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Generalissimo 
Joseph Stalin
Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин
Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin
იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი
Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili


In office
3 April 1922 – 5 March 1953
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Georgy Malenkov

In office
6 May 1941 – 5 March 1953
Preceded by Vyacheslav Molotov
Succeeded by Georgy Malenkov

In office
19 July 1941 – 25 February 1946
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by Semyon Timoshenko

In office
25 February 1946 – 3 March 1947
Prime Minister Himself
Succeeded by Nikolai Bulganin

In office
1941–1945

In office
1917–1923
Prime Minister Vladimir Lenin

Born 18 December 1878(1878-12-18)
Gori, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire
Died 5 March 1953 (aged 74)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Birth name Iosef Besarionis dze Jughashvili
Nationality Soviet
Georgian
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Religion Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, later Atheist
Signature
.Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili in Georgian or Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili in Russian patronymic nomenclature; 18 December 1878[1] – 5 March 1953) was the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union.^ Joseph Stalin (1878 – 1953) and Orthodox Christian Church of Russia .
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Josef Stalin (1879-1953) Soviet political leader “Comrades!
  • Stalin, Josef - “Comrades! Citizens! Brothers and sisters! Men of our army and navy!”, Radio Address (3 Jul 1941) | WIST 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC wist.info [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1924, the year of Lenin's death, Stalin published the pamphlet: Socialism in One Country.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization.^ Stalin replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans in 1928 and collective farming at roughly the same time.
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^ Under Stalin's direction, this was replaced by a system of centrally ordained "Five-Year Plans" in the late 1920s.
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^ Stalin replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s with Five-Year Plan s in 1928 and collective farming at roughly the same time.
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.The upheaval in the agricultural sector disrupted food production, resulting in widespread famine, such as the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932-1933, known in Ukraine as the Holodomor.^ The 1932-1933 famine in Ukraine and the Kuban regions has been termed the Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор).
  • Stalin.eu 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.stalin.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ (Demographic consequence of Holodomor of 1933 in Ukraine.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933 Genocide?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society.^ During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin became General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party in 1922.
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^ Stalin and changes in Soviet society .
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.Targets were often executed, imprisoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled.^ Some were executed and some died in labor camps.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Likewise, other foreign communists then in the USSR were also executed while their dependents and lesser fry were sent to labor camps.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tito executed many accused "Cominformists," and sentenced the rest to slave labor camps.
  • Museum of Communism FAQ 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the years following, millions of members of ethnic minorities were also deported.^ In the years following, millions of ethnic minorities were also deported .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the two million people who were repressed during that two-year period, over half of them were members of the party at the time of their arrest.

[3][4]
.In 1939, after failed attempts to establish a collective security system in Europe, Stalin decided to conclude a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, followed by a Soviet invasion of Poland, Finland, the Baltics, Bessarabia and northern Bukovina.^ The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 23 August 1939–10 January 1941 .

^ German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact (23 August 1939) .

^ Furthermore, Poland and France signed non-aggression pacts with the Soviets in 1932.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After Germany violated the pact in 1941, the Soviet Union joined the Allies to play a primary role in the Axis defeat, at the cost of the largest death toll for any country in the war.^ After Germany violated the pact in 1941, the Soviet Union joined the Allies to play a large role in the Axis defeat , at the cost of the largest death toll for any country in the war.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin used this fact, delays by the western Allies in opening a true second front, and the great suffering of the Soviet Union (up to 27 million dead in the war) to secure massive amounts of Lend-Lease aid.

^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

.Thereafter, contradicting statements at allied conferences,[citation needed] Stalin installed communist governments in most of Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc, behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule.^ With Soviet troops in most of Eastern Europe, Stalin was in a strong negotiating position.

^ Allied conferences on post-war Europe .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thereafter, contradicting statements at allied conferences , Stalin installed communist governments in most of Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern bloc , behind what was referred to as an " Iron Curtain " of Soviet rule.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This launched the long period of antagonism between the Western world and the Soviet Union known as the Cold War.^ Soviet people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Convergence between the Soviet Union and the West, to form a World Civilization.

^ This launched the long period of antagonism known as the Cold War .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stalin fostered a cult of personality around him, but after his death, his successor, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced his legacy and drove the process of de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union.^ Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin.
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^ Nikita Khrushchev , Stalin's henchman and eventual successor, denounced Stalin's rule and the cult of personality in 1956, initiating the process of "de-Stalinization" which later became part of the Sino-Soviet Split .
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^ His eventual successor, Nikita Khrushchev, began the slow process of de-Stalinization and denounced the many excesses of the Red Tsar.

[5]

Contents

Early life

Young Stalin, circa 1894, age 16
.Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili on 18 December 1878[1] to a cobbler in the town of Gori, Georgia.^ Joseph Stalin, was born in Gori, Georgia on 21st December, 1879.

^ Main article: Stalin before the Revolution Young Stalin, circa 1894, age 16 Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili on 18 December 1878 [ 5 ] to a cobbler in the town of Gori , Georgia .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili ; Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Джугашви́ли (help·info) , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili ) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878 [1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin ), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953.
  • WikiSlice 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the age of seven, he contracted smallpox, permanently scarring his face.^ At the age of seven he contacted smallpox .

^ The information card on Joseph Stalin, from the files of the Tsarist secret police in St. Petersburg At about seven years of age Stalin fell ill with smallpox and his face was badly scarred by the disease.
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.At ten, he began attending church school where the Georgian children were forced to speak Russian.^ During these school years, Stalin joined a Georgian Social-Democratic organization, and began propagating Marxism .
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^ However, at school they were forced to use Russian.
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^ During these school years, Stalin joined a Georgian Social-Democratic organization, and began propagating Marxism.
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.By the age of twelve, two horse-drawn carriage accidents left his left arm permanently damaged.^ Cavalry display, men on horseback dismounting at speed; horse-drawn gun carriages.
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^ Santa on horse drawn carriage arrives at children's New Year s celebration in Sports Palace w/ big Christmas tree in middle of arena.
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^ Ground shots troops with horse drawn carriages at speed.
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.At sixteen, he received a scholarship to a Georgian Orthodox seminary, where he rebelled against the imperialist and religious order.^ At sixteen, he received a scholarship to a Georgian Orthodox seminary, where he rebelled against the imperialist and religious order.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And under Stalin’s order he even was forced to write article "Why religious people are against Hitler" ("Почему религиозные люди против Гитлера") .
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though he performed well there, he was expelled in 1899 after missing his final exams.^ Though he performed well, he was expelled in 1899 after missing his final exams.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin quit the seminary in 1899 just before his final examinations; official biographies preferred to state that he was expelled.
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.The seminary's records suggest he was unable to pay his tuition fees.^ The seminary's records suggest he was unable to pay his tuition fees.
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[6]
The information card on "I. V. Stalin", from the files of the Tsarist secret police in Saint Petersburg, 1911[7]
.Shortly after leaving the seminary, Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary, eventually joining Lenin's Bolsheviks in 1903. After being marked by the Okhranka (the Tsar's secret police) for his activities, he became a full-time revolutionary and outlaw.^ Bolshevik heroes, especially Lenin and Stalin.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After being marked by the Okhranka (the Tsar's secret police) for his activities, he became a full-time revolutionary and outlaw.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The information card on "I. V. Stalina", from the files of the Tsarist secret police in Saint Petersburg, 1911 [ 6 ] Shortly after leaving the seminary, Stalin discovered the writings of Vladimir Lenin and decided to become a Marxist revolutionary, eventually joining Lenin's Bolsheviks in 1903.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He became one of the Bolsheviks' chief operatives in the Caucasus, organizing paramilitaries, inciting strikes, spreading propaganda and raising money through bank robberies, ransom kidnappings and extortion.^ He became one of the Bolsheviks ' chief operatives in the Caucasus , organizing paramilitaries, inciting strikes, spreading propaganda and raising money through bank robberies, ransom kidnappings and extortion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He organized strikes and bank robberies.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Baku, Stalin organized Muslim Azeris and Persians in partisan activities, including the murders of many " Black Hundreds " right-wing supporters of the Tsar, and conducted protection rackets, ransom kidnappings, counterfeiting operations and robberies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the summer of 1906, Stalin married Ekaterina Svanidze, who later gave birth to Stalin's first child, Yakov.^ We all know that kids, who experienced violence in childhood from others (like Stalin), later are more violent.
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One pregnant woman was found who had actually given birth to a child in the grave.

^ Stalin's first wife, Ekaterina Svanidze , died in 1907, only four years after their marriage.
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.Stalin temporarily resigned from the party over its ban on bank robberies, masterminded a large raid on a bank shipment resulting in the deaths of 40 people[8] and then fled to Baku, where Ekaterina died of typhus.^ Stalin temporarily resigned from the party over its ban on bank robberies, masterminded a large raid on a bank shipment resulting in the deaths of 40 people [ 7 ] and then fled to Baku , where Ekaterina died of typhus.
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^ Stalin and supporters continued this struggle against opposition from other elements in the Bolshevik Party, resolutely but with diminishing chances for success, until Stalin died in March 1953.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Politburo and Stalin himself were at the apex of two large hierarchies, of both the Bolshevik Party and the Soviet government.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Baku, Stalin organized Muslim Azeris and Persians in partisan activities, including the murders of many "Black Hundreds" right-wing supporters of the Tsar, and conducted protection rackets, ransom kidnappings, counterfeiting operations and robberies.^ In Baku, Stalin organized Muslim Azeris and Persians in partisan activities, including the murders of many " Black Hundreds " right-wing supporters of the Tsar, and conducted protection rackets, ransom kidnappings, counterfeiting operations and robberies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His career as a low-level party functionary began in 1901 and included "expropriations" (robbery) and counterfeiting in support of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP).

^ He became one of the Bolsheviks ' chief operatives in the Caucasus , organizing paramilitaries, inciting strikes, spreading propaganda and raising money through bank robberies, ransom kidnappings and extortion.
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.Stalin was captured and sent to Siberia seven times, but escaped most of these exiles.^ Stalin was captured and sent to Siberia seven times, and escaped all but the last of these exiles.
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^ He was arrested and sent to Siberia five times, but escaped every time.
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^ At this time, Stalin, like most Bolsheviks , took the view that the Russian people were not ready for a socialist revolution.

.After release from one such exile, in April 1912 in Saint Petersburg, Stalin created the newspaper Pravda from an existing party newspaper.^ After release from one such capture, in April 1912 in Saint Petersburg , Stalin created the newspaper Pravda from an existing party newspaper.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freed during the March 1917 Revolution, he returned to Petrograd and became editor of the party newspaper, Pravda (Truth).

^ But perhaps Stalin was so untouchable - not just because of the Party apparatus that he created - but because psychologically he had the upper hand and he knew it.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.He eventually adopted the name "Stalin", from the Russian word for steel, which he used as an alias and pen name in his published works.^ The Russians didn't start kicking ass and taking names until Stalin stopped giving the orders and General Georgy Zhukov took command.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Joseph Vissarionovich Dzugashvili (his revolutionary name was Stalin, meaning "man of steel"l), was born in 1879 in the village of Gori , near Tiflis, Georgia .
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^ Boris Ilizarov, of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said Stalin would pen the offensive sketches of his victims while attending Politburo meetings.

.During his last exile, Stalin was conscripted by the Russian army to fight in World War I, but was deemed unfit for service because of his damaged left arm.^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Thirdly: I am fascinated in the Russian Revolution because of the world-wide repercussions of it - and also because I vividly remember the entire edifice cracking apart in the late 80s.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian people were tired from the world war and the civil war, and Stalin's policy of concentrating in building "Socialism in One Country" was seen as an optimistic antidote to war.
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[9]

Revolution, Civil War, and Polish-Soviet War

Role during the Russian Revolution of 1917

.After returning to Saint Petersburg from exile, Stalin began a revolution by ousting Vyacheslav Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov as editors of Pravda.^ In 1917 Stalin was editor of Pravda , the official Communist newspaper, while Lenin and much of the Bolshevik leadership were in exile.
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^ He was released, returned to the capital (Petrograd) and became the editor of the Bolshevik paper, Pravda (Truth).
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin's response to France's defeat was to send Vyacheslav Molotov to Berlin for more discussions.

.He then took a position in favor of supporting Alexander Kerensky's provisional government.^ Main articles: Stalin in the Revolution and early wars and Russian Revolution (1917) After returning to Saint Petersburg from exile, Stalin ousted Vyacheslav Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov as editors of Pravda , and took a position in favor of supporting Alexander Kerensky 's provisional government .
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^ Following the February Revolution , Stalin and the editorial board took a position in favor of supporting Kerensky 's provisional government and, it is alleged, went to the extent of declining to publish Lenin's articles arguing for the provisional government to be overthrown.
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^ On the practical level, expropriating the German minority gave the provisional Czech and Polish governments a stockpile of wealth with which to buy support.
  • Museum of Communism FAQ 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, after Lenin prevailed at the April 1917 Party conference, Stalin and Pravda supported overthrowing the provisional government.^ However, after Lenin prevailed at the April 1917 Party conference, Stalin and Pravda supported overthrowing the provisional government.
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^ Stalin supported Lenin's policy.

^ Lenin attacked Bolsheviks for supporting the Provisional Government .

.At this conference, Stalin was elected to the Bolshevik Central Committee.^ In 1912, Stalin became a member of the Bolshevik Central Committee.
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^ In 1913 Stalin was co-opted to the Bolshevik Central Committee at the Prague Party Conference .
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^ On April 3, 1922, Stalin was made general secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), a post that he subsequently built up into the most powerful in the country.
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.After Lenin participated in an attempted revolution, Stalin helped Lenin evade capture and, to avoid a bloodbath, ordered the besieged Bolsheviks to surrender.^ Bolshevik heroes, especially Lenin and Stalin.
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^ Lenin had helped to consolidate Stalin's power.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This congress consolidated the supremacy of Lenin's Bolshevik Party and debated strategy for communist revolution in Russia.
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[7]
.He smuggled Lenin to Finland and assumed leadership of the Bolsheviks.^ He smuggled Lenin to Finland and assumed leadership of the Bolsheviks.
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^ In 1917 Stalin was editor of Pravda , the official Communist newspaper, while Lenin and much of the Bolshevik leadership were in exile.
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^ His seniority on the Central Committee allowed him to assume leadership of the Bolsheviks until Lenin's return to Petrograd from Switzerland in April 1917.

[7] .After the jailed Bolsheviks were freed to help defend Saint Petersburg, in October 1917, the Bolshevik Central Committee voted in favor of an insurrection.^ After the jailed Bolsheviks were freed to help defend Saint Petersburg, in October 1917, the Bolshevik Central Committee voted in favor of an insurrection.
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^ His seniority on the Central Committee allowed him to assume leadership of the Bolsheviks until Lenin's return to Petrograd from Switzerland in April 1917.

^ The new members of the Central Committee, who had been sponsored by Stalin, guaranteed that the vote went against Lenin's testament being made public.

[7] .On 7 November, from the Smolny Institute, Stalin, Lenin and the rest of the Central Committee coordinated the coup against the Kerensky government - the so-called October Revolution.^ Statue of Lenin outside Smolny Institute.
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^ The October Revolution was a real revolution of the people and not a coup.

^ The Hitler government and its messengers in Moscow showed their open satisfaction with Stalins terror against the German refugees.

.Kerensky left the capital to rally the Imperial troops at the German front.^ Kerensky left the capital to rally the Imperial troops at the German front.
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^ German Front News distributed to troops.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, this, along with abuse by German troops, caused inconceivable starvation and suffering among the civilian population that were left behind.
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.By 8 November, the Winter Palace had been stormed and Kerensky's Cabinet had been arrested.^ The next morning, November 7, Kerensky left the Winter Palace in an open Pierce-Arrow touring car accompanied by another car flying the American flag.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 8 November, the Winter Palace had been stormed and Kerensky's Cabinet had been arrested.
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^ Crowds run, storm winter palace (staged?
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Role in the Russian Civil War, 1917–1919

Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin meeting in 1919. All three of them were "Old Bolsheviks"—members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.
.Upon seizing Petrograd, Stalin was appointed People's Commissar for Nationalities' Affairs.^ Upon seizing Petrograd , Stalin was appointed People's Commissar for Nationalities' Affairs.
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^ As General Secretary, Stalin also had the power to appoint and sack people from important positions in the government.

^ He instructed People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Maksim Litvinov to pursue an internationalist course.

[10] .Thereafter, civil war broke out in Russia, pitting Lenin's Red Army against the White Army, a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces.^ Thereafter, civil war broke out in Russia, pitting Lenin's Red Army against the White Army , a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces.
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^ Through the Civil War period, the real government of Russia was the Bolshevik Politburo of five men: Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin, and Stalin.

^ This congress consolidated the supremacy of Lenin's Bolshevik Party and debated strategy for communist revolution in Russia.
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.Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky.^ Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky .
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^ After the assassination of Kirov, which may have been orchestrated by Stalin, Stalin invented a detailed scheme to implicate opposition leaders in the murder, including Trotsky, Kamenev and Zioviev.
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^ Through the Civil War period, the real government of Russia was the Bolshevik Politburo of five men: Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Lev Kamenev, Nikolai Bukharin, and Stalin.

.In May 1918, Lenin dispatched Stalin to the city of Tsaritsyn.^ In May 1918, Lenin dispatched Stalin to the city of Tsaritsyn .
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^ [Lenin; War Preparations & Subway Air Raid Shelter; Stalin Speaking] 1918: Lenin talking to crowd.
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^ Gigantic Parade Marks May Day In Moscow HA shots Red Square - huge banners, portraits of Lenin & Stalin etc.
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.Through his new allies, Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny, Stalin imposed his influence on the military.^ Russian… enormous sacrifices” – true, as the enormous price the Russians paid in lives for Stalin’s and Voroshilov’s crass military ineptituide goes - .
  • Pajamas Media » Stalin Honored with Churchill at D-Day Memorial 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin acted not through persuasion, explanation and patient cooperation with people, but by imposing his concepts and demanding absolute submission to his opinion.

^ X: 1) “Russian… enormous sacrifices” – true, as the enormous price the Russians paid in lives for Stalin’s and Voroshilov’s crass military ineptituide goes - .
  • Pajamas Media » Stalin Honored with Churchill at D-Day Memorial 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky, ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries[10][11] and burned villages in order to intimidate the peasantry into submission and discourage bandit raids on food shipments.^ Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky , ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries [ 8 ] [ 9 ] and burned villages in order to intimidate the peasantry into submission and discourage bandit raids on food shipments.
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^ CU of Lenin s order making Stalin head of the Red Army.
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^ Also falling victim to the Great Purge were military leaders, including 60 percent of Red Army officers above the rank of major.

[10] .In May 1919, in order to stem mass desertions on the Western front, Stalin had deserters and renegades publicly executed as traitors.^ In May 1919, in order to stem mass desertions on the Western front, Stalin had deserters and renegades publicly executed as traitors.
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[10]

Role in the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-1921

.After their Russian Civil War victory, the Bolsheviks moved to establish a sphere of influence in Central Europe, starting with what became the Polish–Soviet War.^ Russian Civil war fight in snow.
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^ Bolshevik revolution, civil war footage.
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^ Russian Civil War, fight in snow.
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.As commander of the southern front,[10] Stalin was determined to take the Polish-held city of Lviv.^ As commander of the southern front, [ 8 ] Stalin was determined to take the Polish-held city of Lviv .
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^ During the course of the fighting on the Eastern Front, Stalin grew dramatically as a military commander.

^ All major decisions made by his front-line commanders had to be cleared with Stalin first.

.This conflicted with general strategy set by Lenin and Trotsky, whose priority was the capture of Warsaw further north.^ This conflicted with general strategy set by Lenin and Trotsky, whose priority was the capture of Warsaw further north.
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^ Stalin, whose wife Nadya Alliluyeva worked in Lenin's private office, soon discovered the contents of the letter sent to Leon Trotsky .

.Trotsky engaged with Polish commander Władysław Sikorski at the Battle of Warsaw, but Stalin refused to redirect his troops from Lviv to help.^ Trotsky engaged with Polish commander Władysław Sikorski at the The Battle of Warsaw , but Stalin refused to redirect his troops from Lviv to help.
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^ Consequently, the battles for both Lviv and Warsaw were lost, and Stalin was blamed.
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^ The formation of NATO and the stationing of American troops in Western Europe was a reaction to Stalin's policies and helped ensure the development of the Cold War .

[10] Consequently, the battles for both Lviv and Warsaw were lost, and Stalin was blamed. .Stalin returned to Moscow in August 1920, where he defended himself and resigned his military commission.^ A very large segment of the military history universe is of the opinion that the Germans wouldve taken Moscow had Typhoon started in August/September 1941, and that Stalin wouldve been shot as a result.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Stalin quite rightly insisted that the military must abandon outdated strategic concepts, but he was unfortunately rather slow to do this himself.

[10] .At the Ninth Party Conference on 22 September, Trotsky openly criticized Stalin's behavior.^ At the Ninth Party Conference on 22 September, Trotsky openly criticized Stalin's behavior.
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^ Trotsky criticized the cult of personality built around Stalin.
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^ [Twelfth Communist Party Conference] Aug 22 Russian intertitles throughout.
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[10]
.Later in his career, Stalin was to compensate for the disaster of 1920.[12] He would ensure the death of Trotsky, secure Lviv in the Nazi-Soviet pact, execute Polish veterans of the Polish-Soviet War in the Katyn massacre; ensure the failure of the Warsaw Uprising with a loss of around 250,000 Polish lives; establish the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe; and at Yalta, demand that Lviv be ceded by Poland to the Soviet Union.^ The GDR was established on the model of the Soviet Union.

^ Trotsky would later speak of "Stalin's poison".
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^ Stalin used this fact, delays by the western Allies in opening a true second front, and the great suffering of the Soviet Union (up to 27 million dead in the war) to secure massive amounts of Lend-Lease aid.

[12][13]

Rise

.Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia following which he adopted particularly hardline, centralist policies towards Soviet Georgia, which included the Georgian Affair of 1922 and other repressions.^ Soviet policy toward the Jews was a success.
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^ Large Soviet Red Army banner w/ picture of Stalin & Lenin.
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^ Main article: Stalin's rise to power Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia following which he adopted particularly hardline, centralist policies towards Soviet Georgia , which included the Georgian Affair of 1922 and other repressions.
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[14][15] .This created a rift with Lenin, who believed all the Soviet states should stand equal.^ Some Soviet official who worked with Stalin said, when it was all over, that Stalin had the deadliest of combinations in his personality: Laziness and capriciousness.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, he prevailed in a power struggle over Leon Trotsky , who was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union.
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^ Churchill agreed that Rumania and Bulgaria should be under "Soviet influence" but argued that Yugoslavia and Hungary should be shared equally amongst them.

.Lenin still considered Stalin to be a loyal ally, and when he got mired in squabbles with Trotsky and other politicians, he decided to give Stalin more power.^ Lenin had helped to consolidate Stalin's power.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another event that helped Stalin's rise was the fact that Trotsky came out against publication of Lenin's Testament in which he pointed out the strengths and weaknesses of Stalin and Trotsky and the other main players, and suggested that he be succeeded by a small group of people.
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^ Lenin s house interior & stills on wall include Stalin.
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.With the help of Kamenev, he had Stalin appointed as General Secretary in 1922.[10] This post allowed Stalin to appoint many of his allies to government positions.^ As General Secretary, Stalin also had the power to appoint and sack people from important positions in the government.

