The Full Wiki

Julian Byng: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rangkronen-Fig. 26.png
Field Marshal The Right Honourable
 The Viscount Byng of Vimy
 GCB, GCMG, MVO, DCO, LLD(hc) Alb


In office
2 August 1921 – 5 August 1926
Monarch George V
Prime Minister Canadian
  • Arthur Meighen
  • William Mackenzie King
British
  • David Lloyd George
  • Andrew Bonar Law
  • Stanley Baldwin
  • Ramsay MacDonald
Preceded by Victor Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire
Succeeded by Freeman Freeman-Thomas, Earl of Willingdon


Born 11 September 1862(1862-09-11)
Wrotham Park, England
Died 6 June 1935 (aged 72)
Thorpe-le-Soken, England
Spouse(s) Evelyn Byng, Viscountess Byng of Vimy
Profession Officer
Religion Anglican
Signature
Military service
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1879 – 1919
Rank Field Marshal
Commands See below...
Battles/wars Mahdist War
  • Battles of El Teb
  • Battle of Tamai
Second Boer War
First World War
  • First Battle of Ypres
  • Battle of Gallipoli
  • Battle of Vimy Ridge
  • Battle of Cambrai
Awards See below...

Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy GCB GCMG MVO (11 September 1862  – 6 June 1935) was a British Army officer who, between 1921 and 1926, served as the Governor General of Canada. Known to friends as "Bungo", he was born to a noble family in Hertsmere, England, and educated at Eton College, along with his brothers. Upon graduation, Byng received a commission as a milita officer. He saw service in Egypt and Sudan before he enrolled in the Staff College at Camberley, where he befriended individuals who would be his comtemporaries when he attained senior rank in France. In following distinguished service with the British Expeditionary Force in France during World War I – specifically, in the Battle of Gallipoli, as commander of the Canadian Corps, and as commander of the British Third Army – Byng was in 1919 himself elevated to the peerage.

On the recommendation of then British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Byng was appointed by George V, the king of Canada, as the Canadian viceroy, succeeding in that role Victor Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire.[1] Byng proved to be a popular viceroy with Canadians, due to his war leadership, though his stepping directly into political affairs became the catalyst for widespread changes to the role of the Crown in all of the British Dominions. After the end of his viceregal tenure, Byng returned to the United Kingdom and there served as the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis and was promoted within the peerage to become Viscount Byng of Vimy. Three years after being appointed as a field-marshal, Byng died at his home on 6 June.

Contents

Early life

Byng was born at the family seat of Wrotham Park, in Hertsmere, as the seventh son and 13th and youngest child of George Byng, Earl of Strafford. Due to the size of the Earl's family, the household was relatively frugal,[2] at the age of 12 Byng was still enrolled at Eton College, though he did not enter the sixth form. While it was at Eton that Byng first received the nickname "Bungo", to distinguish him from his elder brothers "Byngo" and "Bango",[3] his time at the college was undistinguished, and he received poor reports; indicative of his attitude towards academics, he once traded his Latin grammar book and his brother Lionel's best trousers to a hawker for a pair of ferrets and a pineapple. Byng later claimed that he had been the school's worst "Scug", the colloquial term for an undistinguished boy.[4]

Military career

With three sons already in the army and another already put up for the 7th (Queen's Own) Hussars, Byng's father did not think he could afford a regular army commission for his youngest son. Thus, at the age of 17, Byng was instead sent into the militia and on 12 December 1879 commissioned as a second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps,[4][5][N 1] and was promoted to lieutenant three years later.[6] During this period, Byng also developed a liking for theatre and music halls, and by the age of 20 had taken an interest in the banjo.

At a meeting of the Jockey Club in 1882, Byng's father was asked by his long-time friend Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, what it was that his sons were doing. Upon hearing that Byng had not yet found a permanent career, the Prince offered a place for Byng in the Prince's own regiment, the 10th Royal Hussars. This was, however, the most expensive regiment in the army, and the Earl of Strafford could only afford to give Byng 200 of the necessary 600 pounds he would need each year, yet, the Prince's offer could not be refused. Byng himself was delighted at the opportunity, as both his uncle, William Cavendish, Baron Chesham, and his cousin, Charles Cavendish, had served in the regiment. By raising finances through buying polo ponies cheaply, using his excellent horsemanship to train them, and then selling them for a profit,[7] Byng was able to transfer to the 10th Royal Hussars on 27 January 1883,[8] and less than three months later joined the regiment in Lucknow, India.[9]

