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Ziziphus zizyphus
Ziziphus zizyphus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ziziphus
Species: Z. zizyphus
Binomial name
Ziziphus zizyphus
(L.) H.Karst.
Synonyms

Rhamnus zizyphus
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

The Ziziphus jujuba, written in Monbusho chant lyrics. It is now located in General Nogi's residence.

Ziziphus zizyphus (from Greek ζίζυφον, zizyfon), commonly called Jujube, Red Date, or Chinese Date, is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae, used primarily for its fruits.

Contents

Distribution

Its precise natural distribution is uncertain due to extensive cultivation, but is thought to be in southern Asia, between Lebanon, Pakistan, northern India, the Korean peninsula, and southern and central China, and also southeastern Europe though more likely introduced there.[1]

Growth

It is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–10 m, usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7-cm wide and 1–3-cm broad, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5-mm wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3-cm deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing dark red to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.[1]

Nomenclature

The species has a curious nomenclatural history, due to a combination of botanical naming regulations, and variations in spelling. It was first described scientifically by Carolus Linnaeus as Rhamnus zizyphus, in Species Plantarum in 1753. Later, in 1768, Philip Miller concluded it was sufficiently distinct from Rhamnus to merit separation into a new genus, in which he named it Ziziphus jujube, using Linnaeus' species name for the genus but with a probably accidental single letter spelling difference, 'i' for 'y'; for the species name he used a different name, as tautonyms (repetition of exactly the same name in the genus and species) are not permitted in botanical naming. However, because of Miller's slightly different spelling, the combination correctly using the earliest species name (from Linnaeus) with the new genus, Ziziphus zizyphus, is not a tautonym, and therefore permitted as a botanical name; this combination was made by Hermann Karsten in 1882.[2][1]

Cultivation and uses

Jujube was domesticated in the Indian subcontinent by 9000 BCE.[3] Over 400 cultivars have been selected.

The tree tolerates a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, though it requires hot summers and sufficient water for acceptable fruiting. Unlike most of the other species in the genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters, surviving temperatures down to about −15°C. This enables the jujube to grow in desert habitats, provided there is access to underground water through the summer. Virtually no temperature seems to be too high in summertime.

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Medicinal use

The fruits are used in Chinese and Korean traditional medicine, where they are believed to alleviate stress.[citation needed] The jujube-based Australian drink 1-bil avoids making specific stress-related claims, but does suggest drinking 1-bil "when you feel yourself becoming distressed".[4]

Ziziphin, a compound in the leaves of the jujube, suppresses the ability to perceive sweet taste in humans.[5] The fruit, being mucilaginous, is also very soothing to the throat and decoctions of jujube have often been used in pharmacy to treat sore throats.

Fresh jujube fruits.

Culinary use

Dried jujube fruits, which naturally turn red upon drying.

The freshly harvested as well as the candied dried fruits are often eaten as a snack, or with tea. They are available in either red or black (called hóng zǎo or hēi zǎo, respectively, in Chinese), the latter being smoked to enhance their flavor.[6] In mainland China, Korea, and Taiwan, a sweetened tea syrup containing jujube fruits is available in glass jars,[7] and canned jujube tea or jujube tea in the form of teabags is also available. Although not widely available, jujube juice[8] and jujube vinegar[9] (called or 红枣 in Chinese) are also produced. They are used for making pickles (কুলের আচার) in West Bengal and Bangladesh.

In China, a wine made from jujubes called hong zao jiu (红枣酒) is also produced.[10] Jujubes are sometimes preserved by storing in a jar filled with baijiu (Chinese liquor), which allows them to be kept fresh for a long time, especially through the winter. Such jujubes are called jiu zao (酒枣; literally "spirited jujube"). In Korea, jujubes are called daechu (대추) and are used in teas and samgyetang. It is said to be helpful in aiding the common cold.

In addition, jujubes, often stoned, are a significant ingredient in a wide variety of Chinese delicacies. In Persian cuisine, the dried drupes are known as annab, while in neighboring Azerbaijan it is commonly eaten as a snack, and are known as innab. In Pakistan, the fruit is eaten both fresh and dried, and is known as ber (a generic term for berry).