^ Stalin elected General Secretary w/Kyubyshev ?
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^ Stalin became General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party in 1922.
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.Lenin suffered a stroke in 1922, forcing him into semi-retirement in Gorki.^ Lenin, who disliked Stalin's policy towards Georgia, [ 8 ] suffered a stroke in 1922, forcing him into semi-retirement in Gorki .
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^ The point is that Stalin was getting rid of deadwood -- competent generals were kept; incompetent ones were either forced into retirement, imprisoned, or simply shot.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ During Lenin's semi-retirement, Stalin forged an alliance with Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev against Trotsky .
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.Stalin visited him often, acting as his intermediary with the outside world.^ Stalin visited him often, acting as his intermediary with the outside world.
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^ Directly following World War II, as the Soviets were negotiating with the Allies, Stalin often sent directions to Molotov as Druzhkov .
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^ Yet Mao had the experience of both Lenin and Stalin behind him, and knew full-well that collectivization often leads to mass death.
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[10] .The pair quarreled and their relationship deteriorated.^ The pair quarreled and their relationship deteriorated.
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[10] .Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament.^ Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on Stalin in what would become his testament .
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^ They did so because they believed that such public criticism of Stalin would ensure Trotsky's election as General Secretary, and, with Napoleon I in mind, they feared that the "father" of the Red Army would become a military dictator ( Note: Lenin's "Testament" was first published in the New York Times in 1932.
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^ Did Stalin set about, cynically and calculatedly, to create this cult of Lenin so that he would be in the shadows?
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.He criticized Stalin's rude manners, excessive power, ambition and politics, and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary.^ Stalin elected General Secretary w/Kyubyshev ?
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^ Shortly after Mikhail Gorbachev became Secretary General of the Party in March 1985, he took a leaf from Khrushchev's book and launched a full scale attack on Stalinism.
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^ On April 3, 1922, Stalin was made general secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks), a post that he subsequently built up into the most powerful in the country.
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[10] .During Lenin's semi-retirement, Stalin forged an alliance with Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev against Trotsky.^ Bukharin now teamed up with Kamenev and Zinoviev against Stalin.
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^ Zinoviev on his part feared Trotsky, but feared Stalin also.

^ Indeed, already in 1921, he had formed an alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev against Trotsky .
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These allies prevented Lenin's Testament from being revealed to the Twelfth Party Congress in April 1923.[10]
.Lenin died of a heart attack on 21 January 1924. Thereafter, Stalin's disputes with Kamenev and Zinoviev intensified.^ After Lenin 's death in January 1924, Stalin, Kamenev , and Zinoviev together governed the party, placing themselves ideologically between Trotsky (on the left wing of the party) and Bukharin (on the right).
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^ In 1924, the year of Lenin's death, Stalin published the pamphlet: Socialism in One Country.
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^ Of course, we cannot tell how Lenin, had he lived, or how Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev or Bukharin, would have ruled the USSR if they had won the struggle for power .
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.Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev grew increasingly isolated, and were eventually ejected from the Central Committee and then from the Party itself.^ Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev were ejected from the Central Committee and then expelled from the Party.
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^ In 1927 during the 15th Party Congress Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the party and Kamenev lost his seat on the Central Committee.
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^ When Lev Kamenev and Gregory Zinoviev eventually began attacking his policies, Joseph Stalin argued they were creating disunity in the party and managed to have them expelled from the Central Committee.

[10] .Kamenev and Zinoviev were later readmitted, but Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet Union.^ Kamenev and Zinoviev were readmitted, but Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet Union.
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^ Following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, he prevailed in a power struggle over Leon Trotsky , who was expelled from the Communist Party and deported from the Soviet Union.
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^ In the '20s Korsch had taken sides with the Left Opposition led by Trotsky in the Soviet Union.

.Stalin pushed for more rapid industrialization and central control of the economy, contravening Lenin's New Economic Policy.^ Stalin pushed for more rapid industrialization and central control of the economy, contravening Lenin's New Economic Policy .
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^ Stalin supported Lenin's policy.

^ Lenin found the disagreements over the New Economic Policy exhausting.

.At the end of 1927, a critical shortfall in grain supplies prompted Stalin to push for collectivisation of agriculture and order the seizures of grain hoards from kulak farmers.^ Simultaneously, Stalin reversed Lenin's New Economic Policy, which had introduced a degree of capitalism in order to revive the economy, purged the middle-class peasants who had emerged under that policy (the Kulaks), and carried out the collectivization of agriculture.

^ In addition to pushing the collectivization of agriculture, Stalin also implemented a series of five-year plans that set quotas for growth in all areas of the economy.

^ Many peasants resisted collectivization and grain confiscations, but were repressed, most notably well-off peasants deemed " kulak s".
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[10][11] Bukharin attacked these policies and advocated a return to the NEP, but the rest of the Politburo sided with Stalin and kicked him out in November 1929.

Changes to Soviet society, 1927–1939

Bolstering Soviet secret service and intelligence

.Stalin vastly increased the scope and power of the state's secret police and intelligence agencies.^ Main article: Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies Stalin vastly increased the scope and power of the state's secret police and intelligence agencies.
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^ Stalin created the bureaucratic system and refined both the secret police and slave labor camps begun under his predecessor, Vladimir Lenin.

^ There was scarcely a family that had not been touched by the secret state police (NKVD).

.Under his guiding hand, Soviet intelligence forces began to set up intelligence networks in most of the major nations of the world, including Germany (the famous Rote Kappelle spy ring), Great Britain, France, Japan, and the United States.^ Under his guiding hand, Soviet intelligence forces began to set up intelligence networks in most of the major nations of the world, including Germany (the famous Rote Kappelle spy ring), Great Britain, France, Japan, and the United States.
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^ Also falling victim to the Great Purge were military leaders, including 60 percent of Red Army officers above the rank of major.

^ Stalin rejected numerous western warnings in the winter and spring of 1941 that Germany was preparing to attack the Soviet Union, viewing these as efforts by the Allied powers and the United States to trick the USSR into war with Germany.

.Stalin saw no difference between espionage, communist political propaganda actions, and state-sanctioned violence, and he began to integrate all of these activities within the NKVD.^ Stalin saw no difference between espionage, communist political propaganda actions, and state-sanctioned violence, and he began to integrate all of these activities within the NKVD .
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^ We all know that kids, who experienced violence in childhood from others (like Stalin), later are more violent.
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also no doubt that these people were grateful and loyal to Stalin for their promotions.
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.Stalin made considerable use of the Communist International movement in order to infiltrate agents and to ensure that foreign Communist parties remained pro-Soviet and pro-Stalin.^ Stalin made considerable use of the Communist International movement in order to infiltrate agents and to ensure that foreign Communist parties remained pro-Soviet and pro-Stalin.
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^ CU Stalin speaking in full uniform before large micophone ordering Soviet troops to stop retreating [English subtitles].
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^ In 1923 he assumed the post of secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a position he used as a springboard to power.

.One of the best examples of Stalin's ability to integrate secret police and foreign espionage came in 1940, when he gave approval to the secret police to have Leon Trotsky assassinated in Mexico.^ Coyoacan 1940: re Leon Trotsky assassination.
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^ Title: Coyoacan 1940: re Leon Trotsky assassination.
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^ One of the best examples of Stalin's ability to integrate secret police and foreign espionage came in 1940, when he gave approval to the secret police to have Leon Trotsky assassinated in Mexico.
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[16]

Cult of personality

.Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin.^ Further information: Cult of personality and Stalinism Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin.
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^ Trotsky criticized the cult of personality built around Stalin.
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^ Stalin created the bureaucratic system and refined both the secret police and slave labor camps begun under his predecessor, Vladimir Lenin.

.Many personality cults in history have been frequently measured and compared to his.^ Many personality cults in history have been frequently measured and compared to his.
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.Numerous towns, villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honor.^ Numerous towns, villages and cities were renamed after the Soviet leader (see List of places named after Stalin ) and the Stalin Prize and Stalin Peace Prize were named in his honor.
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^ Domestically, Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis.
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^ The film won a Stalin prize, but since it was anti-German (the Teutonic Knights were German), it was banned again during the period of German-Soviet friendship in 1939-41.
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.He accepted grandiloquent titles (e.g.^ He accepted grandiloquent titles (e.g.
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."Coryphaeus of Science," "Father of Nations," "Brilliant Genius of Humanity," "Great Architect of Communism," "Gardener of Human Happiness," and others), and helped rewrite Soviet history to provide himself a more significant role in the revolution.^ "Coryphaeus of Science," "Father of Nations," "Brilliant Genius of Humanity," "Great Architect of Communism," "Gardener of Human Happiness," and others), and helped rewrite Soviet history to provide himself a more significant role in the revolution.
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^ It championed Russian nationalism and attacked Western influence (now known as bourgeois cosmopolitanism), glorified communism, and above all trumpeted the accomplishments and inspiration of the Great Leader, Stalin, attributing to him all Soviet successes.

^ I think this article could be rewrite thinking in the other side of the story, being a little less patriotic and a bit more tolerant and open minded.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

At the same time, according to Khrushchev, he insisted that he be remembered for "the extraordinary modesty characteristic of truly great people." Statues of Stalin depict him at a height and build approximating Alexander III, while photographic evidence suggests he was between 5 ft 5 in and 5 ft 6 in (165–168 cm).[17]
.Trotsky criticized the cult of personality built around Stalin.^ Trotsky criticized the cult of personality built around Stalin.
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^ At the Ninth Party Conference on 22 September, Trotsky openly criticized Stalin's behavior.
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^ Further information: Cult of personality and Stalinism Stalin created a cult of personality in the Soviet Union around both himself and Lenin.
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.It reached new levels during World War II, with Stalin's name included in the new Soviet national anthem.^ Eisenhower on mausoleum; salutes as Soviet National Anthem is played; pan along dignitaries, including good shot of Harriman w/ hat over heart.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do majorities support the Democrats on just about every issue now, including National Security and especially the War in Iraq?
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He heaped praise upon Stalin whom he felt had saved England during World War II. To justify his praise of Stalin he said that 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union during that war.

.Stalin became the focus of literature, poetry, music, paintings and film, exhibiting fawning devotion, crediting Stalin with almost god-like qualities, and suggesting he single-handedly won the Second World War.^ Stalin became the focus of literature, poetry, music, paintings and film, exhibiting fawning devotion, crediting Stalin with almost god-like qualities, and suggesting he single-handedly won the Second World War.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Here in World War II, you have a Hitler, who's consumed with fears of Jewish conspiracy, and a Stalin, who's consumed with fears of a secret society conspiracy, of British and American conspiracy.

.It is debatable as to how much Stalin relished the cult surrounding him.^ It is debatable as to how much Stalin relished the cult surrounding him.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just looking at it gives me the creeps, remembering that awful cat in the book and how much I wanted to kick him under the streetcar.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway: Here's the excerpt from the book about Lenin's death, and Stalin's creation of the personality cult, and embalming the dude and putting him on display.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Finnish communist Tuominen records a sarcastic toast proposed by Stalin at a New Year Party in 1935 in which he said "Comrades!^ The Finnish communist Tuominen records a sarcastic toast proposed by Stalin at a New Year Party in 1935 in which he said "Comrades!
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^ At the 1934 Party Congress where the vote for the new Central Committee was held, Kirov received only three negative votes, the fewest of any candidate, while Stalin received 1,108 negative votes.
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^ Stalin launched a command economy , replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization .
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.I want to propose a toast to our patriarch, life and sun, liberator of nations, architect of socialism [he rattled off all the appellations applied to him in those days] – Josef Vissarionovich Stalin, and I hope this is the first and last speech made to that genius this evening."^ I want to propose a toast to our patriarch, life and sun, liberator of nations, architect of socialism [he rattled off all the appellations applied to him in those days] – Josef Vissarionovich Stalin, and I hope this is the first and last speech made to that genius this evening."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ On 4 September 1943, Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius , Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate , which had been suspended since 1925, and elect the Patriarch .
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[18]
.In a 1956 speech, Nikita Khrushchev gave a denunciation of Stalin's actions: "It is impermissible and foreign to the spirit of Marxism-Leninism to elevate one person, to transform him into a superman possessing supernatural characteristics akin to those of a god."^ In a 1956 speech, Nikita Khrushchev gave a denunciation of Stalin's actions: "It is impermissible and foreign to the spirit of Marxism-Leninism to elevate one person, to transform him into a superman possessing supernatural characteristics akin to those of a god."
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^ One of Dzhugashvili's aliases, the one by which he became best known, was that of Stalin (Man of Steel), given to him by his fellow revolutionaries for his strength and ruthlessness.

^ And perhaps the--the--the best illustration of this is Stalin, who was maniacally conspiracy-minded, and yet, he somehow or other fooled everyone to the point that it was only three years after his death when Khrushchev gave his famous speech in 1956 that the party and then the world became aware of what Stalin had been up to.

[5]

Purges and deportations

Purges

Beria's letter to Politburo Stalin's resolution The Politburo's decision
.Left: Beria's January 1940 letter to Stalin, asking permission to execute 346 "enemies of the CPSU and of the Soviet authorities" who conducted "counter-revolutionary, right-Trotskyite plotting and spying activities"
Middle: Stalin's handwriting: "за" (support).
^ Left: Beria's January 1940 letter to Stalin, asking permission to execute 346 " enemies of the CPSU and of the Soviet authorities " who conducted "counter-revolutionary, right-Trotskyite plotting and spying activities" Middle: Stalin's handwriting: "за" (support).
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^ In Baku, Stalin organized Muslim Azeris and Persians in partisan activities, including the murders of many " Black Hundreds " right-wing supporters of the Tsar, and conducted protection rackets, ransom kidnappings, counterfeiting operations and robberies.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Soviet official who worked with Stalin said, when it was all over, that Stalin had the deadliest of combinations in his personality: Laziness and capriciousness.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]


Right: The Politburo's decision is signed by Secretary Stalin
.Stalin, as head of the Politburo consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with a Great Purge of the party, justified as an attempt to expel 'opportunists' and 'counter-revolutionary infiltrators'.[19][20] Those targeted by the purge were often expelled from the party, however more severe measures ranged from banishment to the Gulag labor camps, to execution after trials held by NKVD troikas.^ Targets were often executed, imprisoned in Gulag labor camps or exiled.
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^ Stalin, as head of the Politburo consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with a Great Purge of the party, justified as an attempt to expel 'opportunists' and 'counter-revolutionary infiltrators'.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some were executed and some died in labor camps.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19][21][22]
.In the 1930s, Stalin apparently became increasingly worried about the growing popularity of Sergei Kirov.^ In the 1930s, Stalin apparently became increasingly worried about the growing popularity of Sergei Kirov .
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^ In addition, hypotheses and popular rumors exist about Stalin's real father.
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^ Stalin's purges in the late 1930s, and his growing antiSemitism, is explained away as the remnant of the implacably anti-Christian mindset which he inherited from the Jews.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

.At the 1934 Party Congress where the vote for the new Central Committee was held, Kirov received only three negative votes, the fewest of any candidate, while Stalin received 1,108 negative votes.^ From them he learned that Kirov opposed Stalin's brutal methods of collectivization, and received many more votes than Stalin for re-election to the Central Committee (and thus election as Secretary General) at the 17th Party Conqress of 1934.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Kirov murder, however, was made the central justification for the whole theory of Stalinism and the necessity for endless terror.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marshall Zhukov & Khrushchev, Chairman of Ukraine Central Committee, receiving flowers.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .After the assassination of Kirov, which may have been orchestrated by Stalin, Stalin invented a detailed scheme to implicate opposition leaders in the murder, including Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev.^ After the assassination of Kirov, which may have been orchestrated by Stalin, Stalin invented a detailed scheme to implicate opposition leaders in the murder, including Trotsky, Kamenev and Zioviev.
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^ "Grokking" Stalin and the murder of Kirov .
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kamenev and Zinoviev were readmitted, but Trotsky was exiled from the Soviet Union.
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[24] .The investigations and trials expanded.^ The investigations and trials expanded.
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[25] .Stalin passed a new law on "terrorist organizations and terrorist acts", which were to be investigated for no more than ten days, with no prosecution, defense attorneys or appeals, followed by a sentence to be executed "quickly."^ He's not; he paints Hitler as no less of a monster than Stalin, simply as a less-smart one.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ For a few decades, it has been known that Stalin killed more people than Hitler; Suvorov's merely trying to establish that in this case, Stalin was also more to blame.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ In Hitler's concentration camps more people died than in Stalin's camps and prisons.

[26]
.Thereafter, several trials known as the Moscow Trials were held, but the procedures were replicated throughout the country.^ Thereafter, several trials known as the Moscow Trials were held, but the procedures were replicated throughout the country.
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^ Thereafter, Stalin also conducted a purge of several military commanders that were shot for "cowardice" without a trial.
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.Article 58 of the legal code, listing prohibited anti-Soviet activities as counterrevolutionary crime was applied in the broadest manner.^ Article 58 of the legal code, listing prohibited anti-Soviet activities as counterrevolutionary crime was applied in the broadest manner.
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^ To get an idea of how easily an innocent Soviet citizen could be arrested and convicted of an alleged crime, we need only look at the Soviet Criminal Code.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the criminal code stated that it drew no distinction between intention and the crime itself, and that this showed the superiority of Soviet over "bourgeois" legislation.
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[27] .The flimsiest pretexts were often enough to brand someone an "enemy of the people," starting the cycle of public persecution and abuse, often proceeding to interrogation, torture and deportation, if not death.^ The flimsiest pretexts were often enough to brand someone an " enemy of the people ," starting the cycle of public persecution and abuse, often proceeding to interrogation, torture and deportation, if not death.
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^ Under Beria many of the NKVD officers and First Secretaries responsible for thousands of executions and deportations were tried and often executed themselves for executing innocent people and using torture against those arrested.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Russian word troika gained a new meaning: a quick, simplified trial by a committee of three subordinated to NKVD with sentencing carried out within 24 hours.^ The Russian word troika gained a new meaning: a quick, simplified trial by a committee of three subordinated to NKVD with sentencing carried out within 24 hours.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the 1934 Party Congress where the vote for the new Central Committee was held, Kirov received only three negative votes, the fewest of any candidate, while Stalin received 1,108 negative votes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The responsibility for carrying out during a life of the given instruction to assign to secretaries of Provincial committee, regional committee, regional bureau, the national Central Committees and to country committee personally .
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

[26]
Before
After
.Nikolai Yezhov, the young man walking with Stalin in the top photo from the 1930s, was shot in 1940. Following his death, Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet censors.^ Short shot young Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following his death, Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet censors.
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^ Nikolai Yezhov , the young man walking with Stalin in the top photo from the 1930s, was shot in 1940.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Such retouching was a common occurrence during Stalin's rule.^ Such retouching was a common occurrence during Stalin's rule.
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^ The generation born during Stalin's rule was the first near-universally literate generation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many military leaders were convicted of treason, and a large scale purging of Red Army officers followed.^ Many military leaders were convicted of treason, and a large scale purging of Red Army officers followed.
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^ Also falling victim to the Great Purge were military leaders, including 60 percent of Red Army officers above the rank of major.

^ Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky , ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries [ 8 ] [ 9 ] and burned villages in order to intimidate the peasantry into submission and discourage bandit raids on food shipments.
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[29] .The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin.^ Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leon Trotsky [no Lenin].
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin.
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[30] .In August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico, where he had lived in exile since January 1937; this eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership.^ In August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico, where he had lived in exile since January 1937; this eliminated the last of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership.
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^ After the assassination of Kirov, which may have been orchestrated by Stalin, Stalin invented a detailed scheme to implicate opposition leaders in the murder, including Trotsky, Kamenev and Zioviev.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The migrs were not critical towards Stalin or the Comintern, but as a rule reliable officials, loyal supporters of the party leadership who did not get involved in inner-party opposition groups.

[31] .The only three "Old Bolsheviks" (Lenin's Politburo) that remained were Stalin, Mikhail Kalinin, and Chairman of Sovnarkom Vyacheslav Molotov.^ Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, Kalinin & Czechoslovakian President Edvard Benes standing behind.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky .
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^ MS Stalin waving from top of Lenin s tomb alongside Molotov.
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.Mass operations of the NKVD also targeted "national contingents" (foreign ethnicities) such as Poles, ethnic Germans, Koreans, etc.^ Mass operations of the NKVD also targeted "national contingents" (foreign ethnicities) such as Poles, ethnic Germans, Koreans, etc.
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^ German attitudes toward the Russians were further colored by evidence of NKVD massacres encountered at such places as L'Vov, Vinnitsa, and Katyn.

^ The Polish operation of the NKVD ), it is the worst in terms of mass casualties.
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A total of 350,000 (144,000 of them Poles) were arrested and 247,157 (110,000 Poles) were executed.[11] .Many Americans who had emigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed; others were sent to prison camps or gulags.^ Many Americans who had emigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed; others were sent to prison camps or gulags .
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^ Again, most were executed, while others died in the camps.
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^ Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church, Uniats , Baptists, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, etc.
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[32] .Concurrent with the purges, efforts were made to rewrite the history in Soviet textbooks and other propaganda materials.^ We, the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies, are going to try an experiment unique in history; we are going to found a power which will have no other aim but to satisfy the needs of the soldiers, workers, and peasants."
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The facts discussed herein are compatible with a range of paradigms of Soviet history, just as they help to disprove a number of other interpretations.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore Soviet cars and other stuff in 1980 looked like were made in 1960.
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

.Notable people executed by NKVD were removed from the texts and photographs as though they never existed.^ The people who lived in existing housing had to share apartments, one family to a room, and the housing shortage was never overcome, though much was built later under Khrushchev and Brezhnev..
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My children are exposed to IDEAS so that they are equipped to deal with the world such as it is, not cower in the corner and long for a return to (never existed) better days.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People should never be required to show ID when they vote.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gradually, the history of revolution was transformed to a story about just two key characters: Lenin and Stalin.^ Gradually, the history of revolution was transformed to a story about just two key characters: Lenin and Stalin.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyway: Here's the excerpt from the book about Lenin's death, and Stalin's creation of the personality cult, and embalming the dude and putting him on display.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main articles: Stalin in the Revolution and early wars and Russian Civil War Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin , and Mikhail Kalinin meeting in 1919.
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.In light of revelations from the Soviet archives, historians now estimate that nearly 700,000 people (353,074 in 1937 and 328,612 in 1938) were executed in the course of the terror,[33] with the great mass of victims being "ordinary" Soviet citizens: workers, peasants, homemakers, teachers, priests, musicians, soldiers, pensioners, ballerinas, beggars.^ In light of revelations from the Soviet archives, historians now estimate that nearly 700,000 people (353,074 in 1937 and 328,612 in 1938) were executed in the course of the terror, [ 31 ] with the great mass of victims being "ordinary" Soviet citizens: workers, peasants, homemakers, teachers, priests, musicians, soldiers, pensioners, ballerinas, beggars.
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^ When the news of the Great Terror reached the west, thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands of people, recoiled in horror before the ideas of socialism.