It was while the regiment was en route home to the United Kingdom in 1884 that the Hussars were diverted to Sudan to join the Suakin expedition, and Byng, along with the rest of his regiment, on 29 February rode in the first line of the charge at the Battle of El Teb. The attack, which resulted in the deaths of both the squadron's other officers, was unsuccessful,[10] and fighting continued, with Byng's horse being killed under him on 13 March at the Battle of Tamai. Most of the rebels were then dispersed shortly after, and on 29 March the regiment re-embarked for Britain, arriving on 22 April, and proceeding to their new base at Shorncliffe Barracks in Kent. During the summer of 1884, Byng spent much of his time playing polo and training recruits and horses, and in July, for his services in Sudan, was mentioned in despatches.[11]

In June 1885, the regiment was relocated to the South Cavalry Barracks at Aldershot,[11] where the Prince of Wales' eldest son, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, joined the regiment, and thereafter the Prince of Wales and his other son, Prince George, became frequent visitors. Byng struck up a friendship with both Albert Victor and George, but did not socialise with them much outside of army circles. Byng was appointed as the regimental adjutant on 20 October 1886,[12] only nine days before the death of his father, who left Byng a watch and £3,500.[13] The regiment then moved again in 1887 to the barracks at Hounslow, where, after suspecting that contractors were selling him inferior meat, Byng spent several early mornings at the Smithfield market to learn the meat trade, eventually proving his case and having the contractors changed.[14] It was also at this time that Byng became acquainted with Montagu Corry, Baron Rowton, who, along with the Guinness Trust, was trying to improve housing for skilled workers in London, and Byng accompanied Rowton around the poorest areas of the city, and suggested that retired senior rank army men be hired to maintain order in the Rowton Houses the Baron Rowton had set up, thus starting a long-lived tradition.[15]

Advertisements

Staff College

In 1888, the hussars again moved, this time to York, where Byng kept his men busy by raising successful cricket and football teams. Byng was promoted to captain at the beginning of the next year, around the time he began to consider entering the Staff College at Camberley. He thus resigned his commission as adjutant, and turned down an invitation from Prince Albert Victor to join him in India as an equerry, in order to dedicate his time to preparatory studies, which continued when the regiment moved in 1891 to Ireland. After being detached for a time in order to serve and gain more experience in the infantry and artillery,[16] Byng sat and passed his entrance exams into the Staff College, and secured a nomination in September 1892.[17] A year before Byng entered the college, however, Albert Victor fell victim to the influenza pandemic that raged around the world, and at the Prince's funeral on 20 January 1892, Byng commanded the pallbearers (all from the 10th Royal Hussars),[18] which was a significant display of trust shown Byng by the Prince of Wales.[19]

Once Byng was enrolled at the Staff College, he found amongst his fellow students men with whom he would be closely associated more than two decades later – Henry Rawlinson, Henry Hughes Wilson, Thomas D'Oyly Snow, and James Aylmer Lowthorpe Haldane – and in 1894, while en route to visit a friend at Aldershot, travelled with a cadet at the nearby Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Winston Churchill.[20] Byng also journeyed with his class to see the battlefields of the Franco-Prussian War at Alsace-Lorraine, and accompanied to the United States one of his lecturers who was compiling information on a book on Stonewall Jackson.[21] By December 1894, Byng graduated from the Staff College and was immediately appointed to command the A squadron of the hussars, who had by then moved to Ireland. Only three years later, though, the regiment returned to Aldershot and Byng left to become adjutant of the 1st Cavalry Brigade, shortly before becoming the Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General (DAAG) of the Aldershot Command, and was promoted to the rank of major.[22] Later that same year, Byng met at a local party Marie Evelyn Moreton, the only daughter of Sir Richard Charles Moreton, who had himself served as comproller at the Canadian royal and viceroyal residence of Rideau Hall, under the then Governor General of Canada, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne.[1] Evelyn, as she was known, later described her early encounters with Byng:

When we met of a morning out riding, if he was free, the fun began – though it wasn't always fun for me because I was bewildered, as he was never the same two days running. Talk of women being mutable – he could have given points and a beating to any one of them! On Monday he would be in his most enchanting mood; Tuesday he would treat me as a pal and a man; Wednesday he would hardly remember that I existed; Thursday he would be icily polite; Friday he would thaw a little and by Saturday be back in Monday's delightful mood! What could anybody make of such vagaries?[23]

Commanding officer and World War I

A wartime sketch of General Byng.

