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Gaius Julius Caesar
Consul/Dictator of the Roman Republic
Giulio-cesare-enhanced 1-800x1450.jpg
Bust of Julius Caesar
Reign October 49 BC –
15 March 44 BC (as dictator and/or consul)
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar
Born 13 July 100 BC
Birthplace Subura, Rome
Died 15 March 44 BC (aged 55)
Place of death Curia of Pompey, Rome
Consort Cornelia Cinna minor 84–68 BC
Pompeia 68–63 BC
Calpurnia Pisonis 59–44 BC
Offspring Julia Caesaris 85/84–54 BC
Caesarion 47–30 BC
Augustus 63 BC–AD 14 (grand-nephew, posthumously adopted as Caesar's son in 44 BC)
Royal House Julio-Claudian
Father Gaius Julius Caesar
Mother Aurelia Cotta
These articles cover the Ancient Roman Comitium of the Republican era
Structures- Rostra, Curia Hostilia, Curia Julia, Lapis Niger
Politicians- Cicero, Gaius Gracchus, Julius Caesar
Assemblies- Roman Senate, comitia curiata
.Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Classical Latin: /ˈɡaː.i.us ʝuːli.us ˈkaɪsar/; English: /ˈɡaɪ.əs ˈdʒuːli.əs ˈsiːzər/; 13 July 100 BC[2] – 15 March 44 BC)[3] was a Roman military and political leader.^ BCE (or July 12 ) Julius Caesar (d.
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^ March 15 , 44 BC ) , Roman dictator.
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^ Posted by Julius Caesar at 10:15 AM .
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.^ He played an important part in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire .

^ Tags: Ancient Rome , fall of the roman empire , Julius Caesar , Latin , Politician , Roman , Roman Republic .
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This period of civil wars transformed the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire with Caesar's great nephew and adopted son Octavian (later known as Caesar Augustus ) installed as the first emperor.

As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics. .During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, he formed political alliances that led to the so-called "First Triumvirate," an extra-legal arrangement with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great") that was to dominate Roman politics for several years.^ This alliance was called the first triumvirate.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Roman political world Pompey and Crassus challenged the dominance of the optimates.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar had started as a consul and had formed the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Their factional attempts to amass power for themselves were opposed within the Roman Senate by the optimates, among them Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, with the sometime support of Marcus Tullius Cicero.^ His junior partner was his political enemy Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , an Optimate and personal friend of Marcus Porcius Cato.

^ Cicero, Publius, and Popilius Lena: Roman senators.

^ Rome had begun, Romans liked to think, as a republic guided by a senate, but at the height of it’s power, the senators and their colleagues answered not to elected leaders but to emperors” (Time Frame 50).
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain.^ His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean , with the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BCE .

^ The boy would become the first Roman emperor following Caesar's death.

^ Yet Caesar endeavoured to conquer it, and to extend the bounds of the Roman Empire beyond the limits of the habitable world.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey's, while the death of Crassus contributed to increasing political tensions between the two triumviral survivors.^ Crassus called in the army of Lucullus from Macedonia and Pompey's from Spain, though he regretted it after his army surrounded 12,300 Celts, who all fought to the death.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were from his friends in Rome, and advised him of his daughter's death; she died in child-birth at Pompey's house.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He listened to many political discussions between his family which had substantial influences on him.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate.^ In Rome, the senate proposed a negotiated compromise between Caesar and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catiline raised an army to butcher the Senate, and Caesar crossed the Rubicon and marched straight to the Seven Hills, ousting Pompey and fellow optimates.
  • Dictator: Gaius Julius Caesar - Paradox Interactive Forums 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ In 50 BC Curio again proposed that Pompey give up his command of Spain and Italy at the same time as Caesar's expired, and the senate voted 370 to 22 in favor of this disarmament.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the order that sent his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world.^ In 49 BC Caesar and his men crossed the Rubicon.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the last war that Caesar waged; and the • triumph that was celebrated for it vexed the Romans as nothing else had done.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet Caesar endeavoured to conquer it, and to extend the bounds of the Roman Empire beyond the limits of the habitable world.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government.^ Caesar fought in a civil war which left him undisputed master of the Roman world, and began extensive reforms of Roman society and government.

.He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity" (dictator perpetuo).^ He was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily centralized the government of the Republic.

.A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic.^ Dictator of the Roman Republic 46 BC - 44 BC .

^ Brutus prepared for the Ides senate convention.
  • Dictator: Gaius Julius Caesar - Paradox Interactive Forums 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ March 15 , 44 BC ) , Roman dictator.
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.However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar's adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus.^ He also wants the Roman aristocrats to establish their valour by slaying Caesar.
  • RENAISSANCE forum Volume 5 Number 2, Winter 2001: Eugene Giddens 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.hull.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ A string of disputes between these two factions led to civil war and eventually opened the way to Sulla's dictatorship.

^ This final civil war, culminating in Antony and Cleopatra's defeat at Actium, resulted in the ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus.

.In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities.^ In 42 BCE , after his death, the Roman Senate officially proclaimed him as one of the Roman gods .

^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Senate's deliberation, Caesar was one of the few men to argue against a death sentence.

.Much of Caesar's life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus.^ Such, then, is said to have been the course of Caesar's life before his Gallic campaigns.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He noticed, however, that Caesar received other such writings as he went along, and that he handed them at once to his attendants.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo.^ CASSIUS Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life Cuts off so many years of fearing death.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes of course Cassius would put a different self-promoting twist into his account but Plutarch had no reason to promote Brutus, he is an historian not one of the conspirators.
  • Julius Caesar: Brutus - Good Guy/Bad Guy? [Warnin... - Barnes & Noble Book Clubs 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC bookclubs.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This more than anything else made Brutus and Cassius afraid, and not many days afterwards they withdrew from the city.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Early life

.Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus.^ Caesar was born in Rome into a well-known patrician family ( gens Julia ), which supposedly traced its ancestry to Julus , the son of the Trojan prince Aeneas (who according to myth was the son of Venus ).

^ Gaius Julius Caesar born in 100 BC was a nephew of Marius, was proud that his family descended from the Roman king Ancus Marcius, and claimed that his Julian ancestors could be traced through Aeneas to the goddess Venus.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After these matters had been finished and he had been declared consul for the fourth time, Caesar made an expedition into Spain against the p573 sons of Pompey.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[4] .The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedere, caes-).^ Caesar was born in Rome into a well-known patrician family ( gens Julia ), which supposedly traced its ancestry to Julus , the son of the Trojan prince Aeneas (who according to myth was the son of Venus ).

^ This legend is more likely a modern invention, as the origin of the Caesarian section is in the Latin word for to cut, caedo, -ere, caesus sum .

^ According to legend, Caesar was born by Caesarian section and is its namesake, though this is unlikely because at the time it was only performed on dead women, and his mother lived long after he was born.

[5] .The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle.^ The ideal location of Caesar Park Hotel in Taipei in the heart of Taipei's business district cannot miss the eye of the tourists coming to the city for the first time.
  • Caesar Park Taipei, Taiwan 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesar desperately needed Crassus's money and Pompey's influence, and an informal alliance soon followed: The First Triumvirate (rule by three men).

^ From the time that he had first faced battle in Gaul and discovered his own military genius, Caesar was evidently fascinated and obsessed by military and imperial problems.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[6] .Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favoured this interpretation of his name.^ And when Caesar asked him whether he also saw in the victims any favourable signs of the issue, "Thou thyself," said the seer, "canst better answer this question for thyself.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, having produced only three consuls.^ He had received the most honourable of the praetorships for the current year, and was to be consul three years later, having been preferred to Cassius, who was a rival candidate.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time Julius Caesar was a consul, the number had increased to three.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A fund from an ancient Gallic invasion remained with a curse on anyone using it for anything but a Gallic war; having subjugated all of Gaul, Caesar felt justified in taking it.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar's father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar, reached the rank of praetor, the second highest of the Republic's elected magistracies, and governed the province of Asia, perhaps through the influence of his prominent brother-in-law Gaius Marius.^ Tags: Ancient Rome , fall of the roman empire , Julius Caesar , Latin , Politician , Roman , Roman Republic .
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that he divorce his wife because Sulla would only allow him to leave on that condition.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was elected pontifex maximus (chief priest) and praetor by borrowing money to win over voters.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family which had produced several consuls. .Marcus Antonius Gnipho, an orator and grammarian of Gaulish origin, was employed as Caesar's tutor.^ He was trained to be a politician by his tutor Antonius Gnipho.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony): A member of the ruling triumvirate after the assassination of Julius Caesar.

^ Marcus Antonius declared to the senate that Caesar had really acknowledged the boy, and that Gaius Matius, Gaius Oppius, and other friends of Caesar knew this.
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius  (c.69-after 122 CE): De Vita Caesarum,Divus Iulius (The Lives of the Caesars, The Deified Julius), written c. 110 CE 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Caesar had two sisters, both called Julia.^ Then, acting upon the flood-tide of success, Caesar attacked the two other camps of the enemy, which were at no great distance, and captured both.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For Julia, a sister of Caesar's father, was the wife of Marius the Elder, and the mother of Marius the Younger, who was therefore Caesar's cousin.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Little else is recorded of Caesar's childhood. .Suetonius and Plutarch's biographies of him both begin abruptly in Caesar's teens; the opening paragraphs of both appear to be lost.^ Caesar, as military conqueror, gets considerable glory, as the opening triumphal procession reveals, yet this glory is more complex than it immediately appears.
  • RENAISSANCE forum Volume 5 Number 2, Winter 2001: Eugene Giddens 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.hull.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Before asking a third man, Volumnius, to help him die, Brutus tells him that the Ghost of Caesar appeared to himfirst at Sardis, then at night on the Philippi battlefieldan omen signifying that all is lost.

^ However, only one of these events appears to meet the requirements of both parts of the definition of climaxthe assassination of Caesar.

[10]
.Caesar's formative years were a time of turmoil.^ At the same time the government of Gaul was decreed to Caesar for five years, and to this was added Illyricum, with four legions.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Social War was fought from 91 to 88 BC between Rome and her Italian allies over the issue of Roman citizenship, while Mithridates of Pontus threatened Rome's eastern provinces.^ He then proceeded to Rhodes, but as Mithridates was devastating the neighboring regions, he crossed over into Asia, to avoid the appearance of inaction when the allies of the Roman people were in danger.
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius  (c.69-after 122 CE): De Vita Caesarum,Divus Iulius (The Lives of the Caesars, The Deified Julius), written c. 110 CE 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Greatly reduced tax revenues and Mithridates' order that killed as many as 80,000 Italians made this war a priority in Rome.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Drusus was assassinated in 91 BC, the Italian action committees organized for war, and in Asculum Picenians were provoked to massacre the resident Romans.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Domestically, Roman politics was divided between politicians known as optimates and populares.^ In the Roman political world Pompey and Crassus challenged the dominance of the optimates.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Roman political world of the sixties the dominance of the optimates was challenged by Pompey and Crassus.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

The optimates were conservative,[11][12][13] defended the interests of the upper class[12][13] and used and promoted the authority of the Senate;[14] the populares advocated reform in the interests of the masses[11][13] and used and promoted the authority of the Popular Assemblies.[12][14] .Caesar's uncle Marius was a popularis, Marius' protégé Lucius Cornelius Sulla was an optimas, and in Caesar's youth their rivalry led to civil war.^ This backfired on them because a civil war broke out and many of Caesar's killers ended up killing themselves in the end.
  • Julius Caesar (Folger Shakespeare Library) by William Shakespeare - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Rome, but after three years of civil war Sulla entered the imperial capital again.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The bloody massacres of Marius and Sulla were too recent to permit Caesar to doubt that obedience to the senate would mean his accusation and death.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both Marius and Sulla distinguished themselves in the Social War, and both wanted command of the war against Mithridates, which was initially given to Sulla; but when Sulla left the city to take command of his army, a tribune passed a law transferring the appointment to Marius.^ When asked why he had illegally given citizenship to a thousand Camerinians, Marius replied that the din of war had drowned the law's voice.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sulla's army besieged Athens and Piraeus, stole treasures from temples at Olympia, Epidaurus, and Delphi, stormed the city, and massacred most of the starving people.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The law passed, Caesar was ordered to leave his army behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sulla responded by marching his army on Rome (the first time ever this had happened and a pointer for Caesar in his later career as he contemplated crossing the Rubicon), reclaiming his command and forcing Marius into exile, but when he left on campaign Marius returned at the head of a makeshift army.^ The law passed, Caesar was ordered to leave his army behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was his first time being at the head of an army.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was told to leave his troops behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.He and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna seized the city and declared Sulla a public enemy, and Marius's troops took violent revenge on Sulla's supporters.^ Cinna got Sulla declared a public enemy but was killed by troops mutinying at Ancona.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then after his nod or mere silence his bodyguard of ex-slaves killed the enemies of Marius and committed other atrocities until Cinna and Sertorius used their troops to massacre these Bardyiae bodyguards.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar took over the troops of Domitius, as well as all the other levies of Pompey which he surprised in the various cities.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Marius died early in 86 BC, but his followers remained in power.^ Marius and Cinna were elected consuls while Sulla was at war with Mithridates in 86 BC. Soon after both Cinna and Marius died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ News that Sulla had defeated Mithridates and was returning with his army led Cinna and Marius to declare themselves consuls for 86 BC, but Marius soon died of illness.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.In 85 BC Caesar's father died suddenly while putting on his shoes one morning, without any apparent cause,[16] and at sixteen, Caesar was the head of the family.^ A little later Caesar’s father died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These men, then, paid the penalty for their imposture later, when they were put to death by Antony and the young Caesar, without even enjoying the fame for the sake of which they died, owing to the disbelief of their fellow men.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Apparently, in his arrogance, Caesar believes he is invulnerable to the machinations of the conspirators; he is an Achilles without a weak spot.

.The following year he was nominated to be the new Flamen Dialis, high priest of Jupiter, as Merula, the previous incumbent, had died in Marius's purges.^ Marius announced that Caesar would be the Priest of Jupiter.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ News that Sulla had defeated Mithridates and was returning with his army led Cinna and Marius to declare themselves consuls for 86 BC, but Marius soon died of illness.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Since the holder of that position not only had to be a patrician but also be married to a patrician, he broke off his engagement to Cossutia, a plebeian girl of wealthy equestrian family he had been betrothed to since boyhood, and married Cinna's daughter Cornelia.^ Cinna was killed the year that Caesar had married Cinna’s daughter Cornelia.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His second wife was Cornelia, Cinna’s daughter.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the next consulate, having previously been nominated priest of Jupiter, 2 he broke his engagement with Cossutia, a lady of only equestrian rank, but very wealthy, who had been betrothed to him before he assumed the gown of manhood, and married Cornelia, daughter of that Cinna who was four times consul, by whom he afterwards had a daughter Julia; and the dictator Sulla could by no means force him to put away his wife.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.Then, having brought Mithridates to terms, Sulla returned to finish the civil war against Marius' followers.^ Choosing not to stand again for consul and upset over the resolution allowing Metellus to return from exile, Marius went to visit Mithridates in Pontus, hoping to be put in command in the war against him; but the position went to his hated adversary and the current consul, Sulla.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Marius and Cinna were elected consuls while Sulla was at war with Mithridates in 86 BC. Soon after both Cinna and Marius died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the father of Brutus had been put to death by Pompey as a follower of Marius, the rational and virtuous Brutus supported Pompey in the civil war for the public good.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.After a campaign throughout Italy he seized Rome at the Battle of the Colline Gate in November 82 BC and had himself appointed to the revived office of dictator; but whereas a dictator was traditionally appointed for six months at a time, Sulla's appointment had no term limit.^ To get elected consul a sixth time in 100 BC he allied himself with the violent tribune Saturninus and distributed much money to the voters.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Marius was elected consul in 108 BC, once in office he proved himself as a brilliant general.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sulla, (in office 82 BC) though he did violate Rome by taking his army into it (against the law of the Republic), was a figure of the Republic, he preceded Caesar and was not a figure of the Empire.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

Statues of Marius were destroyed and Marius' body was exhumed and thrown in the Tiber. .Cinna was already dead, killed by his own soldiers in a mutiny.^ Cinna got Sulla declared a public enemy but was killed by troops mutinying at Ancona.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Sulla's proscriptions saw hundreds of his political enemies killed or exiled.^ Cinna got Sulla declared a public enemy but was killed by troops mutinying at Ancona.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The proscriptions of Sulla, which preceded the reactionary political legislation enacted during his dictatorship left a particularly bitter memory that long survived.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar, as the nephew of Marius and son-in-law of Cinna, was targeted.^ (Caesars aunt and uncle, Marius and Cinna.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having Marius as an uncle and Cinna as a father-in-law.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding.^ Sulla took away Caesar's priesthood, her dowry, and his inheritance when he refused to divorce her.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He fancied that Cæsar invited him to supper, and that upon his refusal to go with him, Cæsar took him by the hand and forced him, though he hung back.

^ He was accordingly forced to go into hiding, and though suffering from a severe attack of quartan ague, to change from one covert to another almost every night, and save himself from Sulla's detectives by bribes.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins.^ Flaccus was sent to Asia against Mithridates, but Sulla refused to cooperate with him.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Gaius Memmius had made highly caustic speeches against him, to which he had replied with equal bitterness, he went so far as to support Memmius afterwards in his suit for the consulship.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar had to hide from Sulla's secret police until Vestal virgins interceded for him.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.^ When Caesar entered the camp of his rival, and saw the number of those who lay dead and the slaughter that was still going on, he said, with a sigh of regret, 'Alas!
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bloody massacres of Marius and Sulla were too recent to permit Caesar to doubt that obedience to the senate would mean his accusation and death.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The news of Caesar's clemency gave great relief in Rome, and many of those who had fled now ventured back again.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Early career

.Feeling it much safer to be far away from Sulla should the Dictator change his mind, Caesar quit Rome and joined the army, serving under Marcus Minucius Thermus in Asia and Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia.^ He served too under Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia, but only for a short time; for learning of the death of Sulla, and at the same time hoping to profit by a counter revolution which Marcus Lepidus was setting on foot, he hurriedly returned to Rome.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Though undoubtedly loyal to the Roman dictator, Antony and Caesar were moving apart ever since Caesar replaced him with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as his Magister equitium.
  • Dictator: Gaius Julius Caesar - Paradox Interactive Forums 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ These up to this time had called themselves brethren of the Romans and had been conspicuously honoured, but now, by joining the rebels, they caused great dejection in Caesar's army.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the siege of Mytilene.^ Mytilene was taken by storm and Caesar won the civic crown, Rome’s highest award for courage.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the rest of the campaign he enjoyed a better reputation, and at the storming of Mytilene Thermus awarded him the civic crown.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes's fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumours of an affair with the king arose, which would persist for the rest of his life.^ Soon after arriving in Asia Minor Caesar was sent to make sure Nicomedes, king of Bithynia on the Black Sea, had kept his promise to bring his fleet of ships to help Thermus control the Mytileneans.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Caesar was sent to raise a fleet in Bithynia, it was widely believed that he had a homosexual affair with King Nicomedes IV. Failing to win a prosecution of extortion against Cornelius Dolabella, Caesar went to Rhodes to study rhetoric with its greatest current teacher Apollonius Molo.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar gave their leader, Cornelius, two talents to set him free, and at once went down to the sea and sailed to King Nicomedes in Bithynia.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[20] .Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career: the Flamen Dialis was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army.^ This also procured him favour, and by this show of affection he won upon the feelings of the people, who looked upon him as a man of great tenderness and kindness of heart.

^ The Helvetians surprised Cæsar, and unexpectedly set upon him as he was conducting his army to a confederate town.

^ One night Caesar and his slaves ran into one of Sulla’s men in the hills, even in his state of being he managed to keep the man from arresting him and bringing him into Rome.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]
.At the end of 81 BC, Sulla resigned his dictatorship, re-established consular government and, after serving as consul in 80 BC, retired to private life.^ After re-establishing this aristocratic republic, Sulla gave up his dictatorship and even his bodyguard, retiring to the country, where he died of illness a year later in 78 BC, the year Marcus Lepidus was elected consul.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in 46 BC he was elected to a third dictatorship, meanwhile he served four terms as consul and was also tribune.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marius and Cinna were elected consuls while Sulla was at war with Mithridates in 86 BC. Soon after both Cinna and Marius died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .In a manner that the historian Suetonius thought arrogant, Julius Caesar would later mock Sulla for resigning the Dictatorship—"Sulla did not know his political ABC's".[23] He died two years later in 78 BC and was accorded a state funeral.^ Caesar was now twenty-two and he would start his political career.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by Julius Caesar at 10:23 AM .
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A little later Caesar’s father died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Hearing of Sulla's death, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome.^ After Caesar’s death, Brutus delivers an oration defending his actions, "It is not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more" and for the moment, the crowd is on his side.