In Tamil-speaking regions, the fruit is called ilanthai pazham (இலந்தை பழம்). Traditionally, the fruits are dried in the sun and the hard nuts are removed. Then, it is pounded with tamarind, red chillies, salt, and jaggery. Small dishes are made from this dough and again dried in the sun, and are referred to as ilanthai vadai. In some parts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, fresh whole ripe fruit is crushed with the above ingredients and dried under the sun to make delicious cakes called ilanthai vadai.[11]

Other uses

The jujube's sweet smell is said to make teenagers fall in love, and as a result, in the Himalaya and Karakoram regions, men take a stem of sweet-smelling jujube flowers with them or put it on their hats to attract women.[citation needed]

In the traditional Chinese wedding ceremony, jujube and walnut were often placed in the newlyweds' bedroom as a sign of fertility.

In Bhutan, the leaves are used as a potpourri to help keep the houses of the inhabitants smelling fresh and clean. It is also said to keep bugs and other insects out of the house and free of infestation.

In Japan, the natsume has given its name to a style of tea caddy used in the Japanese tea ceremony.

In Korea, the wood is used to make the body of the taepyeongso, a double-reed wind instrument. The wood is also used to make Go bowls.

In Vietnam, the jujube fruit is eaten freshly picked from the tree as a snack. It is also dried and used in desserts, such as sâm bổ lượng, a cold beverage that includes the dried jujube, longan, fresh seaweed, barley, and lotus seeds.

A jujube honey is produced in the middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Pests and diseases

Witch's brooms, prevalent in China and Korea, is the main disease affecting jujubes, though plantings in North America currently are not affected by any pests or diseases.[12]

References

  1. ^ a b c Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  2. ^ Clarke, D. L. (1988). W. J. Bean Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Supplement. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4443-2.
  3. ^ Gupta, Anil K. in Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration, Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 10 July 2004 59. Indian Academy of Sciences.
  4. ^ [1] Information on 1-mil from the company's website.
  5. ^ Kurihara, Y. 1992. Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32:231-252.
  6. ^ http://www.seasonalchef.com/jujubes.htm
  7. ^ http://www.megaq.co.kr/product_images/pro_images/04441649/S04441649L.jpg
  8. ^ http://www.tianjiaohong.com.cn/ecpjs/ZAOZHI.HTM
  9. ^ http://web.xxit.net/web/corpproductimage/ztsp20070825051056ztsp200708200204583.jpg
  10. ^ http://www.tianjiaohong.com.cn/ecpjs/ZAOJIU.HTM
  11. ^ http://www.kamalascorner.com/2008/12/indian-jujube-elanthai-pazham.html
  12. ^ Fruit Facts: Jujube

External links


Ziziphus zizyphus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ziziphus
Species: Z. zizyphus
Binomial name
Ziziphus zizyphus
(L.) H.Karst.
Synonyms

Rhamnus zizyphus
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.

, written in Monbusho chant lyrics. It is now located in General Nogi's residence.]] Ziziphus zizyphus (from Greek ζίζυφον, zizyfon[1]), commonly called jujube, red date, or chinese date, is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae, used primarily for its fruits. Common names in Arabic are nabq, dum, tsal, sadr, zufzuuf (in Morocco) and sidr, the last of which also means Ziziphus lotus.[2] In Persian it is called anab or annab , a name also used in Lebanon.