Byng was deployed in November 1899 to South Africa, where he was to act as a provost marshal,[24] but was instead immediately given the local rank of lieutenant colonel and tasked with raising and commanding the South African Light Horse during the Second Boer War.[25] Byng thereafter served on the front lines, during which time he ended up in command of a group of columns, was mentioned in despatches five times, and in November 1900 was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel, and in February 1902 to brevet colonel. The beginning of 1902 brought more significant events for Byng, with his return to England in March, his marriage to Evelyn the following month, and in May his appointed to the Royal Victorian Order as a member 4th class.[26] However, by the mid-point of the year, Byng was sent back to India to command the 10th Royal Hussars at Mhow, and was appointed to the rank of a substantive lieutenant colonel in October.[27]

In his first two years of marriage, Byng's wife suffered several miscarriages, resulting in the declaration that she would be unable to bear children. By January 1904, Byng had also, while playing polo, broken his right elbow so severely that it was feared he would have to quit the army. After four months' treatment in England, though, he was pronounced to be again fit for duty, and in May became the first commandant of the new cavalry school at Netheravon.[28] The posting was to be only a brief one, as, in May 1905, Byng was made commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade at Canterbury, with the simultaneous temporary rank of brigadier general and substantive rank of colonel.[29] After appointment as a companion of the Order of the Bath in 1906, he was again back in Aldershot, in command of the 1st Cavalry Brigade.[30]

It was April 1909 when Byng was promoted to major-general,[31] and, though he was placed on half pay, Byng – with added income from editing the Cavalry Journal and serving as the first north Essex District Commissioner for the Boy Scouts – purchased his first house, Newton Hall, in Dunmow, Essex. He would, however, only reside there for two years, as, exactly two years after taking command of the East Anglian Infantry Division of the Territorial Force in October 1910,[32] Byng became commander of the British troops stationed in Egypt,[33] where he remained until the outbreak of the First World War. He then returned briefly to the UK to take leadership of the 3rd Cavalry Division, before going with the British Expeditionary Force to France and the First Battle of Ypres. His actions there were rewarded in March 1915 with appointment to the Order of St Michael and St George as a knight commander, the second highest level in the order, and which entitled Byng to the honorific prefix of sir.

After three months serving as commander of the Cavalry Corps, beginning in May 1915, at which time he was also made a temporary lieutenant-general, Byng was off to Gallipoli to head the IX Corps and supervise the successful British withdrawal from the ill-fated campaign. For this, he was on 1 January 1916 elevated within the Order of the Bath to the rank of knight commander,[34] but was not allowed much rest, as he spent the next month commanding the Suez Canal defences, before returning to the Western Front to lead the XVII Corps. By June, he was in command of the Canadian Corps, and was promoted when, for distinguished service, the King made substantive Byng's rank of lieutenant-general. Byng's greatest glory then came when he, along with his subordinate officer, the Canadian Major-General Arthur Currie, led the Canadian victory in April 1917 at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, an historic military milestone for the Dominion that inspired nationalism at home.

In June 1917, and holding the temporary rank of general,[35] Byng took command of Britain's largest army, the Third Army, until the cessation of hostilities, and, with those troops, conducted at the Battle of Cambrai the first surprise attack using tanks.[1] This was later considered a key turning point in the war, and Byng was honoured on 24 November 1917 by having his temporary rank of general made substantive,[36] as well as being made a knight grand cross of the Order of the Bath in the 1919 New Year's honours.[37] In the United States, Byng's exploits during World War I were commemorated near the town of Ada, Oklahoma, when a post office and power plant were in 1917 named after him, leading to the later emergence of the town of Byng.[38] Further, Byng was in his own right raised on 7 October 1919 to the peerage as the 1st Baron Byng of Vimy. The next month, though he was offered the Southern Command, Byng retired from the military and moved to Thorpe Hall,[39] which his wife had purchased while Byng was in Egypt in 1913.

Governor generalship

The Baron and Baroness Byng of Vimy as the viceregal couple of Canada.