^ Getty later re-evaluated these figures in light of Soviet archival materials, see: J. Arch Gettty & Roberta T. Manning, eds., Stalinist Terror.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34][35] .Some experts believe the evidence released from the Soviet archives is understated, incomplete or unreliable.^ Some experts believe the evidence released from the Soviet archives is understated, incomplete or unreliable.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete.
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^ Believers just rest and wait some visible or touchable evidences which could prove their ...
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

[36][37][38][39][40] .For example, Robert Conquest suggests that the probable figure for executions during the years of the Great Purge is not 681,692, but some two and a half times as high.^ For example, Robert Conquest suggests that the probable figure for executions during the years of the Great Purge is not 681,692, but some two and a half times as high.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Many Americans who had emigrated to the Soviet Union during the worst of the Great Depression were executed; others were sent to prison camps or gulags .
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.He believes that the KGB was covering its tracks by falsifying the dates and causes of death of rehabilitated victims.^ He believes that the KGB was covering its tracks by falsifying the dates and causes of death of rehabilitated victims.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.Stalin personally signed 357 proscription lists in 1937 and 1938 which condemned to execution some 40,000 people, and about 90% of these are confirmed to have been shot.^ I can't talk to many people about Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin personally signed 357 proscription lists in 1937 and 1938 which condemned to execution some 40,000 people, and about 90% of these are confirmed to have been shot.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over 100,000 were shot during the purges of 1937–1938.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .At the time, while reviewing one such list, Stalin reportedly muttered to no one in particular: "Who's going to remember all this riff-raff in ten or twenty years time?^ At the time, while reviewing one such list, Stalin reportedly muttered to no one in particular: "Who's going to remember all this riff-raff in ten or twenty years time?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one is going to be censored.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin introduced controversial military orders, such as Order No.
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No one. .Who remembers the names now of the boyars Ivan the Terrible got rid of?^ Who remembers the names now of the boyars Ivan the Terrible got rid of?
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.No one."
[43] In addition, Stalin dispatched a contingent of NKVD operatives to Mongolia, established a Mongolian version of the NKVD troika and unleashed a bloody purge in which tens of thousands were executed as 'Japanese Spies.'^ In addition, Stalin dispatched a contingent of NKVD operatives to Mongolia , established a Mongolian version of the NKVD troika and unleashed a bloody purge in which tens of thousands were executed as 'Japanese Spies.'
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^ Stalin passed a new law on "terrorist organizations and terrorist acts", which were to be investigated for no more than ten days, with no prosecution, defense attorneys or appeals, followed by a sentence to be executed "quickly."
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^ He's not; he paints Hitler as no less of a monster than Stalin, simply as a less-smart one.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

Mongolian ruler Khorloogiin Choibalsan closely followed Stalin's lead.[44]

Population transfer

Meeting in a prison cell, an illustration by Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya
.Shortly before, during and immediately after World War II, Stalin conducted a series of deportations on a huge scale which profoundly affected the ethnic map of the Soviet Union.^ Soviet people of World War II .
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^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ Georgian people of World War II .
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It is estimated that between 1941 and 1949 nearly 3.3 million[3] were deported to Siberia and the Central Asian republics. .By some estimates up to 43% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition.^ By some estimates up to 43% of the resettled population died of diseases and malnutrition .
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^ Some historians estimate that 4- 7 million Ukrainians died as a result of Stalin's policy.
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[45]
.Separatism, resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the official reasons for the deportations, rightly or wrongly.^ Separatism, resistance to Soviet rule and collaboration with the invading Germans were cited as the official reasons for the deportations, rightly or wrongly.
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^ PM cyraknoss @Knaslaban: You realize that the first soviet victory against the invading Germans was months after D-day, right?
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those among the leading German party officials in the Soviet Union who did survive had blood on their hands.

.Individual circumstances of those spending time in German-occupied territories were not examined.^ Individual circumstances of those spending time in German-occupied territories were not examined.
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^ M. Seleshko Toward the end of February, 1944, when I was marking time in a German prison in Potsdam, I was transferred to cell number 20, already occupied by several other prisoners.

^ By the end of 1943, the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans from 1941-1942.
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[46] .After the brief Nazi occupation of the Caucasus, the entire population of five of the small highland peoples and the Crimean Tatars – more than a million people in total  – were deported without notice or any opportunity to take their possessions.^ After the brief Nazi occupation of the Caucasus, the entire population of five of the small highland peoples and the Crimean Tatars – more than a million people in total – were deported without notice or any opportunity to take their possessions.
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^ For a few decades, it has been known that Stalin killed more people than Hitler; Suvorov's merely trying to establish that in this case, Stalin was also more to blame.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ In Hitler's concentration camps more people died than in Stalin's camps and prisons.

[46]
.During Stalin's rule the following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Ukrainians, Poles, Koreans, Volga Germans, Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks, Finns, Bulgarians, Greeks, Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians, and Jews.^ During Stalin's rule the following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Ukrainians , Poles , Koreans , Volga Germans , Crimean Tatars , Kalmyks , Chechens , Ingush , Balkars , Karachays , Meskhetian Turks , Finns , Bulgarians , Greeks , Latvians , Lithuanians , Estonians , and Jews .
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^ In the years following, millions of ethnic minorities were also deported .
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^ The migrs were not critical towards Stalin or the Comintern, but as a rule reliable officials, loyal supporters of the party leadership who did not get involved in inner-party opposition groups.

.Large numbers of Kulaks, regardless of their nationality, were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia.^ Large numbers of Kulaks , regardless of their nationality, were resettled to Siberia and Central Asia .
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.Deportations took place in appalling conditions, often by cattle truck, and hundreds of thousands of deportees died en route.^ They had implemented the harsh collectivization of the peasantry, during which hundreds of thousands had been deported.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result there was a famine, in which hundreds of thousands died.

[3] .Those who survived were forced to work without pay in the labour camps.^ In any cse, of those who were not, few survived the rigors of camp work..
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^ Those who survived were forced to work without pay in the labour camps.
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^ The bulk of those who resisted were killed, not by their "labourers" -- for most had none -- but by the military forces of the security police.
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.Many of the deportees died of hunger or other conditions.^ Many of the deportees died of hunger or other conditions.
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^ Deportations took place in appalling conditions, often by cattle truck, and hundreds of thousands of deportees died en route.
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.In February 1956, Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninism, and reversed most of them, although it was not until 1991 that the Tatars, Meskhetians and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands.^ In February 1956, Nikita Khrushchev condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninism , and reversed most of them, although it was not until 1991 that the Tatars, Meskhetians and Volga Germans were allowed to return en masse to their homelands.
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^ During Stalin's rule the following ethnic groups were deported completely or partially: Ukrainians , Poles , Koreans , Volga Germans , Crimean Tatars , Kalmyks , Chechens , Ingush , Balkars , Karachays , Meskhetian Turks , Finns , Bulgarians , Greeks , Latvians , Lithuanians , Estonians , and Jews .
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^ The Soviet government denied its validity for years, calling it a forgery, until Nikita S. Khruschev finally acknowledged it as genuine in his secret speech to the 20th Party Congress in February 1956.
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.The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union.^ The deportations had a profound effect on the peoples of the Soviet Union.
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^ Most of the Soviet Union's industry and people were in European Russia.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ The Soviet Union had suffered grievously during the war, with perhaps 27 million people dead and widespread physical destruction.

.The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic States, Tatarstan and Chechnya, even today.^ The memory of the deportations played a major part in the separatist movements in the Baltic States, Tatarstan and Chechnya , even today.
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Collectivization

.Stalin's regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture.^ Main article: Collectivization in the Soviet Union Stalin's regime moved to force collectivization of agriculture.
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^ In addition to pushing the collectivization of agriculture, Stalin also implemented a series of five-year plans that set quotas for growth in all areas of the economy.

^ At the end of 1927, a critical shortfall in grain supplies prompted Stalin to push for collectivisation of agriculture and order the seizures of grain hoards from kulak farmers.
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.This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, to bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and to make tax collection more efficient.^ This was intended to increase agricultural output from large-scale mechanized farms, to bring the peasantry under more direct political control, and to make tax collection more efficient.
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^ Whatever the case may be, collectivization did not increase Soviet agricultural output, but reduced it considerably.
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^ Under the control of a few supper massive media corporations, we also face a situation in which a very narrow band of political opinions are allowed to be broadcast.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Collectivization meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienation from control of the land and its produce.^ Collectivization meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienation from control of the land and its produce.
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^ Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, and it faced violent reaction among the peasantry.
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.Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, and it faced violent reaction among the peasantry.^ Collectivization also meant a drastic drop in living standards for many peasants, and it faced violent reaction among the peasantry.
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^ Collectivization meant drastic social changes, on a scale not seen since the abolition of serfdom in 1861, and alienation from control of the land and its produce.
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^ It took the form of violent, forced collectivisation unleashed by the Stalinist clique against the peasantry as a whole and turned into a virtual nationwide civil war.

.In the first years of collectivization it was estimated that industrial production would rise by 200% and agricultural production by 50%,[47] but these estimates were not met.^ In the first years of collectivization it was estimated that industrial production would rise by 200% and agricultural production by 50%, [ 44 ] but these estimates were not met.
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^ In addition to pushing the collectivization of agriculture, Stalin also implemented a series of five-year plans that set quotas for growth in all areas of the economy.

^ Although the "Right" had won the industrialization debate, 1927-28 witnessed the so-called "scissors crisis, " in which the prices of agricultural products were much lower than those of industrial products.
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.Stalin blamed this unanticipated failure on kulaks (rich peasants), who resisted collectivization.^ The peasants resisted fiercely, so Stalin decided on all-out collectivization.
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^ Simultaneously, Stalin reversed Lenin's New Economic Policy, which had introduced a degree of capitalism in order to revive the economy, purged the middle-class peasants who had emerged under that policy (the Kulaks), and carried out the collectivization of agriculture.

^ Oh yeah, and don't forget to blame Soros, Clinton, or Stalin for all the Phony Americans who don't follow the GOP mouthpieces...
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(However, kulaks proper made up only 4% of the peasant population; the "kulaks" that Stalin targeted included the slightly better-off peasants who took the brunt of violence from the OGPU and the Komsomol.^ The Bolsheviks were able to gain the confidence not only of the workers, but also of the peasants, who at the time made up the majority of the population.

^ (However, kulaks proper made up only 4% of the peasant population; the "kulaks" that Stalin targeted included the slightly better-off peasants who took the brunt of violence from the OGPU and the Komsomol.
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^ Simultaneously, Stalin reversed Lenin's New Economic Policy, which had introduced a degree of capitalism in order to revive the economy, purged the middle-class peasants who had emerged under that policy (the Kulaks), and carried out the collectivization of agriculture.

.These peasants were about 60% of the population).^ These peasants were about 60% of the population).
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^ These figures, which exaggerate the number of victims by about 12 times, are supposed to arouse the population.

.Those officially defined as "kulaks," "kulak helpers," and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot, placed into Gulag labor camps, or deported to remote areas of the country, depending on the charge.^ Those officially defined as "kulaks," "kulak helpers," and later "ex-kulaks" were to be shot, placed into Gulag labor camps , or deported to remote areas of the country, depending on the charge.
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^ Likewise, other foreign communists then in the USSR were also executed while their dependents and lesser fry were sent to labor camps.
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^ The supporters of Trotsky's Left Opposition had already been sent into exile or deported to the penitentiary camps of the NKVD (Stalinist Secret Police, forerunner of the KGB) in the '20s.

.Archival data indicates that 20,201 people were executed during 1930, the year of Dekulakization.^ Khrushchev requested "to execute 20,000 people", Zhukov, KP 3 Dec.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During from 20-30 years in Moscow and in territory of adjoining areas 150 temples completely are destroyed.
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In these four years, millions of people were arrested and killed, either by execution (sometimes torture) in prison, or by overwork and malnutrition in the labor camps, or execution there.
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[44]
.The two-stage progress of collectivization—interrupted for a year by Stalin's famous editorials, "Dizzy with success"[48] and "Reply to Collective Farm Comrades"[49]—is a prime example of his capacity for tactical political withdrawal followed by intensification of initial strategies.^ The two-stage progress of collectivization—interrupted for a year by Stalin's famous editorials, "Dizzy with success" [ 45 ] and "Reply to Collective Farm Comrades" [ 46 ] —is a prime example of his capacity for tactical political withdrawal followed by intensification of initial strategies.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ In addition to pushing the collectivization of agriculture, Stalin also implemented a series of five-year plans that set quotas for growth in all areas of the economy.

Famines

.Famine affected other parts of the USSR. The death toll from famine in the Soviet Union at this time is estimated at between five and ten million people.^ Russia as a part of the Soviet Union .
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^ Further information: Droughts and famines in Russia and the USSR Famine affected other parts of the USSR. The death toll from famine in the Soviet Union at this time is estimated at between five and ten million people.
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^ Mater can do this when parts of it interact between each other.
  • Adolf Hitler Josif Stalin Pol Pot 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.jocys.com [Source type: Original source]

[50] .The worst crop failure of late tsarist Russia, in 1892, had caused 375,000 to 400,000 deaths.^ The worst crop failure of late tsarist Russia, in 1892, had caused 375,000 to 400,000 deaths.
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[51] .Most modern scholars agree that the famine was caused by the policies of the government of the Soviet Union under Stalin, rather than by natural reasons.^ Most modern scholars agree that the famine was caused by the policies of the government of the Soviet Union under Stalin , rather than by natural reasons.
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^ Heads of government of the Soviet Union .
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^ Now, following World War II, Stalin sought the reverse, insisting at the very least on governments friendly to the Soviet Union in order to provide security for a badly wounded Soviet empire.

[52]
Entering Gulag (a leaf from Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya's notebook)
.According to Alan Bullock, "the total Soviet grain crop was no worse than that of 1931 ...^ Entering Gulag (a leaf from Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya 's notebook) According to Alan Bullock , "the total Soviet grain crop was no worse than that of 1931 ...
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^ Hitler had no intention of conceding anything to an ally whom he rated many degrees lower than Mussolini, and was angered by what he saw as an emerging Soviet threat."

^ AM ReginaldtheHun why is no america worse than us all being nazis .
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

it was not a crop failure but the excessive demands of the state, ruthlessly enforced, that cost the lives of as many as five million Ukrainian peasants." .Stalin refused to release large grain reserves that could have alleviated the famine, while continuing to export grain; he was convinced that the Ukrainian peasants had hidden grain away, and strictly enforced draconian new collective-farm theft laws in response.^ Most peasants were in collective farms.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin refused to release large grain reserves that could have alleviated the famine, while continuing to export grain; he was convinced that the Ukrainian peasants had hidden grain away, and strictly enforced draconian new collective-farm theft laws in response.
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^ Stalin, Joseph, Dizzy with success , Pravda , 2 March 1930 ^ Stalin, Joseph, Reply to Collective Farm Comrades , Pravda , 3 April 1930 ^ " Overpopulation.Com » The Soviet Famines of 1921 and 1932-3 " .
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[53][54] .Other historians hold it was largely the insufficient harvests of 1931 and 1932 caused by a variety of natural disasters that resulted in famine, with the successful harvest of 1933 ending the famine.^ Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931-1933 " (PDF).
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^ Other historians hold it was largely the insufficient harvests of 1931 and 1932 caused by a variety of natural disasters that resulted in famine, with the successful harvest of 1933 ending the famine.
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^ Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933 Genocide?
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[55] .Soviet and other historians have argued that the rapid collectivization of agriculture was necessary in order to achieve an equally rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union and ultimately win World War II. This is disputed by other historians; Alec Nove claims that the Soviet Union industrialized in spite of, rather than because of, its collectivized agriculture.^ Montage Soviet industry & war production.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ He heaped praise upon Stalin whom he felt had saved England during World War II. To justify his praise of Stalin he said that 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union during that war.

.The USSR also experienced a major famine in 1947 as a result of war damage and severe droughts, but economist Michael Ellman argues that it could have been prevented if the government did not mismanage its grain reserves.^ There Stalin states clearly that it is in the interest of USSR for a war to break out, because "the dictatorship of the communist party is possible only as a result of a war".
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.The famine cost an estimated 1 to 1.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility.^ It should not be forgotten, either, that Soviet cruelty greatly prolonged the conflict, costing all belligerent nations millions of lives.

^ However, it seems unlikely, from what we know about them, that any of these leaders could have equalled Stalin's monstrous tyranny which cost the lives of millions.
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^ Stalin's economic policies included the forced collectivization of agriculture that claimed an estimated 10–15 million lives.

[56]

Ukrainian famine

.The Holodomor famine is sometimes referred to as the Ukrainian Genocide, implying it was engineered by the Soviet government, specifically targeting the Ukrainian people to destroy the Ukrainian nation as a political factor and social entity.^ Tolstoy observes that "Soviet cruelty far outstripped that of National Socialism.

^ Since peasants also starved in other parts of the Soviet Union, the question is whether Stalin specifically targeted the Ukrainians for physical and cultural extermination, which is the claim made by Ukrainians and by some Western historians.
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^ During the Russian Revolution and the critical years that followed, the USSR had been legally governed by an elected hierarchy of soviets (="councils"), from local to national level, with the Supreme Soviet as the national legislative body, the Council (= soviet ) of People's Commissars as the executive body, and the Chairman of this Council as the head of state.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[57] While historians continue to disagree whether the policies that led to Holodomor fall under the legal definition of genocide, twenty six countries have officially recognized the Holodomor as such. .On 28 November 2006 the Ukrainian Parliament approved a bill, according to which the Soviet-era forced famine was an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people.^ November 28, 2006 .
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the conventional view, Hitler's perfidious attack abruptly forced a neutral and aloof Soviet Russia into war.

^ They spoke out against forced collectivisation and the erroneous methods of industrialisation which were leading to great deprivation for the vast majority of the Soviet people.

[58] .Professor Michael Ellman concludes that Ukrainians were victims of genocide in 1932-33, according to a more relaxed definition, which is favored by some specialists in the field of genocide studies.^ In 1932-33, Stalin's use of force against peasant resistance to collectivization led to a man-made famine in some regions s of the Soviet Union.
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.He asserts that Soviet policies greatly exacerbated the famine's death toll (such as the use of torture and execution to extract grain (see Law of Spikelets), with 1.8 million tonnes of it being exported during the height of the starvation - enough to feed 5 million people for one year, the use of force to prevent starving peasants from fleeing the worst affected areas, and the refusal to import grain or secure international humanitarian aid to alleviate the suffering) and that Stalin intended to use the starvation as a cheap and efficient means (as opposed to deportations and shootings) to kill off those deemed to be "counterrevolutionaries," "idlers," and "thieves," but not to annihilate the Ukrainian peasantry as a whole.^ It is estimated that 30 million people starved as a result of collectivization and the Law of the Blade of Grain.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The peasants then killed off their livestock and burned the grain.
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^ For other uses, see Stalin (disambiguation) .
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.He also claims that, while this is not the only Soviet genocide (e.g.^ He also claims that, while this is not the only Soviet genocide (e.g.
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.The Polish operation of the NKVD), it is the worst in terms of mass casualties.^ The Polish operation of the NKVD ), it is the worst in terms of mass casualties.
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^ Mass operations of the NKVD also targeted "national contingents" (foreign ethnicities) such as Poles, ethnic Germans, Koreans, etc.
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[42]
.Current estimates on the total number of casualties within Soviet Ukraine range mostly from 2.2 million[59][60] to 4 to 5 million.^ Current estimates on the total number of casualties within Soviet Ukraine range mostly from 2.2 million [ 55 ] [ 56 ] to 4 to 5 million.
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^ Soviet military casualties totaled approximately 35 million (official figures 28.2 million) with approximately 14.7 million killed, missing or captured (official figures 11.285 million).
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^ Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.
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[61][62][63]
A Ukrainian court found Josef Stalin and other leaders of the former Soviet Union guilty of genocide by "organizing mass famine in Ukraine in 1932-1933" in January 2010. However, the court "dropped criminal proceedings over the suspects' deaths".[64][65]

Industrialization

.The Russian Civil War and wartime communism had a devastating effect on the country's economy.^ To build up the economy as quickly as possible after the devastation of the Civil War and subsequent famine, the Bolsheviks permitted capitalism to flourish and encouraged profit-seeking businessmen, though under government scrutiny.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, there is very much in common between the Russian civil war and that which unfolded in the 1860s in the United States.

^ All of them had been living outside of Russia since the end of the Russian Civil War and carried foreign passports or League of Nations stateless persons I.D.s.

.Industrial output in 1922 was 13% of that in 1914. A recovery followed under the New Economic Policy, which allowed a degree of market flexibility within the context of socialism.^ Stalin abandoned Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) that permitted a degree of capitalism in Russia and initiated a series of five-year plans to modernize the economy, concentrating on heavy industry.

^ Simultaneously, Stalin reversed Lenin's New Economic Policy, which had introduced a degree of capitalism in order to revive the economy, purged the middle-class peasants who had emerged under that policy (the Kulaks), and carried out the collectivization of agriculture.

^ Central economic planning, which concentrated on specific areas, mainly heavy industry, while neglecting consumer goods and generally under- investing in collective agriculture.
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.Under Stalin's direction, this was replaced by a system of centrally ordained "Five-Year Plans" in the late 1920s.^ Five year plan.
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^ Stalin and 5 year plan shots.
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^ Stalin was finished and the replacement of Ulbricht was planned.

.These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture.^ These called for a highly ambitious program of state-guided crash industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture.
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^ Although the "Right" had won the industrialization debate, 1927-28 witnessed the so-called "scissors crisis, " in which the prices of agricultural products were much lower than those of industrial products.
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^ These new conditions called for a new kind of state.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.With seed capital unavailable because of international reaction to Communist policies, little international trade, and virtually no modern infrastructure, Stalin's government financed industrialization both by restraining consumption on the part of ordinary Soviet citizens to ensure that capital went for re-investment into industry, and by ruthless extraction of wealth from the kulaks.^ With seed capital unavailable because of international reaction to Communist policies, little international trade , and virtually no modern infrastructure, Stalin's government financed industrialization both by restraining consumption on the part of ordinary Soviet citizens to ensure that capital went for re-investment into industry, and by ruthless extraction of wealth from the kulaks.
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^ Stalin abandoned Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) that permitted a degree of capitalism in Russia and initiated a series of five-year plans to modernize the economy, concentrating on heavy industry.

^ After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.
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.In 1933 workers' real earnings sank to about one-tenth of the 1926 level.^ One of his contemporaries has said, about Reed's writing and journalism, "He couldn't be touched", and he really can't, not in terms of reportage, as well as giving you a sweeping sense that you are there .
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^ Tolstoy reveals that about one-tenth of the population of the newly occupied countries was deported.

^ It turned out that such reactors were chronically unstable at low levels of power, but no one had bothered to inform the operators about this defect.
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.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Common and political prisoners in labor camps were forced to do unpaid labor, and communists and Komsomol members were frequently "mobilized" for various construction projects.^ USSR; Russian Gulag; Forced Laborers; 1933; 1930s; White Sea - Baltic Canal; Slave Labor; .
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^ Workers marching to work - breaking stones, hard labor, camp band playing - various shots construction, shoveling mud, pile driving, etc.
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^ The building of the White Sea Canal was one of Stalin's enormous "public works" projects - built entirely by forced labor from the massive prison system.
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.The Soviet Union used numerous foreign experts, to design new factories, supervise construction, instruct workers and improve manufacturing processes.^ In 1923 he assumed the post of secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a position he used as a springboard to power.

^ Stalingrad dam construction site, huge cranes, workers prepare new turbine & finish one year early, dedication.
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^ In 1932-33, Stalin's use of force against peasant resistance to collectivization led to a man-made famine in some regions s of the Soviet Union.
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.The most notable foreign contractor was Albert Kahn's firm that designed and built 521 factories between 1930 and 1932. As a rule, factories were supplied with imported equipment.^ They are supplied with weapons and equipment designed for attack, and the frontier area is prepared accordingly.

^ Military vehicles, aircraft, weapons and equipment suitable for defending the country are designed, produced and supplied.

.In spite of early breakdowns and failures, the first two Five-Year Plans achieved rapid industrialization from a very low economic base.^ PM calumF cyraknoss, the first Soviet victory was the Battle of Moscow, two and a half years before D-Day, though the very same month as the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in May, the Supreme Economic Council proposed an industrial expansion of 130% over 5 years, i.e.
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^ Central economic planning, which concentrated on specific areas, mainly heavy industry, while neglecting consumer goods and generally under- investing in collective agriculture.
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.While it is generally agreed that the Soviet Union achieved significant levels of economic growth under Stalin, the precise rate of growth is disputed.^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ He found confirmation that he had actually UNDER-estimated the level of Stalin's terror.
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^ These figures are cited even though in the 40 years after Stalin died in 1953 there were virtually no political executions in the Soviet Union.

.It is not disputed, however, that these gains were accomplished at the cost of millions of lives.^ It should not be forgotten, either, that Soviet cruelty greatly prolonged the conflict, costing all belligerent nations millions of lives.

^ However, it seems unlikely, from what we know about them, that any of these leaders could have equalled Stalin's monstrous tyranny which cost the lives of millions.
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.Official Soviet estimates stated the annual rate of growth at 13.9%; Russian and Western estimates gave lower figures of 5.8% and even 2.9%.^ These figures are cited even though in the 40 years after Stalin died in 1953 there were virtually no political executions in the Soviet Union.

