph was an excessively belligerent, expansionist leader, a man who sought to make the Habsburg monarchy the greatest of the European powers. Joseph's principal ambition was to acquire Bavaria, if necessary in exchange for Belgium (the Austrian Netherlands), but in 1778 and again in 1785 he was thwarted by King Frederick II of Prussia, who had a much stronger army. This failure caused Joseph to seek territorial expansion in the Balkans, where he became involved in an expensive and futile war with the Turks (1787–1791). Joseph's participation in the Ottoman war was reluctant, attributable not to his usual acquisitiveness, but rather to his close ties to Russia, which he saw as the necessary price to be paid for the security of his people.

The Balkan policy of both Maria Theresa and Joseph II reflected the Cameralism promoted by Prince Kaunitz, stressing consolidation of the border lands by reorganization and expansion of the military frontier. Transylvania was incorporated into the frontier in 1761 and the frontier regiments became the backbone of the military order, with the regimental commander exercising military and civilian power. "Populationistik" was the prevailing theory of colonization, which measured prosperity in terms of labor. Joseph II also stressed economic development. Habsburg influence was an essential factor in Balkan development in the last half of the 18th century, especially for the Serbs and Croats.

Finally, Joseph joined Russia in an attempt to pillage the Ottoman Empire. It began on his part in an unsuccessful and discreditable attempt to surprise Belgrade in time of peace, and was followed by the ill-managed campaign of 1788. He accompanied his army, but showed no capacity for war; the low point of this campaign was the extraordinary incident known as the Battle of Karansebes, in which the Austrian army ran away from an imaginary Ottoman army.

Reaction

Multiple interferences with old customs began to produce unrest in all parts of his dominions. Meanwhile, Joseph threw himself into a succession of foreign policies, all aimed at aggrandisement, and all equally calculated to offend his neighbours—all taken up with zeal, and dropped in discouragement. He endeavoured to get rid of the Barrier Treaty, which debarred his Flemish subjects from the navigation of the Scheldt. When he was opposed by France, he turned to other schemes of alliance with the Russian Empire for the partition of the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice. These plans also had to be given up in the face of the opposition of neighbours, and in particular of France. Then Joseph resumed his attempts to obtain Bavaria—this time by exchanging it for Belgium—and only provoked the formation of the Fürstenbund, organized by Frederick II of Prussia.

The nobility throughout his empire hated him: they hated his taxes, his egalitarianism, his despotism and his puritanism. In Belgium and Hungary everyone resented the way he tried to do away with all regional government, and to subordinate everything to his own personal rule in Vienna. The ordinary people were not happy. They loathed the Emperor's interference in every detail of their daily lives. Why should they be forbidden to bake ginger-bread just because Joseph thought it bad for the stomach? Why the Imperial edict demanding the breast-feeding of infants? Why the banning of corsets? From these and a thousand other petty regulations, enforced by a secret police, it looked to the Austrians as though Joseph were trying to reform their characters as well as their institutions Only a few weeks before Joseph's death, the director of the Imperial Police reported to him: "All classes, and even those who have the greatest respect for the sovereign, are discontented and indignant."[11]

In Lombardy (in northern Italy) the cautious reforms of Maria Theresa enjoyed support from local reformers. Joseph II, however, by creating a powerful imperial officialdom directed from Vienna, undercut the dominant position of the Milanese principate and the traditions of jurisdiction and administration. In the place of provincial autonomy he established an unlimited centralism, which reduced Lombardy politically and economically to a fringe area of the Empire. As a reaction to these radical changes the middle class reformers shifted away from cooperation to strong resistance. From this basis appeared the beginnings of the later Lombard liberalism.

