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Julius Streicher


In office
1929 – February 16, 1940
Leader Adolf Hitler
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Hans Zimmermann
(Acting, 1940)
Karl Holz
(acting from 1942, permanent from 1944)

Born February 12, 1885 (1885-02-12)
Fleinhausen, then Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire
Died October 16, 1946 (1946-10-17) (aged 61)
Nuremberg, Germany
Political party National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
Spouse(s) Kunigunde Roth (m. 1913, died 1943)
Adele Tappe (m. 1945)
Children 2
Profession Teacher, Publisher, Activist

Julius Streicher (12 February 1885 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to World War II. He was the founder and publisher of Der Stürmer newspaper, which became a central element of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm also released three anti-Semitic books for children, including the 1938 Der Giftpilz ("The Toadstool" or "The Poison-Mushroom"), one of the most widespread pieces of propaganda, which purported to warn about insidious dangers Jews posed by using the metaphor of an attractive yet deadly mushroom. After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed.

Contents

Early life

Streicher was born in Fleinhausen, Kingdom of Bavaria, one of nine children of the teacher Friedrich Streicher and his wife Anna (née Weiss). He worked as an elementary school teacher like his father, and in 1909 he began his political career, joining the German Democratic Party. He would later claim that because his political work brought him into contact with German Jews, he “must therefore have been fated to become later on a writer and speaker on racial politics.”[1] In 1913 Streicher married Kunigunde Roth, a baker's daughter, in Nuremberg. They had two sons, Lothar (born 1915) and Elmar (born 1918).

Streicher joined the German Army in 1914. He won the Iron Cross and reached the rank of lieutenant by the time the Armistice was signed in 1918.

Early politics

In 1919 Streicher became active in the anti-Semitic Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund (German Nationalist Protection and Defiance Federation), one of the various reactionary organizations that sprang up in the wake of the failed German Communist revolution of 1918. Such groups fostered the view that Jews had conspired with “Bolshevik” traitors in trying to subject Germany to Communist rule.[2] In 1920 he turned to the Deutschsozialistische Partei (German-Socialist Party), a group whose platform was close to that of the young NSDAP, or National Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (National Socialist German Worker's Party). Streicher sought to move the German Socialists in a more virulently anti-Semitic direction – an effort which aroused enough opposition that he left the group and brought his now-substantial following to yet another organization in 1921, the Deutsche Werkgemeinschaft (German Working Community), which hoped to unite the various anti-Semitic Völkisch movements.

National Socialism

In 1921, Streicher finally found his mentor. He visited Munich in order to hear Adolf Hitler speak, an experience that he later said left him transformed:

I had never seen the man before. And there I sat, an unknown among unknowns. I saw this man shortly before midnight, after he had spoken for three hours, drenched in perspiration, radiant. My neighbour said he thought he saw a halo around his head, and I experienced something which transcended the commonplace.[2]

Soon after, Streicher joined the Nazi party and merged his personal following with Hitler’s, almost doubling the party membership.

In May 1923 Streicher founded the newspaper, Der Stürmer (The Stormer, or, loosely, The Attacker). From the outset, the chief aim of the paper was to promulgate anti-Semitic propaganda. “We will be slaves of the Jew,” the paper announced. “Therefore he must go.”[3]

In November of that year, Streicher participated in Hitler’s first effort to seize power, the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. Streicher marched with Hitler in the front row of the would-be revolutionaries and braved the bullets of the Munich police. His loyalty earned him Hitler’s lifelong trust and protection; in the years that followed, Streicher would be one of the dictator’s few true intimates. [4]

As a reward for his dedication, when the Nazi party was legalized again and re-organized in 1925 Streicher was appointed Gauleiter of the Bavarian region of Franconia (which included his home town of Nuremberg). In the early years of the party’s rise, Gauleiter were essentially party functionaries without real power; but in the final years of the Weimar Republic, they became paramilitary commanders. During the 12 years of the Nazi regime itself, party Gauleiter like Streicher would wield immense power, and be in large measure untouchable by legal authority.