^ However, urban growth also took place in most Western countries, especially in the U.S., yet agricultural production increased even more.
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^ Reliable figures show that during the entire period of Soviet history, approximately four million people were accused and convicted of crimes against the state.

.Indeed, one estimate is that Soviet growth became temporarily much higher after Stalin's death.^ Indeed, one estimate is that Soviet growth became temporarily much higher after Stalin's death.
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^ Whatever the reasons, Stalin's death in Moscow on 5 March 1953, following a paralytic stroke, came as a relief to many in highly vulnerable Soviet leadership positions.

^ In 1924, the year of Lenin's death, Stalin published the pamphlet: Socialism in One Country.
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[66]
.According to Robert Lewis the Five-Year Plan substantially helped to modernize the previously backward Soviet economy.^ In addition to pushing the collectivization of agriculture, Stalin also implemented a series of five-year plans that set quotas for growth in all areas of the economy.

^ Stalin abandoned Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) that permitted a degree of capitalism in Russia and initiated a series of five-year plans to modernize the economy, concentrating on heavy industry.

^ The production targets set in the Five Year Plans of 1929-39 were totally unrealistic.
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New products were developed, and the scale and efficiency of existing production greatly increased. Some innovations were based on indigenous technical developments, others on imported foreign technology.[67] .Despite its costs, the industrialization effort allowed the Soviet Union to fight, and ultimately win, World War II.^ Soviet people of World War II .
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^ Montage Soviet industry & war production.
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^ Georgian people of World War II .
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Science

.Science in the Soviet Union was under strict ideological control by Stalin and his government, along with art and literature.^ Now, following World War II, Stalin sought the reverse, insisting at the very least on governments friendly to the Soviet Union in order to provide security for a badly wounded Soviet empire.

^ The creator of this theory, Trofim D.Lysenko (1898-1976), was supported by Stalin and became President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1938.
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^ In 1932-33, Stalin's use of force against peasant resistance to collectivization led to a man-made famine in some regions s of the Soviet Union.
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.There was significant progress in "ideologically safe" domains, owing to the free Soviet education system and state-financed research.^ There was no way on earth that the Ukraine would ever break free of the Soviet Imperium.
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^ Suvorov also reports on the dismantling in June 1941 of the Soviet frontier defense systems, and the deployment there of masses of troops and armor poised for westward attack.

.However, in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic—the most notable examples being the "bourgeois pseudosciences" genetics and cybernetics.^ However, in several cases the consequences of ideological pressure were dramatic—the most notable examples being the " bourgeois pseudosciences " genetics and cybernetics .
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^ Obviously, a serial killer (I'm using that as the most obvious example of a human being lacking compassion or restraint) very often has capriciousness but has no patience.
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^ It's worth considering there that a lot of the popular support for the Nazis came from fear of communism, with the Reichstag fire being the most tangible example of that.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some areas of physics were criticized,[68][69] However, although initially planned,[70] while Stalin personally and directly contributed to study in Linguistics, the principle work of which is a small essay, "Marxism and Linguistic Questions."[71] Scientific research was hindered by the fact that many scientists were sent to labor camps (including Lev Landau, later a Nobel Prize winner, who spent a year in prison in 1938–1939) or executed (e.g.^ Some were executed and some died in labor camps.
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^ Some areas of physics were criticized, [ 62 ] [ 63 ] However, although initially planned, [ 64 ] while Stalin personally and directly contributed to study in Linguistics , the principle work of which is a small essay, " Marxism and Linguistic Questions.
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^ Stalin and 5 year plan shots.
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Lev Shubnikov, shot in 1937).

Social services

.Under the Soviet government people benefited from some social liberalization.^ People still cling to the idea that socialism is some happy lollipop land where poverty will be eradicated, and the world will all hold hands as one.
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^ To unite the Soviet people under his leadership, Stalin proclaimed the belief of a communist world threatened by encircling enemies.

^ Under Gorbachev , Soviet scholars no longer tried to minimize the Stalin terror, which uprooted whole communities and led to the death of millions of people.
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Girls were given an adequate, equal education and women had equal rights in employment,[11] improving lives for women and families. .Stalinist development also contributed to advances in health care, which significantly increased the lifespan and quality of life of the typical Soviet citizen.^ All these health care systems are broke, bring in foreign Doctors with lower quality, long lines, rationed care, and bloated budgets.
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^ The new "Stalin" Constitution guaranteed every Soviet citizen a job as a right , along with medical care, pensions, education, etc.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Stalin's policies granted the Soviet people universal access to healthcare and education, effectively creating the first generation free from the fear of typhus, cholera, and malaria.^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Russian embassy - long line of people carrying flowers & wreaths into Soviet Embassy; place wreaths near bust of Stalin.
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^ The creator of this theory, Trofim D.Lysenko (1898-1976), was supported by Stalin and became President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1938.
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[72] The occurrences of these diseases dropped to record low numbers, increasing life spans by decades.[72]
.Soviet women under Stalin were the first generation of women able to give birth in the safety of a hospital, with access to prenatal care.^ To unite the Soviet people under his leadership, Stalin proclaimed the belief of a communist world threatened by encircling enemies.

^ The first four chapters review Stalin's pre-war management of the Soviet Union.

^ Women appealed to Stalin and other leaders of the Soviet state, but the reaction was the same.

[72] .Education was also an example of an increase in standard of living after economic development.^ Education was also an example of an increase in standard of living after economic development.
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.The generation born during Stalin's rule was the first near-universally literate generation.^ The generation born during Stalin's rule was the first near-universally literate generation.
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^ Stalin's policies granted the Soviet people universal access to healthcare and education, effectively creating the first generation free from the fear of typhus , cholera , and malaria .
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^ Such retouching was a common occurrence during Stalin's rule.
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.Millions benefitted from mass literacy campaigns in the 1930s, and from workers training schemes.^ Millions benefitted from mass literacy campaigns in the 1930s, and from workers training schemes.
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[73] .Engineers were sent abroad to learn industrial technology, and hundreds of foreign engineers were brought to Russia on contract.^ Engineers were sent abroad to learn industrial technology, and hundreds of foreign engineers were brought to Russia on contract.
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[72] .Transport links were improved and many new railways built.^ German occupied Europe w/ busy transport links; train on railway, people on platform calling names as others wait to be called to board train to go for forced labor.
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.Workers who exceeded their quotas, Stakhanovites, received many incentives for their work;[73] they could afford to buy the goods that were mass-produced by the rapidly expanding Soviet economy.^ The ones at the top had large apartments, country houses, chauffeur-driven limousines, special shops, where they could buy otherwise unobtainable goods, and access to well appointed hospitals and vacation resorts The middle and lower ranks also enjoyed many perks.
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^ Soviet law treated them as Soveit citizens who had committed treason against the USSR. ( Those who resisted arrest or/and incopoaration in the Red Army received either death sentences or were condemned to many years in labor camps).
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^ Njura on the road, stops horses and has argument w/ men who are leaving the site until next summer as they don t work thru winter.
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.The increase in demand due to industrialization and the decrease in the workforce due to World War II and repressions generated a major expansion in job opportunities for the survivors, especially for women.^ Soviet people of World War II .
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^ Georgian people of World War II .
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^ World War II, 1939–1945 .
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[73]

Culture

.Although born in Georgia, Stalin became a Russian nationalist and significantly promoted Russian history, language, and Russian national heroes, particularly during the 1930s and 1940s.^ Main article: Socialist Realism Although born in Georgia, Stalin became a Russian nationalist and significantly promoted Russian history, language, and Russian national heroes, particularly during the 1930s and 1940s.
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^ More absolute a ruler than any Russian tsar, Josef Stalin (born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) was one of the most powerful and influential figures in history and certainly one of its most horrific.

^ In the 1930s, Stalin apparently became increasingly worried about the growing popularity of Sergei Kirov .
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.He held the Russians up as the elder brothers of the non-Russian minorities.^ He held the Russians up as the elder brothers of the non-Russian minorities.
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[74]
.During Stalin's reign the official and long-lived style of Socialist Realism was established for painting, sculpture, music, drama and literature.^ During Stalin's reign his nicknames included: .
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^ During Stalin's reign the official and long-lived style of Socialist Realism was established for painting, sculpture, music, drama and literature.
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^ Stalin became the focus of literature, poetry, music, paintings and film, exhibiting fawning devotion, crediting Stalin with almost god-like qualities, and suggesting he single-handedly won the Second World War.
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Previously fashionable "revolutionary" expressionism, abstract art, and avant-garde experimentation were discouraged or denounced as "formalism".
.Famous figures were repressed, and many persecuted, tortured and executed, both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel, Vsevolod Meyerhold, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolai Gumilev, Lev Gumilev) and "non-conformists" (for example, Osip Mandelstam).^ Famous figures were repressed, and many persecuted, tortured and executed, both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel , Vsevolod Meyerhold , Anna Akhmatova , Nikolai Gumilev , Lev Gumilev ) and "non-conformists" (for example, Osip Mandelstam ).
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^ The repression of so many formerly high-ranking revolutionaries and party members led Leon Trotsky to claim that a "river of blood" separated Stalin's regime from that of Lenin.
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^ In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings, as one additional example, Robert Gellately and Simon Sebag-Montefiore argue the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed.
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.Small amounts of remnant of pre-revolutionary Russia survived.^ Small amounts of remnant of pre-revolutionary Russia survived [ clarification needed ] .
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.The degree of Stalin's personal involvement in general, and in specific instances, has been the subject of discussion.^ The degree of Stalin's personal involvement in general, and in specific instances, has been the subject of discussion.
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^ At the end of the discussion, when the subject was the search for a more dispassionate method of counting ballots, [Stalin] remarked that in the West, thanks to a multiparty system, this problem did not exist.
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.Stalin's favorite novel Pharaoh, shared similarities with Sergei Eisenstein's film, Ivan the Terrible, produced under Stalin's tutelage.^ Stalin's favorite novel Pharaoh , shared similarities with Sergei Eisenstein 's film, Ivan the Terrible , produced under Stalin's tutelage.
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^ Eisenstein also won the Stalin prize in 1945 for Part I of Ivan the Terrible (1530-84).
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two other writers managed to produce readable novels during the Stalin era.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In architecture, a Stalinist Empire Style (basically, updated neoclassicism on a very large scale, exemplified by the Seven Sisters of Moscow) replaced the constructivism of the 1920s.^ In architecture , a Stalinist Empire Style (basically, updated neoclassicism on a very large scale, exemplified by the Seven Sisters of Moscow) replaced the constructivism of the 1920s.
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.Stalin's rule had a largely disruptive effect on indigenous cultures within the Soviet Union, though the politics of Korenizatsiya and forced development were possibly beneficial to the integration of later generations of indigenous cultures.^ Stalin's rule had a largely disruptive effect on indigenous cultures within the Soviet Union, though the politics of Korenizatsiya and forced development were possibly beneficial to the integration of later generations of indigenous cultures.
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^ CU Stalin speaking in full uniform before large micophone ordering Soviet troops to stop retreating [English subtitles].
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large Soviet Red Army banner w/ picture of Stalin & Lenin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Religion

.Stalin followed the position adopted by Lenin that religion was an opiate that needed to be removed in order to construct the ideal communist society.^ Main article: Religion in the Soviet Union Main article: Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union Stalin followed the position adopted by Lenin that religion was an opiate that needed to be removed in order to construct the ideal communist society.
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^ Whatever the reasons, Stalin's death in Moscow on 5 March 1953, following a paralytic stroke, came as a relief to many in highly vulnerable Soviet leadership positions.

^ Finally, the appeal stated: "Stalin and his clique will not and cannot voluntarily give up their position, so they must be removed by force."
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.To this end his government promoted atheism through special atheistic education in schools, massive amounts of anti-religious propaganda, the antireligious work of public institutions (especially the Society of the Godless), discriminatory laws, and also a terror campaign against religious believers.^ To this end his government promoted atheism through special atheistic education in schools, massive amounts of anti-religious propaganda, the antireligious work of public institutions (especially the Society of the Godless ), discriminatory laws, and also a terror campaign against religious believers.
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^ The Hitler government and its messengers in Moscow showed their open satisfaction with Stalins terror against the German refugees.

^ Of course the twentieth century has seen no small amount of mass terror and even genocide directed against civilian populations.

By the late 1930s it had become dangerous to be publicly associated with religion[75]
.Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex.^ Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex.
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^ Map diagram of world w/ Truman, Churchill, Stalin, Pope, Archbishop of Canterbury & head of Russian Orthodox Church pictures, dissolve into cross.
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^ The Russian Orthodox Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia .
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.Continuous persecution in the 1930s resulted in its near-extinction as a public institution: by 1939, active parishes numbered in the low hundreds (down from 54,000 in 1917), many churches had been leveled, and tens of thousands of priests, monks and nuns were persecuted and killed.^ Continuous persecution in the 1930s resulted in its near-extinction as a public institution: by 1939, active parishes numbered in the low hundreds (down from 54,000 in 1917), many churches had been leveled, and tens of thousands of priests, monks and nuns were persecuted and killed.
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^ Thus, thousands of churches were destroyed, while priests and nuns were arrested and sent to labor camps.
  • http://web.ku.edu/~eceurope/communistnationssince1917/ch3.html 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC web.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the tens of thousands of pamphlets that flooded Prague and other cities and towns urged people to peaceful, tolerant action; not one called for violence.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Over 100,000 were shot during the purges of 1937–1938.[76] During World War II, the Church was allowed a revival as a patriotic organization, after the NKVD had recruited the new metropolitan, the first after the revolution, as a secret agent.^ Shots of FDR during war.
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^ I'd argue that that's actually the FIRST World War.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ The issue of American involvement in the forced repatriation of Russians at the end of World War II, touched upon by Tolstoy in Stalin's Secret War , is the topic of Mark Elliott's recent study Pawns of Yalta .

.Thousands of parishes were reactivated until a further round of suppression in Khrushchev's time.^ Thousands of parishes were reactivated until a further round of suppression in Khrushchev's time.
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.The Russian Orthodox Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia.^ The Russian Orthodox Church Synod's recognition of the Soviet government and of Stalin personally led to a schism with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia .
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^ Stalin's role in the fortunes of the Russian Orthodox Church is complex.
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^ Some Soviet official who worked with Stalin said, when it was all over, that Stalin had the deadliest of combinations in his personality: Laziness and capriciousness.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Just days before Stalin's death, certain religious sects were outlawed and persecuted.^ Just days before Stalin's death, certain religious sects were outlawed and persecuted .
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^ Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death, it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found.
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^ Suvorov believes that Hitler's preemptive strike came just two or three weeks before Stalin's own planned assault.

.Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church, Uniats, Baptists, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, etc.^ Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church, Uniats , Baptists, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, etc.
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^ He also visited Pope John Paul II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, in Rome in December 1989.
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^ In Russia and the many republics of the former Soviet Union, however, that has not been the case.

underwent ordeals similar to the .Orthodox churches in other parts: thousands of monks were persecuted, and hundreds of churches, synagogues, mosques, temples, sacred monuments, monasteries and other religious buildings were razed.^ Many of the remaining churches, monasteries, and convents were destroyed or used for other purposes, while the religious were sent to labor camps.
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^ Churches, religious buildings including very old building on hilltop.
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Theorist

.Stalin and his supporters have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated by a country as underdeveloped as Russia during the 1920s.^ Main article: Stalinism Stalin and his supporters have highlighted the notion that socialism can be built and consolidated by a country as underdeveloped as Russia during the 1920s.
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^ Stalinism · Neo-Stalinism · Socialism in One Country · Socialist realism · Stalinist architecture · Aggravation of class struggle under socialism · Stalin's plan for the transformation of nature .
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^ Various - Russia Related 1920s - Young Stalin with others Trotsky ?.
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.Indeed this might be the only means in which it could be built in a hostile environment.^ This could mean only one thing.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

[77] .In 1933, Stalin put forward the theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism, arguing that the further the country would move forward, the more acute forms of struggle will be used by the doomed remnants of exploiter classes in their last desperate efforts – and that, therefore, political repression was necessary.^ If you would like any more information please do not hesitate to get in touch with Cecilia Stalin, the contacts can be found under the "Contacts Information" link below.

^ In 1924, the year of Lenin's death, Stalin published the pamphlet: Socialism in One Country.
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^ Or an estimate that, with war rapidly approaching, further efforts towards democracy would have to await more peaceful times?
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1936, Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry.^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Stalin and his supporters on the Politburo gave a number of reasons for wanting to democratize the Soviet Union.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Politburo and Stalin himself were at the apex of two large hierarchies, of both the Bolshevik Party and the Soviet government.
  • Grover Furr: "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC clogic.eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

.These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (for the workers) and collective property (for the peasantry).^ These corresponded to the two different forms of property over the means of production that existed in the Soviet Union: state property (for the workers) and collective property (for the peasantry).
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^ Stalin rejected numerous western warnings in the winter and spring of 1941 that Germany was preparing to attack the Soviet Union, viewing these as efforts by the Allied powers and the United States to trick the USSR into war with Germany.

^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

.In addition to these, Stalin distinguished the stratum of intelligentsia.^ In addition to these, Stalin distinguished the stratum of intelligentsia .
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.The concept of "non-antagonistic classes" was entirely new to Leninist theory.^ The concept of "non-antagonistic classes" was entirely new to Leninist theory.
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^ In 1936, Stalin announced that the society of the Soviet Union consisted of two non-antagonistic classes: workers and kolkhoz peasantry.
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^ "The Concept of Class", New York, pp.
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.Among Stalin's contributions to Communist theoretical literature were "Marxism and the National Question", "Trotskyism or Leninism", and Stalin's Collected Works.^ Among Stalin's contributions to Communist theoretical literature were "Marxism and the National Question", "Trotskyism or Leninism", and Stalin's Collected Works .
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^ Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky .
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^ Anniversary Turkmenistan Communist Party - Exterior headquarters with Stalin and Lenin portraits and hammer & sickle flags.
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Calculating the number of victims

.Researchers before the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union attempting to count the number of people killed under Stalin's regime produced estimates ranging from 3 to 60 million.^ In almost every situation, he had actually under estimated the number of millions killed by Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet Union will produce everything it needs .
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^ Researchers before the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union attempting to count the number of people killed under Stalin's regime produced estimates ranging from 3 to 60 million.
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[78] .After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives also became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement – for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.^ After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives also became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement – for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.
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^ In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for " war booty ", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.
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^ Stalin used this fact, delays by the western Allies in opening a true second front, and the great suffering of the Soviet Union (up to 27 million dead in the war) to secure massive amounts of Lend-Lease aid.

[79]
.The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensive figures for some categories of victims, such as the those of ethnic deportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath of WWII.[80] Other notable exclusions from NKVD data on repression deaths include the Katyn massacre, other killings in the newly occupied areas, and the mass shootings of Red Army personnel (deserters and so-called deserters) in 1941. Also, the official statistics on Gulag mortality exclude deaths of prisoners taking place shortly after their release but which resulted from the harsh treatment in the camps.^ NKVD and Red Army are defenders of society.
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^ Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete.
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^ The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensive figures for some categories of victims, such as the those of ethnic deportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath of WWII. [ 74 ] Other notable exclusions from NKVD data on repression deaths include the Katyn massacre , other killings in the newly occupied areas, and the mass shootings of Red Army personnel (deserters and so-called deserters) in 1941.
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[81] .Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete.^ Some experts believe the evidence released from the Soviet archives is understated, incomplete or unreliable.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some historians also believe the official archival figures of the categories that were recorded by Soviet authorities to be unreliable and incomplete.
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^ The official Soviet archival records do not contain comprehensive figures for some categories of victims, such as the those of ethnic deportations or of German population transfers in the aftermath of WWII. [ 74 ] Other notable exclusions from NKVD data on repression deaths include the Katyn massacre , other killings in the newly occupied areas, and the mass shootings of Red Army personnel (deserters and so-called deserters) in 1941.
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[82][83] .In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings, as one additional example, Robert Gellately and Simon Sebag-Montefiore argue the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed.^ ISBN 9780297850687 ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore .
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^ In addition to failures regarding comprehensive recordings, as one additional example, Robert Gellately and Simon Sebag-Montefiore argue the many suspects beaten and tortured to death while in "investigative custody" were likely not to have been counted amongst the executed.
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^ Famous figures were repressed, and many persecuted, tortured and executed, both "revolutionaries" (among them Isaac Babel , Vsevolod Meyerhold , Anna Akhmatova , Nikolai Gumilev , Lev Gumilev ) and "non-conformists" (for example, Osip Mandelstam ).
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[11][84]
.Historians working after the Soviet Union's dissolution have estimated victim totals ranging from approximately 4 million to nearly 10 million, not including those who died in famines.^ Historians working after the Soviet Union's dissolution have estimated victim totals ranging from approximately 4 million to nearly 10 million, not including those who died in famines.
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^ Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church, Uniats , Baptists, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reliable casualty figures for the collectivization drive are unavailable, but if one includes the famine fatalities, the number of those who died may exceed 10 million people—a figure that, for whatever it is worth, Stalin gave to Winston L. S. Churchill in Moscow in August 1942.

[85] .Russian writer Vadim Erlikman, for example, makes the following estimates: executions, 1.5 million; gulags, 5 million; deportations, 1.7 million out of 7.5 million deported; and POWs and German civilians, 1 million – a total of about 9 million victims of repression.^ Russian writer Vadim Erlikman, for example, makes the following estimates: executions, 1.5 million; gulags, 5 million; deportations, 1.7 million out of 7.5 million deported; and POWs and German civilians, 1 million – a total of about 9 million victims of repression.
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^ After the Soviet Union dissolved, evidence from the Soviet archives also became available, containing official records of the execution of approximately 800,000 prisoners under Stalin for either political or criminal offenses, around 1.7 million deaths in the Gulags and some 390,000 deaths during kulak forced resettlement – for a total of about 3 million officially recorded victims in these categories.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.
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[86]
.Some have also included deaths of 6 to 8 million people in the 1932–1933 famine as victims of Stalin's repression.^ Some have also included deaths of 6 to 8 million people in the 1932–1933 famine as victims of Stalin's repression.
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^ Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933 Genocide?
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^ Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.
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.This categorization is controversial however, as historians differ as to whether the famine was a deliberate part of the campaign of repression against kulaks and others,[42][87] or simply an unintended consequence of the struggle over forced collectivization.^ This categorization is controversial however, as historians differ as to whether the famine was a deliberate part of the campaign of repression against kulaks and others, [ 39 ] or simply an unintended consequence of the struggle over forced collectivization.
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^ In 1932-33, Stalin's use of force against peasant resistance to collectivization led to a man-made famine in some regions s of the Soviet Union.
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^ It took the form of violent, forced collectivisation unleashed by the Stalinist clique against the peasantry as a whole and turned into a virtual nationwide civil war.