By 1790 rebellions had broken out in protest against Joseph's reforms in Belgium and Hungary, and his other dominions were restive under the burdens of his war with Turkey. His empire was threatened with dissolution, and he was forced to sacrifice some of his reform projects. His health shattered by disease, alone, and unpopular in all his lands, the bitter emperor died 20 February 1790. He was not yet forty-nine. Joseph II rode roughshod over age-old aristocratic privileges, liberties, and prejudices, thereby creating for himself many enemies, and they triumphed in the end. Joseph's attempt to reform the Hungarian lands illustrates the weakness of absolutism in the face of well-defended feudal liberties.[12]

Behind his numerous reforms lay a comprehensive program influenced by the doctrines of enlightened absolutism, natural law, mercantilism, and physiocracy. With a goal of establishing a uniform legal framework to replace heterogeneous traditional structures, the reforms were guided at least implicitly by the principles of freedom and equality and were based on a conception of the state's central legislative authority. Joseph's accession marks a major break since the preceding reforms under Maria Theresa had not challenged these structures, but there was no similar break at the end of the Josephinian era. The reforms initiated by Joseph II were continued to varying degrees under his successor Leopold and later successors, and given an absolute and comprehensive "Austrian" form in the Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch of 1811. They have been seen as providing a foundation for subsequent reforms extending into the 20th century, handled by much better politicians than Joseph II.

Personal life

Marriages

A medal minted during the reign of Josef II, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants.

Joseph II married, as his first wife, Isabella of Parma, a daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma. They had a daughter, named Maria Theresa, who died just before turning eight in 1770. After Archduchess Isabella's death on 27 November 1763, a political marriage was arranged with Maria Josepha of Bavaria (d. 1767), a daughter of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria (the former emperor Charles VII) and Archduchess Maria Amelia of Austria. The second marriage proved extremely unhappy.

Death

In November 1788, he returned to Vienna with ruined health, and during 1789, was a dying man. The concentration of his troops in the east gave the discontented Belgians an opportunity to revolt. In Hungary, the nobles were in all but open rebellion, and in his other states, there were peasant risings and a revival of particularistic sentiments. Joseph was left entirely alone. His minister Kaunitz refused to visit his sick-room and did not see him for two years. His brother Leopold remained at Florence. At last, Joseph, worn out and broken-hearted, recognized that his servants could not, or would not, carry out his plans. On 30 January 1790, he formally withdrew almost all his reforms in Hungary, and he died on 20 February 1790. He is buried in tomb number 42 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. He asked that his epitaph read: "Here lies Joseph II, who failed in all he undertook."[13] Joseph was succeeded by his brother, Leopold II.

Patron of the arts

Like many of the "enlightened monarchs" of his time, Joseph was a lover and patron of the arts. He was known as the "Musical King" and steered Austrian high culture towards a more Germanic orientation. He commissioned the German-language opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail from Mozart. The young Ludwig van Beethoven was commissioned to write a funeral cantata for him, but it was not performed because of its technical difficulty.

Joseph is prominently featured in Peter Shaffer's play Amadeus, and the movie based upon it. In the movie, he is played by actor Jeffrey Jones as a well-meaning but somewhat clueless monarch of limited but enthusiastic musical skill, easily manipulated by Salieri; however, Shaffer has made it clear his play is fiction in many respects and not intended to portray historical reality. Joseph was portrayed by Danny Huston in the 2006 film Marie Antoinette.

Titles and styles

  • 13 March 1741 – 4 April 1764: His Royal Highness Archduke Joseph Prince Imperial of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Tuscany
  • 4 April 1764 – 25 November 1765: His Majesty The King of the Romans
  • 25 November 1765 – 20 February 1790: His Imperial Majesty The Holy Roman Emperor

Ancestors

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
16. Nicholas II, Duke of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
17. Princess Claude-Françoise of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
18. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Eleonora Maria Josefa of Austria
Queen Dowager of Poland-Lithuania
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
19. Eleanor Gonzaga of Mantua
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20. Louis XIII of France
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
21. Anne of Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Princess Élisabeth Charlotte of Orléans
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22. Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Countess Palatine Elizabeth Charlotte of Simmern
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23. Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
24. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (= 18)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
25. Maria Anna of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
26. Philip William, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27. Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Maria Theresa of Austria
Queen of Hungary & Bohemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
28. Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
29. Duchess Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
30. Albert Ernest I, Prince of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
31. Duchess Christine Frederica of Württemburg
 
 
 
 
 
 