Contents

Distribution

Its precise natural distribution is uncertain due to extensive cultivation, but is thought to be in southern Asia, between Lebanon, Pakistan, northern India, the Korean peninsula, and southern and central China, and also southeastern Europe though more likely introduced there.[3]

Growth

It is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–10 m, usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7-cm wide and 1–3-cm broad, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5-mm wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3-cm deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing brown to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.[3]

Nomenclature

The species has a curious nomenclatural history, due to a combination of botanical naming regulations, and variations in spelling. It was first described scientifically by Carolus Linnaeus as Rhamnus zizyphus, in Species Plantarum in 1753. Later, in 1768, Philip Miller concluded it was sufficiently distinct from Rhamnus to merit separation into a new genus, in which he named it Ziziphus jujube, using Linnaeus' species name for the genus but with a probably accidental single letter spelling difference, 'i' for 'y'; for the species name he used a different name, as tautonyms (repetition of exactly the same name in the genus and species) are not permitted in botanical naming. However, because of Miller's slightly different spelling, the combination correctly using the earliest species name (from Linnaeus) with the new genus, Ziziphus zizyphus, is not a tautonym, and therefore permitted as a botanical name; this combination was made by Hermann Karsten in 1882.[3][4]

Cultivation and uses

Jujube was domesticated in the Indian subcontinent by 9000 BCE.[5] Over 400 cultivars have been selected.

The tree tolerates a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, though it requires hot summers and sufficient water for acceptable fruiting. Unlike most of the other species in the genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters, surviving temperatures down to about −15°C. This enables the jujube to grow in desert habitats, provided there is access to underground water through the summer. Virtually no temperature seems to be too high in summertime.

Medicinal use

The fruits are used in Chinese and Korean traditional medicine, where they are believed to alleviate stress.[citation needed] The jujube-based Australian drink 1-bil avoids making specific stress-related claims, but does suggest drinking 1-bil "when you feel yourself becoming distressed".[6]

Ziziphin, a compound in the leaves of the jujube, suppresses the ability to perceive sweet taste in humans.[7] The fruit, being mucilaginous, is also very soothing to the throat and decoctions of jujube have often been used in pharmacy to treat sore throats.

Culinary use

The freshly harvested as well as the candied dried fruits are often eaten as a snack, or with tea. They are available in either red or black (called hóng zǎo or hēi zǎo, respectively, in Chinese), the latter being smoked to enhance their flavor.[8] In mainland China, Korea, and Taiwan, a sweetened tea syrup containing jujube fruits is available in glass jars,[9] and canned jujube tea or jujube tea in the form of teabags is also available. Although not widely available, jujube juice[10] and jujube vinegar[11] (called or 红枣 in Chinese) are also produced; they are used for making pickles (কুলের আচার) in West Bengal and Bangladesh.

In China, a wine made from jujubes, called hong zao jiu (红枣酒) is also produced.[12] Jujubes are sometimes preserved by storing in a jar filled with baijiu (Chinese liquor), which allows them to be kept fresh for a long time, especially through the winter. Such jujubes are called jiu zao (酒枣; literally "spirited jujube"). These fruts, often stoned, are also a significant ingredient in a wide variety of Chinese delicacies. In Korea, jujubes are called daechu (대추) and are used in teas and samgyetang. It is said to be helpful in aiding the common cold.

In Lebanon, the fruit is eaten as snacks or alongside a dessert after a meal.

In Persian cuisine, the dried drupes are known as annab, while in neighboring Azerbaijan it is commonly eaten as a snack, and are known as innab. In Pakistan, the fruit is eaten both fresh and dried, and is known as ber (a generic term for berry).

In Tamil-speaking regions, the fruit is called ilanthai pazham (இலந்தை பழம்). Traditionally, the fruits are dried in the sun and the hard nuts are removed. Then, it is pounded with tamarind, red chillies, salt, and jaggery. Small dishes are made from this dough and again dried in the sun, and are referred to as ilanthai vadai. In some parts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, fresh whole ripe fruit is crushed with the above ingredients and dried under the sun to make delicious cakes called ilanthai vadai.[13]

Other uses

The jujube's sweet smell is said to make teenagers fall in love, and as a result, in the Himalaya and Karakoram regions, men take a stem of sweet-smelling jujube flowers with them or put it on their hats to attract women.[citation needed]

In the traditional Chinese wedding ceremony, jujube and walnut were often placed in the newlyweds' bedroom as a sign of fertility.

In Bhutan, the leaves are used as a potpourri to help keep the houses of the inhabitants smelling fresh and clean. It is also said to keep bugs and other insects out of the house and free of infestation. However, this is not true.