[54][88][89]
.Accordingly, if famine victims are included, a minimum of around 10 million deaths—6 million from famine and 4 million from other causes—are attributable to the regime,[90] with a number of recent historians suggesting a likely total of around 20 million, citing much higher victim totals from executions, gulags, deportations and other causes.^ Others maintain that their earlier higher victim total estimates are correct.
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^ Accordingly, if famine victims are included, a minimum of around 10 million deaths—6 million from famine and 4 million from other causes—are attributable to the regime, [ 83 ] with a number of recent historians suggesting a likely total of around 20 million, citing much higher victim totals from executions, gulags, deportations and other causes.
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^ Regimes murdering over 10 million people " .
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[91] .Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.^ Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russian writer Vadim Erlikman, for example, makes the following estimates: executions, 1.5 million; gulags, 5 million; deportations, 1.7 million out of 7.5 million deported; and POWs and German civilians, 1 million – a total of about 9 million victims of repression.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The famine cost an estimated 1 to 1.5 million lives as well as secondary population losses due to reduced fertility.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Researcher Robert Conquest, meanwhile, has revised his original estimate of up to 30 million victims down to 20 million.^ Researcher Robert Conquest , meanwhile, has revised his original estimate of up to 30 million victims down to 20 million.
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^ It is estimated that 30 million people starved as a result of collectivization and the Law of the Blade of Grain.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] .In his most recent edition of The Great Terror (2007), Conquest states that while exact numbers may never be known with complete certainty, the various terror campaigns launched by the Soviet government claimed no fewer than 15 million lives.^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

^ Entering Gulag (a leaf from Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya 's notebook) According to Alan Bullock , "the total Soviet grain crop was no worse than that of 1931 ...
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^ The stories of those show trials (detailed step by step in Robert Conquest's great The Great Terror ) are unreal.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[93] .Others maintain that their earlier higher victim total estimates are correct.^ Others maintain that their earlier higher victim total estimates are correct.
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^ Adding 6–8 million famine victims to Erlikman's estimates above, for example, would yield a total of between 15 and 17 million victims.
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^ Historians working after the Soviet Union's dissolution have estimated victim totals ranging from approximately 4 million to nearly 10 million, not including those who died in famines.
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[94][95]

World War II, 1939–1945

Ribbentrop and Stalin at the signing of the Pact

Pact with Hitler

.After a failed attempt to sign an anti-German political alliance with France and Britain[96][97][98] and talks with Germany regarding a potential political deal,[96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105] on 23 August 1939, the Soviet Union entered into a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, negotiated by Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop.^ In August 1939, while Western diplomats were engaged in negotiations with the Soviets, Stalin signed non-aggression and trade agreements with Hitler.

^ Why go into the Soviet Union?
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Message to Sir Nevile Henderson by Joachim von Ribbentrop, 31 August 1939 .

[106] .Officially a non-aggression treaty only, an appended secret protocol, also reached on 23 August 1939, divided the whole of eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.^ Officially a non-aggression treaty only, an appended secret protocol, also reached on 23 August 1939, divided the whole of eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence .
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^ The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 23 August 1939–10 January 1941 .

^ German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact (23 August 1939) .

[107][108]
.The eastern part of Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and part of Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence,[108] with Lithuania added in a second secret protocol in September 1939.[109] Stalin and Ribbentrop traded toasts on the night of the signing discussing past hostilities between the countries.^ Stalin and Ribbentrop traded toasts on the night of the signing discussing past hostilities between the countries.
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^ Ribbentrop and Stalin at the signing of the Pact Pact with Hitler .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eastern part of Poland, Latvia , Estonia , Finland and part of Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence, [ 100 ] with Lithuania added in a second secret protocol in September 1939.
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[110]

Implementing the division of Eastern Europe and other invasions

.On 1 September 1939, the German invasion of its agreed upon portion of Poland started World War II.^ Soviet people of World War II .
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^ Main articles: Stalin in World War II , Soviet invasion of Poland , Occupation of the Baltic states , Winter War , and German–Soviet Axis talks On 1 September 1939, the German invasion of its agreed upon portion of Poland started World War II .
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^ Saar, French Invasion of the (September 1939) .

[106] .On 17 September the Red Army invaded eastern Poland and occupied the Polish territory assigned to it by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland.^ On 17 September the Red Army invaded eastern Poland and occupied the Polish territory assigned to it by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland.
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^ In September 1941, Stalin told British diplomats that he wanted two agreements: (1) a mutual assistance/aid pact and (2) a recognition that, after the war, the Soviet Union would gain the territories in countries that it had taken pursuant to its division of Eastern Europe with Hitler in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact .
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^ Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable, such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939 , and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed.
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[111][112] .Eleven days later, the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was modified, allotting Germany a larger part of Poland, while ceding most of Lithuania to the Soviet Union.^ Russia as a part of the Soviet Union .
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^ Eleven days later, the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was modified, allotting Germany a larger part of Poland, while ceding most of Lithuania to the Soviet Union.
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^ That cooperation included helping the German Army violate the Treaty of Versailles limitations, with training in the Soviet Union, the notorious Molotov-von Ribbentrop treaty which partitioned Poland giving the Soviet Union what is now Belarus and granted the Soviet Union a free hand in Finland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, and Soviet trade with Hitler to counteract the expected French and British trade blockades.
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[113]
Planned and actual territorial changes in Eastern and Central Europe 1939–1940 (click to enlarge)
.After Stalin declared that he was going to "solve the Baltic problem", by June 1940, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were merged into the Soviet Union, after repressions and actions therein brought about the deaths of over 160,000 citizens of these states.^ Why go into the Soviet Union?
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Planned and actual territorial changes in Eastern and Central Europe 1939–1940 (click to enlarge) After Stalin declared that he was going to "solve the Baltic problem", by June 1940, Lithuania , Latvia and Estonia were merged into the Soviet Union, after repressions and actions therein brought about the deaths of over 160,000 citizens of these states.
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^ Stalin rejected numerous western warnings in the winter and spring of 1941 that Germany was preparing to attack the Soviet Union, viewing these as efforts by the Allied powers and the United States to trick the USSR into war with Germany.

[113][114][115][116] .After facing stiff resistance in an invasion of Finland,[117] an interim peace was entered, granting the Soviet Union the eastern region of Karelia (10% of Finnish territory).^ After facing stiff resistance in an invasion of Finland , [ 109 ] an interim peace was entered, granting the Soviet Union the eastern region of Karelia (10% of Finnish territory).
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^ Many religions popular in the ethnic regions of the Soviet Union including the Roman Catholic Church, Uniats , Baptists, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, etc.
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^ Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable, such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939 , and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed.
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[117]
.After this campaign, Stalin took actions to bolster the Soviet military, modify training and improve propaganda efforts in the Soviet military.^ After this campaign, Stalin took actions to bolster the Soviet military, modify training and improve propaganda efforts in the Soviet military.
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^ (He uses Tukhachevsky as his prime example, because he was the one most lionized by post-Stalin Soviet propaganda.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south, Stalin considered this to be a flanking campaign in efforts to take Moscow.
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[118] .In June 1940, Stalin directed the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, proclaiming this formerly Romanian territory part of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic.^ In June 1940, Stalin directed the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina , proclaiming this formerly Romanian territory part of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic .
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^ In 1939, the Soviet Union under Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany , followed by a Soviet invasion of Poland , Finland , the Baltics , Bessarabia and northern Bukovina .
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^ In the period of the Nazi-Soviet Pact (August 23 1939 -June 22 1941), Stalin even delivered some German communists to the Nazis as a token of his good will.
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[119] .But in annexing northern Bukovina, Stalin had gone beyond the agreed limits of the secret protocol.^ But in annexing northern Bukovina, Stalin had gone beyond the agreed limits of the secret protocol.
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^ In June 1940, Stalin directed the Soviet annexation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina , proclaiming this formerly Romanian territory part of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic .
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[119]
Stalin and Molotov on the signing of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact with the Empire of Japan, 1941
.After the Tripartite Pact was signed by Axis Powers Germany, Japan and Italy, in October 1940, Stalin traded letters with Ribbentrop, with Stalin writing about entering an agreement regarding a "permanent basis" for their "mutual interests."[120] After a conference in Berlin between Hitler, Molotov and Ribbentrop, Germany presented the Molotov with a proposed written agreement for Axis entry.^ Stalin, Molotov, von Ribbentrop.
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^ Tripartite Pact (27 September 1940) .

^ CU of diplomats at signing of Axis Military Pact, 1940.
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[119][121] .On 25 November, Stalin responded with a proposed written agreement for Axis entry which was never answered by Germany.^ Two members of delegation off plane; returning to report on 20 year agreement w/ USSR proposed by Stalin.
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[122] .Shortly thereafter, Hitler issued a secret directive on the eventual attempts to invade the Soviet Union.^ Shortly thereafter, Hitler issued a secret directive on the eventual attempts to invade the Soviet Union.
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^ The Western powers were constantly depicted as scheming to invade the Soviet Union and overthrow the Soviet government.
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^ The massacre became a source of political controversy, [ 158 ] [ 159 ] with the Soviets eventually claiming that Germany committed the executions when the Soviet Union retook Poland in 1944.
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[122] .In an effort to demonstrate peaceful intentions toward Germany, on 13 April 1941, Stalin oversaw the signing of a neutrality pact with Axis power Japan.^ In an effort to demonstrate peaceful intentions toward Germany, on 13 April 1941, Stalin oversaw the signing of a neutrality pact with Axis power Japan.
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^ Japanese-Soviet Neutrality Pact (13 April 1941) .

^ Ribbentrop and Stalin at the signing of the Pact Pact with Hitler .
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[123]

Hitler breaks the pact

.During the early morning of 22 June 1941, Hitler broke the pact by implementing Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of Soviet held territories and the Soviet Union that began the war on the Eastern Front.^ Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa commences.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Many Soviet citizens had openly cooperated with the Germans during the war.

[124] .Although Stalin had received warnings from spies and his generals,[125][126][127][128][129] he felt that Germany would not attack the Soviet Union until Germany had defeated Britain.^ The idea that he attacked the Soviet Union out of desperation is simply absurd.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ He heaped praise upon Stalin whom he felt had saved England during World War II. To justify his praise of Stalin he said that 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union during that war.

^ The Soviets were conducting espionage against Great Britain and then delivering that info to Germany.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[125] .In the initial hours after the German attack commenced, Stalin hesitated, wanting to ensure that the German attack was sanctioned by Hitler, rather than the unauthorized action of a rogue general.^ The Hitler government and its messengers in Moscow showed their open satisfaction with Stalins terror against the German refugees.

^ A few fought back, mostly the soldiers in the Red Army, men of action, rather than ideologues.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He's not; he paints Hitler as no less of a monster than Stalin, simply as a less-smart one.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[11]
.Accounts by Nikita Khrushchev and Anastas Mikoyan claim that, after the invasion, Stalin retreated to his dacha in despair for several days and did not participate in leadership decisions.^ His eventual successor, Nikita Khrushchev, began the slow process of de-Stalinization and denounced the many excesses of the Red Tsar.

^ The migrs were not critical towards Stalin or the Comintern, but as a rule reliable officials, loyal supporters of the party leadership who did not get involved in inner-party opposition groups.

^ The Soviet Union did not collapse because it was a socialist state, as the anticommunists always claim, but because everything socialist was destroyed by Stalin.

[130] .However, some documentary evidence of orders given by Stalin contradicts these accounts, leading some historians to speculate that Kruschev's account is inaccurate.^ However, some documentary evidence of orders given by Stalin contradicts these accounts, leading some historians to speculate that Kruschev's account is inaccurate.
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^ Marshal Zhukov walking through city w/ Kruschev - crying woman hugs Khruschev, man kisses him - given drawing of Stalin.
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^ However, this story fails on several obvious accounts, including Stalin's remaining religious, even pious, for some years longer.
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[131] .By the end of 1941, the Soviet military had suffered 4.3 million casualties[132] and German forces had advanced 1,050 miles (1,690 kilometers).^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

^ "How would they have done had they been forced to use their human wave tactics against a German defensive line on the Volga filled with the well trained professionals of 1941 and not the hastily raised conscripts that the Soviets historically faced after 1942?"
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ The Soviet Union had suffered grievously during the war, with perhaps 27 million people dead and widespread physical destruction.

[133]

Soviets stop the Germans

.While the Germans pressed forward, Stalin was confident of an eventual Allied victory over Germany.^ Stalin was Hitler's ally at first and trusted him until 1941 - when German's attacked, he was very surprised and most of unprepared Soviet army was destroyed.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1941, Stalin told British diplomats that he wanted two agreements: (1) a mutual assistance/aid pact and (2) a recognition that, after the war, the Soviet Union would gain the territories in countries that it had taken pursuant to its division of Eastern Europe with Hitler in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.^ He told me of the steps taken by the Soviets in Ukraine as a preparation for war.

^ In September 1941, Stalin told British diplomats that he wanted two agreements: (1) a mutual assistance/aid pact and (2) a recognition that, after the war, the Soviet Union would gain the territories in countries that it had taken pursuant to its division of Eastern Europe with Hitler in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact .
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^ Stalin, Molotov, von Ribbentrop.
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[134] .The British agreed to assistance but refused to agree upon the territorial gains, which Stalin accepted months later as the military situation deteriorated somewhat in mid-1942.[134] By December, Hitler's troops had advanced to within 20 miles of the Kremlin in Moscow.^ British troops and tanks advance.
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^ The British agreed to assistance but refused to agree upon the territorial gains, which Stalin accepted months later as the military situation deteriorated somewhat in mid-1942.
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^ By December, Hitler's troops had advanced to within 20 miles of the Kremlin in Moscow.
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[135] .On 5 December, the Soviets launched a counteroffensive, pushing German troops back 40–50 miles from Moscow, the Wermacht's first significant defeat of the war.^ On 5 December, the Soviets launched a counteroffensive, pushing German troops back 40–50 miles from Moscow, the Wermacht 's first significant defeat of the war.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

[135]
.In 1942, Hitler shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East, to the more long-term goal of securing the southern Soviet Union to protect oil fields vital to a long-term German war effort.^ In 1942, Hitler shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East, to the more long-term goal of securing the southern Soviet Union to protect oil fields vital to a long-term German war effort.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ It depicted the Soviet Union as striving to negotiate a collective security against Hitler, while being thwarted by double-dealing Anglo-French appeasers who, despite appearances, had no intention of a Soviet alliance and were secretly negotiating with Berlin.
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[136] .While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south, Stalin considered this to be a flanking campaign in efforts to take Moscow.^ While Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south, Stalin considered this to be a flanking campaign in efforts to take Moscow.
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^ The difference between him and Hitler was that Stalin created bigger organized genocides and he had the common sense to let his generals take care of hands-on tactical decisions in war.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After this campaign, Stalin took actions to bolster the Soviet military, modify training and improve propaganda efforts in the Soviet military.
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[137] .During the war, Time Magazine named Stalin Time Person of the Year twice[138] and he was also one of the nominees for Time Person of the Century title.^ Time magazine Persons of the Year .
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ During a conversation in 1937 with Lord Halifax, one of Britain's most important officials, he said: "In the event of a general war [in Europe], only one country can win.

Soviet push to Germany

.The Soviets repulsed the important German strategic southern campaign and, although 2.5 million Soviet casualties were suffered in that effort, it permitted the Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the Eastern Front.^ German casualties were on the Eastern Front.
  • Pajamas Media » Stalin Honored with Churchill at D-Day Memorial 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ German soldier at the Eastern Front .

^ He fought on the German/Soviet front.

[139]
.Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk, which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets.^ Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk , which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets.
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[140] .Kursk marked the beginning of a period where Stalin became more willing to listen to the advice of his generals.^ Kursk marked the beginning of a period where Stalin became more willing to listen to the advice of his generals.
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^ Stalin became more and more alarmed at the growing influence of Trotsky's ideas as he gathered more supporters in the movement to found the Fourth International.

[141] .By the end of 1943, the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans from 1941-1942.[141] Soviet military industrial output also had increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had moved factories well to the East of the front, safe from German invasion and air attack.^ Soviet military industrial output also had increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had moved factories well to the East of the front, safe from German invasion and air attack.
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^ Burma Air Campaign (1941–1942) .

^ By the end of 1943, the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans from 1941-1942.
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[142]
.In November 1943, Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in Tehran.^ Tehran Conference (28 November–1 December 1943) .

^ Tehran Conference - Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin pose.
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^ Cairo, Tehran conference, good shots Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt, FDR voiceover flashback shots of German military might.
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[143] .The parties later agreed that Britain and America would launch a cross-channel invasion of France in May 1944, along with a separate invasion of southern France.^ The parties later agreed that Britain and America would launch a cross-channel invasion of France in May 1944, along with a separate invasion of southern France.
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^ Partially answering his own question, Suvorov states: "If Hitler had decided to launch Operation Barbarossa a few weeks later, the Red Army would have reached Berlin much earlier than 1945."

^ So if Stalin had stood with Britain and France, Germany would have had to move a lot more carefully in Eastern Europe.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[144] .Stalin insisted that, after the war, the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, which Churchill tabled.^ Stalin, Molotov, von Ribbentrop.
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^ Stalin insisted that, after the war, the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, which Churchill tabled.
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^ Ribbentrop and Stalin at the signing of the Pact Pact with Hitler .
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[145]
.In 1944, the Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern Europe toward Germany,[146] including Operation Bagration, a massive offensive in Belorussia against the German Army Group Centre.^ German armies advance to Polish border.
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^ German army continue advance.
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^ In 1944, the Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern Europe toward Germany, [ 137 ] including Operation Bagration , a massive offensive in Belorussia against the German Army Group Centre.
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[147]

Final victory

.By April 1945, Germany faced its last days with 1.9 million German soldiers in the East fighting 6.4 million Red Army soldiers while 1 million German soldiers in the West battled 4 million Western Allied soldiers.^ Further information: Stalin in World War II , Battle of Berlin , Battle in Berlin , East Prussian Offensive , and Battle of the Oder-Neisse Soviet soldiers raising the Soviet flag over the Reichstag after its capture By April 1945, Germany faced its last days with 1.9 million German soldiers in the East fighting 6.4 million Red Army soldiers while 1 million German soldiers in the West battled 4 million Western Allied soldiers.
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^ West German soldiers .

^ Because of the Red Army presence on the ground, there was little that Western leaders could do to prevent this short of war with the Soviet Union, which despite the U.S. nuclear monopoly was unimaginable to Washington in 1945.

[148] .While initial talk existed of a race to Berlin by the Allies, after Stalin successfully lobbied for Eastern Germany to fall within the Soviet "sphere of influence" at Yalta, no plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation.^ In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta , Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe.
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^ While initial talk existed of a race to Berlin by the Allies, after Stalin successfully lobbied for Eastern Germany to fall within the Soviet "sphere of influence" at Yalta , no plans were made by the Western Allies to seize the city by a ground operation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin used this fact, delays by the western Allies in opening a true second front, and the great suffering of the Soviet Union (up to 27 million dead in the war) to secure massive amounts of Lend-Lease aid.

[149][150]
.On 30 April, Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide, after which Soviet forces found their remains, which had been burned at Hitler's directive.^ On 30 April, Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide, after which Soviet forces found their remains, which had been burned at Hitler's directive.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gasoline canisters which burned his body; Hitler s coat and Eva Braun s clothes?
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly thereafter, Hitler issued a secret directive on the eventual attempts to invade the Soviet Union.
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[151] .German forces surrendered a few days later.^ German forces surrendered a few days later.
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^ He survived the assassination attempt, and showed her what was what by having her and a few thousand others assassinated three days later.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It later was the excuse Montgomery used for being a dick and not accepting the surrender of a German Army.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the Soviets' possession of Hitler's remains, Stalin did not believe that his old nemesis was actually dead, a belief that remained for years after the war.^ Despite the Soviets' possession of Hitler's remains, Stalin did not believe that his old nemesis was actually dead, a belief that remained for years after the war.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Hitler always planned to go to war with the Soviets.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[152][153]
.Fending off the German invasion and pressing to victory in the East required a tremendous sacrifice by the Soviet Union.^ Fending off the German invasion and pressing to victory in the East required a tremendous sacrifice by the Soviet Union.
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^ PM cyraknoss @Knaslaban: You realize that the first soviet victory against the invading Germans was months after D-day, right?
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet military industrial output also had increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had moved factories well to the East of the front, safe from German invasion and air attack.
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.Soviet military casualties totaled approximately 35 million (official figures 28.2 million) with approximately 14.7 million killed, missing or captured (official figures 11.285 million).^ Soviet military casualties totaled approximately 35 million (official figures 28.2 million) with approximately 14.7 million killed, missing or captured (official figures 11.285 million).
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^ "Perhaps 20 million had been killed; 28 million deported, of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags."
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^ Further information: Doctors' plot and Stalin's antisemitism The " Doctors' plot " was a plot outlined by Stalin and Soviet officials in 1952 and 1953 whereby several doctors (over half of which were Jewish) allegedly attempted to kill Soviet officials.
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[154] .Although figures vary, the Soviet civilian death toll probably reached 20 million.^ Although figures vary, the Soviet civilian death toll probably reached 20 million.
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^ Soviet military casualties totaled approximately 35 million (official figures 28.2 million) with approximately 14.7 million killed, missing or captured (official figures 11.285 million).
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^ Standard treatments of this period always claim that the Soviet Union lost over 20 million people during the Second World War.

[154] .Thereafter, Stalin was at times referred to as one of the most influential men in human history.^ More absolute a ruler than any Russian tsar, Josef Stalin (born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) was one of the most powerful and influential figures in history and certainly one of its most horrific.

^ Trimegistus: On the other hand, it has always mystified me that the one human being Josef Stalin ever trusted in his entire life was .
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ (He uses Tukhachevsky as his prime example, because he was the one most lionized by post-Stalin Soviet propaganda.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[155][156]

Questionable tactics

Part of the 5 March 1940 memo from Lavrentiy Beria to Stalin proposing execution of Polish officers
.After taking around 300,000 Polish prisoners in 1939 and early 1940,[157][158][158][159][160] 25,700 Polish POWs were executed on 5 March 1940, pursuant to a note from to Stalin from Lavrenty Beria, the members of the Soviet Politburo,[161][162] in what became known as the Katyn massacre.^ Further information: Stalin in World War II and Soviet war crimes Part of the 5 March 1940 memo from Lavrentiy Beria to Stalin proposing execution of Polish officers After taking around 300,000 Polish prisoners in 1939 and early 1940, [ 146 ] [ 147 ] [ 147 ] [ 148 ] [ 149 ] 25,700 Polish POWs were executed on 5 March 1940, pursuant to a note from to Stalin from Lavrenty Beria , the members of the Soviet Politburo , [ 150 ] [ 151 ] in what became known as the Katyn massacre .
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^ Katyn Forest Massacre (1940) .

^ One of Dzhugashvili's aliases, the one by which he became best known, was that of Stalin (Man of Steel), given to him by his fellow revolutionaries for his strength and ruthlessness.

[163][161][164] .While Stalin personally told a Polish general they'd "lost track" of the officers in Manchuria,[165][166][167][167] Polish railroad workers found the mass grave after the 1941 Nazi invasion.^ And she too told a story that ended in a mass-grave.

^ Beside the regular graves as well as under the stones of the original graves were found mass-victims of the NKVD. .

^ Hassidic Rabbit: the Nazi archives are open to all An imminent Soviet invasion was the reason many German generals gave, at their subsequent trials.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[168] The massacre became a source of political controversy,[169][170] with the Soviets eventually claiming that Germany committed the executions when the Soviet Union retook Poland in 1944.[161][171] The Soviets did not admit responsibility until 1990.[172]
Stalin introduced controversial military orders, such as Order No. 270, requiring superiors to shoot deserters on the spot[173] while their family members were subject to arrest.[174] .Thereafter, Stalin also conducted a purge of several military commanders that were shot for "cowardice" without a trial.^ Thereafter, Stalin also conducted a purge of several military commanders that were shot for "cowardice" without a trial.
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^ The Great Purges, conducted on Stalin's orders, were characterized by their focus on party and state elites, the use of mass terror, and dramatic public "show trials" and "confessions" by the accused.

^ Stalin was personally responsible for the Great Purge trials of the 1930s that consumed virtually all of the top party leadership.

[174] Stalin issued Order No. .227, directing that commanders permitting retreat without permission to be subject to a military tribunal,[175] and soldiers guilty of disciplinary procedures to be forced into "penal battalions", which were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines.^ English placards - Calling Out for Army Reserve, expeditionary force is raised to go & fight on West Front, soldiers form in the lines.
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^ Stalin killed too many others for anyone to believe that he had not also sent his most dangerous enemy to the grave.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian military vehicles parade through streets - POV driver going down street lined with Iranian soldiers.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[175] .From 1942 to 1945, 427,910 soldiers were assigned to penal battalions.^ From 1942 to 1945, 427,910 soldiers were assigned to penal battalions.
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[176] .The order also directed "blocking detachments" to shoot fleeing panicked troops at the rear.^ The order also directed "blocking detachments" to shoot fleeing panicked troops at the rear.
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^ Thereupon the committee announced that it had appointed special commissioners to undertake the direction of the military, and invited the troops to observe only orders signed by the committee.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[175]
.In June 1941, weeks after the German invasion began, Stalin also directed employing a scorched earth policy of destroying the infrastructure and food supplies of areas before the Germans could seize them, and that partisans were to be set up in evacuated areas.^ German scorched earth, burning oil.
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^ In addition to pushing the collectivization of agriculture, Stalin also implemented a series of five-year plans that set quotas for growth in all areas of the economy.