Bibliography

  • Beales, Derek. Joseph II vol 1: In the shadow of Maria Theresa, 1741-1780, (1987).
  • Beales, Derek. Joseph II: Volume 2, Against the World, 1780-1790 (2009)
  • Beales, Derek. "The false Joseph II", Historical Journal, 18 (1975), 467-95. in JSTOR
  • Beales, Derek. Enlightenment and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Europe. (2005). 326 pp.
  • Beales, Derek. Enlightenment and Reform in Eighteenth-Century Europe (2005), 256pp excerpt and text search
  • Bernard, Paul P. The Limits of Enlightenment: Joseph II and the Law (1979),
  • Blanning, T. C. W. Joseph II (1994). 228pp; a short scholarly biography
  • Blanning, T. C. W. Joseph II and Enlightened Despotism (1984).
  • Bright, James Franck. Joseph II, (1897) 222 pp full text online
  • Dickson, P. G. M. "Joseph II's Reshaping of the Austrian Church," The Historical Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1. (Mar., 1993), pp. 89-114. in JSTOR
  • Henderson, Nicholas. "Joseph II", History Today1991 41(March): 21-27. ISSN: 0018-2753 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • McHugh, James T. "Last of the Enlightened Despots: a Comparison of President Mikhail Gorbachev and Emperor Joseph II." Social Science Journal 1995 32(1): 69-85. Issn: 0362-3319 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Padover, Saul K. The Revolutionary Emperor, Joseph the Second, 1741-1790 (1934), 414pp; a standard scholarly biography online edition
  • Wilson, Peter H. Absolutism in Central Europe (2000) online edition

Titles

Joseph II, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria, etc. etc. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Grand Prince of Transylvania, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Brabant, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Milan, Mantua, Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, Auschwitz, Zator, Calabria, Bar, Montferrat, Teschen, Prince of Swabia, Charleville, Princely Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, Hennegau, Kyburg, Gorizia, Gradisca, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Pont-à-Mousson, Nomeny, Count of Namur, Provence, Vaudémont, Blâmont, Zutphen, Saarwerden, Salm, Falkenstein, Lord of the Wendish March and Mechelen

See also

References

  1. ^ Derek Beale, Joseph 11: Against the World, 1780-1790, Cambridge University Press, 2009
  2. ^ Beales, p 70
  3. ^ Hopkins, p 63
  4. ^ Saul K. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, Joseph the Second 1741-1790. (1934) p. 300
  5. ^ Saul K. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, Joseph the Second 1741-1790. (1934) p. 313
  6. ^ Saul K. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, Joseph the Second 1741-1790. (1934) p. 146.
  7. ^ McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, A History of World Societies p.551
  8. ^ P. G. M. Dickson, "Count Karl von Zinzendorf's 'New Accountancy': the Structure of Austrian Government Finance in Peace and War, 1781-1791." International History Review 2007 29(1): 22-56. Issn: 0707-5332
  9. ^ Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, 293-300
  10. ^ Paul P. Bernard, "The Limits of Absolutism: Joseph II and the Allgemeines Krankenhaus." Eighteenth-Century Studies 1975 9(2): 193-215. Issn: 0013-2586 in Jstor
  11. ^ Saul K. Padover, The Revolutionary Emperor, Joseph the Second 1741-1790. (1934) pp 384-85.
  12. ^ P. G. M. Dickson, "Monarchy and Bureaucracy in Late Eighteenth-century Austria." English Historical Review 1995 110(436): 323-367. Issn: 0013-8266 Fulltext: in Jstor
  13. ^ Norman Davies (1998). Europe a history. New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 0060974680.  

External links

Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine
Born: 13 March 1741 Died: 20 February 1790
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maria Theresa
King of Hungary
1780–1790 [1]
Succeeded by
Leopold II
King of Croatia
1780–1790
King of Bohemia
1780–1790
Archduke of Austria
1765–1790
with Maria Theresa (1765-1780)
Duke of Milan
1765–1790
with Maria Theresa (1765-1780)
Duke of Mantua
1765–1790
with Maria Theresa (1765-1780)
King of Lodomeria and Galicia
1765–1790
with Maria Theresa (1765-1780)
Preceded by
Francis I
King in Germany
(formally King of the Romans)

1764–1790
Holy Roman Emperor (elect)
1765–1790
Duke of Teschen
1765–1766
Succeeded by
Maria Christina
and Albert Saxe-Teschen

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