After Byng was made in July 1921 a knight grand cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, it was announced from the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office on 2 August that George V had, by commission under the royal sign-manual and signet, approved the recommendation of his British prime minister, David Lloyd George, to appoint Byng as his representative in Canada.[40] The designation of Byng proved less controversial than that of his predecessor, Victor Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, due partly to the General's popularity, but also because the practice of before-hand consulting the Canadian prime minister had been revived. Byng had not been Meighan's first choice for presentation to the King, preferring someone with more civilian credentials; however, Byng was eventually chosen because he was both willing and available.[41]

The Governor General travelled the length and breadth of the country, meeting with Canadians wherever he went. He also immersed himself in Canada's culture, and came to particularly love hockey, rarely missing a game played by the Ottawa Senators. He was also fond of the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, held each year in Toronto, and established the Governor General's Cup to be presented at the competition. Byng was also the first governor general of Canada to appoint Canadians as his aides-de-camp (one of whom was future governor general Georges Vanier), and approached his viceregal role with enthusiasm, gaining him popularity with Canadians, on top of that received from the men he had commanded on the battlefields of Europe.[1]

While it had been acceptable prior to the turn of the 20th century for Canadian governors general to involve themselves in political affairs, being, as they were, representatives of the King in his British Council, Byng's tenure as viceroy of Canada was notable in that he became the first to step directly into political matters since the country had gained a degree of autonomy from the United Kingdom following the First World War, denying, as he did, the recommendations of his prime minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King, who sought to have parliament dissolved in order to avoid a vote of non-confidence in his government. The Governor General's course of action in what came to be colloquially known as the King-Byng Affair remains debated, though the consensus amongst constitutional historians is that Byng's moves were appropriate in that situation in the summer of 1926.[41] Mackenzie King, however, made much of the scenario and its outcome in the election that eventually followed on 14 September, in which Mackenzie King's Liberal Party gained a majority of seats, seeing King once again appointed as prime minister. At the 1926 Imperial Conference, King then went on to use Byng and his refusal to follow his prime minister's advice as the impetus for widespread constitutional change throughout the British Commonwealth.[1] Byng himself said of the matter: "I have to await the verdict of history to prove my having adopted a wrong course, and this I do with an easy conscience that, right or wrong, I have acted in the interests of Canada and implicated no one else in my decision."[42] Some 80 years later, one of Byng's viceregal successors, Michaëlle Jean, found herself in a similar situation when her prime minister advised her to prorogue parliament in order to avoid a non-confidence motion.

Post-viceregal life

Byng returned to England on 30 September 1926, and in January 1928 was created Viscount Byng of Vimy, of Thorpele-Soken, in the County of Essex.[43] Later that year, he was appointed as the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police,[44] and, before his retirement in 1931, introduced a number of changes to the force, including a system of promotion based on merit rather than length of service, improvement in discipline, retirement of inefficient senior officers, an irregularity to policemen's beats (which had previously allowed criminals to work out the system), police boxes, the extensive use of police cars, and a central radio control room. In July 1932, Byng was once more promoted in the British military to the rank of field marshal – the highest rank an officer can attain – before he died suddenly of an abdominal blockage, at Thorpe Hall on 6 June 1935.[1]

Titles, styles, and honours

Titles

Viceregal styles of
Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy
Canadian Coat of Arms Shield 1921.png
Reference style His Excellency The Right Honourable
Son Excellence le très honorable
Spoken style Your Excellency
Votre Excellence
Alternative style Sir
Monsieur
United Kingdom United Kingdom
  • 11 September 1862 – 12 December 1879: The Honourable Julian Byng
  • 12 December 1879 – 23 April 1881: Second Lieutenant The Honourable Julian Byng
  • 23 April 1881 – January 1889: Lieutenant The Honourable Julian Byng[45]
  • January 1889 – August 1897: Captain The Honourable Julian Byng
  • August 1897 – 10 October 1902: Major The Honourable Julian Byng
  • 10 October 1902 – 11 May 1905: Lieutenant-Colonel The Honourable Julian Byng[27]
  • 11 May 1905 – 1 April 1909: Colonel The Honourable Julian Byng[29]
  • 1 April 1909 – May 1916: Major-General The Honourable Julian Byng[31]
  • May 1916 – 24 November 1917: Lieutenant-General The Honourable Sir Julian Byng
  • 24 November 1917 – 7 October 1919: General The Honourable Sir Julian Byng[36]
  • 7 October 1919 – 2 August 1921: General The Right Honourable The Lord Byng of Vimy
  • 2 August 1921 – 5 August 1926: His Excellency General The Right Honourable The Lord Byng of Vimy, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada
  • 5 August 1926 – 16 January 1928: General The Right Honourable The Lord Byng of Vimy
  • 16 January 1928 – 11 October 1932: General The Right Honourable The Viscount Byng of Vimy
  • 11 October 1932 – 6 June 1935: Field Marshal The Right Honourable The Viscount Byng of Vimy