^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

[131] .He also ordered the NKVD to murder around one hundred thousand political prisoners in areas where the Wermacht approached,[177] while others were deported east.^ He also ordered the NKVD to murder around one hundred thousand political prisoners in areas where the Wermacht approached, [ 166 ] while others were deported east.
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^ Well, the Middle East was one of five places where civilizations devloped independently--the others being southeast Asia, India, Mesoamerica, and what is modern day Peru.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rákosi, employed Stalinist political and economic programs, and was dubbed the "bald murderer" for establishing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.
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[82][178]
.After the capture of Berlin, Soviet troops reportedly raped from tens of thousands to two million women,[179] and 50,000 during and after the occupation of Budapest.^ Thus, Soviets who had been in the West, including Red Army personnel captured during the war, were immediately suspect and treated as enemies.

[180][181] .In former Axis countries, such as Germany, Romania and Hungary, Red Army officers generally viewed cities, villages and farms as being open to pillaging and looting.^ Also falling victim to the Great Purge were military leaders, including 60 percent of Red Army officers above the rank of major.

^ The hard evidence, specifically the equipment and state of the Red Army in 1941, doesn't support such a claim, at least not very well.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, the Red Army being positioned near the border can mean only one thing: it was poised for an attack of its own.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[182]
.In the Soviet Occupation Zone of post-war Germany, the Soviets set up ten NKVD-run "special camps" subordinate to the GULAG.[183] These "special camps" were former Stalags, prisons, or Nazi concentration camps such as Sachsenhausen (special camp number 7) and Buchenwald (special camp number 2).^ Buchenwald concentration camp .

^ Setting up his tent and camping?
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin rejected numerous western warnings in the winter and spring of 1941 that Germany was preparing to attack the Soviet Union, viewing these as efforts by the Allied powers and the United States to trick the USSR into war with Germany.

[184] .According to German government estimates, "65,000 people died in those Soviet-run camps or in transportation to them."^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

^ Do you really think that those conservative nuts are putting out this great product that so many people are dying to listen to?
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviets fighting Germans in streets of Stalingrad - tanks past - troops running for cover.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[185]
.According to recent figures, of an estimated four million POWs taken by the Russians, including Germans, Japanese, Hungarians, Romanians and others, some 580,000 never returned, presumably victims of privation or the Gulags.^ Elliott also points out that the USSR never released 1.5 to 2 million German POWs, 200,000 to 300,000 Japanese POWs, and did not repatriate those few ex-Axis soldiers who did manage to survive the rigors of GULAG until 1956.

^ And even after the last G.I. returned in July 1945, the U.S. continued the forced repatriation of luckless Russian POWs, refugees, and Vlasovites.

^ Some of the victims had been hit by two bullets, others had but one bullet hole, while still other had received as many as four.

[186] .Soviet POWs and forced laborers who survived German captivity were sent to special "transit" or "filtration" camps meant determine which were potential traitors.^ Forced laborers were also considered to be traitors.

^ With a few exceptions, the rest were condemned to the lingering doom of 10 to 25 year sentences in labor camps, from which ordeal few survived.

^ Could German forces have withstood an all-out Soviet assault, with tens of thousands of Soviet tanks and a million paratroopers?

[187]
.Of the approximately 4 million to be repatriated 2,660,013 were civilians and 1,539,475 were former POWs.^ Of the approximately 4 million to be repatriated 2,660,013 were civilians and 1,539,475 were former POWs.
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^ Of those 7,500,000 military deaths, approximately three million Russians died as POWs.

[187] .Of the total, 2,427,906 were sent home and 801,152 were reconscripted into the armed forces.^ Of the total, 2,427,906 were sent home and 801,152 were reconscripted into the armed forces.
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[187] 608,095 were enrolled in the work battalions of the defense ministry.[187] .272,867 were transferred to the authority of the NKVD for punishment, which meant a transfer to the Gulag system.^ NKVD for punishment, which meant a transfer to the Gulag system.
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[187][188][189] .89,468 remained in the transit camps as reception personnel until the repatriation process was finally wound up in the early 1950s.^ Up until now, history has shown that when there is a sharp transformation of the social structure, this change is reflected in the personnel which occupy leading positions of power.

^ This was the way Tolbuhkin wound up staying alive until after the war and even managing to rise in rank before he died.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[187]

Allied conferences on post-war Europe

.Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and later Clement Attlee) and/or American President Franklin D. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman) to plan military strategy and, later, to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization.^ Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and later Clement Attlee ) and/or American President Franklin D. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman ) to plan military strategy and, later, to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization.
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^ Tehran Conference - Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin pose.
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^ Stalin enters conference room, shakes hands with President Truman.
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.Very early conferences, such as that with British diplomats in Moscow in 1941 and with Churchill and American diplomats in in Moscow in 1942, focused mostly upon war planning and supply, though some preliminary postwar reorganization discussion also occurred.^ Very early conferences, such as that with British diplomats in Moscow in 1941 and with Churchill and American diplomats in in Moscow in 1942 , focused mostly upon war planning and supply, though some preliminary postwar reorganization discussion also occurred.
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^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

^ Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and later Clement Attlee ) and/or American President Franklin D. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman ) to plan military strategy and, later, to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization.
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.In 1943, Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in the Tehran Conference.^ Churchill, Truman, and Stalin the Potsdam Conference, 1945 .

^ Cairo conference - Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Kai-Shek pose for photos.
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^ After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.
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.In 1944, Stalin met with Churchill in the Moscow Conference.^ In 1944, Stalin met with Churchill in the Moscow Conference .
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^ Stalin met in several conferences with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (and later Clement Attlee ) and/or American President Franklin D. Roosevelt (and later Harry Truman ) to plan military strategy and, later, to discuss Europe's postwar reorganization.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning of the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe.
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.Beginning in late 1944, the Red Army occupied much of Eastern Europe during these conferences and the discussions shifted to a more intense focus on the reorganization of postwar Europe.^ Beginning in late 1944, the Red Army occupied much of Eastern Europe during these conferences and the discussions shifted to a more intense focus on the reorganization of postwar Europe.
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^ On 17 September the Red Army invaded eastern Poland and occupied the Polish territory assigned to it by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland.
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^ Postwar Moscow Scenes] EXT Red Army HQ. INT officers down steps.
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.In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta, Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe.^ Declaration on Liberated Europe (February 1945) .

^ Yalta Conference (4–11 February 1945) .

^ The Yalta Accords, 11 February 1945 .

[190] .Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany.^ Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany.
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^ Tehran conference Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.
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[190] .Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable, such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939, and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed.^ Stalin also stated that the Polish government-in-exile demands for self-rule were not negotiable, such that the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken by invasion with German consent in 1939 , and wanted the pro-Soviet Polish government installed.
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^ He also gained territory in eastern Poland and the Baltic states.

^ Heads of government of the Soviet Union .
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[190] .After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.^ After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tehran conference Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the re-organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland , the parties agreed that the new party shall "be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot."
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[190] .He stated the new government's primary task would be to prepare elections.^ He stated the new government's primary task would be to prepare elections.
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[191]
.The parties at Yalta further agreed that the countries of liberated Europe and former Axis satellites would be allowed to "create democratic institutions of their own choice", pursuant to the "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live."^ Snoop, doesn't that fall under the much hated [by Liberals here] of the But They Did It Too Defense ??
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "As a matter of fact and law, the governing rights of the States are all of those which have not been surrendered to the National Government by the Constitution or its amendments.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People make choices to pursue that which makes them happy; happiness doesn't always come with a huge salary.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[192] .The parties also agreed to help those countries form interim governments "pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections" and "facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections."^ The parties also agreed to help those countries form interim governments "pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections" and "facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections."
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^ After the re-organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland , the parties agreed that the new party shall "be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot."
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^ The links based this decision on crieteria such as how much freedom of speech we have, how free elections are, etc--the standards we agree make up a democracy.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[192] After the re-organization of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland, the parties agreed that the new party shall "be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage and secret ballot."[192] One month after Yalta, the Soviet NKVD arrested 16 Polish leaders wishing to participate in provisional government negotiations, for alleged "crimes" and "diversions", which drew protest from the West.[191] The fraudulent Polish elections, held in January 1947 resulted in Poland's official transformation to undemocratic communist state by 1949.
.At thePotsdam Conference from July to August 1945, though Germany had surrendered months earlier, instead of withdrawing Soviet forces from Eastern European countries, Stalin had not moved those forces.^ Japan, Surrender of (15 August 1945) .

^ Churchill, Truman, and Stalin the Potsdam Conference, 1945 .

^ At the Potsdam Conference from July to August 1945, though Germany had surrendered months earlier, instead of withdrawing Soviet forces from Eastern European countries, Stalin had not moved those forces.
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.At the beginning of the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe.^ At the beginning of the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe.
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^ Tehran conference Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin.
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^ Tehran conference with Stalin, FDR and Churchill.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[193] .Stalin pushed for reparations from Germany without regard to the base minimum supply for German citizens' survival, which worried Truman and Churchill who thought that Germany would become a financial burden for Western powers.^ Stalin rejected numerous western warnings in the winter and spring of 1941 that Germany was preparing to attack the Soviet Union, viewing these as efforts by the Allied powers and the United States to trick the USSR into war with Germany.

^ When push came to shove, the only one who had the guts - the only one who literally had the STOMACH to do what needed to be done - to actually carry out these theories to their logical conclusions was Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin with Churchill and Truman at Potsdam, pose in gardens.
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[194]
.In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for "war booty", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.^ In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for " war booty ", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.
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^ Stalin used this fact, delays by the western Allies in opening a true second front, and the great suffering of the Soviet Union (up to 27 million dead in the war) to secure massive amounts of Lend-Lease aid.

^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

[194] .By July 1945, Stalin's troops effectively controlled the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, and refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over.^ By July 1945, Stalin's troops effectively controlled the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, and refugees were fleeing out of these countries fearing a Communist take-over.
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^ In 1949, the Soviet Union , Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia , Hungary , Poland , and Romania founded the Comecon in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan , [ 196 ] and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe.
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^ As the western powers had used the new eastern European states after World War I to isolate Communist Russia and contain Bolshevism, so Stalin planned to use the same states—under Soviet control as satellites—to exclude western influences from his own empire.

.The western allies, and especially Churchill, were suspicious of the motives of Stalin, who had already installed communist governments in the central European countries under his influence.^ As the western powers had used the new eastern European states after World War I to isolate Communist Russia and contain Bolshevism, so Stalin planned to use the same states—under Soviet control as satellites—to exclude western influences from his own empire.

^ The Anglican Church maybe, but certainly not Protestantism considering it was very powerful in many European countries, especially in the Roman-German empire.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin's persecutions were directed in the first instance against the old Bolsheviks and against those Communists who had entered the party in the hardest, leanest years of the civil war.

.In these conferences, his first appearances on the world stage, Stalin proved to be a formidable negotiator.^ In these conferences, his first appearances on the world stage, Stalin proved to be a formidable negotiator.
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^ In July 1947, Stalin ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme.
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^ London & Moscow re arranging Truman-Stalin-Churchill meeting (Potsdam Conference) & negotiations re Poland & Soviet veto at San Francisco conference.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anthony Eden, the British Foreign Secretary noted: "Marshal Stalin as a negotiator was the toughest proposition of all.^ Anthony Eden , the British Foreign Secretary noted: "Marshal Stalin as a negotiator was the toughest proposition of all.
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^ Winston Churchill enters room with Stalin, takes seat with Anthony Eden, Molotov and Averell Harriman - CUs.
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^ Group photo with three foreign ministers: Stettiniusm Molotov, and Anthony Eden from UK. US Chief of Staff George Marshall and Admiral King arrive.
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.Indeed, after something like thirty years' experience of international conferences of one kind and another, if I had to pick a team for going into a conference room, Stalin would be my first choice.^ He, like Conquest, tries to go into the mystery of it - the mystery of Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ One of the men is obviously the spy & another reports him to boss beneath Stalin s picture.
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.Of course the man was ruthless and of course he knew his purpose.^ Of course the man was ruthless and of course he knew his purpose.
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He never wasted a word. .He never stormed, he was seldom even irritated."^ He never stormed, he was seldom even irritated."
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[195]

Post-war era, 1945–1953

The Iron Curtain and the Eastern Bloc

.After Soviet forces remained in Eastern and Central European countries, with the beginnings of communist puppet regimes in those countries, Churchill referred to the region as being behind an "Iron Curtain" of control from Moscow.^ The countries under Soviet control in Eastern and Central Europe were sometimes called the " Eastern bloc " or "Soviet Bloc".
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^ Further information: Eastern bloc , Iron Curtain , History of the German Democratic Republic , History of Poland (1945–1989) , People's Republic of Hungary , and History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989) After Soviet forces remained in Eastern and Central European countries, with the beginnings of communist puppet regimes in those countries, Churchill referred to the region as being behind an " Iron Curtain " of control from Moscow.
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^ Still Churchill an iron curtain has descended...
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[196][197] The countries under Soviet control in Eastern and Central Europe were sometimes called the "Eastern bloc" or "Soviet Bloc".
The Eastern Bloc until 1989.
.In Soviet-controlled East Germany, the major task of the ruling communist party in Germany was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties pretending that these were initiatives of its own,[198] with deviations potentially leading to reprimands, imprisonment, torture and even death.^ In Soviet-controlled East Germany , the major task of the ruling communist party in Germany was to channel Soviet orders down to both the administrative apparatus and the other bloc parties pretending that these were initiatives of its own, [ 184 ] with deviations potentially leading to reprimands, imprisonment, torture and even death.
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^ As the western powers had used the new eastern European states after World War I to isolate Communist Russia and contain Bolshevism, so Stalin planned to use the same states—under Soviet control as satellites—to exclude western influences from his own empire.

^ In 1923 he assumed the post of secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a position he used as a springboard to power.

[198] .Property and industry were nationalized under their government.^ Property and industry were nationalized under their government.
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[198]
.The German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949, with a new constitution which enshrined socialism and gave the Soviet-controlled Socialist Unity Party ("SED") control.^ The German Democratic Republic was declared on 7 October 1949, with a new constitution which enshrined socialism and gave the Soviet-controlled Socialist Unity Party ("SED") control.
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^ German Democratic Republic (1949–1991) .

^ Many communists, socialists and democratic-minded people fled from these countries and sought political asylum in the Soviet Union.

.In Berlin, after citizens strongly rejected communist candidates in an election, in June 1948, the Soviet Union blockaded West Berlin, the portion of Berlin not under Soviet control, cutting off all supply of food and other items.^ Soviet and Allied Statements on the Berlin Blockade, 1948 .

^ Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948–1949) .

^ As the western powers had used the new eastern European states after World War I to isolate Communist Russia and contain Bolshevism, so Stalin planned to use the same states—under Soviet control as satellites—to exclude western influences from his own empire.

.The blockade failed due to the unexpected massive aerial resupply campaign carried out by the Western powers known as the Berlin Airlift.^ Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948–1949) .

^ The blockade failed due to the unexpected massive aerial resupply campaign carried out by the Western powers known as the Berlin Airlift .
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^ It is interesting to note that the Western Powers declaration of war against Germany's taking of Poland left out the Soviets which had claimed their half.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

.In 1949, Stalin conceded defeat and ended the blockade.^ In 1949, Stalin conceded defeat and ended the blockade.
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.While Stalin had promised at the Yalta Conference that free elections would be held in Poland,[192] after an election failure in "3 times YES" elections,[199] vote rigging was employed to win a majority in the carefully controlled poll.^ Further, Stalin knew that such a strike would inevitably lead to German reprisal, and his animus against Poland was secondary to his fear of German might.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Evening in Turkmenistan s Collective Farm 18:17:31 Warsaw, Poland Meeting to Unite Poland s Worker Parties Held in Conference Hall of the Polytechnic Institute.
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^ Had the Nazis rendered 1940s Soviet Russia's chief western cities unusable to them they would have accomplished a major step in 'winning'.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[200][201][202] .Following the forged referendum, the Polish economy started to become nationalized.^ Following the forged referendum, the Polish economy started to become nationalized .
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[203]
.In Hungary, when the Soviets installed a communist government, Mátyás Rákosi, who described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple"[204] and "Stalin's best pupil",[205] took power.^ In Hungary, when the Soviets installed a communist government, Mátyás Rákosi , who described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple" [ 190 ] and "Stalin's best pupil", [ 191 ] took power.
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^ As the western powers had used the new eastern European states after World War I to isolate Communist Russia and contain Bolshevism, so Stalin planned to use the same states—under Soviet control as satellites—to exclude western influences from his own empire.

^ Some Soviet official who worked with Stalin said, when it was all over, that Stalin had the deadliest of combinations in his personality: Laziness and capriciousness.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

Rákosi employed "salami tactics", slicing up these enemies like pieces of salami,[206] to battle the initial postwar political majority ready to establish a democracy.[207] .Rákosi, employed Stalinist political and economic programs, and was dubbed the "bald murderer" for establishing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.^ Rákosi, employed Stalinist political and economic programs, and was dubbed the "bald murderer" for establishing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.
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^ He also ordered the NKVD to murder around one hundred thousand political prisoners in areas where the Wermacht approached, [ 166 ] while others were deported east.
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^ Rákosi employed " salami tactics ", slicing up these enemies like pieces of salami, [ 192 ] to battle the initial postwar political majority ready to establish a democracy.
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[207][208] Approximately 350,000 Hungarian officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956.[207]
.During World War II, in Bulgaria, the Red Army crossed the border and created the conditions for a communist coup d'état on the following night.^ Now, following World War II, Stalin sought the reverse, insisting at the very least on governments friendly to the Soviet Union in order to provide security for a badly wounded Soviet empire.

^ He heaped praise upon Stalin whom he felt had saved England during World War II. To justify his praise of Stalin he said that 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union during that war.

^ Russian army massed in Red Square - singing - march off to war - ski troops, cavalry & infantry - Cossacks.
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[209] .The Soviet military commander in Sofia assumed supreme authority, and the communists whom he instructed, including Kimon Georgiev, took full control of domestic politics.^ The Soviet military commander in Sofia assumed supreme authority, and the communists whom he instructed, including Kimon Georgiev , took full control of domestic politics.
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^ In 1923 he assumed the post of secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a position he used as a springboard to power.

^ After this campaign, Stalin took actions to bolster the Soviet military, modify training and improve propaganda efforts in the Soviet military.
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[209]
.In 1949, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania founded the Comecon in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan,[210] and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe.^ In 1949, the Soviet Union , Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia , Hungary , Poland , and Romania founded the Comecon in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan , [ 196 ] and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animated map of Europe w/ Soviet border nations cut off.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for " war booty ", which would permit the Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.
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[211] .Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland had remained interested in Marshall aid despite the requirements for a convertible currency and market economies.^ Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Cuba .
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.In July 1947, Stalin ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme.^ In July 1947, Stalin ordered these communist-dominated governments to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme.
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^ When push came to shove, the only one who had the guts - the only one who literally had the STOMACH to do what needed to be done - to actually carry out these theories to their logical conclusions was Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current Communist puppet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.
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.This has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post-World War II division of Europe.^ Soviet people of World War II .
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^ Georgian people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II, 1939–1945 .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[211]
.In Greece, Britain and the United States supported the anti-communists in the Greek Civil War and suspected the Soviets of supporting the Greek communists, although Stalin refrained from getting involved in Greece, dismissing the movement as premature.^ Greek Civil War (1946–1949) .

^ In Greece, Britain and the United States supported the anti-communists in the Greek Civil War and suspected the Soviets of supporting the Greek communists, although Stalin refrained from getting involved in Greece, dismissing the movement as premature.
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^ Stalin was active in the Russian Civil War (1918–1921) and the Russo-Polish War (1920–1921), and from 1920 to 1923 he was commissar of nationalities.

Albania remained an ally of the Soviet Union, but Yugoslavia broke with the USSR in 1948.
.In Stalin's last year of life, one of his last major foreign policy initiatives was the 1952 Stalin Note for German reunification and Superpower disengagement from Central Europe, but Britain, France, and the United States viewed this with suspicion and rejected the offer.^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ Stalin abandoned Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) that permitted a degree of capitalism in Russia and initiated a series of five-year plans to modernize the economy, concentrating on heavy industry.

^ Following the explosion of the Soviet Union's first nuclear device in late 1949, he adopted a less militant foreign policy, jettisoning the militant expansionism of the immediate postwar years in favor of one that was comparatively defensive in nature.

Sino-Soviet Relations

Stalin and Mao Zedong on Chinese Postage stamp
.In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war and then also occupied Korea above the 38th parallel north.^ Red Army broke through all of that, in a few months.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Thus, Soviets who had been in the West, including Red Army personnel captured during the war, were immediately suspect and treated as enemies.

^ Later, when the war went badly for Kim and North Korea, Stalin sanctioned military intervention by the People's Republic of China (PRC).

.Mao Zedong's Communist Party of China, though receptive to minimal Soviet support, defeated the pro-Western and heavily American-assisted Chinese Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War.^ Chinese Civil War (1945–1949) .

^ Mao Zedong 's Communist Party of China , though receptive to minimal Soviet support, defeated the pro-Western and heavily American-assisted Chinese Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War .
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^ Stalin and Mao Zedong on Chinese Postage stamp In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war and then also occupied Korea above the 38th parallel north .
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.There was friction between Stalin and Mao from the beginning.^ There was friction between Stalin and Mao from the beginning.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there was still a lot of tension between the two leaders and resentment by Mao for Stalin's less than enthusiastic help during the civil war in China.
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.During World War II Stalin had supported the conservative dictator of China, Chiang Kai-Shek, as a bulwark against Japan and had turned a blind eye to Chiang's mass killings of communists.^ Georgian people of World War II .
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^ During World War II Stalin had supported the conservative dictator of China, Chiang Kai-Shek , as a bulwark against Japan and had turned a blind eye to Chiang's mass killings of communists.
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^ Soviet people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He generally put his alliance with Chiang against Japan ahead of helping his ideological allies in China in his priorities.^ He generally put his alliance with Chiang against Japan ahead of helping his ideological allies in China in his priorities.
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^ While Japan had a huge army in China, the US had almost no help in the amphibious march to Japan.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ I just despise this general idea of people from countries allied to the US celebrating the possible eventual rise of China as the world's foremost power.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war.^ Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war.
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^ Stalin and Mao Zedong on Chinese Postage stamp In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war and then also occupied Korea above the 38th parallel north .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In August 1939, while Western diplomats were engaged in negotiations with the Soviets, Stalin signed non-aggression and trade agreements with Hitler.

.Mao did not follow Stalin's instructions though and started a communist revolution against Chiang.^ [Stalin s Birthday 1950] INT Moscow Grand Opera House - Stalin enters the stage to standing ovation followed by Malenkov & Chairman Mao [?
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^ Proportionately the German group of migrs was small because Stalin did not want a large emigration of Germans Communists.

