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Aerial view
Juba is located in Sudan
Location in Sudan
Coordinates: 4°51′N 31°36′E / 4.85°N 31.6°E / 4.85; 31.6
Country Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan
State Central Equatoria
Population (2005)
 - Total 163,442 (est)

Juba is a city in Sudan, the regional capital of Southern Sudan and the capital of the Sudanese state of Central Equatoria.



In 2005 its population was 163,442. Based on analysis of aerial photos, the best estimate of several donors working in Juba estimate the 2006 population at approximately 250,000. The 5th Sudan Population and Housing Census took place in April/May 2008 but the results were rejected by the government of Southern Sudan.[1] Juba is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and is developing very rapidy due to oil money and the Chinese coming for work and development.

Population growth:

Year Population
1973 (census) 56,737
1983 (census) 83,787
1993 (census) 114,980
2005 (estimate) 163,442
2009 (estimate) 1,118,233[citation needed]


In 19th century, a trading post and a mission named Gondokoro was located in the vicinity of Juba. It was the southernmost outpost of the Turkish garisson, supported by a handful of soldiers, mostly ill due to the malaria and blackwater fever that was dominant in the region. Gondokoro was also the base of the explorer and anti-slavery campaigner Samuel Baker during his expeditions to what is now Southern Sudan and northern Uganda from 1863 to 1865, and from 1871 to 1873[2].

In 1922, a small number of Greek traders, arrived in the area and established Juba on the opposite bank of the White Nile. The Greeks who had excellent relations with the indegenous tribe of Juba (the Bari), built what is known today the Business District. The buildings where today is the Buffalo Commercial Bank, Nile Commercial Bank, Paradise Hotel, the Norwegian Consul's House and so many other, were originally built by the Greeks and were the only permanent structures someone could find until the early 40's.

From 1899 to 1956, the Juba was in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan jointly administered by the United Kingdom and Egypt. British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan with Uganda were dashed in 1947 by an agreement in Juba, also known as the Juba Conference, to unify northern and southern Sudan. In 1955, a mutiny of southern soldiers in the city sparked the First Sudanese Civil War, which did not end until 1972. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, Juba was a strategic location that was the focus of much fighting.

Juba Hotel in 1936.

In 2005, Juba was handed over to the Sudanese People's Liberation Army. The city serves as the permanent regional capital of Southern Sudan, although the interim capital was Rumbek.

With the advent of peace, the United Nations increased its presence in Juba, whereas many Southern Sudan operations had until that time been managed from Kenya. Under the leadership of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the United Nations established a camp known as "OCHA Camp", which served as a base for many United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations.

Juba bridge.
Cattle in a street in Juba.


The city is a river port and the southern terminus of traffic along the Nile, properly called the Bahr al Jabal section of the White Nile. Before the civil war Juba was also a transportation hub, with highways connecting it to Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Because of the war Juba can hardly be called a "Transportation Hub" anymore. Roads and the harbour are currently not in use due to disrepair. The UN and Southern Sudanese government are repairing the roads, but full repair is expected to take many years. The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) started in 2003 to clear the roads leading from Juba to Uganda and Kenya, it is expected that these roads will be completely demined and rebuilt in the course of 2006-2008. The rebuilding of the roads, most un-paved, takes a tremendous amount of effort and time because of the limited work season due to the rainy season, which lasts from March until October. The first road that has started to be rebuilt is the road to Uganda. This road is particularly important as many of the original habitants of Juba fled to Uganda during the war. The roads are considerably important for the peace process in Sudan as people need them to return to their homes and to regain what they feel is a normal life again.

As of 2009, there are three paved roads in Juba, one which was re-surfaced in July. The main one is a concrete road, built by the British in the 1950s. As of December 2009 there are now daily flights from Nairobi's International "Jomo Kenyatta Airport" with 3 companies, daily flights from Khartoum with only one company and weekly flights with Entebbe and Addis Abeba. Juba is served by the Juba Airport (JUB/HSSJ).

Settlements in Juba

As of April, 2009, the Juba airport is the site of large numbers of flights bringing UN and NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) aid into Southern Sudan, as well as passengers and general air freight. The airport is very busy, among the busiest in East Africa. The construction of a new terminal was begun in late 2007 when the oil prices were very high ($100+). Since then, with the oil prices going back down, the fate of the new terminal is uncertain.

United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) has a large compound near the Juba Airport.

See also


  1. ^ Isaac Vuni (July 08, 2009). "South Sudan parliament throw outs census results". Sudan Tribune. 
  2. ^ To The Heart Of The Nile: Lady Florence Baker and the Exploration of Central Africa, by Pat Shipman

External links

Coordinates: 4°51′N 31°36′E / 4.85°N 31.6°E / 4.85; 31.6



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