^ Sulla, (in office 82 BC) though he did violate Rome by taking his army into it (against the law of the Republic), was a figure of the Republic, he preceded Caesar and was not a figure of the Empire.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that he divorce his wife because Sulla would only allow him to leave on that condition.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in the Subura, a lower-class neighbourhood of Rome.^ He lived at first in the • Subura in a modest house, but after he became pontifex maximus, in the official residence on the • Sacred Way.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[25] .His return coincided with an attempted anti-Sullan coup by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus but Caesar, lacking confidence in Lepidus's leadership, did not participate.^ But he did not make common cause with Lepidus, although he was offered highly favourable terms, through lack of confidence both in that leader's capacity and in the outlook, which he found less promising than he had expected.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[26] Instead he turned to legal advocacy. .He became known for his exceptional oratory, accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption.^ He is said to have delivered himself in a high-pitched voice with impassioned action and gestures, which were not without grace.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar decided he would prosecute the former governor of Macedonia, Gnaeus Dolabella, who had used public funds greedily.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

Even Cicero praised him: "Come now, what orator would you rank above him...?"[27] Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar travelled to Rhodes in 75 BC to study under Apollonius Molon, who had previously taught Cicero.[28]
.On the way across the Aegean Sea,[29] Caesar was kidnapped by Cilician (not to be confused with Sicilian) pirates and held prisoner in the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa.^ Spartacus led his robber army to Rhegium to find passage with pirates, who now held Syracuse; but the Cilician pirates took his payment and sailed away.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His rival was strongly encamped, and was abundantly supplied with provisions both by way of sea and land, While Caesar from the first had but little food, and later on suffered from great scarcity.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His ship was nearing the coast of Asia Minor when pirates attacked the ship and took Caesar prisoner.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[30] He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. .When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of silver, he insisted they ask for fifty.^ They demanded a large ransom for his return.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When these men at first demanded of him twenty talents for his ransom, he laughed at them for not understanding the value of their prisoner, and voluntarily engaged to give them fifty.

^ The pirates set a ransom of twenty talents upon their prisoner, whereupon Cesar laughed, for their demand showed that they did not know who he was.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

[31][32] .After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them in Pergamon.^ In the winter of 75-74 BC Caesar was captured by pirated and, while in their custody awaiting the arrival of the ransom money which they demanded, threatened them with crucifixion , a threat which he fulfilled immediately after his release.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rome to Rhodes (after 77 B.C. ) that Caesar was captured by pirates.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar broke free from the pirates and captured a large number of them.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marcus Junctus, the governor of Asia, refused to execute them as Caesar demanded, preferring to sell them as slaves,[33] but Caesar returned to the coast and had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity[34]—a promise the pirates had taken as a joke.^ Like Pompey, Caesar raised his own forces, which he used to win back cities in Asia during the Mithridatic war.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hearing of a mutiny at Placentia by his soldiers, who were demanding the five minae he had promised them, Caesar won them back with a stern speech and then executed twelve chosen by lot from the 120 leaders.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To begin with, then, when the pirates demanded twenty talents for his ransom, he laughed at them for not knowing who their captive was, and of his own accord agreed to give them fifty.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. .He then proceeded to Rhodes, but was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from Pontus.^ Like Pompey, Caesar raised his own forces, which he used to win back cities in Asia during the Mithridatic war.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He then proceeded to Rhodes, but as Mithridates was devastating the neighbouring regions, he crossed over into Asia, to avoid the appearance of inaction when the allies of the Roman people were in danger.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On his return to Rome he was elected military tribune, a first step on the cursus honorum of Roman politics.^ Rome had begun, Romans liked to think, as a republic guided by a senate, but at the height of it’s power, the senators and their colleagues answered not to elected leaders but to emperors” (Time Frame 50).
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While serving as military tribune, the first office which was conferred on him by vote of the people after his return to Rome, he ardently supported the leaders in the attempt to re-establish the authority of the tribunes of the commons, the extent of which Sulla had curtailed.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Caesar marched to Rome and entered the city without violence except for his threat to the tribune Lucius Metellus, who at first refused to turn over the treasury to him.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war against Spartacus took place around this time (73–71 BC), but it is not recorded what role, if any, Caesar played in it.^ His second war was in defence of the Gauls against the Germans, though some time before he had made Ariovistus, their king, recognized at Rome as an ally.

^ By this time the rivalry between Caesar and Pompey had become very severe, the more so as Crassus, who alone might have entered into the lists against them, had been slain in the Parthian War.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the more interesting characters in the play is Brutus, Caesar's friend, who goes on to join the conspiracy against him.
  • Julius Caesar: Brutus - Good Guy/Bad Guy? [Warnin... - Barnes & Noble Book Clubs 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC bookclubs.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was elected quaestor for 69 BC,[35] and during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia, widow of Marius, and included images of Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession.^ The first proof of the people's good will towards him he received when he competed against Caius Popilius for a military tribuneship and was elected over him; 2 a second and more conspicuous proof he received when, as nephew of Julia the deceased wife of Marius, he pronounced a splendid encomium upon her in the forum, 9 and in her funeral procession ventured to display images of Marius, which were then seen for the first time since the administration of Sulla, because Marius and his friends had been pronounced public enemies.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A second and clearer instance of their favour appeared upon his making a magnificent oration in praise of his aunt Julia, wife to Marius , publicly in the forum, at whose funeral he was so bold as to bring forth the images of Marius, which nobody had dared to produce since the government came into Sylla's hands, Marius's party having from that time been declared enemies of the state.

^ Marius was elected consul in 108 BC, once in office he proved himself as a brilliant general.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.His own wife Cornelia also died that year.^ When quaestor, he pronounced the customary orations from the rostra in praise of his aunt Julia and his wife Cornelia, who had both died.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, in the case of elderly women, it was ancient Roman usage to pronounce funeral orations over them; but it was not customary in the case of young women, and Caesar was the first to do so when his own wife died.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[36] .After her funeral, in the spring or early summer of 69 BC, Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Hispania under Antistius Vetus.^ He then returned to Rome to engage in a normal political career, starting with the quaetorship which he served in 69-68 BC in the province of Further Spain.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 74 BC, the twenty-six year old, Caesar, went back to Rome to try and jump-start his career again.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the funeral of his wife, he went out to Spain 11 as quaestor under Vetus, one of the praetors, whom he never ceased to hold in high esteem, and whose son, in turn, when he himself was praetor, he made his quaestor.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[37] .While there he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great, and realised with dissatisfaction he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little.^ "Do you think," said he, "I have not just cause to weep, when I consider that Alexander at my age had conquered so many nations, and I have all this time done nothing that is memorable."

^ So great were Caesar's abilities, so vast his ambition, that he was by no means ready, now that he was master of the world, to sit down and enjoy the glory he had won.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He once stared a statue of Alexander the Great and started to weep saying that Alexander had died as old as Caesar was at the time Caesar continued on about how he had not accomplished anything compared to Alexander the Great.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

He requested, and was granted, an early discharge from his duties, and returned to Roman politics. .On his return in 67 BC,[38] he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla.^ The second attack upon the city was carried our by Marius’ enemy Sulla, leader of the optimates, in 82 BC on the latter’s return from the East.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ News that Sulla had defeated Mithridates and was returning with his army led Cinna and Marius to declare themselves consuls for 86 BC, but Marius soon died of illness.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In place of Cornelia he took to wife Pompeia, daughter of Quintus Pompeius and granddaughter of Lucius Sulla.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[39] .He was elected aedile and restored the trophies of Marius's victories; a controversial move given the Sullan regime was still in place.^ And to this end, whilst he was in the height of his repute with the people for the magnificent shows he gave as ædile, he ordered images of Marius and figures of Victory, with trophies in their hands, to be carried privately in the night and placed in the capitol.

^ Caesar married Ponpeia after Cornelia’s death and was appointed aedile in 65 BC As aedile , Caesar returned to Marius’ trophies to their former place of honor in the Capitol, thus laying claim to leadership of the populares.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also brought prosecutions against men who had benefited from Sulla's proscriptions, and spent a great deal of borrowed money on public works and games, outshining his colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus.^ I had the men go about their work in a half-hearted way, and meanwhile got the legions ready under cover of mantlets, instructing the men to ready for a surprise charge and promising great rewards to those who mounted the walls first.
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^ Then, after the civil disturbance had been quieted, he brought a charge of extortion against Cornelius Dolabella, an ex-consul who had been p7 honoured with a triumph.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But against the eager efforts of these men the people arrayed themselves in defence of Clodius, and were of great assistance to him with the jurors in the case, who were terror-stricken and afraid of the multitude.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

He was also suspected of involvement in two abortive coup attempts.[40]

Coming to prominence

His bust in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
.63 BC was an eventful year for Caesar.^ In 74 BC, the twenty-six year old, Caesar, went back to Rome to try and jump-start his career again.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plutarch here passes over the events of the year 53 B.C. , described by Caesar in B. G. VI .
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.He persuaded a tribune, Titus Labienus, to prosecute the optimate senator Gaius Rabirius for the political murder, 37 years previously, of the tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, and had himself appointed as one of the two judges to try the case.^ He also bribed a man to bring a charge of high treason against Gaius Rabirius, who some years before had rendered conspicuous service to the senate in repressing the seditious designs of the tribune Lucius Saturninus; and when he had been selected by lot to sentence the accused, 9 he did so with such eagerness, that when Rabirius appealed to p17 the people, nothing was so much in his favour as the bitter hostility of his judge.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Quaestors were also selected two at a time for one year terms.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As iudex perduellionis , or duumvir perduellionis , one of a commission of two men appointed to try cases of high treason.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Rabirius was defended by both Cicero and Quintus Hortensius, but was convicted of perduellio (treason). While he was exercising his right of appeal to the people, the praetor Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer adjourned the assembly by taking down the military flag from the Janiculum hill. .Labienus could have resumed the prosecution at a later session, but did not do so: Caesar's point had been made, and the matter was allowed to drop.^ Caesar knew he could make a name for himself by prosecuting or defending an official who had committed crimes while in office.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the conspirators save only he ¶ Did that they did in envy of great Caesar; 2720 He only in a general honest thought ¶ And common good to all made one of them.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Brutus could rule over a state made up of perfect people and Caesar must rule over a state such as Rome.
  • Julius Caesar: Brutus - Good Guy/Bad Guy? [Warnin... - Barnes & Noble Book Clubs 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC bookclubs.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .Labienus would remain an important ally of Caesar over the next decade.^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But they were intolerable neighbours of Caesar's subjects, and if an opportunity presented itself it was thought that they would not remain quietly in their present homes, but would encroach upon and occupy Gaul.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His financier was Crassus who would turn out to be an important part of Caesar’s life.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.The same year, Caesar ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximus, chief priest of the Roman state religion, after the death of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, who had been appointed to the post by Sulla.^ After his year as consul, Crassus was appointed governor of Syria; but the senate did not authorize a war with Parthia, though Caesar encouraged him in this.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time, too, Metellus, the pontifex maximus , or high priest, died, 15 and though Isauricus and Catulus were candidates for the priesthood, which was an object of great ambition, and though they were most illustrious men and of the greatest influence in the senate Caesar would not give way to them, but presented himself to the people as a rival candidate.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar, gathering his four legions and raising two more, went to avenge the Roman defeat by the Tigurini fifty years before.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.He ran against two powerful optimates, the former consuls Quintus Lutatius Catulus and Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus.^ Quintus Latatius Catulus and Lucius Licinius Lucullus led the optimates.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second attack against the city happened in eighty-two BC. Marius enemy Sulla, leader of the optimates, carried out the attack.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For within eleven days he resigned his dictatorship, and having declared himself consul, with Servilius Isauricus, hastened again to the war.

There were accusations of bribery by all sides. .Caesar is said to have told his mother on the morning of the election that he would return as Pontifex Maximus or not at all, expecting to be forced into exile by the enormous debts he had run up to fund his campaign.^ The day for the election came, and as Caesar's mother accompanied him to the door in tears, he kissed her and said: "Mother, to‑day thou shalt see thy son either pontifex maximus or an exile."
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the role of Pontifex Maximus opened up he made a bid for it.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In any event he won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing, possibly because the two older men split their votes.^ I won't wait for these forces to assemble, but will split my legions into two forces.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

[42] The post came with an official residence on the Via Sacra.[25]
.When Cicero, who was consul that year, exposed Catiline's conspiracy to seize control of the republic, Catulus and others accused Caesar of involvement in the plot.^ He had received the most honourable of the praetorships for the current year, and was to be consul three years later, having been preferred to Cassius, who was a rival candidate.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When the conspiracy of Catiline was detected, and all the rest of the senate favoured inflicting the extreme penalty on those implicated in the plot, Caesar, who was now praetor elect, alone proposed that their goods be confiscated and that they be imprisoned each in a separate town.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the men of consular and praetorial rank who escaped from the battle, some slew themselves at the moment of their capture, and others were put to death by Caesar after capture.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[43] .Caesar, who had been elected praetor for the following year, took part in the debate in the Senate on how to deal with the conspirators.^ A part of the senate strongly opposed these proposals, whereupon Caesar with great warmth protested that their opposition drove him against his will to appeal to the people.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the conspiracy of Catiline was detected, and all the rest of the senate favoured inflicting the extreme penalty on those implicated in the plot, Caesar, who was now praetor elect, alone proposed that their goods be confiscated and that they be imprisoned each in a separate town.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rejoicing greatly, the officer went to Caesar, who took him by the hand and pardoned him.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

During the debate, Caesar was passed a note. .Marcus Porcius Cato, who would become his most implacable political opponent, accused him of corresponding with the conspirators, and demanded that the message be read aloud.^ He not only pardoned most of those who had fought against him, but on some of them he bestowed offices and honours.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar would have prevailed too, for a number had already gone over to him, including Cicero, the consul's brother, had not the address of Marcus Cato kept the wavering senate in line.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For there was among the conspirators a man who bore this same name of Cinna, and assuming this man was he, the crowd rushed upon him and tore him in pieces among them.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar passed him the note, which, embarrassingly, turned out to be a love letter from Cato's half-sister Servilia.^ All the conspirators now drew their swords and surrounded Caesar, so that whichever way he turned he saw nothing but gleaming blades thrusting at him, and met with nothing but wounds.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cassius Yet I fear him, ¶ For in the engrafted love he bears to Caesar-- ¶ Brutus Alas, good Cassius, do not think of him.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Strike as thou did'st at Caesar, for I know, 2085 When thou did'st hate him worst, thou loved'st him better ¶ Than ever thou loved'st Cassius.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar argued persuasively against the death penalty for the conspirators, proposing life imprisonment instead, but a speech by Cato proved decisive, and the conspirators were executed.^ Cicero asked for the death penalty for the arrested conspirators, but Caesar argued for confiscation of their property and imprisonment so that they could be given a regular trial.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A part of the senate strongly opposed these proposals, whereupon Caesar with great warmth protested that their opposition drove him against his will to appeal to the people.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These warmly opposed Caesar's proposal, and Cato even helped to raise suspicion against Caesar by what he said.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[44] .The following year a commission was set up to investigate the conspiracy, and Caesar was again accused of complicity.^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar followed up this great victory by a very wise act.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CAESAR goes up to the Senate-House, the rest following .
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

On Cicero's evidence that he had reported what he knew of the plot voluntarily, however, he was cleared, and one of his accusers, and also one of the commissioners, were sent to prison.[45]
.While praetor in 62 BC, Caesar supported Metellus Celer, now tribune, in proposing controversial legislation, and the pair were so obstinate they were suspended from office by the Senate.^ When the conspiracy of Catiline was detected, and all the rest of the senate favoured inflicting the extreme penalty on those implicated in the plot, Caesar, who was now praetor elect, alone proposed that their goods be confiscated and that they be imprisoned each in a separate town.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sulla, (in office 82 BC) though he did violate Rome by taking his army into it (against the law of the Republic), was a figure of the Republic, he preceded Caesar and was not a figure of the Empire.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both Pompey and the Senate were envious of Caesar’s success and they were also fearful of his ambitions.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar attempted to continue to perform his duties, only giving way when violence was threatened.^ The best way to link to the site remains http://www.sankey.ca/caesar/ , and the little icons under each post will give you permalinks.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no way to reason with him, and the only possible way to return to the method of democracy which had worked well for centuries was to kill Julius Caesar.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was a long way off when he received news of [294] the danger which threatened the legion.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Senate was persuaded to reinstate him after he quelled public demonstrations in his favour.^ He persuaded the senate to send him to Africa and replace the general in the war there.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.That year the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess") was held at Caesar's house.^ On the day of the festival Caesar had to leave his house, during the day he got an urgent message from his mother telling him to come home.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The festival of Bona Dea, from which all men were excluded.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter was then awaiting trial for breaking into Caesar’s house the previous December disguised as a woman at the festival of the Bona Dea, which no man is allowed to attend.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.No men were permitted to attend, but a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Caesar's wife Pompeia.^ Caesar’s father arranged his marriage with a young woman named Cossutia.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clodius answered that he was waiting for Pompeia's Abra (this was the very name by which the maid was called), and his voice betrayed him.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, in the case of elderly women, it was ancient Roman usage to pronounce funeral orations over them; but it was not customary in the case of young women, and Caesar was the first to do so when his own wife died.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. .Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, careful not to offend one of the most powerful patrician families of Rome, and Clodius was acquitted after rampant bribery and intimidation.^ Clodius, at any rate, escaped; most of the judges giving their opinions so written as to be illegible that they might not be in danger from the people by condemning him, nor in disgrace with the nobility by acquitting him.

^ Caesar outdid anyone in history by hiring no fewer than 640 gladiators for just one performance and he armored them in silver.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Publius Clodius was a patrician by descent, eminent both for his riches and eloquence, but in licentiousness of life and audacity exceeded the most noted profligates of the day.

.Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion."^ "Because," said Caesar, "I thought my wife ought not even to be under suspicion."
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These warmly opposed Caesar's proposal, and Cato even helped to raise suspicion against Caesar by what he said.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar divorced Pompeia at once, but when he was summoned to testify at the trial, he said he knew nothing about the matters with which Clodius was charged.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[47]
.After his praetorship, Caesar was appointed to govern Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberia), but he was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave.^ These men Caesar brought together in friendship after their quarrel, and by p473 concentrating their united strength upon himself, succeeded, before men were aware of it, and by an act which could be called one of kindness, in changing the form of government.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Before leaving Rome to govern Further Spain for a year, Caesar divorced his wife Pompeia because of the allegation that she had been implicated in the offense of Publius Clodius.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before any one else could give an opinion Caesar cried out, 'A sudden one.'
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men.^ When tidings of these things came to Rome, men were made more cheerful, and some of the fugitives turned back.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He also patched up a peace between Pompeius and Marcus Crassus, who had been enemies since their consulship, which had been one of constant wrangling.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This led him to apply himself to Crassus , who was the richest man in Rome, but wanted Cæsar's youthful vigour and heat to sustain the opposition against Pompey .