Byng's style and title as governor general of Canada was, in full, and in English: His Excellency The Right Honourable Sir Julian Hedworth George Byng, Baron Byng of Vimy, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Member of the Royal Victorian Order, grand officier de Légion d'honneur, Member First Class With Swords of the Order of the White Eagle, Governor General and Commander-in-Chief of the Militia and Naval and Air Forces of Canada, General of the Militia of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and in French: Son Excellence le très honorable Sir Julian Hedworth George Byng, Baron Byng de Vimy, chevalier grand-croix de le très honorable ordre du Bain, chevalier grand-croix de le très distingué ordre de Saint-Michel et Saint-George, membre de l'ordre royal de Victoria, grand officier de Légion d'honneur, membre premiere classe de l'ordre de l'Aigle Blanc, gouverneur générale et commandant en chef de la milice et les forces navales et aérienne du Canada, general de la milice du Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Norde. It should be noted that, for Byng, Commander-in-Chief was strictly a title, and not a position that he held; the actual commander-in-chief (who can also be, and is, called such) is perpetually the monarch of Canada.[46]

In his post-viceregal life, Byng's style and title was: The Right Honourable Sir Julian Hedworth George Byng, Viscount Byng of Vimy and Thorpele-Soken, Baron Byng of Vimy, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Member of the Royal Victorian Order, grand officier de Légion d'honneur, Member First Class With Swords of the Order of the White Eagle, Field Marshal of the Militia of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Honours

Appointments
Medals
Awards
  • United Kingdom 6 February 1900: Mentioned in Despatches[48]
  • United Kingdom 23 June 1902: Mentioned in Despatches[49]
  • United Kingdom 11 December 1915: Mentioned in Despatches[50]
  • United Kingdom 11 December 1915: Mentioned in Despatches[51]
  • United Kingdom 22 December 1915: Mentioned in Despatches[52]
  • United Kingdom 20 February 1918: Mentioned in Despatches[53]
  • United Kingdom 20 July 1918: Mentioned in Despatches[54]
  • United Kingdom 21 December 1918: Mentioned in Despatches[55]
Foreign honours