In Japan, the natsume has given its name to a style of tea caddy used in the Japanese tea ceremony.

In Korea, the wood is used to make the body of the taepyeongso, a double-reed wind instrument. The wood is also used to make Go bowls.

In Vietnam, the jujube fruit is eaten freshly picked from the tree as a snack. It is also dried and used in desserts, such as sâm bổ lượng, a cold beverage that includes the dried jujube, longan, fresh seaweed, barley, and lotus seeds.

A jujube honey is produced in the middle Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Pests and diseases

Witch's brooms, prevalent in China and Korea, is the main disease affecting jujubes, though plantings in North America currently are not affected by any pests or diseases.[14]

References

  1. ^ ζίζυφον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  2. ^ Amots Dafni, Shay Levy, Efraim Lev (2005). "The ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus spina-christi) in Israel". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 1 (8). doi:10.1186/1746-4269-1-8. http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/1/1/8. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  3. ^ a b c Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  4. ^ Clarke, D. L. (1988). W. J. Bean Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Supplement. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4443-2.
  5. ^ Gupta, Anil K. in Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration, Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 10 July 2004 59. Indian Academy of Sciences.
  6. ^ Information on 1-mil from the company's website[dead link]
  7. ^ Kurihara, Y. 1992. Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 32:231-252.
  8. ^ "Rare Fruit: Jujubes". Seasonalchef.com. http://www.seasonalchef.com/jujubes.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ [2][dead link]
  11. ^ Picture of a bottle
  12. ^ [3][dead link]
  13. ^ "Kamala's Corner: Indian Jujube - Elanthai Pazham". Kamalascorner.com. http://www.kamalascorner.com/2008/12/indian-jujube-elanthai-pazham.html. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  14. ^ Fruit Facts: Jujube

Further reading

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.

JUJUBE. Under this name the fruits of at least two species of Zizyphus are usually described, namely, Z. vulgaris and Z. Jujuba. 1 The genus is a member of the natural order Anacardiaceae. The species are small trees or shrubs, armed with sharp, straight, or hooked spines, having alternate leaves, and fruits which are in most of the species edible, and have an agreeable acid taste; this is especially the case with those of the two species mentioned above.

Z. vulgaris is a tree about 20 feet high, extensively cultivated in many parts of Southern Europe, also in Western Asia, China and Japan. In India it extends from the Punjab to the northwestern frontier, ascending in the Punjab Himalaya to a height of 650o feet, and is found both in the wild and cultivated state. The plant is grown almost exclusively for the sake of its fruit, which both in size and shape resembles a moderate-sized plum; at first the fruits are green, but as they ripen they become of a reddish-brown colour on the outside and yellow within. They ripen in September, when they are gathered and preserved by storing in a dry place; after a time the pulp becomes much softer and sweeter than when fresh. Jujube fruits when carefully dried will keep for a long time, and retain their refreshing acid flavour, on account of which they are much valued in the countries of the Mediterranean region as a winter dessert fruit; and, 1 The med. Lat. jujuba is a much altered form of the Gr. Mvtov.

besides, they are nutritive and demulcent. At one time a decoction was prepared from them and recommended in pectoral complaints. A kind of thick paste, known as jujube paste, was also made of a composition of gum arabic and sugar dissolved in a decoction of jujube fruit evaporated to the proper consistency.

Z. Jujuba is a tree averaging from 30 to 50 ft. high, found both wild and cultivated in China, the Malay Archipelago, Ceylon, India, tropical Africa and Australia. Many varieties are cultivated by the Chinese, who distinguish them by the shape and size of their fruits, which are not only much valued as dessert fruit in China, but are also occasionally exported to England.

As seen in commerce jujube fruits are about the size of a small filbert, having a reddish-brown, shining, somewhat wrinkled exterior, and a yellow or gingerbread coloured pulp enclosing a hard elongated stone.

The fruits of Zizyphus do not enter into the composition of the lozenges now known as jujubes which are usually made of gum-arabic, gelatin, &c., and variously flavoured.


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