.In return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey, Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others.^ Pompey had the army, Crassus had the money, and Caesar had the political genius.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mark Antony was his major supporter and he helped convince the others to allow Caesar to have these abilities, but it led to some problems.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended.^ Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that he divorce his wife because Sulla would only allow him to leave on that condition.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having thus ended the war, Caesar left his army in winter quarters, and journeyed to that part of his province of Gaul which lay on the southern side of the Alps, and which is separated from Italy by the river Rubicon.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now war by sea and land had opened wide its gates, for Caesar, by going beyond the bounds of his province, had broken the laws and declared war upon the state.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

In Hispania he conquered the Callaici and Lusitani, being hailed as imperator by his troops, reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem.[48]
Being hailed as imperator entitled Caesar to a triumph. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. .If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen.^ But inasmuch as the day for the elections had already been announced and no account be taken of Caesar's candidacy unless he entered the city as a private citizen, and since his intrigues to gain exemption from the laws met with general protest, he was forced to forgo the triumph, to avoid losing the consulship.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pompey and Caesar were supposed to give up their military and enter the city of Rome to find a real ruler.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

He could not do both in the time available. .He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal.^ He therefore applied to the senate for permission to stand for the consulship without presenting himself within the walls.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship.^ Caesar therefore determined to give up the triumph, and to stand for the consulship.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]

First consulship and triumvirate

.Three candidates stood for the consulship: Caesar, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who had been aedile with Caesar several years earlier, and Lucius Lucceius.^ He had received the most honourable of the praetorships for the current year, and was to be consul three years later, having been preferred to Cassius, who was a rival candidate.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Caesar had long been bent upon the ruin of Pompey, who, he plainly saw, alone stood between him and the mastery of Rome.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar had secured for five years the governorship of three provinces.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

The election was dirty. .Caesar canvassed Cicero for support, and made an alliance with the wealthy Lucceius, but the establishment threw its financial weight behind the conservative Bibulus, and even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in his favour.^ Enter from opposite sides, CASCA, with his sword drawn, and CICERO CICERO Good even, Casca: brought you Caesar home?
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These warmly opposed Caesar's proposal, and Cato even helped to raise suspicion against Caesar by what he said.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Caesar and Bibulus were elected as consuls for 59 BC.[50]
.Caesar was already in Crassus's political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey, who was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for ratification of his eastern settlements and farmland for his veterans.^ Pompey had the army, Crassus had the money, and Caesar had the political genius.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pompey for his part sought the ratification of his Eastern settlement and land allotments for his discharged troops.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar therefore kept the writing, but though he made several attempts to read it, the crowd of people who came in his way prevented his doing so, and he entered the senate holding the roll, still unread, in his hand.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pompey and Crassus had been at odds since they were consuls together in 70 BC, and Caesar knew if he allied himself with one he would lose the support of the other, so he endeavoured to reconcile them.^ Caesar had started as a consul and had formed the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On this account they say that from this time on Caesar passed whole nights at drinking parties in order to protect himself.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Between the three of them, they had enough money and political influence to control public business.^ He listened to many political discussions between his family which had substantial influences on him.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (rule of three men), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia.^ This alliance was called the first triumvirate.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His relations with Pompey had ended when Caesars daughter Julia died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar had started as a consul and had formed the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[51] .Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia, daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, who was elected to the consulship for the following year.^ Cinna was killed the year that Caesar had married Cinna’s daughter Cornelia.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A little time after, Cæsar married Calpurnia, the daughter of Piso, and got Piso made consul for the year following.

^ Piso was Calpurnia’s father and the year after the marriage Caesar arranged for Piso to be consul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[52]
.Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public.^ Caesar had started as a consul and had formed the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pompey and Crassus were of the number, and among these three it was settled that Pompey and Crassus should be consuls for the next year, and that in return they should procure for Caesar a further term of five years in his government, together with supplies for his needs from the public treasury.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar redistributed state lands in Italy and founded new colonies overseas.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

Pompey filled the city with soldiers, and the triumvirate's opponents were intimidated. .Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters.^ As for Caesar's colleague, Bibulus, since he availed nothing by obstructing Caesar's laws, but often ran the risk with Cato of being killed in the forum, he shut himself up at home for the remainder of his term of office.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now war by sea and land had opened wide its gates, for Caesar, by going beyond the bounds of his province, had broken the laws and declared war upon the state.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His soldiers supported him, and thus Caesar was drawn into a difficult war, for he had but a few troops with which to subdue a great city and a large army.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.His lictors had their fasces broken, two tribunes accompanying him were wounded, and Bibulus himself had a bucket of excrement thrown over him.^ He also revived a by-gone custom, that during the months when he did not have the fasces an orderly should walk before him, while the lictors followed him.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens.^ CASSIUS Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life Cuts off so many years of fearing death.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Casca Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life ¶ Cuts off so many years of fearing death.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

.These attempts to obstruct Caesar's legislation proved ineffective.^ Of these Gaius Oppius, as if admitting that the situation required apology and defence, published a book, to prove that the child whom Cleopatra fathered on Caesar was not his.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar's next war was in defence of Gaul against these Germans, who proved themselves very troublesome neighbours to the peoples he had subdued.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar".[53]
This also gave rise to this lampoon-
The event occurred, as I recall, when Caesar governed Rome-
.Caesar, not Bibulus, who kept his seat at home.^ He made a circuit around Caesar, who remained seated, and then leaped down from his horse, stripped off his suit of armour, and seating himself at Caesar's feet remained motionless, until he was delivered up to be kept in custody for the triumph.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When Caesar and Bibulus were first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit Caesar's future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than governorship of a province, as their proconsular duties after their year of office was over.^ Caesar had secured for five years the governorship of three provinces.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ T HE birth date of Caius Julius Caesar, the greatest man of the ancient world, is generally given as 100 B.C. If so, Caesar must have filled a number of public offices two years earlier than the law allowed.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Caesar was out of Italy after 49 BC real power lay in the hands of his representatives.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[54] .With the help of Piso and Pompey, Caesar later had this overturned, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (the western Balkans), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions.^ At the same time the government of Gaul was decreed to Caesar for five years, and to this was added Illyricum, with four legions.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pompey, however, immediately after his marriage, filled the forum with armed men and helped the people to enact Caesar's laws and give him as his consular province Gaul on both sides of the Alps for five years, together with Illyricum and four legions.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He further proposed a compromise to his opponents, that after giving up eight legions and Transalpine Gaul, he be allowed to keep two legions and Cisalpine Gaul, or at least one legion and Illyricum, until he was elected consul.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The term of his proconsulship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one.^ I have no reason to think that we might not get along just fine in a different setting than the rather personal way you're responding to what I'm saying.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus died Caesar at the age of fifty-six, having survived his rival Pompey not much more than four years.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus he lived among them for thirty-eight days, rather as though they were his guards than he their prisoner.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

[55] .When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province.^ Consequently, Caesar canvassed by proxy for a consulship, and likewise for an extension of time in which to hold his own provinces.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar What can be avoided 1015 Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods?
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Even worse is a law that imposes a five year wait between governorships and the consulship, meaning that I could be open to prosecution as soon as my command here ends!
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

[56]

Conquest of Gaul

.Caesar was still deeply in debt, and there was money to be made as a provincial governor, whether by extortion[57] or by military adventurism.^ As Caesar was still very young, some one said to the dictator that there was no need to take the life of such a boy.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He made lots of money by doing these things and soon had enough to pay back all his debts.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He returned in a short time with considerable military glory and enough money to pay off all his debts.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces, Illyricum and Gallia Narbonensis, bordered on unconquered territory, and independent Gaul was known to be unstable.^ The senate would not run the risk of letting Caesar secure a province involving the command of an army.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the government of Gaul was decreed to Caesar for five years, and to this was added Illyricum, with four legions.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But presently letters came from Caesar in which he appeared to take a more moderate position, for he agreed to surrender everything else, but demanded that Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum together with two legions should be given him until he stood for his second consulship.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Rome's allies the Aedui had been defeated by their Gallic rivals, with the help of a contingent of Germanic Suebi under Ariovistus, who had settled in conquered Aeduan land, and the Helvetii were mobilising for a mass migration, which the Romans feared had warlike intent.^ He found them ravaging the lands of those Gauls who were allies of Rome.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who, to curry favour with him, sought to procure him the title, spread among the people the statement that it appeared from the Sibylline Books that the Romans would never conquer the Parthians except under the leadership of a king.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without Roman intervention, Germans would overpower Gaul and settle their people there, which would create an unacceptable situation: a powerful, warlike people on Rome's northern border.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar raised two new legions and defeated first the Helvetii, then Ariovistus, and left his army in winter quarters in the territory of the Sequani, signaling that his interest in the lands outside Gallia Narbonensis would not be temporary.^ Caesar knew that if he left his army behind he would be killed.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was a long way off when he received news of [294] the danger which threatened the legion.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was now twenty-two and he would start his political career.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]
Roman silver Denarius with the head of captive Gaul 48 BC, following the campaigns of Caesar
.He began his second year with double the military strength he had begun with, having raised another two legions in Cisalpine Gaul during the winter.^ My men were having some trouble with a massive group of Gaul horsemen so I reinforced them with my new German cavalry and drew up the legions facing the Gaul camp.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the government of Gaul was decreed to Caesar for five years, and to this was added Illyricum, with four legions.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But presently letters came from Caesar in which he appeared to take a more moderate position, for he agreed to surrender everything else, but demanded that Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum together with two legions should be given him until he stood for his second consulship.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

The legality of this was dubious, as the Cisalpine Gauls were not Roman citizens. .In response to Caesar's activities the previous year, the Belgic tribes of north-eastern Gaul had begun to arm themselves.^ At the same time the government of Gaul was decreed to Caesar for five years, and to this was added Illyricum, with four legions.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After his defeat of the Belgic tribes in the north and the submission of the maritime tribes on the Atlantic seaboard, he believed that the task had all but been accomplished.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When I started as governor, Gaul tribes had begun a dangerous practice of requesting German help with their intertribal conflicts.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar treated this as an aggressive move, and, after an inconclusive engagement against a united Belgic army, conquered the tribes piecemeal.^ Meanwhile Caesar lay in the town which he had seized, lacking sufficient troops to make head against the enemy, and full of anxiety at the delay of the rest of his army.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Caesar led his army against the Nervii, who dwelt in a densely wooded country.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With these he marched against the Calaici and Lusitani and conquered them, and advancing as far as the ocean, subdued the tribes which never before had been subject to the Romans.

.Meanwhile, one legion, commanded by Crassus' son Publius, began the conquest of the tribes of the Armorican peninsula.^ He assigned the charge of the mint and of the public revenues to his own slaves, and gave the oversight and command of the three legions which he had left at Alexandria to a favourite of his called Rufio, son of one of his freedmen.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, as the community was aghast at the murder of Publius Clodius, the senate had voted that only one consul should be chosen, and expressly named Gnaeus Pompeius.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[59]
.During the spring of 56 BC the Triumvirate held a conference at Luca (modern Lucca) in Cisalpine Gaul.^ By 56 BC most of Gaul had been subdued.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 55 B.C. Plutarch passes over Caesar's campaign of 56 B.C. in Gaul, following the conference at Luca.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Rome was in turmoil, and Clodius' populist campaigns had been undermining relations between Crassus and Pompey.^ In Rome, the senate proposed a negotiated compromise between Caesar and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Caesar had long been bent upon the ruin of Pompey, who, he plainly saw, alone stood between him and the mastery of Rome.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This led him to apply himself to Crassus , who was the richest man in Rome, but wanted Cæsar's youthful vigour and heat to sustain the opposition against Pompey .

.The meeting renewed the Triumvirate and extended Caesar's proconsulship for another five years.^ Caesar was killed and there was another triumvirate formed.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time the government of Gaul was decreed to Caesar for five years, and to this was added Illyricum, with four legions.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pompey and Crassus were to be elected consuls for the ensuing year, and Caesar was to have money voted him, besides another five years in his provincial command.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Crassus and Pompey would be consuls again, with similarly long-term proconsulships to follow: Syria for Crassus, the Hispanian provinces for Pompey.^ Pompey and Crassus were of the number, and among these three it was settled that Pompey and Crassus should be consuls for the next year, and that in return they should procure for Caesar a further term of five years in his government, together with supplies for his needs from the public treasury.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In deliberation here held, it was determined that Pompey and Crassus should be consuls again for the following year; that Cæsar should have a fresh supply of money, and that his command should be renewed to him for five years more.

^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] .The conquest of Armorica was completed when Caesar defeated the Veneti in a naval battle, while young Crassus conquered the Aquitani of the south-west.^ In announcing the swiftness and fierceness of this battle to one of his friends at Rome, Amantius, Caesar wrote three words: "Came, saw, conquered."
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

By the end of campaigning in 56 BC only the Morini and Menapii of the coastal Low Countries still held out.[61]
.In 55 BC Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge.^ Brutus By your pardon: ¶ I will myself into the pulpit first, ¶ And show the reason of our Caesar's death.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ His second war was in defence of the Gauls against the Germans, though some time before he had made Ariovistus, their king, recognized at Rome as an ally.

^ After this, Cæsar returned again to his forces in Gaul, when he found that country involved in a dangerous war, two strong nations of the Germans having lately passed the Rhine to conquer it; one of them called the Usipes.

.Late that summer, having subdued the Morini and Menapii, he crossed to Britain, claiming that the Britons had aided the Veneti against him the previous year.^ And Piso and Catulus found fault with Cicero for having let Cæsar escape, when in the conspiracy of Catiline he had given the government such advantage against him.

^ In a longer and more serious invasion of Britain he crossed the Thames and received the submission of the supreme commander of the southeastern Britons, Cassivellaunus.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They declared that they did approve them, whereupon he urged them to give him their aid against those who threatened to oppose p475 him with swords.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

His intelligence was poor, and although he gained a beachhead on the Kent coast he was unable to advance further, and returned to Gaul for the winter.[62] .He returned the following year, better prepared and with a larger force, and achieved more.^ The 10th legion followed orders exactly and stayed back, while the others - led by the 8th - had almost scaled the walls of the town when the diverted forces returned to defend their town.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

He advanced inland, establishing Mandubracius of the Trinovantes as a friendly king and bringing his rival, Cassivellaunus, to terms. .But poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, led by Ambiorix of the Eburones, forcing Caesar to campaign through the winter and into the following year.^ The numerous revolts of the Gauls in those parts were quieted by this success, as well as by the fact that Caesar himself, during the winter, went about in all directions and kept close watch on the disturbers of the peace.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Caesar, when he had settled the affairs of Farther Gaul, he again crossed the Alps and passed the winter near the river Po, in order to watch over his interests in Rome.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After his return from a successful year administrating Spain Caesar was elected consul for 59 BC through political alliance with Pompey and Crassus .
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the defeat of Ambiorix, Caesar believed Gaul was now pacified.^ After his defeat of the Belgic tribes in the north, and the submission of the maritime tribes on the Atlantic seaboard, he believed he had conquered the entire area of Gaul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Caesar's army was now very large, and as there was, moreover, a scarcity of food in Gaul, he was forced to divide it when he went into winter quarters.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He purposed, now that there was a coalition at Rome against Caesar, at once to rouse all Gaul to war.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[63]
.While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth.^ His relations with Pompey had ended when Caesars daughter Julia died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, in the case of elderly women, it was ancient Roman usage to pronounce funeral orations over them; but it was not customary in the case of young women, and Caesar was the first to do so when his own wife died.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When quaestor, he pronounced the customary orations from the rostra in praise of his aunt Julia and his wife Cornelia, who had both died.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar tried to resecure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece Octavia in marriage, alienating Octavia's husband Gaius Marcellus, but Pompey declined.^ Moreover, to retain his relationship and friendship with Pompey, Caesar offered him his sister's granddaughter Octavia in marriage, although she was already the wife of Gaius Marcellus, and asked for the hand of Pompey's daughter, who was promised to Faustus Sulla.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after this incident Caesar found out some of his powerful friends were going to try and get him a pardon.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A part of the senate strongly opposed these proposals, whereupon Caesar with great warmth protested that their opposition drove him against his will to appeal to the people.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of Parthia. Rome was on the edge of violence. .Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married Cornelia, daughter of Caesar's political opponent Quintus Metellus Scipio, whom he invited to become his consular colleague once order was restored.^ Cinna was killed the year that Caesar had married Cinna’s daughter Cornelia.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar married Pompeia after Cornelias death.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

The Triumvirate was dead.[64]
Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar, by Lionel Royer
.In 52 BC another, larger revolt erupted in Gaul, led by Vercingetorix of the Arverni.^ The Arverni have indeed marched against the Bituriges, led by a new "king" named Vercingetorix.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Vercingetorix managed to unite the Gallic tribes and proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar in several engagements including the Battle of Gergovia, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender.^ Nevertheless, he waged war by battle, pursuit and siege, till he forced the camp of his enemies and added their troops to his own.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Vercingetorix must force a battle soon or his men will grow too weak.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ After this, Antony put in from Brundisium with his forces, and Caesar was emboldened to challenge Pompey to battle.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[65] .Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year,[66] Gaul was effectively conquered.^ Nine years later in 49 B.C., after constant warfare, he had stormed over eight hundred towns and conquered the area that is now France.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Titus Labienus was Caesar's most senior legate during his Gallic campaigns, having the status of propraetor.^ Such, then, is said to have been the course of Caesar's life before his Gallic campaigns.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The experiment having thus failed, Caesar rose from his seat, after ordering the wreath to be carried up to the Capitol; 8 but then his statues were seen to have been decked with royal diadems.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For even Labienus, one of Caesar's greatest friends, who had been his legate and had fought most zealously with him in all his Gallic wars, now ran away from him and came to Pompey.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[67] .Other prominent men who served under him included his relative Lucius Julius Caesar,[68] Crassus' sons Publius[69] and Marcus,[70] Cicero's brother Quintus,[71] Decimus Brutus,[72] and Mark Antony.^ Brutus Look how he makes to Caesar: mark him.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Brutus You shall, Mark Antony.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

[73]
.Plutarch claimed that the army had fought against three million men in the course of the Gallic Wars, of whom 1 million died, and another million were enslaved.^ He fought a small war, restrained an army of rebels in Lusitania, reached Galicia and looked at the Atlantic for the first time.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were [288] brave and warlike peoples and formidable in numbers, for they mustered in all three hundred thousand, of whom one hundred and ninety thousand were fighting men.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For in less than ten years of warfare in Gaul, he carried eight hundred cities by assault, conquered three hundred nations, and at different times fought pitched battles with three millions of men, of whom one million were slain and another million made prisoners.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

300 tribes were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed.[74] .Almost the entire population of the city of Avaricum (Bourges) (40,000 in all) was slaughtered.^ The town defenders (and there are many of them, this town has a population of at least 40,000) harry us at every turn.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

[75] .Julius Caesar reports that 368,000 of the Helvetii left home, of whom 92,000 could bear arms, and only 110,000 returned after the campaign.^ There was no way to reason with him, and the only possible way to return to the method of democracy which had worked well for centuries was to kill Julius Caesar.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar laid waste their lands with fire, and then returned into Gaul after an absence of only eighteen days in Germany.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar returned the legions, and the officers who led them back spread reports which filled Pompey with vain hopes which proved his ruin.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

[76] .However, in view of the difficulty of finding accurate counts in the first place, Caesar's propagandistic purposes, and the common gross exaggeration of numbers in ancient texts, the totals of enemy combatants in particular are likely to be far too high.^ Now, in the case of elderly women, it was ancient Roman usage to pronounce funeral orations over them; but it was not customary in the case of young women, and Caesar was the first to do so when his own wife died.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Furger-Gunti considers an army of more than 60,000 fighting Helvetii extremely unlikely in the view of the tactics described, and assumes the actual numbers to have been around 40,000 warriors out of a total of 160,000 emigrants.^ But Caesar laid the problem before the best philosophers and mathematicians, and out of the methods of correction which were already at hand compounded one of his own which was more accurate than any.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But for his present purposes he considered that swiftness and boldness of action were more necessary to his success than numbers.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps you should consider that I'm more interested in having the past understood more clearly than I am in your points before impugning my honesty.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .Delbrück suggests an even lower number of 100,000 people, out of which only 16,000 were fighters, which would make the Celtic force about half the size of the Roman body of ca.^ But Cæsar, for the prosecution of his own scheme of government, though he knew their characters and disapproved them, was forced to make use of those who would serve him.

^ For though their numbers were great, yet they made but a slender defence, and the marshes and deep rivers were made passable to the Roman foot by the vast quantity of dead bodies.

^ The exact death toll is unknown, but at least 100 people were killed and at least 300 more injured; property damage was about $1.5 million.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | July 13 |Japan Obon festival Feast of the Miracles Brussels Belgium Live Aid July 13 Castro massacre Cuba NewYork draft riots 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

30,000 men.[78]

Civil war

An engraving depicting Gaius Julius Caesar.
.In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as Proconsul had finished.^ In Rome, the senate proposed a negotiated compromise between Caesar and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They ordered Caesar to give up command and return to Rome.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The law passed, Caesar was ordered to leave his army behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[79] .Moreover, the Senate forbade Caesar to stand for a second consulship in absentia.^ Caesar was upset because the Senate had tried to undercut his campaign for consulship.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[79] .Caesar thought he would be prosecuted and politically marginalised if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a Consul or without the power of his army.^ Who would have thought that even before a year past after the scourge of terrorism was eradicated the man who played the major role in a glorious victory would join the President ‘s political foes to drive the latter from power?