^ If Germany won, then Stalin stated that this could create the possibility for a communist revolution in France, while Germany would be too weakened to pose a threat for USSR for the next 10 years.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

.Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao.^ Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao.
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^ Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death, it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found.
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^ He's not; he paints Hitler as no less of a monster than Stalin, simply as a less-smart one.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

.The USSR continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chiang's KMT regime until 1949 when it became clear Mao would win.^ The USSR continued to maintain diplomatic relations with Chiang's KMT regime until 1949 when it became clear Mao would win.
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^ America did win the war, but not without the help, as kiwiphoenix said, was Hitler being a 'diplomatic retard' and attacking the USSR. If Hitler actually took Napoleon's history to heart, he would realize that an attack on USSR would have ended in failure.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war.
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.Stalin did conclude a new friendship and alliance treaty with Mao after he defeated Chiang.^ Stalin did conclude a new friendship and alliance treaty with Mao after he defeated Chiang.
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^ Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even after the war Stalin concluded a non-aggression pact between the USSR and Chiang's Kuomintang (KMT) regime in China and instructed Mao and the Chinese communists to cooperate with Chiang and the KMT after the war.
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.But there was still a lot of tension between the two leaders and resentment by Mao for Stalin's less than enthusiastic help during the civil war in China.^ Stalin did not believe Mao would be successful so he was less than enthusiastic in helping Mao.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there was still a lot of tension between the two leaders and resentment by Mao for Stalin's less than enthusiastic help during the civil war in China.
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^ There was friction between Stalin and Mao from the beginning.
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.The Communists controlled mainland China while the Nationalists held a rump state on the island of Taiwan.^ The Communists controlled mainland China while the Nationalists held a rump state on the island of Taiwan .
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^ The fraudulent Polish elections , held in January 1947 resulted in Poland's official transformation to undemocratic communist state by 1949.
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.The Soviet Union soon after recognized Mao's People's Republic of China, which it regarded as a new ally.^ The Soviet Union soon after recognized Mao's People's Republic of China, which it regarded as a new ally.
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^ Celebration of founding of the People's Republic of China .

^ Regardless, this is my view, and it's very hard for some to admit that - people who devoted their lives to defending the Soviet Union - at all costs ...
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.The People's Republic claimed Taiwan, though it had never held authority there.^ The People's Republic claimed Taiwan, though it had never held authority there.
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^ Notable people executed by NKVD were removed from the texts and photographs as though they never existed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and China reached a high point with the signing of the 1950 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.^ Sino-Soviet Treaty (14 February 1950) .

^ Benes speech in Russian [sync] - Delighted to be signing treaty of friendship between Czechoslovakia & USSR - to free our people and state from German yoke...
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Delegates visit Union of Soviet Friendship Societies.
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.Both countries provided military support to a new friendly state in North Korea.^ Later, when the war went badly for Kim and North Korea, Stalin sanctioned military intervention by the People's Republic of China (PRC).

.After various Korean border conflicts, war broke out with U.S.-allied South Korea in 1950, starting the Korean War.^ After various Korean border conflicts, war broke out with U.S.-allied South Korea in 1950, starting the Korean War .
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^ The North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, 25 June 1950, crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery, beginning their invasion of South Korea.
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^ Thereafter, civil war broke out in Russia, pitting Lenin's Red Army against the White Army , a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces.
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North Korea

.Contrary to America's policy which restrained armament (limited equipment was provided for infantry and police forces) to South Korea, Stalin extensively armed Kim Il Sung's North Korean army and air forces with military equipment (to include T-34/85 tanks) and "advisors" far in excess of those required for defensive purposes) in order to facilitate Kim's (a former Soviet Officer) aim of conquering the rest of the Korean peninsula.^ Contrary to America's policy which restrained armament (limited equipment was provided for infantry and police forces) to South Korea, Stalin extensively armed Kim Il Sung 's North Korean army and air forces with military equipment (to include T-34/85 tanks) and "advisors" far in excess of those required for defensive purposes) in order to facilitate Kim's (a former Soviet Officer) aim of conquering the rest of the Korean peninsula.
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^ Kim Il Sung (1912–1994) .

^ Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky , ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries [ 8 ] [ 9 ] and burned villages in order to intimidate the peasantry into submission and discourage bandit raids on food shipments.
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.The North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, 25 June 1950, crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery, beginning their invasion of South Korea.^ The North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, 25 June 1950, crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery, beginning their invasion of South Korea.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Animated map showing North Korea crossing 38th Parallel.
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^ After various Korean border conflicts, war broke out with U.S.-allied South Korea in 1950, starting the Korean War .
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[212] .During the Korean War, Soviet pilots flew Soviet aircraft from Chinese bases against United Nations aircraft defending South Korea.^ During the Korean War , Soviet pilots flew Soviet aircraft from Chinese bases against United Nations aircraft defending South Korea.
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^ South American assistance for Allies - Pan-American Nations declare war on Axis.
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^ Montage United Nations Flags over images of war and peace .
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.Post cold war research in Soviet Archives has revealed that the Korean War was begun by Kim Il-sung with the express permission of Stalin, though this is disputed by North Korea.^ Post cold war research in Soviet Archives has revealed that the Korean War was begun by Kim Il-sung with the express permission of Stalin, though this is disputed by North Korea.
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^ Kim Il Sung (1912–1994) .

^ Contrary to America's policy which restrained armament (limited equipment was provided for infantry and police forces) to South Korea, Stalin extensively armed Kim Il Sung 's North Korean army and air forces with military equipment (to include T-34/85 tanks) and "advisors" far in excess of those required for defensive purposes) in order to facilitate Kim's (a former Soviet Officer) aim of conquering the rest of the Korean peninsula.
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Israel

.Stalin originally supported the creation of Israel in 1948. The USSR was one of the first nations to recognize the new country.^ Stalin originally supported the creation of Israel in 1948.
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^ The USSR was one of the first nations to recognize the new country.
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^ Stalin's policies granted the Soviet people universal access to healthcare and education, effectively creating the first generation free from the fear of typhus , cholera , and malaria .
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[213] Golda Meir came to Moscow as the first Israeli Ambassador to the USSR that year. .However, after providing war materiel for Israel through Czechoslovakia, he later changed his mind and came out against Israel.^ However, after providing war materiel for Israel through Czechoslovakia, he later changed his mind and came out against Israel.
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^ Thereafter, civil war broke out in Russia, pitting Lenin's Red Army against the White Army , a loose alliance of anti-Bolshevik forces.
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^ From which side of the aisle does the vilification of those who speak out against the Iraq war emanate?
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Falsifiers of History

.In 1948, Stalin personally edited and rewrote by hand sections of the cold war book Falsifiers of History.^ In 1948, Stalin personally edited and rewrote by hand sections of the cold war book Falsifiers of History .
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^ Anyway: Here's the excerpt from the book about Lenin's death, and Stalin's creation of the personality cult, and embalming the dude and putting him on display.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once Stalin rejected a closer relationship with the West, the Cold War was launched in earnest.

[214] .Falsifiers was published in response to the documents made public in Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939–1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office,[215][216] which included the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and other secret German-Soviet relations documents.^ Falsifiers was published in response to the documents made public in Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939–1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office , [ 201 ] [ 202 ] which included the secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and other secret German-Soviet relations documents.
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^ German-Soviet Non-aggression Pact (23 August 1939) .

^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

[215][217] Falsifiers originally appeared as a series of articles in Pravda in February 1948,[216] and was subsequently published in numerous language and distributed worldwide.[218]
.The book did not attempt to directly counter or deal with the documents published in Nazi-Soviet Relations[219] and rather, focused upon Western culpability for the outbreak of war in 1939.[218] It argues that "Western powers" aided Nazi rearmament and aggression, including that American bankers and industrialists provided capital for the growth of German war industries, while deliberately encouraging Hitler to expand eastward.^ It argues that "Western powers" aided Nazi rearmament and aggression, including that American bankers and industrialists provided capital for the growth of German war industries, while deliberately encouraging Hitler to expand eastward.
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^ The book did not attempt to directly counter or deal with the documents published in Nazi-Soviet Relations [ 205 ] and rather, focused upon Western culpability for the outbreak of war in 1939.
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^ Stalin used this fact, delays by the western Allies in opening a true second front, and the great suffering of the Soviet Union (up to 27 million dead in the war) to secure massive amounts of Lend-Lease aid.

[215][218] .It depicted the Soviet Union as striving to negotiate a collective security against Hitler, while being thwarted by double-dealing Anglo-French appeasers who, despite appearances, had no intention of a Soviet alliance and were secretly negotiating with Berlin.^ It depicted the Soviet Union as striving to negotiate a collective security against Hitler, while being thwarted by double-dealing Anglo-French appeasers who, despite appearances, had no intention of a Soviet alliance and were secretly negotiating with Berlin.
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^ It casts the Munich agreement , not just as Anglo-French short-sightedness or cowardice, but as a "secret" agreement that was a "a highly important phase in their policy aimed at goading the Hitlerite aggressors against the Soviet Union."
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^ A non-bolshevik Russia would have had no incentive to sign the non-agression pact with Hitler, quite the opposite, it would have seeked an alliance with France and England.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

[218] It casts the Munich agreement, not just as Anglo-French short-sightedness or cowardice, but as a "secret" agreement that was a "a highly important phase in their policy aimed at goading the Hitlerite aggressors against the Soviet Union."[220] The book also included the claim that, during the Pact's operation, Stalin rejected Hitler's offer to share in a division of the world, without mentioning the Soviet offers to join the Axis.[221] .Historical studies, official accounts, memoirs and textbooks published in the Soviet Union used that depiction of events until the Soviet Union's dissolution.^ Historical studies, official accounts, memoirs and textbooks published in the Soviet Union used that depiction of events until the Soviet Union's dissolution .
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^ The Soviet Union used foreign experts, e.g.
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^ In 1923 he assumed the post of secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a position he used as a springboard to power.

[221]

Domestic Support

.Domestically, Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis.^ Domestically, Stalin was seen as a great wartime leader who had led the Soviets to victory against the Nazis.
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^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ It championed Russian nationalism and attacked Western influence (now known as bourgeois cosmopolitanism), glorified communism, and above all trumpeted the accomplishments and inspiration of the Great Leader, Stalin, attributing to him all Soviet successes.

.His early cooperation with Hitler was forgotten.^ His early cooperation with Hitler was forgotten.
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.That cooperation included helping the German Army violate the Treaty of Versailles limitations, with training in the Soviet Union, the notorious Molotov-von Ribbentrop treaty which partitioned Poland giving the Soviet Union what is now Belarus and granted the Soviet Union a free hand in Finland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, and Soviet trade with Hitler to counteract the expected French and British trade blockades.^ British & French & German military officials.
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^ Stalin, Molotov, von Ribbentrop.
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^ That cooperation included helping the German Army violate the Treaty of Versailles limitations, with training in the Soviet Union, the notorious Molotov-von Ribbentrop treaty which partitioned Poland giving the Soviet Union what is now Belarus and granted the Soviet Union a free hand in Finland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, and Soviet trade with Hitler to counteract the expected French and British trade blockades.
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.By the end of the 1940s, Russian patriotism increased due to successful propaganda efforts.^ By the end of the 1940s, Russian patriotism increased due to successful propaganda efforts.
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.For instance, some inventions and scientific discoveries were claimed by Soviet propaganda.^ For instance, some inventions and scientific discoveries were claimed by Soviet propaganda.
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.Examples include the boiler, reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs; the electric light, by Yablochkov and Lodygin; the radio, by Popov; and the airplane, by Mozhaysky.^ Examples include the boiler , reclaimed by father and son Cherepanovs ; the electric light , by Yablochkov and Lodygin ; the radio , by Popov ; and the airplane, by Mozhaysky .
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.Stalin's internal repressive policies continued (including in newly acquired territories), but never reached the extremes of the 1930s, in part because the smarter party functionaries had learned caution.^ Stalin's internal repressive policies continued (including in newly acquired territories), but never reached the extremes of the 1930s, in part because the smarter party functionaries had learned caution.
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^ His career as a low-level party functionary began in 1901 and included "expropriations" (robbery) and counterfeiting in support of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP).

^ But perhaps Stalin was so untouchable - not just because of the Party apparatus that he created - but because psychologically he had the upper hand and he knew it.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

The "Doctors' plot"

.The "Doctors' plot" was a plot outlined by Stalin and Soviet officials in 1952 and 1953 whereby several doctors (over half of which were Jewish) allegedly attempted to kill Soviet officials.^ Fed by Stalin's continuing paranoia, nine doctors, six of them Jewish, were accused of employing their medical skills to assassinate prominent individuals, among them Zhdanov, Stalin's heir apparent.

^ Whatever the reasons, Stalin's death in Moscow on 5 March 1953, following a paralytic stroke, came as a relief to many in highly vulnerable Soviet leadership positions.

^ Some Soviet official who worked with Stalin said, when it was all over, that Stalin had the deadliest of combinations in his personality: Laziness and capriciousness.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[222] .The prevailing opinion of many scholars outside the Soviet Union is that Stalin intended to use the resulting doctors' trial to launch a massive party purge.^ Many in the Soviet Union believed that this heralded a return to the purges of the 1930s.

^ The Soviet Union used foreign experts, e.g.
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^ The prevailing opinion of many scholars outside the Soviet Union is that Stalin intended to use the resulting doctors' trial to launch a massive party purge.
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[223] .The plot is also viewed by many historians as an anti-Semitic provocation.^ The plot is also viewed by many historians as an anti-Semitic provocation.
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[222] .It followed on the heels of the 1952 show trials of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee[224] and the secret execution of thirteen members on Stalin's orders in the Night of the Murdered Poets.^ It followed on the heels of the 1952 show trials of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee [ 210 ] and the secret execution of thirteen members on Stalin's orders in the Night of the Murdered Poets .
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^ The Great Purges, conducted on Stalin's orders, were characterized by their focus on party and state elites, the use of mass terror, and dramatic public "show trials" and "confessions" by the accused.

^ The murder of Kirov was really when Stalin's gloves came off, or when he showed his fangs (to mix a metaphor) - although the signs had been there for some time.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[225]
.Thereafter, in a December Politburo session, Stalin announced that "Every Jewish nationalist is the agent of the American intelligence service.^ Thereafter, in a December Politburo session, Stalin announced that "Every Jewish nationalist is the agent of the American intelligence service.
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.Jewish nationalists think that their nation was saved by the USA (there you can become rich, bourgeois, etc.^ Don't you think that it would simply be better for the left to become more mainstream and appeal to more than just 10% of the American people?
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You'd almost think there was a conspiracy to throttle it.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think there is no cheaper Luis Vuitton outlet than you in the world.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

). .They think they're indebted to the Americans.^ They think they're indebted to the Americans.
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^ PM Baldseal It really shows the ignorance of Americans that they think their country not existing would fuck up the world.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe that Fox leans to the right, but I don't think they're "very conservative."
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among doctors, there are many Jewish nationalists."^ Among doctors, there are many Jewish nationalists."
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^ Jewish nationalists think that their nation was saved by the USA (there you can become rich, bourgeois, etc.
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^ Besides the little error regarding how many division the Reds ultimately could field, there was as always with Hitler the Jewish question.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[226] .To mobilize the Soviet people for his campaign, Stalin ordered TASS and Pravda to issue stories along with Stalin's alleged uncovering of a "Doctors Plot" to assassinate top Soviet leaders,[227][228] including Stalin, in order to set the stage for show trials.^ These people were not fooled by the show trials.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great Purges, conducted on Stalin's orders, were characterized by their focus on party and state elites, the use of mass terror, and dramatic public "show trials" and "confessions" by the accused.

^ CU Stalin speaking in full uniform before large micophone ordering Soviet troops to stop retreating [English subtitles].
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[229]
.The next month, Pravda published stories with text regarding the purported "Jewish bourgeois-nationalist" plotters.^ The next month, Pravda published stories with text regarding the purported "Jewish bourgeois-nationalist " plotters.
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^ Jewish nationalists think that their nation was saved by the USA (there you can become rich, bourgeois, etc.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[230] .Kruschev wrote that Stalin hinted him to incite anti-Semitism in the Ukraine, telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews."^ They love him for his Socialism but then feel betrayed by his anti-Stalinism.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kruschev wrote that Stalin hinted him to incite anti-Semitism in the Ukraine, telling him that "the good workers at the factory should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those Jews."
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^ Regarding the origins of the plot, people who knew Stalin, such as Kruschev, suggest that Stalin had long harbored negative sentiments toward Jews , [ 208 ] [ 220 ] [ 221 ] and anti-Semitic trends in the Kremlin's policies were further fueled by the exile of Leon Trotsky .
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[231][232] .Stalin also ordered falsely accused physicians to be tortured "to death".[233] Regarding the origins of the plot, people who knew Stalin, such as Kruschev, suggest that Stalin had long harbored negative sentiments toward Jews,[222][234][235] and anti-Semitic trends in the Kremlin's policies were further fueled by the exile of Leon Trotsky.^ Simultaneously, Stalin reversed Lenin's New Economic Policy, which had introduced a degree of capitalism in order to revive the economy, purged the middle-class peasants who had emerged under that policy (the Kulaks), and carried out the collectivization of agriculture.

^ Russian embassy - long line of people carrying flowers & wreaths into Soviet Embassy; place wreaths near bust of Stalin.
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^ Further, Stalin knew that such a strike would inevitably lead to German reprisal, and his animus against Poland was secondary to his fear of German might.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

[222][236] .In 1946, Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy."^ In 1946, Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew is a potential spy."
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[222][237]
.Some historians have argued that Stalin was also planning to send millions of Jews to four large newly built labor camps in Western Russia[229][238] using a "Deportation Commission"[239][240][241] that would purportedly act to save Soviet Jews from an engraged Soviet population after the Doctors Plot trials.^ The whole "accused doctor" trials in Russia.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some historians have argued that Stalin was also planning to send millions of Jews to four large newly built labor camps in Western Russia [ 215 ] [ 224 ] using a "Deportation Commission" [ 225 ] [ 226 ] [ 227 ] that would purportedly act to save Soviet Jews from an engraged Soviet population after the Doctors Plot trials.
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^ As the western powers had used the new eastern European states after World War I to isolate Communist Russia and contain Bolshevism, so Stalin planned to use the same states—under Soviet control as satellites—to exclude western influences from his own empire.

[239][242][243] .Others argue that any charge of an alleged mass deportation lacks specific documentary evidence.^ Others argue that any charge of an alleged mass deportation lacks specific documentary evidence.
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[228] .Regardless of whether a plot to deport Jews was planned, in his "Secret Speech" in 1956, Soviet Premier Nikita Kruschev stated that the Doctors Plot was "fabricated ...^ Stalin Speech to the Moscow District Soviet Painting / mural Stalin with Lenin - Pravda newspaper headlines - Lenin lying in state - Stalin at Belomor Canal - workers.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

set up by .Stalin", that Stalin told the judge to beat confessions from the defendants[244] and had told Politburo members "You are blind like young kittens.^ It is you WINGNUTS that are like Stalin.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin", that Stalin told the judge to beat confessions from the defendants [ 230 ] and had told Politburo members "You are blind like young kittens.
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^ Lenin formed a five-member Politburo which included Stalin and Trotsky .
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What will happen without me? .The country will perish because you do not know how to recognize enemies."^ The country will perish because you do not know how to recognize enemies."
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^ I cannot cop out and say: "THE MAN WAS NOT HUMAN" because you know what?
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are you arguing that the US is not a capitalistic country because the word "capitalism" is not in the constitution?
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[244]

Death and aftermath

.At the end of January 1953 Stalin's personal physician Miron Vovsi (cousin of Solomon Mikhoels who was assassinated in 1948 at the orders of Stalin)[225] was arrested within the frame of the so-named Doctors' Plot.^ At the end of January 1953 Stalin's personal physician Miron Vovsi (cousin of Solomon Mikhoels who was assassinated in 1948 at the orders of Stalin) [ 211 ] was arrested within the frame of the so-named Doctors' Plot .
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^ Fed by Stalin's continuing paranoia, nine doctors, six of them Jewish, were accused of employing their medical skills to assassinate prominent individuals, among them Zhdanov, Stalin's heir apparent.

^ At the end of 1927, a critical shortfall in grain supplies prompted Stalin to push for collectivisation of agriculture and order the seizures of grain hoards from kulak farmers.
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[245]
.On 1 March 1953, after an all-night dinner in his Kuntsevo residence some 15 km west of Moscow centre with interior minister Lavrentiy Beria and future premiers Georgy Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin did not emerge from his room, having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body.^ He died on 5 March 1953, a month after suffering a stroke, at Kuntsevo near Moscow.

^ On 1 March 1953, after an all-night dinner in his Kuntsevo residence some 15 km west of Moscow centre with interior minister Lavrentiy Beria and future premiers Georgy Malenkov , Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev , Stalin did not emerge from his room, having probably suffered a stroke that paralyzed the right side of his body.
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^ On 15 October 1941, the Germans having driven to within 50 miles of Moscow, the Soviet government and diplomatic community were evacuated to Kuibyshev on the Volga.

Stalin's Grave by the Kremlin Wall Necropolis
.Although his guards thought that it was odd for him not to rise at his usual time, they were under orders not to disturb him.^ Stalin's Grave by the Kremlin Wall Necropolis Although his guards thought that it was odd for him not to rise at his usual time, they were under orders not to disturb him.
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^ The head of security on that night gave the guards the order, allegedly from Stalin, that they were not required and could go to bed.
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At around 10 p.m. he was discovered by .Peter Lozgachev, the Deputy Commandant of Kuntsevo, who recalled a horrifying scene of Stalin lying on the floor of his room wearing pyjama bottoms and an undershirt and was soaked in stale urine.^ He was discovered lying on the floor of his room only at about 10 p.m.
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.A frightened Lozgachev asked Stalin what has happened but all he could get out of the Generalissimo was unintelligible responses that sounded like "Dzhh."^ (Nobody here, by the way - I really get a lot out of the conversations we all have about Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She had three grade-school age kids - so I knew it would be a long-shot that she could come out on a weeknight - but she was so thrilled to be asked - it made me want to cry.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin was personally responsible for the Great Purge trials of the 1930s that consumed virtually all of the top party leadership.

Lozgachez frantically called a few party officials asking them to send good doctors.[246] .Lavrentiy Beria was informed and arrived a few hours afterwards, and the doctors only arrived in the early morning of 2 March.^ Lavrentiy Beria was informed and arrived a few hours afterwards, and the doctors only arrived in the early morning of 2 March.
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.Stalin died four days later, on 5 March 1953,[1] at the age of 74, and was embalmed on 9 March.^ Stalin died four days later, on 5 March 1953 [ 5 ] , at the age of 74, and was embalmed on 9 March.
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^ Whatever the reasons, Stalin's death in Moscow on 5 March 1953, following a paralytic stroke, came as a relief to many in highly vulnerable Soviet leadership positions.

.Officially, the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage.^ Officially, the cause of death was listed as a cerebral hemorrhage .
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.His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961, when his body was removed from the Mausoleum and buried next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization.^ People buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis .
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^ His body was preserved in Lenin's Mausoleum until 31 October 1961, when his body was removed from the Mausoleum and buried next to the Kremlin walls as part of the process of de-Stalinization .
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^ Red Square - Kremlin, St. Basil s Cathedral, soldiers marching, abstract view of Lenin s mausoleum, bas-relief plaque Stalin-Lenin-Marx-Engels.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been suggested that Stalin was assassinated.^ It has been suggested that Stalin was assassinated.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ex-Communist exile Avtorkhanov argued this point as early as 1975. The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov, published in 1993, claimed that Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin: "I took him out."
.Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had, immediately after the stroke, gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him", and then, when Stalin showed signs of consciousness, dropped to his knees and kissed his hand.^ Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had, immediately after the stroke, gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him", and then, when Stalin showed signs of consciousness, dropped to his knees and kissed his hand.
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^ The murder of Kirov was really when Stalin's gloves came off, or when he showed his fangs (to mix a metaphor) - although the signs had been there for some time.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway: Here's the excerpt from the book about Lenin's death, and Stalin's creation of the personality cult, and embalming the dude and putting him on display.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

When Stalin fell unconscious again, Beria immediately stood and spat.