Honorary military appointments

Honorary degrees

Honorific eponyms

Geographic locations
Schools

Commands

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the book Byng of Vimy: General and Governor General by Jeffrey Williams, Byng's date of commissioning is given as 27 August 1879.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General - Former Governors General > Field Marshal, The Viscount Byng of Vimy". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.gg.ca/gg/fgg/bios/01/byng_e.asp. Retrieved 7 April 2009.  
  2. ^ Williams, Jeffery (1983). Byng of Vimy: General and Governor General. Barnsley, S. Yorkshire: Leo Cooper in association with Secker & Warburg. pp. 2–3.  
  3. ^ Williams 1983, p. 5
  4. ^ a b c Williams 1983, p. 6
  5. ^ London Gazette: no. 24794, p. 7536, 23 December 1879. Retrieved on 8 April 2009.
  6. ^ London Gazette: no. 24968, p. 2118, 3 May 1881. Retrieved on 8 April 2009.
  7. ^ Williams 1983, p. 9
  8. ^ London Gazette: no. 25192, p. 464, 26 January 1883. Retrieved on 9 April 2009.
  9. ^ Williams 1983, p. 7
  10. ^ Williams 1983, p. 13
  11. ^ a b Williams 1983, p. 14
  12. ^ London Gazette: no. 25635, p. 5056, 19 October 1886. Retrieved on 9 April 2009.
  13. ^ Williams 1983, pp. 15-16
  14. ^ Williams 1983, p. 18
  15. ^ Williams 1983, pp. 18-19
  16. ^ Williams 1983, pp. 19-20
  17. ^ "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Friday, 2 September 1892. Issue 33733, col D, p. 5.
  18. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 26254, p. 602, 4 February 1892. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  19. ^ Williams 1983, p. 21
  20. ^ Williams 1983, p. 23
  21. ^ Williams 1983, p. 22
  22. ^ Williams 1983, p. 24
  23. ^ Quoted in Williams 1983, pp. 24-25
  24. ^ London Gazette: no. 27126, p. 6179, 13 October 1899. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  25. ^ London Gazette: no. 27152, p. 149, 9 January 1900. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  26. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 27430, p. 2933, 2 May 1902. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  27. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 27481, p. 6410, 10 October 1902. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  28. ^ London Gazette: no. 27682, p. 3555, 3 June 1904. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  29. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 27827, p. 5618, 15 August 1905. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  30. ^ London Gazette: no. 28012, p. 2505, 12 April 1907.
  31. ^ a b London Gazette: no. 28238, p. 2591, 2 April 1909. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  32. ^ London Gazette: no. 28424, p. 7254, 14 October 1910. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  33. ^ London Gazette: no. 28663, p. 8375, 15 November 1912. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  34. ^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29507, p. 2872, 14 March 1916. Retrieved on 9 April 2009.
  35. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30178, p. 6956, 10 July 1917. Retrieved on 15 April 2009.
  36. ^ a b London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30398, p. 12297, 23 November 1917. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  37. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31092, p. 1, 31 December 1918. Retrieved on 15 April 2009.
  38. ^ Milligan, Dorothy (2007), "BYNG", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture, Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/B/BY003.html, retrieved 15 April 2009  
  39. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31640, p. 13768, 11 November 1919. Retrieved on 15 April 2009.
  40. ^ London Gazette: no. 32424, p. 6483, 16 August 1921. Retrieved on 16 April 2009.
  41. ^ a b Cooke, O.A.; Hillmer, Norman, "Biography > Governors General of Canada > Byng of Vimy, Julian Hedworth George, Viscount", in Marsh, James H., The Canadian Encyclopedia, Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada, http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0001146, retrieved 16 April 2009  
  42. ^ Nicolson, Harold (1952). King George the Fifth, His Life and Reign. London: Constable & Co. Ltd.. pp. 475–477. ASIN B001YV21JC.  
  43. ^ London Gazette: no. 33348, p. 366, 17 January 1928. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  44. ^ London Gazette: no. 33437, p. 7302, 9 November 1928. Retrieved on 16 April 2009.
  45. ^ London Gazette: no. 24968, p. 2118, 3 May 1881. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  46. ^ Victoria (29 March 1867), Constitution Act, 1867, III.15, Westminster: Queen's Printer, http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/ca_1867.html, retrieved 15 January 2009  
  47. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31092, p. 1, 31 December 1918. Retrieved on 9 April 2009.
  48. ^ London Gazette: no. 27282, p. 972, 8 February 1901. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  49. ^ London Gazette: no. 27459, p. 4837, 29 July 1902. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  50. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29455, p. 1195, 28 January 1916. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  51. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29429, p. 306, 4 January 1916. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  52. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30015, p. 3475, 10 April 1917. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  53. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30554, p. 2718, 1 March 1918. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  54. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30963, p. 12425, 18 October 1918. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  55. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31111, p. 333, 3 January 1919. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  56. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30568, p. 3095, 8 March 1918. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  57. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31150, p. 1445, 28 January 1919. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  58. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31222, p. 3279, 7 March 1919. Retrieved on 9 April 2009.
  59. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31451, p. 8937, 11 July 1919. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  60. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31615, p. 13005, 21 October 1919. Retrieved on 14 April 2009.
  61. ^ "University of Alberta Senate > Honorary Degrees > Past honorary Degree Recipients > B". University of Alberta. http://www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca/senate/honorarydegreeslist.cfm#B. Retrieved 28 April 2009.  

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Sir Edwin Alfred Hervey Alderson
General Officer Commanding Canadian Corps
1916  – 1917
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur William Currie
Preceded by
Edmund Allenby
General Officer Commanding Third Army
1917  – 1918
Succeeded by
None
Preceded by
The Viscount Downe
Colonel of the 10th Royal Hussars
1924 – 1935
Succeeded by
The Viscount Hampden
Police appointments
Preceded by
Sir William Horwood
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
1928  – 1931
Succeeded by
Lord Trenchard
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Byng of Vimy
1926  – 1935
Extinct
Baron Byng of Vimy
1919  – 1935

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message