^ Caesar was now twenty-two and he would start his political career.
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^ Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that he divorce his wife because Sulla would only allow him to leave on that condition.
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Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. .On 10 January 49 BC Caesar crossed the Rubicon river (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war.^ In 49 BC Caesar and his men crossed the Rubicon.
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^ The museum's newly acquired Caesar is one of only 12 autographed imperial relief carvings known to have been made by Mino.
  • Julius Caesar portrait by Mino da Fiesole to go on view at Cleveland Museum of Art | Arts - cleveland.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: General]

^ The law passed, Caesar was ordered to leave his army behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon crossing the Rubicon, Plutarch reports that Caesar quoted the Athenian playwright Menander in Greek, saying ἀνερρίφθω κύβος (let the dice be tossed).^ Caesar knew that if he entered the city of Rome without his troops he would be killed by Pompey and so he crossed the Rubicon with his troops and attacked Rome.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When these prodigies Do so conjointly meet, let not men say 'These are their reasons; they are natural;' For, I believe, they are portentous things Unto the climate that they point upon.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The law passed, Caesar was ordered to leave his army behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] Suetonius gives the Latin approximation alea iacta est (the die is tossed).[81]
.The Optimates, including Metellus Scipio and Cato the Younger, fled to the south, having little confidence in the newly raised troops especially since so many cities in northern Italy had voluntarily surrendered.^ After the battle of Pharsalia, Cato and Scipio fled into Africa, and there, with the assistance of King Juba, got together a considerable force, which Cæsar resolved to engage.

.An attempted stand by a consulate legion in Samarium resulted in the consul being handed over by the defenders and the legion surrendering without significant fighting.^ Should the legions come to me, and have to fight without their leader?
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The relieving army has indeed dispersed, so either Vercingetorix will surrender, give himself up to be murdered by his men, or the defenders will fight to the death pointlessly.
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^ Over the middlemost he placed Domitius Calvinus; Antony commanded the left wing, and he himself the right, being resolved to fight at the head of the tenth legion.

.Despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, Pompey had no intention of fighting.^ Caesar was greatly outnumbered and was at a major disadvantage.
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^ He was somewhat frightened at first, but seeing it neither did nor spoke anything to him, only stood silently by his bedside, he asked who it was.

^ No one ventured to oppose him, but even the Suevi, who were the foremost nation of the Germans, bestowed themselves and their belongings in deep and woody defiles.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar pursued Pompey to Brindisium, hoping to capture Pompey before the trapped Senate and their legions could escape.^ In Rome, the senate proposed a negotiated compromise between Caesar and Pompey.
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^ On the Ides of March , two days before he was due to leave Rome on his great eastern expedition, he was stabbed to death at a meeting of the senate in Pompey’s new theater.
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^ Both Pompey and the Senate were envious of Caesar’s success and they were also fearful of his ambitions.
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[82] .Pompey managed to elude him, sailing out of the harbour before Caesar could break the barricades.^ Caesar Set him before me.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This battle was won on the feast of Bacchus, the very day in which Pompey, four years before, had set out for the war.

^ Caesar had avoided recall to Rome at the end of the five years of command voted to him by coming to a fresh agreement with Pompey and Crassus at Luca.
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Lacking a naval force since Pompey had already scoured the coasts of all ships for evacuation of his forces, Caesar decided to head for Hispania saying "I set forth to fight an army without a leader, so as later to fight a leader without an army." Leaving Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as prefect of Rome, and the rest of Italy under Mark Antony as tribune, Caesar made an astonishing 27-day route-march to Hispania, rejoining two of his Gallic legions, where he defeated Pompey's lieutenants. .He then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Greece where on 10 July 48 BC at Dyrrhachium Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat when the line of fortification was broken.^ An agrarian bill authorizing the purchase of land for Pompey’s veterans was passed in January of 59 BC at a disorderly public assembly which Caesar’s fellow consul Calpurnius Bibulus, was thrown from the platform and his consular insignia were broken.
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^ Pompey’s own attachment to Caesar was broken when Caesar’s daughter Julia to whom Pompey had been happily married since 59 BC died in 54 BC Crassus was killed by the Parthians at Carrhae in Mesopotamia.
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^ After this, Antony put in from Brundisium with his forces, and Caesar was emboldened to challenge Pompey to battle.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

He decisively defeated Pompey, despite Pompey's numerical advantage (nearly twice the number of infantry and considerably more cavalry), at Pharsalus in an exceedingly short engagement in 48 BC.[83]
.In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator,[84] with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse; Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulate (with Publius Servilius Vatia as his colleague) and then, after eleven days, resigned this dictatorate.^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ And for Mark Antony, think not of him; For he can do no more than Caesar's arm When Caesar's head is off.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He resigned from his dictatorship after only eleven days and made himself consul as he originally planned.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[84][85]
Cleopatra Before Caesar by the artist Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1866.
.He pursued Pompey to Alexandria, where Pompey was murdered by a former Roman officer serving in the court of King Ptolemy XIII.^ This set all Pompey's army and officers on fire to hasten and pursue Cæsar, whom they concluded to be beaten and flying.

^ When he came to Alexandria, where Pompey was already murdered, he would not look upon Theodotus, who presented him with his head, but taking only his signet, shed tears.

[86] .Caesar then became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, the Pharaoh Cleopatra VII.^ For it was not, as most men supposed, the quarrel between Caesar and Pompey that brought on the civil wars, but rather their friendship, since they worked together for the overthrow of the aristocracy in the first place, and then, when this had been accomplished, they quarrelled with one another.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For it was not the quarrel between Pompey and Cæsar, as most men imagine, which was the origin of the civil wars, but their union, their conspiring together at first to subvert the aristocracy, and so quarrelling afterwards between themselves.

^ Caesar knew that this was a death sentence for him so he did not leave his troops but marched into the city and caused a civil war.
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.Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head,[87] which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain Pothinus as a gift.^ Caesar had avoided recall to Rome at the end of the five years of command voted to him by coming to a fresh agreement with Pompey and Crassus at Luca.
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^ METELLUS CIMBER Caius Ligarius doth bear Caesar hard, Who rated him for speaking well of Pompey: I wonder none of you have thought of him.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And for Mark Antony, think not of him; For he can do no more than Caesar's arm When Caesar's head is off.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces in 47 BC in the Battle of the Nile and installed Cleopatra as ruler.^ Battle of Gravelines : In France , Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeated the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines .
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.Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory of the Alexandrine civil war with a triumphant procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 B.C. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, introducing Caesar to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs.^ Caesar knew that this was a death sentence for him so he did not leave his troops but marched into the city and caused a civil war.
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.Caesar and Cleopatra never married, as Roman Law only recognised marriages between two Roman citizens.^ He placed himself above all other Roman citizens, destroying the equality between himself, the Senate and the citizens.
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.Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage, which lasted 14 years – in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery – and may have fathered a son called Caesarion.^ Piso was Calpurnia’s father and the year after the marriage Caesar arranged for Piso to be consul.
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^ He fell in love with Cleopatra and her son Caesarion.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The marriage did not last long, only a few months.
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.Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber.^ After Caesar’s death, Brutus delivers an oration defending his actions, "It is not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more" and for the moment, the crowd is on his side.

^ Caesar outdid anyone in history by hiring no fewer than 640 gladiators for just one performance and he armored them in silver.
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^ And for Mark Antony, think not of him; For he can do no more than Caesar's arm When Caesar's head is off.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed Dictator, with a term of one year.^ After one of his victories he was again appointed dictator the length of the term was undefined.
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^ In 74 BC, the twenty-six year old, Caesar, went back to Rome to try and jump-start his career again.
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^ Quaestors were also selected two at a time for one year terms.
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[85] .After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated King Pharnaces II of Pontus in the Battle of Zela; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies.^ However, these words were written in a report to Rome in 47 BCE after defeating Pharnaces II of Pontus at Zela in Asia Minor in just five days.
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^ In announcing the swiftness and fierceness of this battle to one of his friends at Rome, Amantius, Caesar wrote three words: "Came, saw, conquered."
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some two months hence up higher toward the north He first presents his fire; and the high east Stands, as the Capitol, directly here.
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[88] Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's senatorial supporters. .He quickly gained a significant victory at Thapsus in 46 BC over the forces of Metellus Scipio (who died in the battle) and Cato the Younger (who committed suicide).^ After the battle of Pharsalia, Cato and Scipio fled into Africa, and there, with the assistance of King Juba, got together a considerable force, which Cæsar resolved to engage.

^ He committed the care of these forces to Hortensius, and himself spent the day in public as a stander-by and spectator of the gladiators, who exercised before him.

^ Brutus and Casius are defeated in battle and commit suicide.

[89] .After this victory, he was appointed Dictator for ten years.^ After one of his victories he was again appointed dictator the length of the term was undefined.
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[90]
.Nevertheless, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Hispania.^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
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^ The younger of Pompey's sons escaped; but Didius, some days after the fight, brought the head of the elder to Cæsar.

^ Caesar decided he would prosecute the former governor of Macedonia, Gnaeus Dolabella, who had used public funds greedily.
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.Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC.[91] During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC (with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) and 45 BC (without colleague).^ Caesar wanted to be pro-consul after his term as consul.
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^ Then in 46 BC he was elected to a third dictatorship, meanwhile he served four terms as consul and was also tribune.
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^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
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Aftermath of the civil war

.While he was still campaigning in Hispania, the Senate began bestowing honours on Caesar in absentia.^ Caesar was upset because the Senate had tried to undercut his campaign for consulship.
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.Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him.^ Trebonius There is no fear in him.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There is but one mind in all these men, and it is bent against Caesar.
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^ There was no way to reason with him, and the only possible way to return to the method of democracy which had worked well for centuries was to kill Julius Caesar.
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Great games and celebrations were held on 21 April to honour Caesar’s victory at Munda. .Plutarch writes that many Romans found the triumph held following Caesar's victory to be in poor taste, as those defeated in the civil war had not been foreigners, but instead fellow Romans.^ Those that will hear me speak, let 'em stay here; Those that will follow Cassius, go with him; And public reasons shall be rendered Of Caesar's death.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the last war that Caesar waged; and the • triumph that was celebrated for it vexed the Romans as nothing else had done.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar knew that this was a death sentence for him so he did not leave his troops but marched into the city and caused a civil war.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
Caesar was the first to print his own bust on a Roman minted coin.
.On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian) as the heir to everything, including his name.^ When Caesar was out of Italy after 49 BC real power lay in the hands of his representatives.
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^ The older Caesar loved his protégé Brutus like a son and named him as one of his testamentary heirs.

^ Comments Off Julius Caesar was born on the thirteenth day of the month Quintilis in the year of 100 BC. His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar, the same as his fathers.
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.Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Marcus Junius Brutus would be the next heir in succession.^ He wrote to Cicero (died 43 B.C.E.) criticising him for praising Octavius Caesar.

^ The older Caesar loved his protégé Brutus like a son and named him as one of his testamentary heirs.

^ You are not wood, you are not stones, but men; And, being men, bearing the will of Caesar, It will inflame you, it will make you mad: 'Tis good you know not that you are his heirs; For, if you should, O, what would come of it!
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

Caesar tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain and reduced the number of recipients to a fixed number, all of whom were entered into a special register.[93] From 47 to 44 he made plans for the distribution of land to about 15,000 of his veterans.[94]
.In 63 BC Caesar had been elected Pontifex Maximus, and one of his roles as such was settling the calendar.^ When the role of Pontifex Maximus opened up he made a bid for it.
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^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
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^ When Caesar returned to Rome he was elected aedile, or people who supervised civic affairs, such as water supply, roads, the public games, and the repair of buildings.
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A complete overhaul of the old Roman calendar proved to be one of his most long lasting and influential reforms. .In 46 BC, Caesar established a 365-day year with a leap year every fourth year.^ In 74 BC, the twenty-six year old, Caesar, went back to Rome to try and jump-start his career again.
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^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
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^ July 13 is the 194 th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (195 th in leap years) , with 171 days remaining.
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[95] (This Julian calendar was subsequently modified by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 into the modern Gregorian calendar.) .As a result of this reform, a certain Roman year (mostly equivalent to 46 BC in the modern calendar) was made 445 days long, to bring the calendar into line with the seasons.^ The Bon Odori festival has a long history, and has made many changes as years go by.
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^ At this time the Roman calendar was more than two months ahead of the solar year.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ July 13 is the 194 th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (195 th in leap years) , with 171 days remaining.
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[95] .The month of July is named after Julius in his honour.^ The month of July was named after Caesar and his statue was placed in the temple of Quirinus.
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^ Comments Off Julius Caesar was born on the thirteenth day of the month Quintilis in the year of 100 BC. His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar, the same as his fathers.
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[96] The Forum of Caesar, with its Temple of Venus Genetrix, was built among many other public works.

Assassination

.On the Ides of March (15 March; see Roman calendar) of 44 BC, Caesar was due to appear at a session of the Senate.^ Caesar The ides of March are come.
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^ Calpurnia remained Caesar’s wife till his death in 44 BC. .
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^ He summoned the Senate for a meeting extraordinaire on the March 15 44 BCE - the now famous "Ides of March".

.Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca, and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off at the steps of the forum.^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
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^ Mark Antony was his major supporter and he helped convince the others to allow Caesar to have these abilities, but it led to some problems.
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^ Do grace to Caesar's corpse, and grace his speech ¶ Tending to Caesar's glories, which Mark Antony ¶ By our permission is allowed to make.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

.However, the group of senators intercepted Caesar just as he was passing the Theatre of Pompey, located in the Campus Martius, and directed him to a room adjoining the east portico.^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
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^ Cassius gathered a small group of citizens to join him in a plot to murder Caesar.
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^ Both Pompey and the Senate were envious of Caesar’s success and they were also fearful of his ambitions.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

[97]
The senators encircle Caesar.
.According to Plutarch, as Caesar arrived at the Senate Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother.^ METELLUS CIMBER Caius Ligarius doth bear Caesar hard, Who rated him for speaking well of Pompey: I wonder none of you have thought of him.
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^ Let him go, ¶ And presently prefer his suit to Caesar.
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^ Let him go, And presently prefer his suit to Caesar.
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[98] The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. .Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic.^ METELLUS CIMBER Caius Ligarius doth bear Caesar hard, Who rated him for speaking well of Pompey: I wonder none of you have thought of him.
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^ If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar's, to him I say, that Brutus' love to Caesar was no less than his.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I, as Aeneas, our great ancestor, ¶ Did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder ¶ The old Anchises bear, so, from the waves of Tiber ¶ Did I the tirèd Caesar.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!").[99] At the same time, Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?"[100] Casca, frightened, shouted "Help, brother!" in Greek ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει!", "adelphe, boethei!"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. .Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico.^ This was the most unkindest cut of all; For when the noble Caesar saw him stab, Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms, Quite vanquish'd him: then burst his mighty heart; And, in his mantle muffling up his face, Even at the base of Pompey's statua, Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I have o'ershot myself to tell you of it, ¶ I fear I wrong the honorable men ¶ Whose daggers have stabbed Caesar.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Through this, the well-belovèd Brutus stabbed, ¶ And as he plucked his cursèd steel away, 1715 Mark how the blood of Caesar followed it, ¶ As rushing out of doors to be resolved ¶ If Brutus so unkindly knocked or no; ¶ For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

According to Eutropius, around sixty or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times.[101] According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal.[102]
The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον;"[103] (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius himself says Caesar said nothing.[99] .Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators.^ Caesar divorced Pompeia at once, but when he was summoned to testify at the trial, he said he knew nothing about the matters with which Clodius was charged.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar] 1220 Brutus What said Popilius Lena?
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ For Caesar, as we are told, said that Cassius urged the juster claims to the office, but that for his own part he could not pass Brutus by.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[104] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?");[105][106] this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." It has no basis in historical fact and Shakespeare's use of Latin here is not from any assertion that Caesar would have been using the language, rather than the Greek reported by Suetonius, but because the phrase was already popular at the time the play was written.[107]
.According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building.^ By Caius Trebonius, rather, as Plutarch says in the Brutus , xvii.1 .
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ DECIUS BRUTUS I have, when you have heard what I can say: And know it now: the senate have concluded To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a certain Cinna, however, one of the friends of Caesar, who chanced, as they say, to have seen during the previous night a strange vision.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[108] .Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!". They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread.^ For thus they had arrayed themselves in their fear and stolen out of Rome.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was found where he had taken refuge, in the chamber of the girl who had let him into the house; and when they saw who he was, the women drove him out of doors.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ BRUTUS My countrymen,-- Second Citizen Peace, silence!
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

A wax statue of Caesar was erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had amassed there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. .In the ensuing chaos Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire.^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Do grace to Caesar's corpse, and grace his speech ¶ Tending to Caesar's glories, which Mark Antony ¶ By our permission is allowed to make.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Brutus Mark Antony, here, take you Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

Aftermath of the assassination

Deification of Julius Caesar as represented in a 16th-century engraving.
The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic.[109] The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of high-browed aristocrats had killed their champion. .Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself.^ ANTONY Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This annoyed Caesar, who thought that Cicero's praise of the dead Cato was a denunciation of Caesar himself.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ ANTONY Fear him not, Caesar; he's not dangerous; He is a noble Roman and well given.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.But, to his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavian his sole heir, bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name as well as making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic.^ Third Citizen Let him be Caesar.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then make a ring about the corpse of Caesar, ¶ And let me show you him that made the will.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ And to his friends in Rome he wrote that this was the greatest and sweetest pleasure that he derived from his victory, namely, from time to time to save the lives of fellow citizens who had fought against him.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[110] The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. .The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the Liberators' civil war, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats.^ Messala It is but change, Titinius, for Octavius 2535 Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power, ¶ As Cassius' legions are by Antony.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Cassius Trebonius knows his time, for look you, Brutus, ¶ He draws Mark Antony out of the way.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ This more than anything else made Brutus and Cassius afraid, and not many days afterwards they withdrew from the city.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[111] .However, Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir.^ BRUTUS Or else were this a savage spectacle: Our reasons are so full of good regard That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar, You should be satisfied.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Antony Caesar did write for him to come to Rome.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ ANTONY Caesar did write for him to come to Rome.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Octavian, aged only 18 at the time of Caesar's death, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.^ Enter CAESAR; ANTONY, for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd following, among them a Soothsayer CAESAR Calpurnia!
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ BRUTUS Our course will seem too bloody, Caius Cassius, To cut the head off and then hack the limbs, Like wrath in death and envy afterwards; For Antony is but a limb of Caesar: Let us be sacrificers, but not butchers, Caius.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You all do know this mantle; I remember ¶ The first time ever Caesar put it on.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In order to combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them.^ Enter CAESAR; ANTONY, for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd following, among them a Soothsayer CAESAR Calpurnia!
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ BRUTUS Our course will seem too bloody, Caius Cassius, To cut the head off and then hack the limbs, Like wrath in death and envy afterwards; For Antony is but a limb of Caesar: Let us be sacrificers, but not butchers, Caius.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ TITINIUS O Cassius, Brutus gave the word too early; Who, having some advantage on Octavius, Took it too eagerly: his soldiers fell to spoil, Whilst we by Antony are all enclosed.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC,[112] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus.^ Antony and Lepidus, the chief friends of Caesar, stole away and took refuge in the houses of others.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And when the consuls put the question whether Pompey should dismiss his soldiers, and again whether Caesar should, very few senators voted for the first, and all but a few for the second; but when Antony again demanded that both should give up their commands, all with one accord assented.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter Caesar, Brutus, Cassius, Casca, Decius, Metellus, ¶ Trebonius, Cinna, Antony, Lepidus, Artemidorus, ¶ Publius, [Popilius Lena,] and the Soothsayer.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

[113] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god").[114] .Seeing that Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate brought back the horror of proscription, abandoned since Sulla.^ CAESAR Caesar shall forth: the things that threaten'd me Ne'er look'd but on my back; when they shall see The face of Caesar, they are vanished.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[115] .It engaged in the legally-sanctioned murder of a large number of its opponents in order to secure funding for its forty-five legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius.^ MESSALA It is but change, Titinius; for Octavius Is overthrown by noble Brutus' power, As Cassius' legions are by Antony.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His second war, directly in defence of the Gauls, was against the Germans, 31 although previously, in Rome, he had made their king Ariovistus p489 an ally.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The numbers of the infantry also were unequal, since forty-five thousand were arrayed against twenty-two thousand.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[116] .Antony and Octavius defeated them at Philippi.^ Messala, I have here received letters, That young Octavius and Mark Antony Come down upon us with a mighty power, Bending their expedition toward Philippi.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Messala, I have here received letters ¶ That young Octavius and Mark Antony ¶ Come down upon us with a mighty power, ¶ Bending their expedition toward Philippi.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

[117]
.Afterward, Mark Antony married Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome.^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the war in Egypt, some say that it was not necessary, but due to Caesar's passion for Cleopatra, and that it was inglorious and full of peril for him.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And for Mark Antony, think not of him; For he can do no more than Caesar's arm When Caesar's head is off.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. .This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name that raised him to status of a deity.^ The older Caesar loved his protégé Brutus like a son and named him as one of his testamentary heirs.