Later analysis of death

In 2003, a joint group of Russian and American historians announced their view that Stalin ingested warfarin, a powerful rat poison that inhibits coagulation of the blood and so predisposes the victim to hemorrhagic stroke (cerebral hemorrhage). .Since it is flavorless, warfarin is a plausible weapon of murder.^ Since it is flavorless, warfarin is a plausible weapon of murder.
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.The facts surrounding Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty.^ The facts surrounding Stalin's death will probably never be known with certainty.
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^ Nobody has caused the death of more of his own forces than Stalin, probably in all wars put together.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Kirov's death, in fact, was the keystone of the entire edifice of terror and suffering by which Stalin secured his grip on the Soviet peoples.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[247]
.His demise arrived at a convenient time for Lavrenty Beria and others, who feared being swept away in yet another purge.^ His demise arrived at a convenient time for Lavrenty Beria and others, who feared being swept away in yet another purge.
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^ Yet perhaps 100,000 examiners and other officials spent months interrogating and guarding prisoners who did not, during that time, even provide the State with any labor.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The work of teaching and organising the others fell naturally upon the pigs, who were generally recognised as being the cleverest of the animals.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is believed that Stalin felt Beria's power was too great and threatened his own.^ Stalin felt Beria's power was too great and threatened his own.
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^ Stalin, as head of the Politburo consolidated near-absolute power in the 1930s with a Great Purge of the party, justified as an attempt to expel 'opportunists' and 'counter-revolutionary infiltrators'.
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.According to Molotov's memoirs, Beria claimed to have poisoned Stalin, saying, "I took him out."^ The political memoirs of Vyacheslav Molotov , published in 1993, claimed that Beria had boasted to Molotov that he poisoned Stalin: "I took him out."
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^ According to Molotov's memoirs, Beria claimed to have poisoned Stalin, saying, "I took him out."
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^ Khrushchev wrote in his memoirs that Beria had, immediately after the stroke, gone about "spewing hatred against [Stalin] and mocking him", and then, when Stalin showed signs of consciousness, dropped to his knees and kissed his hand.
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.Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death, it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found.^ Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death, it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found.
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^ Russia, in fact, did more of that than we did.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin passed a new law on "terrorist organizations and terrorist acts", which were to be investigated for no more than ten days, with no prosecution, defense attorneys or appeals, followed by a sentence to be executed "quickly."
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[248]

Reaction by successors

Grutas Park is home to a monument of Stalin, originally set up in Vilnius.
Monument to Stalin in Gori, Georgia.
The harshness with which Soviet affairs were conducted during Stalin's rule was subsequently repudiated by his successors in the Communist Party leadership, most notably by Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalinism in February 1956. In his "Secret Speech", On the Personality Cult and its Consequences, delivered to a closed session of the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for his cult of personality, and his regime for "violation of Leninist norms of legality".

Views on Stalin in Russian Federation

.Results of a controversial poll taken in 2006 stated that over thirty-five percent of Russians would vote for Stalin if he were still alive.^ Results of a controversial poll taken in 2006 stated that over thirty-five percent of Russians would vote for Stalin if he were still alive.
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^ I think Josef Stalin would have still come to power though, just since that's where he was going anyways.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stalin & others up steps on to mausoleum; waves to crowd; pan of crowd, Russian parade standing still, cheering.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[249][250] .Fewer than a third of all Russians regarded Stalin as a murderous tyrant;[251] however, a Russian court in 2009, ruling on a suit by Stalin's grandson, Yevgeny Dzhugashvili, against the newspaper, Novaya Gazeta, ruled that referring to Stalin as a "bloodthirsty cannibal" was not libel.^ Fewer than a third of all Russians regarded Stalin as a murderous tyrant; [ 236 ] however, a Russian court in 2009, ruling on a suit by Stalin's grandson, Yevgeny Dzhugashvili , against the newspaper, Novaya Gazeta , ruled that referring to Stalin as a "bloodthirsty cannibal" was not libel .
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^ More absolute a ruler than any Russian tsar, Josef Stalin (born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) was one of the most powerful and influential figures in history and certainly one of its most horrific.

^ "Kremlin Highlander" ( Russian : кремлевский горец ), in reference his Caucasus Mountains origin, notably by Osip Mandelstam in his Stalin Epigram .
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[252] .In a July 2007 poll 54 percent of the Russian youth agreed that Stalin did more good than bad while 46 percent (of them) disagreed that Stalin was a cruel tyrant.^ In a July 2007 poll 54 percent of the Russian youth agreed that Stalin did more good than bad while 46 percent (of them) disagreed that Stalin was a cruel tyrant.
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^ Russia, in fact, did more of that than we did.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether Beria or anyone else was directly responsible for Stalin's death, it is true that the Politburo did not summon medical attention for Stalin for more than a day after he was found.
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Half of the respondents, aged from 16 to 19, agreed Stalin was a wise leader.[253]
.In December 2008 Stalin was voted third in the nationwide television project Name of Russia (narrowly behind 13th century prince Alexander Nevsky and Pyotr Stolypin, one of Nicholas II's prime ministers), leading to accusations from Communist Party of the Russian Federation that the poll had been rigged in order to prevent him or Lenin being given first place.^ In December 2008 Stalin was voted third in the nationwide television project Name of Russia (narrowly behind 13th century prince Alexander Nevsky and Pyotr Stolypin , one of Nicholas II's prime ministers), leading to accusations from Communist Party of the Russian Federation that the poll had been rigged in order to prevent him or Lenin being given first place.
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^ One of Dzhugashvili's aliases, the one by which he became best known, was that of Stalin (Man of Steel), given to him by his fellow revolutionaries for his strength and ruthlessness.

^ Well, the Middle East was one of five places where civilizations devloped independently--the others being southeast Asia, India, Mesoamerica, and what is modern day Peru.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

[254]
.On 3 July 2009, Russia's delegates walked out of an Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe session to demonstrate their objections to a resolution for a remembrance day for the victims of both Nazism and Stalinism.^ The Nazis weren't stopped by Lenin or Stalin, who both weakened Russia.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although there were fears in the West that Stalin's plans included the communization of Western Europe, the dictator's immediate motivation was simply that of securing the Soviet empire.

[255] .Only eight out of 385 assembly members voted against the resolution.^ Only eight out of 385 assembly members voted against the resolution.
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^ The resolution, which originated with the Left, was carried by a vote of 123 to 102, with 26 members abstaining from voting.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[255]
.In a Kremlin video blog posted on October 29, 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev denounced the efforts of people seeking to rehabilitate Stalin's image.^ In a Kremlin video blog posted on October 29, 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev denounced the efforts of people seeking to rehabilitate Stalin's image.
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^ Russian embassy - long line of people carrying flowers & wreaths into Soviet Embassy; place wreaths near bust of Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by: shanghai massage at October 09, 2009 11:04 PM (eqMrT) .
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

.He said the mass extermination during the Stalin era cannot be justified.^ He said the mass extermination during the Stalin era cannot be justified.
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[256] .However, Russian government is promoting school textbooks which say Stalin's reign of terror was entirely rational and necessary to make Russia great,[257] and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin openly praised his achievements.^ Life and Terror in Stalin's Russia: 1934-1941.
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^ The Kirov murder, however, was made the central justification for the whole theory of Stalinism and the necessity for endless terror.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Books like Darkness at Noon , The Great Terror by Robert Conquest, and Gulag Archipelago make great strides in answering that question.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[258]

Personal life

Origin of name, nicknames and pseudonyms

.Stalin's original Georgian is transliterated as "Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili" (Georgian: იოსებ ბესრიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი).^ Generalissimo Joseph Stalin Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili .
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^ Further information: Stalin before the Revolution Stalin's original name and surname are transliterated as " Iosif Dzhugashvili " ( Georgian: იოსებ ბესრიონის ძე ჯუღაშვილი Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили).
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^ Main article: Stalin before the Revolution Young Stalin, circa 1894, age 16 Stalin was born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili on 18 December 1878 [ 5 ] to a cobbler in the town of Gori , Georgia .
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.The Russian transliteration of his name (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили) is in turn transliterated to English as "Iosif Vissarionovich Dzughashvili". Like other Bolsheviks, he became commonly known by one of his revolutionary noms de guerre, of which "Stalin" was only the last.^ Stalin turned his attention to Russian artists.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Dzhugashvili's aliases, the one by which he became best known, was that of Stalin (Man of Steel), given to him by his fellow revolutionaries for his strength and ruthlessness.

^ More absolute a ruler than any Russian tsar, Josef Stalin (born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) was one of the most powerful and influential figures in history and certainly one of its most horrific.

.Prior nicknames included "Koba", "Soselo", "Ivanov" and many others.^ Prior nicknames included " Koba ", " Ivanov " and many others.
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[259]
.Stalin is believed to have started using the name "K. Stalin" sometime in 1912 as a pen name.^ It's not unreasonable to think Stalin might've been using Hitler as a stalking horse, but that's a far cry from saying the Sovs "started" the war.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ The Russians didn't start kicking ass and taking names until Stalin stopped giving the orders and General Georgy Zhukov took command.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

During Stalin's reign his nicknames included:
.
  • "Uncle Joe", by western media, during and after the World War II.^ Soviet people of World War II .
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    ^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

    ^ "Uncle Joe", by western media, during and after the World War II .
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    [260][261]
  • .
  • "Kremlin Highlander" (Russian: кремлевский горец), in reference his Caucasus Mountains origin, notably by Osip Mandelstam in his Stalin Epigram.
  • "Little Father of the Peoples" or "Papa Stalin". A common nickname in the USSR during his time in power, as he was portrayed as the paternal figure of the Revolution.^ "Kremlin Highlander" ( Russian : кремлевский горец ), in reference his Caucasus Mountains origin, notably by Osip Mandelstam in his Stalin Epigram .
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    ^ During Stalin's reign his nicknames included: .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A common nickname in the USSR during his reign, as he was portrayed as the paternal figure of the Revolution.
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    [262][263][264][265]

Appearance

.While photographs and portraits portray Stalin as physically massive and majestic (he had several painters shot who did not depict him "right"),[266] he was only five feet four inches high (160 cm).^ While photographs and portraits portray Stalin as physically massive and majestic (he had several painters shot who did not depict him "right") [ 249 ] , he was only five feet four inches high (160 cm).
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^ Lenin, who disliked Stalin's policy towards Georgia, [ 8 ] suffered a stroke in 1922, forcing him into semi-retirement in Gorki .
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^ Who only knows what he believes AFTER Rush tells him.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[266] .(President Harry S. Truman, who stood only five feet nine inches himself, described Stalin as "a little squirt".[267]) His mustached face was fleshy and pock-marked, and his black hair later turned grey and thinned out.^ (President Harry S. Truman , who stood only five feet nine inches himself, described Stalin as "a little squirt".
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^ Stalin was only five foot four.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His mustached face was fleshy and pock-marked, and his black hair later turned grey and thinned out.
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.After a carriage accident in his youth, his left arm was shortened and stiffened at the elbow, while his right hand was thinner than his left and frequently hidden.^ After a carriage accident in his youth, his left arm was shortened and stiffened at the elbow, while his right hand was thinner than his left and frequently hidden.
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^ Also, the right has frequently used the fascist and Nazi labels to describe people on the left.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By age twelve, two horse-drawn carriage accidents left his left arm permanently damaged.
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[266] .His dental health also deteriorated as he got older - when he died, he only had three of his own teeth remaining.^ His dental health also deteriorated as he got older - when he died, he only had three of his own teeth remaining.
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^ The only three " Old Bolsheviks " (Lenin's Politburo ) that remained were Stalin, Mikhail Kalinin , and Chairman of Sovnarkom Vyacheslav Molotov .
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[268] .He could be charming and polite, mainly towards visiting statesmen,[266] but was generally coarse, rude, and abusive.^ He could be charming and polite, mainly towards visiting statesmen, [ 249 ] but was generally coarse, rude, and abusive.
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^ He criticized Stalin's rude manners, excessive power, ambition and politics, and suggested that Stalin should be removed from the position of General Secretary.
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[269] .In movies, Stalin was often played by Mikheil Gelovani and, less frequently, by Aleksei Dikiy.^ In movies, Stalin was often played by Mikheil Gelovani and, less frequently, by Aleksei Dikiy .
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Marriages and family

Ekaterina "Kato" Svanidze, Stalin's first wife.
Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva
.Stalin's son Yakov, whom he had with his first wife Ekaterina Svanidze, shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him, but survived.^ Stalin's son Yakov , whom he had with his first wife Ekaterina Svanidze , shot himself because of Stalin's harshness toward him, but survived.
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^ Ekaterina "Kato" Svanidze , Stalin's first wife.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the summer of 1906, Stalin married Ekaterina Svanidze , who later gave birth to Stalin's first child, Yakov .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After this, Stalin said "He can't even shoot straight".[270] Yakov served in the Red Army during World War II and was captured by the Germans.^ Soviet people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ Yakov served in the Red Army during World War II and was captured by the Germans.
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.They offered to exchange him for Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus, who had surrendered after Stalingrad, but Stalin turned the offer down, stating "You have in your hands not only my son Yakov but millions of my sons.^ They offered to exchange him for Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus , who had surrendered after Stalingrad, but Stalin turned the offer down, stating "You have in your hands not only my son Yakov but millions of my sons.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When push came to shove, the only one who had the guts - the only one who literally had the STOMACH to do what needed to be done - to actually carry out these theories to their logical conclusions was Stalin.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But to search for one label, a label that would make him small, explain-able, understand-able to people like you or me, cut him down to size, I think would be missing the point.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Either you free them all or my son will share their fate."^ Either you free them all or my son will share their fate."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So by all means my friend, keep rejoicing in the fact that if we go down, you are going to be dragged along with us.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My opinion is that if you have chosen poverty as a lifestyle, then you should be free to endure the consequences that go along with it without government interference.
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[271] .Afterwards, Yakov is said to have committed suicide, running into an electric fence in Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he was being held.^ Afterwards, Yakov is said to have committed suicide, running into an electric fence in Sachsenhausen concentration camp , where he was being held.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why, if Rush was not trying to imply he was like a suicide bomber, did Rush describe him being "strapped" with these "lies" and walking into people?
  • Limbaugh website featured image of Stalin with Media Matters logo on his chest | Media Matters for America 12 January 2010 10:40 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[272] Yakov had a son Yevgeny, who is recently noted for defending his grandfather's legacy in Russian courts.
.Stalin had a son, Vasiliy, and a daughter, Svetlana, with his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva.^ The mysterious death of Stalin's second wife Nadya.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.She died in 1932, officially of illness.^ She died in 1932, officially of illness.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin, leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal, partly political".[273] According to A&E Biography, there is also a belief among some Russians that Stalin himself murdered his wife after the quarrel, which apparently took place at a dinner in which Stalin tauntingly flicked cigarettes across the table at her.^ The Russians didn't start kicking ass and taking names until Stalin stopped giving the orders and General Georgy Zhukov took command.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Russian embassy - long line of people carrying flowers & wreaths into Soviet Embassy; place wreaths near bust of Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin calendar picture; Nikolai takes note, throws at wife.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historians also claim her death ultimately "severed his link from reality."^ Historians also claim her death ultimately "severed his link from reality."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[274]
.Vasiliy rose through the ranks of the Soviet air force, officially dying of alcoholism in 1962; however, this is still in question.^ Soldiers parading through Red Square; Soviet officials - Stalin, Kalinin etc.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trumpeters play as Soviet Air Force flag raised Military Aviation.
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^ [Soviet Air Force - Red Square Speech] Aerial manoeuvres - biplanes, bombers & fighter planes over countryside dropping bombs & in formation.
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.He distinguished himself in World War II as a capable airman.^ Soviet people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He distinguished himself in World War II as a capable airman.
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^ Georgian people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Svetlana emigrated to the United States in 1967. Stalin may have married a third wife, Rosa Kaganovich, the sister of Lazar Kaganovich.^ Stalin may have married a third wife, Rosa Kaganovich , the sister of Lazar Kaganovich .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Svetlana emigrated to the United States in 1967.
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^ Kinoteca Excerpts Lenin Funeral - mass of people listen to speaker - Lenin lying in state and mourners - Lenin wife - sister - Stalin;.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[275] .In March 2001 Russian Independent Television NTV interviewed a previously unknown grandson living in Novokuznetsk, Yuri Davydov, who stated that his father had told him of his lineage, but, was told to keep quiet because the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality.^ Some Soviet official who worked with Stalin said, when it was all over, that Stalin had the deadliest of combinations in his personality: Laziness and capriciousness.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Because, again, Stalin waited for Hitler to invade Poland first, and thus earn the title of He Who Started WW2.
  • WW2 Started By Hitler and Stalin, But Mostly By Stalin [Stumbo] 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC minx.cc [Source type: General]

^ Stalin (steel), as he was then known, was freed from Siberian exile by the Russian Revolution of March 1917.

Beside his suite in the Kremlin, Stalin had numerous domiciles. .In 1919 he started with a country house near Usovo, he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo (Blizhny dacha built by Miron Merzhanov).^ In 1919 he started with a country house near Usovo, he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo ( Blizhny dacha built by Miron Merzhanov ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the war he added dachas at Novy Alon, near Sukhumi , in the Valdai Hills, and at Lake Mitsa .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before WWII he added the Lipki estate and Semyonovskaya , and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937, including one near Sochi .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Before WWII he added the Lipki estate and Semyonovskaya, and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937, including one near Sochi. A luxury villa near Gagri was given to him by Beria. In Abkhasia he maintained a mountain retreat. .After the war he added dachas at Novy Alon, near Sukhumi, in the Valdai Hills, and at Lake Mitsa.^ After the war he added dachas at Novy Alon, near Sukhumi , in the Valdai Hills, and at Lake Mitsa .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1919 he started with a country house near Usovo, he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo ( Blizhny dacha built by Miron Merzhanov ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before WWII he added the Lipki estate and Semyonovskaya , and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937, including one near Sochi .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Another estate was near Zelyony Myss on the Black Sea. .All these dachas, estates, and palaces were staffed, well furnished and equipped, kept safe by security forces, and were mainly used privately, rarely for diplomatic purposes.^ All these dachas, estates, and palaces were staffed, well furnished and equipped, kept safe by security forces, and were mainly used privately, rarely for diplomatic purposes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[276] .Between places Stalin would travel by car or train, never by air; he flew only once when attending the 1943 Tehran conference.^ Tehran conference with Stalin, FDR and Churchill.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tehran conference Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin and others were already waiting in the wings to take power, and Lenin's death would have only accelerated their ascension.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

Religious beliefs and policies

.Stalin had a complex relationship with religious institutions in the Soviet Union.^ If Stalin bears great responsibility for the early defeats suffered by the Soviet Union in the first two years of the war, he must also be credited for Soviet successes in its last two years.

^ By the late 1920s, Stalin had triumphed over his rivals, chief among them Trotsky, to wield absolute power in the Soviet Union.

^ Stalin continued to rule the Soviet Union with an iron fist almost until the day of his death.

[277] .One story reports that while he studied at a seminary, he became a closet atheist.^ One story reports that while he studied at a seminary, he became a closet atheist.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[278] .However, this story fails on several obvious accounts, including Stalin's remaining religious, even pious, for some years longer.^ There is some divergence even in official accounts, and more in others, about which room this meeting took place in, but this is of no great significance.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[279] .One account states that Stalin's reversal on bans against the church during World War II followed a sign that he believed he received from heaven.^ Caricature of "Stalin a great friend of religion", when churches were allowed to be opened during World War II. Religion .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Georgian people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet people of World War II .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[280]
.Historian Edvard Radzinsky used recently discovered secret archives and noted a story that changed Stalin's attitude toward religion.^ Stalin by Edvard Radzinsky - I honestly don't know why I haven't read this before.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ FROM "Stalin" by Edvard Radzinsky .
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[280] .The story in which Ilya, Metropolitan of the Lebanon Mountains, claimed to receive a sign from heaven that "The churches and monasteries must be reopened throughout the country.^ The story in which Ilya, Metropolitan of the Lebanon Mountains, claimed to receive a sign from heaven that "The churches and monasteries must be reopened throughout the country.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He claimed to know of the existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which all animals went when they died.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One account states that Stalin's reversal on bans against the church during World War II followed a sign that he believed he received from heaven.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Priests must be brought back from imprisonment, Leningrad must not be surrendered, but the sacred icon of Our Lady of Kazan should be carried around the city boundary, taken on to Moscow, where a service should be held, and thence to Stalingrad Tsaritsyn."[280]
.Shortly thereafter, Stalin's attitude changed and "Whatever the reason, after his mysterious retreat, he began making his peace with God.^ Shortly thereafter, Stalin's attitude changed and "Whatever the reason, after his mysterious retreat, he began making his peace with God.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For these reasons it is unlikely that Stalin had changed his atheistic rejection of religion during this last portion of his lifetime.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historian Edvard Radzinsky used recently discovered secret archives and noted a story that changed Stalin's attitude toward religion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Something happened which no historian has yet written about. .On his orders many priests were brought back to the camps.^ On his orders many priests were brought back to the camps.
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.In Leningrad, besieged by the Germans and gradually dying of hunger, the inhabitants were astounded, and uplifted, to see wonder-working icon Our Lady of Kazan brought out into the streets and borne in procession."^ Germans into Riga, troops & trucks past bombed buildings & streets w/ bodies & equipment.
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^ He also started working on a sequel which starts out with the Nazis finding out about -our- world, but he dropped the project because he was sick of thinking about Nazis.
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sep42 Germans battle their way into Stalingrad s outskirts; soldiers walk thru deserted streets, Nazi tank thru the city, take over railroad station.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[280] .Radzinsky asked, "Had he seen the light?^ Radzinsky asked, "Had he seen the light?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Had fear made him run to his Father?^ Had fear made him run to his Father?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Had the Marxist God-Man simply decided to exploit belief in God?^ Had the Marxist God-Man simply decided to exploit belief in God?
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.Or was it all of these things at once?."^ These worried little readers gave me long lists of things I 'NEEDED' to read (all of which I had already read) in order to counteract Reed's propaganda.
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[280]
.During the Second World War Stalin reopened the Churches.^ Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953 .
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^ Map diagram of world w/ Truman, Churchill, Stalin, Pope, Archbishop of Canterbury & head of Russian Orthodox Church pictures, dissolve into cross.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World War II Polish and German aggression and occupation of Lithuania; contrasted to the 1939 liberation of Vilynus - natives are smiling and happy - parading w/ banners of Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Stalin 3 February 2010 17:16 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One reason could have been to motivate the majority of the population who had Christian beliefs. .The reasoning behind this is that by changing the official policy of the party and the state towards religion, the Church and its clergymen could be to his disposal in mobilizing the war effort.^ There Stalin states clearly that it is in the interest of USSR for a war to break out, because "the dictatorship of the communist party is possible only as a result of a war".
  • 6 Assassination Attempts that Almost F#@ked the World | Cracked.com 11 January 2010 16:29 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you know, since the establishment of Christianity as a state religion, a single example of a state which really followed a Christian policy?
  • The Sheila Variations: stalin Archives 28 January 2010 1:54 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most were directed at subordinate officials and low-ranking party members, who bore the brunt of policy failures.

.On 4 September 1943, Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius, Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate, which had been suspended since 1925, and elect the Patriarch.^ On 8 September 1943, Metropolitan Sergius was elected Patriarch.
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^ On 4 September 1943, Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius , Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate , which had been suspended since 1925, and elect the Patriarch .
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^ Stalin remained in the Kremlin, directing strategic operations throughout the siege of Moscow and, with rare exceptions, for the remainder of the war.

.On 8 September 1943, Metropolitan Sergius was elected Patriarch.^ On 8 September 1943, Metropolitan Sergius was elected Patriarch.
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^ On 4 September 1943, Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius , Metropolitan Alexy and Metropolitan Nikolay to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate , which had been suspended since 1925, and elect the Patriarch .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another reason that may have motivated this greater tolerance after the war, was the great failure of the persecutions of the 1920s and 1930s to actually achieve the intended result of eliminating religion.^ Another reason that may have motivated this greater tolerance after the war, was the great failure of the persecutions of the 1920s and 1930s to actually achieve the intended result of eliminating religion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 28 January 2010 1:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin's greater tolerance for religion after 1943 was limited, and persecutions resumed at the end of the war, although on a lesser scale than had been existent in the