^ Julius’ surname became the title of emperors after him.

[118]
Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus and Scythia, and then swing back onto Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination.[119] .His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.^ In Parthia did I take thee prisoner, ¶ And then I swore thee, saving of thy life, 2520 That whatsoever I did bid thee do, ¶ Thou should'st attempt it.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Come hither, sirrah: In Parthia did I take thee prisoner; And then I swore thee, saving of thy life, That whatsoever I did bid thee do, Thou shouldst attempt it.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

Health

Based on remarks by Plutarch,[120] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is "sharply divided" on the subject, and it is more certain that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s.[121]
Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures.[122][123][124]

Literary works

.Caesar was considered during his lifetime to be one of the best orators and authors of prose in Rome—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style.^ Steadily, he enforced his grip on the people of Rome, becoming dictator and maybe even hoping to be king one day.

[125] Among his most famous works were his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to blacken Cato's reputation and respond to Cicero's Cato memorial. Poems by Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources.[126] His works other than his war commentaries and his speeches have been lost.

Memoirs

Commentarii de Bello Gallico, an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul
Other works historically attributed to Caesar, but whose authorship is doubted, are:
These narratives were written and published on a yearly basis during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front". Apparently simple and direct in style—to the point that Caesar's Commentarii are commonly studied by first and second year Latin students—they are in fact highly sophisticated tracts, aimed most particularly at the middle-brow readership of minor aristocrats[citation needed] in Rome, Italy, and the provinces.

Name

.Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Caesar (i.e., without lower case letters, "J", or "U"), Caesar's name is properly rendered "GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR". The form "CAIVS" is also attested using the old Roman pronunciation of letter C as G; it is an antique form of the more common "GAIVS". It is often seen abbreviated to "C. IVLIVS CAESAR". (The letterform "Æ" is a ligature, which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae".) In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈɡaːius ˈjuːlius ˈkaisar].^ The Roman poet and historian, Francis Petrarch (1304-1374) used the literary device of addressing letters to authors of the ancient world.

^ For let the gods so speed me, as I love ¶ The name of honor more than I fear death.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Love, and be friends, as two such men should be; For I have seen more years, I'm sure, than ye.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[127] In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. .Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus.^ Sure, the boy heard me: Brutus hath a suit That Caesar will not grant.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ, reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser. This German name was phonemically but not phonetically derived from the Middle Ages Ecclesiastical Latin, in which the familiar part "Caesar" is [ˈtʃeːsar], from which the modern English pronunciation is derived, as well as the title of Tsar. His name is also remembered in Norse mythology, where he is manifested as the legendary king Kjárr.[128]

Family

Roman families 4 Nov 08.png

Parents

Sisters

Wives

  • First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla, from 83 BC until her death in childbirth in 69 or 68 BC
  • Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC
  • Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis, from 59 BC until Caesar's death

Children

.
  • Julia with Cornelia Cinnilla, born in 83 or 82 BC
  • Caesarion, with Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC. He was killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus.
  • adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood, who later became Emperor Augustus.
  • Marcus Junius Brutus: The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth.^ Enter CAESAR; ANTONY, for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd following, among them a Soothsayer CAESAR Calpurnia!
    • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brutus O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet!
    • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have heard, Where many of the best respect in Rome, Except immortal Caesar, speaking of Brutus And groaning underneath this age's yoke, Have wish'd that noble Brutus had his eyes.
    • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [129]

Grandchildren

  • Grandson from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed.

Lovers

Notable relatives

.
  • Gaius Marius (married to his Aunt Julia)
  • Mark Antony
  • Lucius Julius Caesar
  • Julius Sabinus, a Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion of AD 69, claimed to be the great-grandson of Caesar on the grounds that his great-grandmother had been Caesar's lover during the Gallic war.^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
    • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Enter CAESAR; ANTONY, for the course; CALPURNIA, PORTIA, DECIUS BRUTUS, CICERO, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, and CASCA; a great crowd following, among them a Soothsayer CAESAR Calpurnia!
    • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These up to this time had called themselves brethren of the Romans and had been conspicuously honoured, but now, by joining the rebels, they caused great dejection in Caesar's army.
    • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    [130]

Political rivals and rumours of homosexual activity

Roman society viewed the passive role during sex, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. .Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar."^ But, indeed, sir, we make holiday, to see Caesar and to rejoice in his triumph.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[131] .According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career.^ Caesar gave their leader, Cornelius, two talents to set him free, and at once went down to the sea and sailed to King Nicomedes in Bithynia.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some say that Caesar made this deposition honestly; but according to others it was made to gratify the people, who were determined to rescue Clodius.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore Piso and Catulus blamed Cicero for having spared Caesar when, in the affair of Catiline, he gave his enemies a hold upon him.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The tales were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate and degrade him.^ As for the war in Egypt, some say that it was not necessary, but due to Caesar's passion for Cleopatra, and that it was inglorious and full of peril for him.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Accordingly, after he had dashed into the forum and the crowd had made way for him, he carried a diadem, round which a wreath of laurel was tied, and held it out to Caesar.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar gave their leader, Cornelius, two talents to set him free, and at once went down to the sea and sailed to King Nicomedes in Bithynia.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

It is possible that the rumours were spread only as a form of character assassination. Caesar himself, according to Cassius Dio, denied the accusations under oath.[132] This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. A favorite tactic used by the opposition was to accuse a popular political rival as living a Hellenistic lifestyle based on Greek and Eastern culture, where homosexuality and a lavish lifestyle were more acceptable than in Roman tradition.[citation needed]
Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers,[133] but later apologised.[134]
.Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favours.^ ANTONY No, Caesar, we will answer on their charge.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Antony No, Caesar, we will answer on their charge.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. .The boy Octavian was to become the first Roman emperor following Caesar's death.^ Brutus By your pardon: ¶ I will myself into the pulpit first, ¶ And show the reason of our Caesar's death.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Those that will hear me speak, let 'em stay here; Those that will follow Cassius, go with him; And public reasons shall be rendered Of Caesar's death.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Those that will hear me speak, let 'em stay here; 1535 Those that will follow Cassius, go with him; ¶ And public reasons shall be rendered ¶ Of Caesar's death.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

[135]

Chronology of his life

Honours and titles

.As a young man he was awarded the Corona Civica (civic crown) for valour while fighting in Asia Minor and went on to receive many honours.^ BRUTUS O, if thou wert the noblest of thy strain, Young man, thou couldst not die more honourable.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

These included titles such as Pater Patriae (Father of the Fatherland), and Dictator. .He was also elected Pontifex Maximus in 63 BC. The many titles bestowed on him by the Senate are sometimes cited as a cause of his assassination, as it seemed inappropriate to many contemporaries for a man to be awarded so many honours.^ And when the seers also, after many sacrifices, told him that the omens were unfavourable, he resolved to send Antony and dismiss the senate.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By these means he put the people in such a humour that every man of them was seeking out new offices and new honours with which to requite him.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ STRATO Free from the bondage you are in, Messala: The conquerors can but make a fire of him; For Brutus only overcame himself, And no man else hath honour by his death.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Divus Iulius or Divus Julius (the divine Julius or the deified Julius) was the official title that was given to Caesar posthumously by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. Mark Antony had been appointed as flamen (priest) to Caesar shortly before the latter was assassinated.^ Enter Mark Antony, with Caesar's body.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ ANTONY Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ ANTONY Fear him not, Caesar; he's not dangerous; He is a noble Roman and well given.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[136] Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. The cult of Divus Iulius was promoted by both Octavian and Mark Antony. .After the death of Antony, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (son of a god).^ BRUTUS Or else were this a savage spectacle: Our reasons are so full of good regard That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar, You should be satisfied.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Our reasons are so full of good regard ¶ That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar, ¶ You should be satisfied.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar's cognomen would itself become a title; it was greatly promulgated by the Bible, by the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became the German Kaiser and Slavic Tsar/Czar.^ And this man ¶ Is now become a god, and Cassius is 215 A wretched creature and must bend his body ¶ If Caesar carelessly but nod on him.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But they were intolerable neighbours of Caesar's subjects, and if an opportunity presented itself it was thought that they would not remain quietly in their present homes, but would encroach upon and occupy Gaul.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And this man Is now become a god, and Cassius is A wretched creature and must bend his body, If Caesar carelessly but nod on him.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The last tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria whose reign ended in 1946; for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.^ Bear with me; My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it come back to me.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is but one mind in all these men, and it is bent against Caesar.
  • Julius Caeser: Entire Play 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC shakespeare.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a certain Cinna, however, one of the friends of Caesar, who chanced, as they say, to have seen during the previous night a strange vision.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Depictions

For the marble bust from Arles discovered in 2007–8 alleged to be Caesar's likeness, and the ensuing controversy, see Arles portrait bust.

References

  1. ^ Fully, Caius Iulius Caii filius Caii nepos Caesar Imperator ("Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius, Imperator"). Official name after deification in 42 BC: Divus Iulius ("The Divine Julius").
  2. ^ There is some dispute over the date of Caesar's birth. The day is sometimes stated to be 12 July when his feast-day was celebrated after deification, but this was because his true birthday clashed with the Ludi Apollinares. Some scholars, based on the dates he held certain magistracies, have made a case for 101 or 102 BC as the year of his birth, but scholarly consensus favours 100 BC. Goldsworthy, 30
  3. ^ After Caesar's death the leap years were not inserted according to his intent and there is uncertainty about when leap years were observed between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive; the dates in this article between 45 BC and AD 4 inclusive are those observed in Rome and there is an uncertainty of about a day as to where those dates would be on the proleptic Julian calendar. See Blackburn, B and Holford-Strevens, L. (1999 corrected 2003). The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. p. 671. ISBN 978-0192142313
  4. ^ Froude, James Anthony (1879). Life of Caesar. Project Gutenberg e-text. p. 67. http://www.mirrorservice.org/sites/ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext05/8cesr10.txt.  See also: Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars: Julius 6; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.41; Virgil, Aeneid
  5. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.7. The misconception that Julius Caesar himself was born by Caesarian section dates back at least to the 10th century (Suda kappa 1199). Julius wasn't the first to bear the name, and in his time the procedure was only performed on dead women, while Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived long after he was born.
  6. ^ Historia Augusta: Aelius 2.
  7. ^ "Coins of Julius Caesar". http://members.aol.com/dkaplan888/jcae.htm. 
  8. ^ Suetonius, Julius 1; Plutarch, Caesar 1, Marius 6; Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.54; Inscriptiones Italiae, 13.3.51–52
  9. ^ Suetonius, Lives of Eminent Grammarians 7
  10. ^ a b Plutarch, Caesar 1; Suetonius, Julius 1
  11. ^ a b Greenblatt, Miriam. 2005. Julius Caesar and the Roman Republic. P.10
  12. ^ a b c Mackay, Christopher S. Ancient Rome: a military and political history. P.171
  13. ^ a b c Shapiro, Susan O. 2005. O tempora! O mores!: Cicero's Catilinarian orations: a student's edition with historical essays. P.129
  14. ^ a b Morstein-Marx, Robert. 2004. Mass oratory and political power in the late Roman Republic. P.204-205
  15. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 1.34–75; Plutarch, Marius 32–46, Sulla 6–10; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.15–20; Eutropius 5; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.6, 2.9
  16. ^ Suetonius, Julius 1; Pliny the Elder, Natural History 7.54
  17. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.22; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.9
  18. ^ Suetonius, Julius 1; Plutarch, Caesar 1; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.41
  19. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 1.76–102; Plutarch, Sulla 24–33; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.23–28; Eutropius, Abridgement of Roman History 5; Florus, Epitome of Roman History 2.9
  20. ^ Suetonius, Julius 2–3; Plutarch, Caesar 2–3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20
  21. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities: Flamen
  22. ^ Appian. Civil Wars 1.103
  23. ^ Suetonius, Julius 77.
  24. ^ Plutarch, Sulla 36–38
  25. ^ a b Suetonius, Julius 46
  26. ^ Suetonius, Julius 3; Appian, Civil Wars 1.107
  27. ^ Suetonius, Julius 55
  28. ^ Suetonius, Julius 4. Plutarch (Caesar 3–4) reports the same events but follows a different chronology.
  29. ^ Again, according to Suetonius's chronology (Julius 4). Plutarch (Caesar 1.8–2) says this happened earlier, on his return from Nicomedes's court. Velleius Paterculus (Roman History 2:41.3–42) says merely that it happened when he was a young man.
  30. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 1–2
  31. ^ Thorne, James (2003). Julius Caesar: Conqueror and Dictator. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 15. 
  32. ^ Freeman, 39
  33. ^ Freeman, 39–40
  34. ^ Freeman, 40
  35. ^ Freeman, 51
  36. ^ Freeman, 52
  37. ^ Goldsworthy, 100
  38. ^ Goldsworthy, 101
  39. ^ Suetonius, Julius 5–8; Plutarch, Caesar 5; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43
  40. ^ Suetonius, Julius 9–11; Plutarch, Caesar 5.6–6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.8, 10
  41. ^ Cicero, For Gaius Rabirius; Cassius Dio, Roman History 26–28
  42. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43; Plutarch, Caesar 7; Suetonius, Julius 13
  43. ^ Sallust, Catiline War 49
  44. ^ Cicero, Against Catiline 4.7–9; Sallust, Catiline War 50–55; Plutarch, Caesar 7.5–8.3, Cicero 20–21, Cato the Younger 22–24; Suetonius, Julius 14
  45. ^ Suetonius, Julius 17
  46. ^ Suetonius, Julius 16
  47. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 1.12, 1.13, 1.14; Plutarch, Caesar 9–10; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.45
  48. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 11–12; Suetonius, Julius 18.1
  49. ^ Plutarch, Julius 13; Suetonius, Julius 18.2
  50. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 13–14; Suetonius 19
  51. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.1, 2.3, 2.17; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.44; Plutarch, Caesar 13–14, Pompey 47, Crassus 14; Suetonius, Julius 19.2; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.54–58
  52. ^ Suetonius, Julius 21
  53. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 44.4; Plutarch, Caesar 14, Pompey 47–48, Cato the Younger 32–33; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38.1–8
  54. ^ Suetonius, Julius 19.2
  55. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2:44.4; Plutarch, Caesar 14.10, Crassus 14.3, Pompey 48, Cato the Younger 33.3; Suetonius, Julius 22; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38:8.5
  56. ^ Suetonius, Julius 23
  57. ^ See Cicero's speeches against Verres for an example of a former provincial governor successfully prosecuted for illegally enriching himself at his province's expense.
  58. ^ Cicero, Letters to Atticus 1.19; Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 1; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 38.31–50
  59. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 2; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.1–5
  60. ^ Cicero, Letters to his brother Quintus 2.3; Suetonius, Julius 24; Plutarch, Caesar 21, Crassus 14–15, Pompey 51
  61. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 3; Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.40–46
  62. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 4; Appian, Gallic Wars Epit. 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History 47–53
  63. ^ Cicero, Letters to friends 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.10, 7.17; Letters to his brother Quintus 2.13, 2.15, 3.1; Letters to Atticus 4.15, 4.17, 4.18; Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 5–6; Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.1–11
  64. ^ Suetonius, Julius [1]; Plutarch, Caesar 23.5, Pompey 53–55, Crassus 16–33; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 46–47
  65. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 7; Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.33–42
  66. ^ Aulus Hirtius, Commentaries on the Gallic War Book 8
  67. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 1.21
  68. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 7.65
  69. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 2.34
  70. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 6.6
  71. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 6.32f.
  72. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 3.11
  73. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War 7.81f.
  74. ^ "Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, by Plutarch (chapter48)". http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/p/plutarch/lives/chapter48.html. 
  75. ^ "Chapter 28". "De Bello Gallico" & Other Commentaries of Caius Julius Caesar (Translated by Thomas de Quincey ed.). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10657/10657.txt. 
  76. ^ "Chapter 29". "De Bello Gallico" & Other Commentaries of Caius Julius Caesar (Translated by Thomas de Quincey ed.). http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10657/10657.txt. 
  77. ^ Furger-Gunti, 102.
  78. ^ H. Delbrück Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte, Vol. 1, 1900, pp. 428 and 459f.
  79. ^ a b Suetonius, Julius 28
  80. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 60.2
  81. ^ Suetonius, Julius 32
  82. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 35.2
  83. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 42–45
  84. ^ a b Plutarch, Caesar 37.2
  85. ^ a b Martin Jehne, Der Staat des Dicators Caesar, Köln/Wien 1987, p. 15-38.
  86. ^ Plutarch, Pompey 77–79
  87. ^ Plutarch, Pompey 80.5
  88. ^ Suetonius, Julius 35.2
  89. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 52–54
  90. ^ Martin Jehne, Der Staat des Dicators Caesar, Köln/Wien 1987, p. 15-38. Technically, Caesar was not appointed Dictator with a term of ten years but he was appointed annual dictator for the next ten years in advance.
  91. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 56
  92. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 56.7–56.8
  93. ^ Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge University Press. p. 254. 
  94. ^ Campbell, J. B. (1994). The Roman Army, 31 BC–AD 337. Routledge. p. 10. 
  95. ^ a b Suetonius, Julius 40
  96. ^ Suetonius, Julius 76
  97. ^ "Theatrum Pompei". Oxford University Press. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/PLATOP*/Theatrum_Pompei.html. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  98. ^ Plutarch - Life of Brutus
  99. ^ a b Suetonius, Life of the Caesars, Julius trans. J C Rolfe
  100. ^ Plutarch, Life of Caesar, ch. 66: "ὁ μεν πληγείς, Ῥωμαιστί· 'Μιαρώτατε Κάσκα, τί ποιεῖς;'"
  101. ^ Woolf Greg (2006), Et Tu Brute? – The Murder of Caesar and Political Assassination, 199 pages – ISBN 1-8619-7741-7
  102. ^ Suetonius, Julius, c. 82.
  103. ^ Suetonius, Julius 82.2
  104. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 66.9
  105. ^ Stone, Jon R. (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations. London: Routledge. p. 250. ISBN 0415969093. 
  106. ^ Morwood, James (1994). The Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (Latin-English). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198602839. 
  107. ^ It appears, for example, in Richard Eedes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke &tc of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. Dyce, Alexander; (quoting Malone) (1866). The Works of William Shakespeare. London: Chapman and Hall. p. 648. 
  108. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 67
  109. ^ Florus, Epitome 2.7.1
  110. ^ Suetonius, Julius 83.2
  111. ^ Suetonius, Life of Caesar, Chapters LXXXIII, LXXXIV, LXXXV
  112. ^ Osgood, Josiah (2006). Caesar's Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. 
  113. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 13.1; Florus, Epitome 2.6
  114. ^ Warrior, Valerie M. (2006). Roman Religion. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521825113. 
  115. ^ Florus, Epitome 2.6.3
  116. ^ Zoch, Paul A. (200). Ancient Rome: An Introductory History. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 217–218. ISBN 0806132876. 
  117. ^ Florus, Epitome 2.7.11–14; Appian, The Civil Wars 5.3
  118. ^ Florus, Epitome 2.34.66
  119. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 58.6
  120. ^ Plutarch, Caesar 17, 45, 60; see also Suetonius, Julius 45.
  121. ^ Ronald T. Ridley, "The Dictator's Mistake: Caesar's Escape from Sulla," Historia 49 (2000), pp. 225–226, citing doubters of epilepsy: F. Kanngiesser, "Notes on the Pathology of the Julian Dynasty," Glasgow Medical Journal 77 (1912) 428–432; T. Cawthorne, "Julius Caesar and the Falling Sickness,” Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 51 (1957) 27–30, who prefers Ménière's disease; and O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness: A History of Epilepsy from the Greeks to the Beginnings of Modern Neurology (Baltimore 1971), p 162.
  122. ^ Hughes J (2004). "Dictator Perpetuus: Julius Caesar—did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?". Epilepsy Behav 5 (5): 756–64. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.05.006. PMID 5380131. 
  123. ^ Gomez J, Kotler J, Long J (1995). "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to a brain tumor?". The Journal of the Florida Medical Association 82 (3): 199–201. PMID 7738524. 
  124. ^ H. Schneble (1 January 2003). "Gaius Julius Caesar". German Epilepsy Museum. http://www.epilepsiemuseum.de/alt/caesaren.html. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  125. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 252.
  126. ^ Edward Courtney, The Fragmentary Latin Poets (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993), pp. 153–155 and 187–188. See also Poems by Julius Caesar.
  127. ^ Note that the first name, like the second, is properly pronounced in three syllables, not two. See Latin spelling and pronunciation.
  128. ^ Anderson, Carl Edlund. (1999). Formation and Resolution of Ideological Contrast in the Early History of Scandinavia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse & Celtic (Faculty of English). p. 44.PDF (308 KB)
  129. ^ Plutarch, Brutus 5
  130. ^ Tacitus, Histories 4.55
  131. ^ Suetonius, Julius 49
  132. ^ Suetonius, Julius 49; Cassius Dio, Roman History 43.20
  133. ^ Catullus, Carmina 29, 57
  134. ^ Suetonius, Julius 73
  135. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 68, 71
  136. ^ According to Dio Cassius, 44.6.4.

Primary sources

Own writings

Ancient historians' writings

.

Secondary sources

  • Canfora, Luciano (2006). .Julius Caesar: The People's Dictator.^ The Italian fascist dictator Generalissimo Musssolini, consciously styled himself after Julius Caesar.

    Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-748-61936-4.
     
  • Freeman, Philip (2008). Julius Caesar. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-743-28953-6. 
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian (2006). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-12048-6. 
  • Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon: The Last Years Of The Roman Republic. Anchor Books. ISBN 1-4000-7897-0. 
  • Jiménez, Ramon L. (2000). .Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War.^ This was the last war that Caesar waged; and the • triumph that was celebrated for it vexed the Romans as nothing else had done.
    • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These up to this time had called themselves brethren of the Romans and had been conspicuously honoured, but now, by joining the rebels, they caused great dejection in Caesar's army.
    • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So great was the calamity which the civil wars had wrought, and so large a portion of the people of Rome had they consumed away, to say nothing of the misfortunes that possessed the rest of Italy and the provinces.
    • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96620-8.
     
  • Kleiner, Diana E. E. (2005). Cleopatra and Rome. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01905-9. 
  • Meier, Christian (1996). Caesar: A Biography. Fontana Press. ISBN 0-006-86349-3. 
  • Weinstock, Stefan (1971). Divus Julius. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198142874. 

External links

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Succession table

Political offices
Preceded by
Lucius Afranius and
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus
59 BC
Succeeded by
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus and Aulus Gabinius
Preceded by
none
office last held by Sulla in 81 BC
Dictator
49 BC
(eleven days)
Succeeded by
none
office next held by himself in 48 BC
Preceded by
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus and
Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus
48 BC
Succeeded by
Quintus Fufius Calenus and
Publius Vatinius
Preceded by
none
office last held by himself in 49 BC
Dictator
48 - 47 BC
Succeeded by
none
office next held by himself in 46 BC
Preceded by
Quintus Fufius Calenus and
Publius Vatinius
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
46 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Julius Caesar
alone without colleague
Preceded by
none
office last held by himself in 47 BC
Dictator for ten years
46-44 BC
Succeeded by
himself
as Dictator in perpetuity
Preceded by
Gaius Julius Caesar and
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
Consul of the Roman Republic
alone without colleague
45 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Julius Caesar and
Marcus Antonius
Preceded by
Gaius Julius Caesar
alone without colleague'''
Consuls of the Roman Republic
with Marcus Antonius
44 BC
Succeeded by
Publius Cornelius Dolabella
(with Marcus Antonius)
Preceded by
himself
as Dictator for ten years
Dictator in perpetuity and consul for ten years
44 BC
Succeeded by
none, office abolished
Religious titles
Preceded by
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Pontifex Maximus
63-44 BC
Succeeded by
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
Caesar was acclaimed Imperator in 60 and 45 BC. In the Roman Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military commanders. After an especially great victory, an army's troops in the field would proclaim their commander imperator, an acclamation necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph. After being acclaimed imperator, the victorious general had a right to use the title after his name until the time of his triumph, where he would relinquish the title as well as his imperium.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Gaius Iulius Caesar (Classical Latin: GAIVS IVLIVS CÆSAR) (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman religious, military, and political leader.^ July 100 BCE - March 44 BCE Dictator 48 BCE - March 44 BCE .
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Julius Caesar (100–44 bc), Roman general and statesman.
  • Julius Caesar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 12/13, 100?
  • Julius Caesar Biography - Biography.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

.He played an important part in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.^ He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire .

^ He played an important part in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire .

^ He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and a truly Mediterranean empire.
  • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, with the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC. He is widely considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses of all time, as well as a brilliant politician and one of the ancient world's strongest leaders.^ The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul .
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Julius Caesar Biography - Biography.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean , with the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BCE .

^ Not one of these came in their way, but all were well barricaded.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For the famous play by William Shakespeare, see Julius Caesar.^ Caesar and Cleopatra , a play by George Bernard Shaw Julius Caesar , a play by William Shakespeare TV .

^ Julius Caesar the play .
  • Full text / script of the play Julius Caesar Act III by William Shakespeare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.william-shakespeare.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Full text / script of the play Julius Caesar Act III by William Shakespeare .
  • Full text / script of the play Julius Caesar Act III by William Shakespeare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.william-shakespeare.info [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

Fortune, which has a great deal of power in other matters but especially in war, can bring about great changes in a situation through very slight forces.
.
We have not to fear anything, except fear itself.
  • Veni, vidi, vici.
    • I came, I saw, I conquered.
    • Written in a report to Rome 47 B.C. after conquering Pharnaces at Zela in Asia Minor in just five days.^ At Zela Caesar wrote tersely that he "came, saw, conquered" (veni vidi vici) and turned over the Bosphoran kingdom to Pharnaces' illegitimate brother Mithridates.
      • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ It was after this crushing victory in Asia Minor (Turkey) that he sent his celebrated message to the senate ' veni, vidi, vici ' (I came, I saw, I conquered.

      ^ However, these words were written in a report to Rome in 47 BCE after defeating Pharnaces II of Pontus at Zela in Asia Minor in just five days.
      • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | July 13 |Japan Obon festival Feast of the Miracles Brussels Belgium Live Aid July 13 Castro massacre Cuba NewYork draft riots 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

      .Quoted in Plutarch, Life of Caesar, and Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars: Julius
    • It is also believed that Caesar included the famous three words : Came, Saw, Conquered, in a letter to his friend Amantius in Rome.
  • Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres.
    • All Gaul is divided into three parts
    • De Bello Gallico, Book I, Ch.^ De bello gallico (Gallic Wars): Book 6 .
      • Julius Caesar's War Commentaries 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC mcadams.posc.mu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ In announcing the swiftness and fierceness of this battle to one of his friends at Rome, Amantius, Caesar wrote three words: "Came, saw, conquered."
      • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This is one of the most famous quotes in the Shakespearean drama, Julius Caesar.
      • Julius Caesar (Folger Shakespeare Library) by William Shakespeare - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

      .1
  • Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae.
    • Of all these, the Belgians are the bravest/strongest .
    • Caesar suffered his greatest military defeat at the hands of the Belgians, the humiliation reaching Rome, and infuriating the man who then set out on one of Rome's biggest campaigns to crush the Republic's most feared rebels once and for all.
    • De Bello Gallico, Book I, Ch.^ [Of all these, the Belgians are the bravest/strongest.
      • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | July 13 |Japan Obon festival Feast of the Miracles Brussels Belgium Live Aid July 13 Castro massacre Cuba NewYork draft riots 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

      ^ De bello gallico (Gallic Wars): Book 6 .
      • Julius Caesar's War Commentaries 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC mcadams.posc.mu.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ O Caesar, these things are beyond all use, ¶ And I do fear them.
      • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

      .1
  • Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt.
    • Men willingly believe what they wish.
    • De Bello Gallico, Book III, Ch.^ "Men willingly believe what they wish.
      • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      ^ (Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico)" "In war, events of importance are the result of trivial causes."
      • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Caesar's own account of this war, De Bello Gallico , still survives.
      • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

      18
  • Sunt item, quae appellantur alces. Harum est consimilis capris figura et varietas pellium, sed magnitudine paulo antecedunt mutilaeque sunt cornibus et crura sine nodis articulisque habent neque quietis causa procumbunt neque, si quo adflictae casu conciderunt, erigere sese aut sublevare possunt. His sunt arbores pro cubilibus: ad eas se applicant atque ita paulum modo reclinatae quietem capiunt. Quarum ex vestigiis cum est animadversum a venatoribus, quo se recipere consuerint, omnes eo loco aut ab radicibus subruunt aut accidunt arbores, tantum ut summa species earum stantium relinquatur. .Huc cum se consuetudine reclinaverunt, infirmas arbores pondere adfligunt atque una ipsae concidunt.
    • De Bello Gallico, Book VI
    • There are also animals which are called elks [alces = moose in Am.^ Caesar's own account of this war, De Bello Gallico , still survives.
      • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Commentarii de bello civili ("on the civil war") recount the first two years of the civil war, up to the beginning of his Alexandrian campaign in 48 BC, in three books.
      • Julius Caesar - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ He recorded his own accounts of these campaigns in Commentarii de Bello Gallico ("Commentaries on the Gallic War").

      Engl. Elk = Wapiti]. .The shape of these, and the varied colour of their skins, is much like roes, but in size they surpass them a little and are destitute of horns, and have legs without joints and ligatures; nor do they lie down for the purpose of rest, nor, if they have been thrown down by any accident, can they raise or lift themselves up.^ The day after, Brutus with the rest came down from the capitol and made a speech to the people, who listened without expressing either any pleasure or resentment, but showed by their silence that they pitied Cæsar and respected Brutus.

      ^ They will hold up the card to show to the rest of the class, then will put the card on the bulletin board or attach it to a mobile.
      • JULIUS CAESAR UNIT 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.betsyanne.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The statues of Pompey, which had been thrown down, he would not suffer to remain so, but set them up again, at which Cicero said that in setting up Pompey's statues Caesar firmly fixed his own.
      • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .Trees serve as beds to them; they lean themselves against them, and thus reclining only slightly, they take their rest; when the huntsmen have discovered from the footsteps of these animals whither they are accustomed to betake themselves, they either undermine all the trees at the roots, or cut into them so far that the upper part of the trees may appear to be left standing.^ There was no money in a conquest over barbarians, except so far as they could be sold into slavery; but there was danger in it.

      ^ At length, worn out with wounds, they began to give way, and, as there was in the neighborhood a mountain about a mile off, to betake themselves thither.
      • The Internet Classics Archive | The Gallic Wars by Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ On these they placed their women, who, with disheveled hair and in tears, entreated the soldiers, as they went forward to battle, not to deliver them into slavery to the Romans.
      • The Internet Classics Archive | The Gallic Wars by Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .When they have leant upon them, according to their habit, they knock down by their weight the unsupported trees, and fall down themselves along with them.
    • De Bello Gallico, Book VI
  • Alea iacta est.
    • The die is cast.
    • Suetonius, Divus Iulius, paragraph 33 [1]
    • Said when crossing the river Rubicon with his legions on 10 January, 49 BC, thus beginning the civil war with the forces of Pompey.^ Upon crossing the Rubicon, Caesar is reported to have said Iacta alea est.

      ^ Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bc .
      • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ When Caesar ordered his troops to cross the Rubicon river, he started a civil war.
      • Julius Caesar,Romans (Photo Archive) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC sights.seindal.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .The Rubicon river was the boundary of Gaul, the province Caesar had the authority to keep his army in.^ BC, Caesar with the words "Iacta alea est" [the die is cast] crossed the Rubicon, the stream bounding his province, to enter Italy.
      • Julius Caesar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Catiline raised an army to butcher the Senate, and Caesar crossed the Rubicon and marched straight to the Seven Hills, ousting Pompey and fellow optimates.
      • Dictator: Gaius Julius Caesar - Paradox Interactive Forums 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

      ^ When pushed to the limit he led his armies across the Rubicon River (the border of his province).
      • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      By crossing the river, he had committed an invasion of Italy.
    • This was originally a quote from the playwright Menander.
  • Galia est pacata.
    • Gaul is subdued.
    • Written in a letter with which Caesar informed the Roman Senate of his victory over Vercingetorix in 52 BC
  • Sed fortuna, quae plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus tum praecipue in bello, parvis momentis magnas rerum commutationes efficit; ut tum accidit.
    • Fortune, which has a great deal of power in other matters but especially in war, can bring about great changes in a situation through very slight forces.
    • The Civil War, Book III, 68
  • Nihil nobis metuendum est, praeter metum ipsum.
    • We have not to fear anything, except fear itself.
    • By legend, Caesar told it to his wife Calpurnia, who was praying him not to go to the Senate, where, as she saw in dream, he would die.
    • Note: at the First Inaugural Address for New Deal project, Franklin Delano Roosevelt said: So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself [...] .

Misattributed

.
  • Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword.^ "Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword.
    • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And when the drums of war have reached a fever pitch and the blood boils with hate and the mind has closed, the leader will have no need in seizing the rights of the citizenry.
    • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rather, the citizenry, infused with fear and blinded by patriotism, will offer up all of their rights unto the leader and gladly so.
    • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    It both emboldens the blood, just as it narrows the mind. .And when the drums of war have reached a fever pitch and the blood boils with hate and the mind has closed, the leader will have no need in seizing the rights of the citizenry.^ And when the drums of war have reached a fever pitch and the blood boils with hate and the mind has closed, the leader will have no need in seizing the rights of the citizenry.
    • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Beware the leader who bangs the drums of war in order to whip the citizenry into a patriotic fervor, for patriotism is indeed a double-edged sword.
    • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rather, the citizenry, infused with fear and blinded by patriotism, will offer up all of their rights unto the leader and gladly so.
    • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    .Rather, the citizenry, infused with fear and blinded by patriotism, will offer up all of their rights unto the leader and gladly so.^ Almost all the senatorial leaders were rounded up, apart from Pompey's sons, Gnaeus and Sextus, who fled to Spain.
    • Julius Caesar@Everything2.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "If wrong may e'er be right, for a throne's sake Were wrong most right:— be God in all else feared."
    • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ 'If wrong may e'er be right, for a throne's sake Were wrong most right:---be God in all else feared.'
    • Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius  (c.69-after 122 CE): De Vita Caesarum,Divus Iulius (The Lives of the Caesars, The Deified Julius), written c. 110 CE 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    How do I know? For this is what I have done. And I am Caesar.
    • This statement by an unknown author has also been wrongly attributed to William Shakespeare, but there are no records of it prior to late 2001. It has been debunked at Snopes.com and About.com

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Caesar's own writings

Ancient historians on Caesar

.

Secondary sources

.
  • Julius Caesar Suzanne Cross's site with in‑depth history of Caesar, plus a timeline and links.
  • C. Julius Caesar Jona Lendering's in‑depth history of Caesar (Livius.^ A synopsis of Julius Caesar with other links .
    • JULIUS CAESAR UNIT 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.betsyanne.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nobody is really in love in his plays.Shakespeare gives the history of how the senators plotted to kill Julius Caesar of Rome.
    • Julius Caesar (Folger Shakespeare Library) by William Shakespeare - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]
    • Julius Caesar (Folger Shakespeare Library) by William Shakespeare - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (Normally 29.95) Adult Plus Size Julius Caesar Costume - Roman Costumes - Roman Costumes - Halloween Costumes for Men - This Plus Size Julius Caesar Costume includes the headpiece, robe with shoulder sash and belt.
    • Adult Deluxe Julius Caesar Costume - Roman Costumes 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.costumecraze.com [Source type: General]

    Org)
  • Julius Caesar — virgil.org An Annotated Guide to Online Resources categorized into Primary Sources, Background & Images, Modern Essays & Historical Fiction.
  • Julius Caesar, page with many links in several languages, including English
  • History of Julius Caesar
  • The Heart of Change: Julius Caesar and the End of the Roman Republic
  • Military related Julius Caesar quotes

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

CAESAR, Gaius Julius
.(100–44 bc), Roman general and statesman, who laid the foundations of the Roman imperial system.^ Rome [Italy]died March 15, 44 , Rome) celebrated Roman general and statesman, the conqueror of Gaul (5850 ), victor in the Civil War of 4945 , and dictator (4644 ), who was launching a series of political and social reforms when he was assassinated by a group of nobles in the Senate House on the Ides of March.
  • Julius Caesar Biography - Biography.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Julius Caesar, Emperor, military leader, roman statesman, general and author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium).
  • Biography Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This dramatic assassination occurred on the Ides of March (March 15th) in 44 BC and led to another Roman civil war.

Early Life.
.Born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 bc, Caesar belonged to the prestigious Julian clan; yet from early childhood he knew controversy.^ July 13, 100 BC .
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ July 12/13, 100?
  • Julius Caesar Biography - Biography.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gaius Julius Caesar was born on 12 July 100 BC in Rome, son of Gaius Caesar and Aurelia.

.His uncle by marriage was Gaius Marius, leader of the Populares, a party supporting agrarian reform and opposed by the reactionary Optimates, a senatorial faction.^ Caesar became populare’s party leader.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Domestically, Roman politics was divided between two factions, the optimates , who favoured aristocratic rule, and the populares , who preferred to appeal directly to the electorate.

^ Arrested at 19 and under the suspicion of the dictator Lucius Sulla, leader of the optimates (the senatorial party), Caesar flees Rome and joins the army.
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marius was seven times consul (chief magistrate), and in his last year in office, just before his death in 86 bc, he exacted a terrifying toll on the Optimates.^ Why is he seething with so much resentment against his former Commander-in-Chief who extended his term of office four times and overlooked his vain posturings?

^ After this, he crossed to Italy and went up to Rome, at the close of the year for which he had a second time been chosen dictator, 93 though that office had never before been for a whole year; then for the following year he was proclaimed consul.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ BC) Being consul for the third time, with M. Aemilius Lepidus as his colleague, he defeated Scipio , Juba, and Petreius, at Thapsus, in Africa , on the 8th of the ides of April.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also had Caesar appointed flamen dialis, one of an archaic priesthood with no power, identifing him with his uncle's extremist politics.^ Caesar was also appointed flamen dialis (the chief priest of Jupiter ) by Cinna.
  • Julius Caesar,Romans (Photo Archive) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC sights.seindal.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was no power but Caesar's.
  • Julius Caesar,Romans (Photo Archive) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC sights.seindal.dk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ironically, it had been the loss of his priesthood that allowed him to pursue a military career: the Flamen Dialis was not permitted to ride or even touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army.

.His marriage in 84 bc to Cornelia (d.^ Cornelia Cinna minor 84 BC– 68 BC 2) Pompeia Sulla 68 BC– 63 BC 3) Calpurnia Pisonis 59 BC– 44 BC .

.68 bc), the daughter of Marius's associate, Cinna, further marked him as a radical.^ Caesar marries Cornelia , daughter of Cornelius Cinna, a former consul and ally of Gaius Marius, leader of the populares (the people's party).
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marius and Cinna were elected consuls while Sulla was at war with Mithridates in 86 BC. Soon after both Cinna and Marius died.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 68 B.C. he lost his aunt and his wife, one the widow of Marius, the other the daughter of Cinna.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Marius's enemy and leader of the Optimates, became dictator in 82 bc, he issued a list of enemies to be executed.^ Arrested at 19 and under the suspicion of the dictator Lucius Sulla, leader of the optimates (the senatorial party), Caesar flees Rome and joins the army.
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after his first marriage around 85 B.C. the Optimate Dictator , Sulla , ordered him to divorce his wife Cornelia , and when he refused he was proscribed and was forced into hiding to avoid execution.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar marries Cornelia , daughter of Cornelius Cinna, a former consul and ally of Gaius Marius, leader of the populares (the people's party).
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Caesar was not harmed, he was ordered to divorce Cornelia.^ Caesar nevertheless defied Sullas demand that he divorce Cornelia.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an act of defiance, Caesar married Cornelia , daughter of Cinna, in 84 B.C. and refused to divorce her, despite Sulla's orders.
  • Julius Caesar@Everything2.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 83 bc Lucius Cornelius Sulla returned to Italy from the East and led the successful counter-revolution of 83–82 bc ; Sulla then ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Refusing that order, he found it prudent to leave Rome and did not return until 78 bc, after Sulla's resignation.^ On Sullas death in 78 BCE, he returned to Rome.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ III. He served too under Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia, but only for a short time; for learning of the death of Sulla, and at the same time hoping to profit by a counter-revolution which Marcus Lepidus was setting on foot, he hurriedly returned to Rome [78 BC].
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius  (c.69-after 122 CE): De Vita Caesarum,Divus Iulius (The Lives of the Caesars, The Deified Julius), written c. 110 CE 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Having acquitted himself honorably there, earning the civic crown during his service, Caesar moved to Cilicia in 78 B.C. to continue his military service under P. Servilius Isauricus , and after Sulla's death, he returned to Rome.
  • Julius Caesar@Everything2.com 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar was now 22 years old.^ A nineteen year old Caesar was arrested.

^ Caesar is 56 years old, Antony is 38 and Brutus is about 40.
  • Great Lit: Shakespeare, Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.great-lit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When, Caesar was fifteen years old, his father Lucius died, with him died the fatherly expectations that Caesar should engage on a modest political career.

.Unable to gain office, he left Rome again and went to Rhodes, where he studied rhetoric; he returned to Rome in 73 bc, a persuasive speaker.^ In Rome, Caesar embarked on a legal career, prosecuting a former consul in 77 BCE. On his journey to Rhodes in 75 BCE to pursue further studies in rhetoric to enhance his public speaking, Caesar was captured by pirates.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aiming at rhetorical perfection, Caesar traveled to Rhodes in 75 BCE for philosophical and oratorical studies with the famous teacher Apollonius Molo .

^ First, however, he went to Rhodes, in order to study rhetoric under a famous teacher of that place of whom Cicero was also a pupil.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 74 bc, while still absent, he had been elected to the pontificate, an important college of Roman priests.^ Augustus was the Pontifex Maximus or High Priest of the Ancient Roman College of Pontiffs (priests), a polytheistic sacerdotal Roman religious and civic cult.
  • Roman politics and the birth and death of Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.renewamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 74 BC the senate established a garrison at Cyrene, making it an official Roman province.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was elected quaestor by the Assembly of the People in 70 BC , at the age of 30, as stipulated in the Roman cursus honorum .

Triumvirate.
.In 71 bc Pompey the Great, who had earned his epithet in service under Sulla, returned to Rome, having defeated the rebellious Populares general Sertorius in Spain.^ Arrested at 19 and under the suspicion of the dictator Lucius Sulla, leader of the optimates (the senatorial party), Caesar flees Rome and joins the army.
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ III. He served too under Servilius Isauricus in Cilicia, but only for a short time; for learning of the death of Sulla, and at the same time hoping to profit by a counter-revolution which Marcus Lepidus was setting on foot, he hurriedly returned to Rome [78 BC].
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: Suetonius  (c.69-after 122 CE): De Vita Caesarum,Divus Iulius (The Lives of the Caesars, The Deified Julius), written c. 110 CE 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The leading general of the day, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), was unsuccessfully fighting the Senate for farmlands for his veterans.

.At the same time Marcus Licinius Crassus, a rich patrician, suppressed in Italy the slave revolt led by Spartacus.^ Caesar crossed the Rhine for the first time in 55 BCE and, that same year, he led a first reconnaissance expedition to Britain, followed the next year by a deeper incursion into Britain.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crassus the rich, father of Marcus, had committed himself against Marius, and had been allowed the privilege of being his own executioner.
  • Julius Caesar - Early Career of Julius Caesar 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC annourbis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plus Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesars Mentor and Sponsor is not even mentioned.
  • Julius Caesar Movie Download in DivX/iPod Quality 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.moviepro.net [Source type: General]

.Pompey and Crassus both ran for the consulship—an office held by two men—in 70 bc.^ This policy was to reconcile Pompey and Crassus, the most influential men in the city.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus Caesar, being doubly supported by the interests of Crassus and Pompey, was promoted to the consulship, and triumphantly proclaimed with Calpurnius Bibulus.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Caesar by Plutarch 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is possible that both Pompeius and Caesar foresaw that under a new constitution Rome would be subject to a single head, while Crassus was not reluctant to join himself to two men, one of whom must be the ruler of the future.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pompey, who by this time had changed sides, was technically ineligible, but with Caesar's help he won the office.^ Why is he seething with so much resentment against his former Commander-in-Chief who extended his term of office four times and overlooked his vain posturings?

^ Caesar knew he could make a name for himself by prosecuting or defending an official who had committed crimes while in office.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Augustus deniad to the three sons of Agrippa , who were Caesars by adoption, the tribunal power, whilst he bestowed it upon his son in law Tiberius , who had not at that time been created Caesar.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

Crassus became the other consul. .In 69 bc, Caesar was elected quaestor and in 65 bc curule aedile, gaining great popularity for his lavish gladiatorial games.^ As aedile, Caesar gained claim to the leadership of the populares.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All the while, Caesar continued pursuing his judicial career until his election as curule aedile in 65 BC , along with Bibulus, a young rival and member of the optimate faction.

^ Caesar’s colleague in the consulship was M. Bibulus, the devoted servant of the senate, who both as aedile and praetor had submitted as a foil to set off the greatness of his companion.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.To pay for these, he borrowed money from Crassus.^ He made lots of money by doing these things and soon had enough to pay back all his debts.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Property was confiscated to pay their 43 legions; but this raised little money, because people were too afraid to buy these large estates even at low prices.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.This united the two men, who also found common cause with Pompey.^ In foot-soldiers, too, Pompey had a great advantage, for he had forty-five thousand to oppose to twenty-two thousand who followed his rival.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the reconciling of Crassus and Pompey , the two men who then were most powerful in Rome.

^ This was the reconciling of Crassus and Pompey, the two men who then were most powerful in Rome.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Caesar by Plutarch 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When Caesar returned to Rome in 60 bc after a year as governor of Spain, he joined forces with Crassus and Pompey in a three-way alliance known as the First Triumvirate; to cement their relationship further, Caesar gave his daughter Julia to Pompey in marriage.^ To confirm the alliance, Pompey married Julia Caesaris , Caesar's only daughter.

^ His daughter Julia marries Pompey.
  • Did Julius Caesar Exist? – Yes But No evidence of Jesus Christ 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.jesusneverexisted.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He formed at this time an alliance with Pompeius and Crassus, which is generally known as the first triumvirate.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus backed, Caesar was elected consul for 59 bc despite Optimate hostility, and the year after (58 bc) he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul.^ In 60 BC (or 59 BC), the Centuriate Assembly elected Caesar senior Consul of the Roman Republic.

^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 60 BC (or 59 BC ) the Centuriate Assembly elected Caesar senior Consul of the Roman Republic.

Gallic wars.
.At that time Celtic Gaul, to the north, was still independent, but the Aedui, a tribe of Roman allies, appealed to Caesar for help against another Gallic people, the Helvetii, during the first year of his governorship.^ Caesars military activity in Gaul continued, fighting against the Belgae in 57 BCE, and against tribes in Brittany and Normandy, as well as the Aquitani, in 56 BCE. The triumvirate among Caesar, Pompey and Crassus was renewed.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world all the way to the Atlantic Ocean , and he was also responsible for the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC. Caesar was widely considered to be one of the foremost military geniuses of his time, as well as a brilliant politician and one of the ancient world's strongest leaders.

^ First, Brutus sided with Pompey the Great against Caesar when the Roman Civil War started in 49 B.C. After Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus, Greece, in 48 B.C., he pardoned Brutus and appointed him governor of Cisalpine Gaul in 46 B.C. and a praetor of Rome in 44 B.C. But Brutus turned against Caesar a second time, helping to lead the conspiracy that led to Caesars assassination in 44 B.C. Brutus believed the action was necessary to prevent Caesar from becoming dictator-for-life, meaning that all power would reside in Caesar and not in the delegates representing the people.

.Caesar marched into Celtic Gaul with six legions, defeated the Helvetii, and forced them to return to their home area.^ Caesar then took his legions to Spain, where he quickly defeated Pompey's forces.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar defeated the Helvetii (in Switzerland ) in 58 BC , the Belgic confederacy and the Nervii in 57 BC and the Veneti in 56 BC .

^ On returning to his forces in Gaul, 42 Caesar found a considerable war in the country, since two great German nations had just crossed the Rhine to possess the land, one called the Usipes, the other the Tenteritae.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Next, he crushed Germanic forces under Ariovistus (fl.^ He attacked a nobler foe in the Germans under Ariovistus, the friend of the Roman people, and in the neighbourhood of Mühlhausen cut them to pieces, and drove the few survivors across the Rhine.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He then crushed Ariovistus, a German soldier of fortune from beyond the Rhine.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

about 71–58 bc). .By 57 bc, following the defeat of the Nervii, Rome was in control of northern Gaul.^ Caesar defeated the Helvetii (in Switzerland ) in 58 BC , the Belgic confederacy and the Nervii in 57 BC and the Veneti in 56 BC .

^ Without Roman intervention, Germans would overpower Gaul and settle their people there, which would create an unacceptable situation: a powerful, warlike people on Rome's northern border.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

.(A last revolt of the Gauls, led by Vercingetorix, was suppressed in 52 bc.^ Caesar defeated the Helvetii (in Switzerland ) in 58 BC, the Belgic confederacy and the Nervii in 57 BC and the Veneti in 56 BC. On August 26 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions to Britain and, in 52 BC he defeated a union of Gauls led by Vercingetorix at the battle of Alesia .

^ On August 26 , 55 BC he attempted an invasion of Britain and, in 52 BC he defeated a union of Gauls led by Vercingetorix at the battle of Alesia .

^ He gained more recruits from the Italian side of the Alps to meet a widespread revolt led by Arvernian king Vercingetorix in 52 BC. After Caesar's army showed it could be defeated, even the Aedui joined the Gauls' fight for their independence.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

)
Power play.
.While Caesar was in Gaul, his agents attempted to dominate politics in Rome.^ But it also means they are easier for other nations to dominate, and this brings us to the strongest reason for intervention in Gaul, one that transcends Rome's need for resources.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In 51 B.C. the Optimates attempted to cut short Caesars governorship of Gaul in order to open the way for legal prosecution when he had been removed from office.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that a centurion in Caesar's army, who had been sent by his general to Rome, waited at the door of the senatehouse to learn the decision of the senate concerning Caesar's commission in Gaul.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.This, however, threatened Pompey's position, and it became necessary for the triumvirs to arrange a meeting at Luca in 56 bc, which brought about a temporary reconciliation.^ As had been agreed at Luca in 56 bc , Caesar’s commands had been prolonged for five years, apparently until February 28, 49 bc , but this is not certain.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When, however, a meeting of the Senate was called for the Ides of March in the Hall of Pompey, they readily gave that time and place the preference.
  • Suetonius • Life of Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 56 BC Pompey, Marcus Crassus, and about 120 senators met with Caesar at Luca on the border of Cisalpine Gaul.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was decided that Caesar would continue in Gaul for another five years, while Pompey and Crassus would both be consuls for 55 bc; after that, each would have proconsular control of provinces.^ But the conquest of Gaul would be another affair.

^ Caesar had started as a consul and had formed the first triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pompey and Crassus were to be elected consuls for the ensuing year, and Caesar was to have money voted him, besides another five years in his provincial command.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar then went off to raid Britain and put down a revolt in Gaul.^ As Caesar's army was now very large, and as there was, moreover, a scarcity of food in Gaul, he was forced to divide it when he went into winter quarters.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I could tell you more ¶ news too: Murellus and Flavius, for pulling scarves 390 off Caesar's images, are put to silence.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Caesar's Civil War his former commander in Gaul, Labienus, put to death the prisoners to show his loyalty to Pompey.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Crassus, ever eager for military glory, went to his post in Syria. .Provoking a war with the Parthian Empire, he was defeated and killed at Carrhae in 53 bc.^ When Drusus was assassinated in 91 BC, the Italian action committees organized for war, and in Asculum Picenians were provoked to massacre the resident Romans.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman army was defeated, and Crassus trying to negotiate was captured and killed by Surena's Parthian forces.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In June, on the other side of the Roman world, in Mesopotamia, the Parthians killed Crassus and defeated his legions in the battle of Carrhae.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This removed the last buffer between Caesar and Pompey; their family ties had been broken by the death of Julia in 54 bc.^ The marriage link between Pompey and Caesar had been broken by Julia’s death in 54 bc .
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia , which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, himself the son of the goddess Venus.

^ To confirm the alliance, Pompey married Julia, Caesar's only daughter.

Civil War.
.In 52 bc, with Crassus out of the way, Pompey was made sole consul.^ Together Pompey, Crassus and Caesar succeed in getting Caesar elected consul and in passing legislation that mainly benefited them.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At his death, Caesar was on the point of starting out on a new military campaign to avenge and retrieve Crassus’ disastrous defeat in 53 bc by the Parthians .
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A message was left at Caesar's statue beside it: "First of all was Brutus consul, since he drove the kings from Rome; Since this man drove out the consuls, he at last is made our king."
  • Life of Gaius Julius Caesar 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Combined with his other powers, this gave him a formidable position.^ He had the tribunician power conferred upon him, which, among other advantages, rendered his person inviolable.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had risen by power of money, like other aristocrats, to the highest offices of the State, showing abilities indeed, but not that extraordinary genius which has made him immortal.

^ The conspiracy against the politically ambitious Caesar begins to form after other government leaders in particular, Cassius perceive him as power-hungry.

.Jealous of his younger rival, he determined to break Caesar's power, an objective that could not be achieved without first depriving him of his command in Gaul.^ Caesar sent all his money and equipage after him, and then sat down before Corfinium, which was garrisoned with thirty cohorts under the command of Domitius.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Caesar by Plutarch 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Pompey, his growing jealousy of Caesar had led him so far toward the nobility that he could not come to terms with Caesar again without loss of face.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The democracy which raised Caesar to power wished to obtain for its favourite the command of an army which would ensure the preponderance of his council in coming changes.
  • Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar), Roman soldier and statesman (c. 101-44 BC) 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In order to protect himself, Caesar suggested that he and Pompey both lay down their commands simultaneously, but this was rejected; goaded by Pompey, the Senate summarily called upon Caesar to resign his command and disband his army, or else be considered a public enemy.^ Caesar’s message was peremptory, and the Senate resolved that Caesar should be treated as a public enemy if he did not lay down his command “by a date to be fixed.” .
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He obtained resolutions from the Senate that Caesar should lay down his command (presumably at its terminal date) but that Pompey should not lay down his command simultaneously.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 1, 49 bc , the Senate received from Caesar a proposal that he and Pompey should lay down their commands simultaneously.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tribunes, who were Caesar's agents, vetoed this motion, but they were driven out of the Senate chamber.^ In the uproar in the Senate, Caesar’s motion was defeated.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They received 6,000 talents to recognize Ptolemy XI Auletes, but the next year he was driven out by Egyptians refusing to pay high taxes imposed to pay his debt to Caesar and Pompey.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was found where he had taken refuge, in the chamber of the girl who had let him into the house; and when they saw who he was, the women drove him out of doors.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Senate then entrusted Pompey with providing for the safety of the state.^ Pompey brought back money enough from the East to enrich all his generals, and the Senate besides,--or rather the State, which a few aristocrats practically owned.

.His forces far outnumbered Caesar's, but they were scattered throughout the provinces, and his troops in Italy were not prepared for war.^ Thus far have we followed Caesar's actions before the wars of Gaul.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Caesar by Plutarch 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On January 10–11, 49 bc , Caesar led his troops across the little river Rubicon , the boundary between his province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy proper.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Which if he had done a little later, when Caesar was taken up with the civil wars, Italy had been put into as great a terror as before it was by the Cimbri.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Caesar by Plutarch 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Early in 49 bc Caesar crossed the Rubicon, a small stream separating his province from Italy, and moved swiftly southward.^ In 49 BC Caesar and his men crossed the Rubicon.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catiline raised an army to butcher the Senate, and Caesar crossed the Rubicon and marched straight to the Seven Hills, ousting Pompey and fellow optimates.
  • Dictator: Gaius Julius Caesar - Paradox Interactive Forums 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Caesar was elected to the post of praetor in 62 BC. After his praetorship, Caesar was allotted Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberia) as his province.

.Pompey fled to Brundisium and from there to Greece.^ In the meantime, Pompey had fled Eastwards and established a strong position in Greece, taking with him senators loyal to the Republic.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

.In three months Caesar was master of all Italy; his forces then took Spain and the key port of Massilia (Marseille).^ Caesar then took his legions to Spain, where he quickly defeated Pompey's forces.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Skirmishes around Pompey's entrenchments frequently took place, and in all save one Caesar had the advantage.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As governor of Spain he sold prisoners of war into slavery and he took a share of the local taxes which was all considered proper to do.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Rome Caesar became dictator until elected consul for 48 bc.^ It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar returned to Rome and was immediately elected consul, legalizing his position.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar was elected to the post of praetor in 62 BC. After his praetorship, Caesar was allotted Hispania Ulterior (Outer Iberia) as his province.

.At the beginning of that year he landed in Greece and smashed Pompey's forces at Pharsalus.^ Arriving in Greece, Caesar found himself heavily outnumbered by Pompey's forces.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of following Pompey to Greece, Caesar first turned his attention to Spain rapidly overcoming the numerically superior, better supplied forces of his opposition.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pompey escaped to Egypt, where he was assassinated.^ Continuing his policy of clemency, Caesar pardoned all prisoners, though Pompey himself escaped to Egypt .
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Caesar arrived there, he installed Cleopatra, daughter of the late King Ptolemy XI (c.^ In any event, Caesar defeated the Ptolemaic forces and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesar, better known as "Caesarion".

^ Still there was no voice of support from the crowd and Caesar rose from his chair and refused Antony again, saying, "I will not be king of Rome.

^ When Caesar arrived in Bithynia he was astonished by the king’s luxuries.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

112–51 bc) as queen. .In 47 bc he pacified Asia Minor and returned to Rome to become dictator again.^ However, these words were written in a report to Rome in 47 BCE after defeating Pharnaces II of Pontus at Zela in Asia Minor in just five days.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | July 13 |Japan Obon festival Feast of the Miracles Brussels Belgium Live Aid July 13 Castro massacre Cuba NewYork draft riots 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Caesar then returned to Rome, but a few months later, now with the title of dictator, he left for Africa, where his opponents had rallied.
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Egypt was made a tribute-paying province ruled directly by a prefect of Octavian, who traveled to Asia to take over Antony's dominions before returning to Rome, where he was made tribune for life in 30 BC. .
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the following year all Optimate forces had been defeated and the Mediterranean world pacified.^ The following year, in February, Caesar mounted an abortive attack on the island of Pharos, but was soundly defeated and he and his army were forces to swim the harbor to safety.
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

Dictatorship and Assassination.
.The basic prop for Caesar's continuation in power was the dictatorship for life.^ Caesar used his dictatorship and used it to increase his power.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus a plot against the life of Caesar, as being one who sought the kingly power, grew up.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I feel that Shakespeare is keeping very close to the story told by Plutarch in his Life of Caesar here (paras 60-62) and that he is drawing the moral of what can happen if a ruler (or anyone) has too much power, how dictatorships can arise.
  • Julius Caesar: Brutus - Good Guy/Bad Guy? [Warnin... - Barnes & Noble Book Clubs 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC bookclubs.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to the traditional Republican constitution, this office was only to be held for six months during a dire emergency.^ According to the traditional Republican constitution this office was only to be held for six months during a dire emergency.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution was popular in name; in reality it was aristocratic, since only rich men (generally noble) could be elected to office.

^ If he were to stand in 49 bc for the consulship for 48 bc , he would be out of office, and therefore in danger, during the last 10 months of 49 bc .
  • Julius Caesar (Roman ruler) :: Family background and career -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That rule, however, had been broken before. .Sulla had ruled as dictator for several years, and Caesar now followed suit.^ Here follows the most detailed account of Caesar's assassination, written by Nicolaus of Damascus a few years after the event and likely based on eyewitness reportings.

^ Following a difficult year as Consul, Caesar was appointed to a five year term as Proconsular Governor of Transalpine Gaul (current southern France ) and Illyria (the coast of Dalmatia ).

^ The following year, 66 BCE, saw Caesar supporting the Lex Manilia (the law giving Pompey command in the Mithradatic War).
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, he was made consul for ten years in 45 bc and received the sanctity of tribunes, making it illegal to harm him.^ He had received the most honourable of the praetorships for the current year, and was to be consul three years later, having been preferred to Cassius, who was a rival candidate.
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To get elected consul a sixth time in 100 BC he allied himself with the violent tribune Saturninus and distributed much money to the voters.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After his year as consul, Crassus was appointed governor of Syria; but the senate did not authorize a war with Parthia, though Caesar encouraged him in this.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Caesar also obtained honors to increase his prestige: He wore the robe, crown, and scepter of a triumphant general and used the title imperator.^ Caesar used his dictatorship and used it to increase his power.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar also obtained honors to increase his prestige.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He wore the robe, crown, and scepter of a triumphant general and used the title imperator.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, as Pontifex Maximus, he was head of the state religion.^ Soon after he became Pontifex Maximus, or the head of the College of Pontiffs who were priest.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

Above all, however, he was in total command of the armies, and this remained the backbone of his power.
.As a ruler Caesar instituted various reforms.^ Caesar, however, did have a reform agenda and took on various social ills.

.In the provinces he eliminated the highly corrupt tax system, sponsored colonies of veterans, and extended Roman citizenship.^ He made plans for the distribution of land to his veterans and for the establishment of veteran colonies throughout the Roman world.

.At home he reconstituted the courts and increased the number of senators.^ The numbers and supplies of the robber band increased, as soldiers of two legions from Rome refused to fight and went home or were defeated.
  • Roman Revolution and Civil Wars by Sanderson Beck 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He weakened the Senate by increasing its numbers to nine hundred, and by appointing senators himself from his army and from the provinces,--those who would be subservient to him, who would vote what he decreed.

.His reform of the calendar gave Rome a rational means of recording time.^ But he did complete a work of great usefulness in reforming the calendar and correcting the reckoning of time.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.A number of senatorial families, however, felt that Caesar threatened their position, and his honors and powers made them fear that he would become a rex (king), a title they, as Republicans, hated.^ The Tribunes of the people, however, sided with Caesar, and refused confirmation of the Senatorial decrees.

^ Julia with Cornelia Cinnilla Possibly Caesarion, with Cleopatra VII , who would become Pharaoh with the name Ptolemy Caesar.

^ Not long after the incident with the diadem, the same two tribunes had citizens arrested after they called out the title Rex to Caesar as he passed by on the streets of Rome.

.Accordingly, in 44 bc, an assassination plot was hatched by a group of senators, including Gaius Cassius and Marcus Junius Brutus.^ Marcus Brutus, along with a group of patricians, plotted to kill Caesar.
  • Julius Caesar (Folger Shakespeare Library) by William Shakespeare - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]
  • Julius Caesar (Folger Shakespeare Library) by William Shakespeare - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Cassius presses Brutus to take part in an assassination plot against Caesar.

^ This dramatic assassination occurred on the Ides of March (March 15th) in 44 BC and led to another Roman civil war.

.On March 15 of that year, when Caesar entered the Senate house, the group killed him.^ Who stops the group from killing him?
  • JULIUS CAESAR UNIT 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.betsyanne.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Caesar entered the Senate a group formed around him and stabbed him to death.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 63 BCE, Caesar was elected pontifex maximus and in December of that year, he delivered a speech in the Senate opposing the execution, without trial, of arrested Catalinian revolutionaries.
  • ACCLA - XII Caesars - Julius Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.accla.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Personal Life.
.After Caesar's first wife, Cornelia, died in 68 bc, he married Pompeia, a granddaughter of Sulla.^ Caesar married Pompeia after Cornelias death.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cornelia died while Caesar was quaestor.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following Cornelia's death, Caesar had married Pompeia , a granddaughter of Sulla, in 67 BC .

.When the mysteries of the Bona Dea, over which she presided, were violated, she was maligned by gossips, and Caesar then divorced her, telling the Senate that Caesar's wife must be above suspicion.^ That Caesar and his Senate must redress?
  • SparkNotes: Complete Text of Julius Caesar: Act III, Scene i 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC pd.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Because," said Caesar, "I thought my wife ought not even to be under suspicion."
  • Plutarch • Life of Caesar 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar left Rome for the province of Asia on the condition that he divorce his wife because Sulla would only allow him to leave on that condition.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.His next marriage (59 bc) was to Calpurnia and was politically motivated.^ His last wife was in 59 BC to Calpurnia and was politically motivated.
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cornelia Cinna minor 84 BC– 68 BC 2) Pompeia Sulla 68 BC– 63 BC 3) Calpurnia Pisonis 59 BC– 44 BC .

^ After his return from a successful year administrating Spain Caesar was elected consul for 59 BC through political alliance with Pompey and Crassus .
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since Caesar had no male heirs, he stipulated in his will that his grandnephew, Octavius, become his successor.^ As the adopted son and heir of Caesar, Octavius would be at great risk within the city.
  • Julius Caesar Summary at WikiSummaries: Free Book Summaries 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.wikisummaries.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was Octavius who became Rome's first emperor under the name of Augustus.^ This final civil war, culminating in Antony and Cleopatra's defeat at Actium, resulted in the ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus.

^ Julia Caesaris with Cornelia Cinnilla Ptolemy XV Caesar (Caesarion) with Cleopatra VII, he would become an Egyptian pharaoh his adopted son Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus , who became the first Roman Emperor.

^ The name of Caesar was at first extended to individuals of other families, through adoption , in the same manner as the title of Augustus .
  • julius caesar - NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.forumancientcoins.com [Source type: Original source]

Caesar was a gifted writer, with a clear and simple style. .His Commentaries, in which he described Gaul and his Gallic campaigns, is a major source of information about the early Celtic and Germanic tribes.^ It was also necessary to subdue the various Celtic tribes of Gaul, who were getting restless and uneasy.

^ When I started as governor, Gaul tribes had begun a dangerous practice of requesting German help with their intertribal conflicts.
  • Bloggus Caesari: 10. Vercingetorix 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.sankey.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ He recorded his own accounts of these campaigns in Commentarii de Bello Gallico ("Commentaries on the Gallic War").

Achievements.
Scholarly opinion of Caesar's accomplishments is divided. .Some regard him as an unscrupulous tyrant, with an insatiable lust for power, and blame him for the demise of the Roman Republic.^ The tales were repeated by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate and degrade him.

^ Ay, and that tongue of his, that bade the Romans ¶ Mark him and write his speeches in their books, 225 "Alas," it cried, "Give me some drink, Titinius," ¶ As a sick girl.
  • Julius Caesar (Modern) :: Internet Shakespeare Editions 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC internetshakespeare.uvic.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Rome had begun, Romans liked to think, as a republic guided by a senate, but at the height of it’s power, the senators and their colleagues answered not to elected leaders but to emperors” (Time Frame 50).
  • Julius Caesar | Essays & Term Papers Online 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

Others, admitting that he could be ruthless, insist that the Republic had already been destroyed. .They maintain that to save the Roman world from chaos a new type of government had to be created.^ He created jobs (new roads, new jobs from the government) and it worked.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These leaders, much like the ancient Roman founders of the Republic, tried to create a government that was fair.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar fought in a civil war which left him undisputed master of the Roman world, and began extensive reforms of Roman society and government.

.In fact, Caesar's reforms did stabilize the Mediterranean world.^ Caesar, however, did have a reform agenda and took on various social ills.

^ Another thing that helped to make his soldiers invincible was the fact that Caesar himself always took his full share in danger, and did not shrink from any labour and fatigue.
  • The Baldwin Project: Plutarch's Lives for Boys and Girls by W.H. Weston 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caesar fought in a civil war which left him undisputed master of the Roman world, and began extensive reforms of Roman society and government.

.Among ancient military commanders, he may be second only to Alexander the Great.^ Ancient historians notoriously exaggerated numbers of this kind, but Caesar's conquest of Gaul was certainly the greatest military invasion since the campaigns of Alexander the Great .

^ But this was just the field for his marvellous military genius, then only partially developed; and the second period of his career now began.

^ Main article s : Military career of Julius Caesar , and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]] Historians place the generalship of Caesar on the level of such geniuses as Alexander the Great , Genghis Khan , and Napoleon Bonaparte .

An article from Funk & Wagnalls® New Encyclopedia. © 2006 World Almanac Education Group. A WRC Media Company. .All rights reserved.^ AsiaRooms.com - All Rights Reserved .
  • Caesar Park Taipei, Taiwan 11 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Logical Premise, all rights reserved.
  • America and Rome : Compare 26 January 2010 6:30 UTC www.nolanchart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All rights reserved.
  • Julius Caesar | Related Topics | National Post 28 January 2010 0:12 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

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Julius Caesar
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.

Julius Caesar may refer to:

Simple English

For the play by Shakespeare, see Julius Caesar (play)
Gaius Julius Caesar
Consul/Dictator of the Roman Republic
File:Giulio-cesare-enhanced
Bust of Julius Caesar
Reign October 49 BC –
15 March 44 BC (as dictator and/or consul)
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar
Born 13 July 100 BC or 102 BC
Birthplace Rome
Died 15 March 44 BC
Place of death Theatre of Pompey, Rome
Consort Cornelia Cinna minor 84–68 BC
Pompeia 68–63 BC
Calpurnia Pisonis 59–44 BC
Offspring Julia Caesaris 85/84–54 BC
Caesarion 47–30 BC
Augustus 63 BC–AD 14 (grand-nephew, posthumously adopted as Caesar's son in 44 BC)
Royal House Julio-Claudian
Father Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul of Asia, 90s BC)
Mother Aurelia Cotta

[[File:|thumb|right|230px |The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving bust of Caesar made during his lifetime.]]

Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a military commander, politician and author at the end of the Roman Republic.[1][2]

Caesar became a member of the First Triumvirate, and when that broke up he fought a civil war against Pompey the Great. Winning the war, Caesar became Dictator for life of the Roman Republic. He was then assassinated by his enemies in Rome.

Contents

A troubled youth

At sixteen he was the head of his family, and soon came under threat as Lucius Cornelius Sulla became Dictator. Sulla set about purging Rome of his enemies. Hundreds were killed or exiled, and Caesar was on the list. His mother's family pleaded for his life; Sulla relectantly gave in, but stripped Caesar of his inheritance. From then on, lack of money was one of the main problems in his life. Caesar joined the army, and left Rome. He only returned after Sulla's death in 78 BC.

On the way across the Aegean Sea,[3] Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held prisoner.[4] He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty talents of silver, he insisted they ask for fifty.[5][6] After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. He had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity—a promise the pirates had taken as a joke.[7] As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He was soon called back into military action.

On the way up

On his return to Rome he was elected military tribune, a first step in a political career. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC.[8] His wife Cornelia died that year.[9] After her funeral, Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Spain.[10] On his return in 67 BC,[11] he married Pompeia (a granddaughter of Sulla), whom he later divorced.[12] In 63 BC he ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the Roman state religion. He ran against two powerful senators; there were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing.[13]

After his praetorship, Caesar was appointed to govern Roman Spain, but he was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of Rome's richest men. In return for political support, Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others. Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Spain he conquered two local tribes, was hailed as imperator by his troops, and completed his governorship in high esteem.[14] Though he was due a 'triumph' in Rome, he also wanted to stand for Consul, the most senior magistracy in the Republic. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. After election, he was a consul in 59 BC.[15]

The First Triumvirate

Caesar took power with Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus. These three men ruled Rome and were called the Triumvirate.

Caesar was the go-between for Crassus and Pompey. They had been at odds for years, but Caesar tried to reconcile them. Between the three of them, they had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (rule of three men), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia.[16] Caesar also married again, this time to Calpurnia, who was the daughter of another powerful senator.[17]

Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, and the triumvirate's opponents were intimidated.

Caesar's Gallic War

With the agreement of his partners, Caesar became the governor of Gallia (Gaul). Gaul is the area which is today's Northern Italy, Switzerland, and France.

Caesar was the commander of the Roman legions during the Gallic War. The war was fought on the side of Rome's Gallic clients against the Germans, who wanted to invade Gaul. It was also to extend Rome's control of Gaul. Caesar's conquest of Gaul extended Rome's territory to the North Sea. In 55 BC he conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. Caesar wrote about this eight-year war in his book De Bello Gallico ('About the Gallic Wars'). This book, written in Latin, is an important historical account.

These achievements got him great military power, and threatened to eclipse Pompey. The balance of power was further upset by the death of Crassus in 53 BC.

Caesar's civil war

In 50 BC, the Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished.[18] Caesar thought he would be prosecuted if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a magistrate. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason.

Crossing the Rubicon

Caesar and his army approached Rome and crossed the Rubicon a shallow river in north-east Italy, in 49 BC. It was the point beyond which no army was supposed to go. The river marked the boundary between Cisalpine Gaul to the north, and Italy proper to the south. Crossing the Rubicon caused a civil war. Pompey, the lawful Consul, and his friends, fled from Rome as Caesar's army approached.

Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could break capture him. Caesar decided to head for Spain, while leaving Italy under the control of Mark Antony. Caesar made an astonishing 27-day route-march to Spain, where he defeated Pompey's lieutenants. He then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Greece where in July 48 BC at Dyrrhachium Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat. He then decisively defeated Pompey, at the Battle of Pharsalus later that year.[19]

Dictator at last

In Rome, Caesar was appointed Dictator,[20] with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in command); Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after eleven days, resigned this dictatorship.[20][21]

In 48 BC, he was appointed dictator again, only this time for an indefinite period. Caesar then pursued Pompey to Egypt, where Pompey was soon murdered.[22] Caesar then became involved in an Egyptian civil war between the child pharaoh and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, Cleopatra. Perhaps as a result of the pharaoh's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head,[23] which was offered to him by the pharaoh as a gift. In any event, Caesar defeated the pharaoh's forces in 47 BC and installed Cleopatra as ruler.

Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory with a triumphant procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 B.C. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, introducing Caesar to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs. Caesar and Cleopatra never married; Roman Law only recognized marriages between two Roman citizens. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage, which lasted 14 years – in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery – and may have fathered a son called Caesarion. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, staying in Caesar's villa, outside Rome across the River Tiber.

In 46 BC, Caesar was appointed dictator for ten years. In two years he made numerous changes in Roman administration to improve the Republic. Many of these changes were meant to improve the lives of ordinary people. One example, which has lasted, was his reform of the calendar into the present format, with a leap day every four years.[24] In February of 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed Dictator for life.

Assassination

See also: Assassination of Julius Caesar

On the Ides of March (15 March) of 44 BC, Caesar was due to appear at a session of the Senate. Mark Antony, fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off. The plotters expected this, and arranged for someone to intercept him.[25]

According to Eutropius, around sixty or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times.[26] According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal.[27] The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase Et tu, Brute? ('You too, Brutus?').[28][29] In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, this is the first half of the line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar".[30] According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building.[31] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!". They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread.

A wax statue of Caesar was erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had gathered there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. In the ensuing chaos Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire.

The Roman empire and its emperors were so important in history that the word Caesar was used as a title in some European countries to mean emperor, even long after the Roman empire was gone. For example, Germany's king was called a Kaiser up to the year 1919 CE and Russia's king was called a Tsar until the year 1917 CE.

Caesar as author

File:Commentarii de Bello
Commentarii de Bello Gallico, an account written by Julius Caesar about his nine years of war in Gaul

Caesar was a significant author.

  • The Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War), campaigns in Gallia and Britannia during his term as proconsul; and
  • The Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), events of the Civil War until immediately after Pompey's death in Egypt.

Other works historically attributed to Caesar, but whose authorship is doubted, are:

  • De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria;
  • De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa; and
  • De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian peninsula.

These narratives were written and published on a yearly basis during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front". Apparently simple and direct in style—to the point that Caesar's Commentarii are commonly studied by first and second year Latin students—they are in fact highly sophisticated tracts, aimed particularly at the middle-brow readership of minor aristocrats in Rome, Italy, and the provinces.

Epilepsy

Based on remarks by Plutarch,[32] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is divided on the subject. It is more certain that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s.[33]

Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures (petit mal) in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures.[34][35][36]

In 2003, Psychiatrists Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that the symptoms were a factor in Caesar's decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination.[37]

References

  1. Fully, Caius Iulius Caii filius Caii nepos Caesar Imperator ("Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius, Imperator"). Official name after deification in 42 BC: Divus Iulius ("The Divine Julius").
  2. Robinson Jr., C.A. (May 1964). "Introduction". Selections from Greek and Roman historians. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. xxix. 
  3. Again, according to Suetonius's chronology (Julius 4). Plutarch (Caesar 1.8–2) says this happened earlier, on his return from Nicomedes's court. Velleius Paterculus (Roman History 2:41.3–42) says merely that it happened when he was a young man.
  4. Plutarch, Caesar 1–2
  5. Thorne, James (2003). Julius Caesar: Conqueror and Dictator. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 15. 
  6. Freeman, 39
  7. Freeman, 40
  8. Freeman, 51
  9. Freeman, 52
  10. Goldsworthy, 100
  11. Goldsworthy, 101
  12. Suetonius, Julius 5–8; Plutarch, Caesar 5; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43
  13. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.43; Plutarch, Caesar 7; Suetonius, Julius 13
  14. Plutarch, Caesar 11–12; Suetonius, Julius 18.1
  15. Plutarch, Julius 13; Suetonius, Julius 18.2
  16. Cicero, Letters to Atticus 2.1, 2.3, 2.17; Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.44; Plutarch, Caesar 13–14, Pompey 47, Crassus 14; Suetonius, Julius 19.2; Cassius Dio, Roman History 37.54–58
  17. Suetonius, Julius 21
  18. Suetonius, Julius 28
  19. Plutarch, Caesar 42–45
  20. 20.0 20.1 Plutarch, Caesar 37.2
  21. Martin Jehne, Der Staat des Dicators Caesar, Köln/Wien 1987, p. 15-38.
  22. Plutarch, Pompey 77–79
  23. Plutarch, Pompey 80.5
  24. Suetonius, Julius 40
  25. Huzar, Eleanor Goltz (1978). Mark Antony, a biography By Eleanor Goltz Huzar. Minneapolis, MN: Univesity of Minnesota Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 9780816608638. 
  26. Woolf Greg (2006), Et tu Brute? – the murder of Caesar and political assassination. ISBN 1-86197-741-7
  27. Suetonius, Julius, c. 82.
  28. Stone, Jon R. (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations. London: Routledge. p. 250. ISBN 0415969093. 
  29. Morwood, James (1994). The Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (Latin-English). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198602839. 
  30. The phrase appears in Richard Eedes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke &tc of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. Dyce, Alexander; (quoting Edmond Malone (1866). The Works of William Shakespeare. London: Chapman and Hall. p. 648. 
  31. Plutarch, Caesar 67
  32. Plutarch, Caesar 17, 45, 60; see also Suetonius, Julius 45.
  33. Ronald T. Ridley 2000. The Dictator's mistake: Caesar's escape from Sulla. Historia 49, 225–226, citing doubters of epilepsy: F. Kanngiesser, "Notes on the Pathology of the Julian Dynasty," Glasgow Medical Journal 77 (1912) 428–432; T. Cawthorne, "Julius Caesar and the Falling Sickness,” Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 51 (1957) 27–30, who prefers Ménière's disease; and O. Temkin, The Falling Sickness: a history of epilepsy from the Greeks to the beginnings of modern neurology (Baltimore 1971), p 162.
  34. Hughes J; Atanassova, E; Boev, K (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Dictator Perpetuus: Julius Caesar—did he have seizures? If so, what was the etiology?"]. Epilepsy Behav 5 (5): 756–64. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.05.006. PMID 5380131. 
  35. Gomez J, Kotler J, Long J (1995). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to a brain tumor?"]. The Journal of the Florida Medical Association 82 (3): 199–201. PMID 7738524. 
  36. H. Schneble (1 January 2003). "Gaius Julius Caesar". German Epilepsy Museum. http://www.epilepsiemuseum.de/alt/caesaren.html. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  37. Hodder, Harbour Fraser (September 2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Epilepsy and Empire, Caveat Caesar"]. Accredited Psychiatry & Medicine (Harvard, Boston: Harvard University) 106 (1): 19. 
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