Streicher was also elected to the Bavarian "Landtag" or legislature, a position which gave him a margin of parliamentary immunity — a safety net that would help him resist efforts to silence his racist message.[5]

The rise of Der Stürmer

Beginning in 1924, Streicher used Der Stürmer as a mouthpiece not only for general anti-semitic attacks, but for calculated smear campaigns against specific Jews, such as the Nuremberg city official Julius Fleischmann, who worked for Streicher’s nemesis, mayor Hermann Luppe. Der Stürmer accused Fleischmann of stealing socks from his quartermaster during combat in World War I. Fleischmann sued Streicher and successfully disproved the allegations in court (Streicher was fined 900 marks), but the detailed testimony exposed other less-than-glorious details of Fleischmann’s record, and his reputation was badly damaged anyway. It was proof that Streicher’s unofficial motto for his tactics was grimly correct: "Something always sticks."[5]

The slanderous attacks continued, and lawsuits followed. Like Fleischmann, other outraged German Jews defeated Streicher in court, but his goal was not necessarily legal victory; he wanted the widest possible dissemination of his message, which press coverage often provided. The rules of the court provided Streicher with an arena to humiliate his opponents, and he characterized the inevitable courtroom loss as a badge of honor. The Weimar habit of following the strictest letter of the law made prosecution for more serious crimes difficult. Der Stürmer's infamous official slogan, Die Juden sind unser Unglück (the Jews are our misfortune) was deemed unactionable under German statutes, since it was not a direct incitement to violence.[5]

Streicher’s opponents complained to authorities that Der Stürmer violated a statute against religious offense with his constant promulgation of the “blood libel” — the medieval accusation that Jews killed Christian children to use their blood to make matzoh. Streicher argued that his accusations were based on race, not religion, and that his communications were political speech, and therefore protected by the German constitution.[5]

Streicher orchestrated his early campaigns against Jews to make the most extreme possible claims, short of violating a law that might get the paper shut down. He insisted in the pages of his newspaper that the Jews had caused the worldwide Depression, and were responsible for the crippling unemployment and inflation which afflicted Germany during the 1920s. He claimed that Jews were white-slavers and were responsible for over 90 percent of the prostitutes in the country. Real unsolved killings in Germany, especially of children or women, were often confidently explained in the pages of Der Stürmer as cases of “Jewish ritual murder.”

One of Streicher’s constant themes was the sexual violation of ethnically German women by Jews, a subject which served as an excuse to publish semi-pornographic tracts and images detailing degrading sexual acts. These “essays” proved an especially appealing feature of the paper for young men. With the help of his notorious cartoonist, Phillip "Fips" Rupprecht, Streicher published image after image of gruesome Jewish stereotypes and sexually-charged encounters. His portrayal of Jews as subhuman and evil is widely considered to have played a critical role in the dehumanization and marginalization of the Jewish minority in the eyes of common Germans — creating the necessary conditions for the later perpetration of the Holocaust.

Streicher also combed the pages of the Talmud and the Old Testament in search of passages which could paint their ancient Jewish authors as harsh or cruel, a practice which continues to this day among anti-Semites. In 1929, this close study of Jewish scripture helped convict Streicher in a case known as “The Great Nuremberg Ritual Murder Trial.” His familiarity with Jewish text was proof to the court that his attacks were religious in nature; Streicher was found guilty and imprisoned for two months. In Germany, press reaction to the trial was highly critical of Streicher; but the gauleiter was greeted after his conviction by hundreds of cheering supporters, and within months Nazi party membership surged to its highest levels yet.[5]

Streicher in power

In April 1933, after Nazi control of the German state apparatus gave Gauleiter enormous power, Streicher organized a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses which was used as a dress-rehearsal for other anti-Semitic commercial measures. As he consolidated his hold on power, he came to more or less rule the city of Nuremberg and his Gau Franken. Among the nicknames provided by his enemies were "King of Nuremberg" and the "Beast of Franconia."

To protect himself from accountability, Streicher relied on Hitler’s protection. Hitler declared that Der Stürmer was his favorite newspaper, and saw to it that each weekly issue was posted for public reading in special glassed-in display cases known as File:USHMM 64415.jpg"Stürmerkasten" . The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 480,000 in 1935.

Streicher later claimed that he was only “indirectly responsible” for passage of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that he felt slighted because he was not directly consulted.

In 1938, Streicher ordered the Great Synagogue of Nuremberg destroyed; he later claimed that his decision was based on his disapproval of its architectural design.

Fall from power

Streicher’s excesses brought condemnation even from other Nazis. Streicher’s behavior was viewed as so irresponsible that he alienated much of the party leadership;[6] chief among his enemies in Hitler’s hierarchy was Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who loathed him and later claimed that he forbade his own staff to read Der Stürmer.

In spite of his special relationship with Hitler, after 1938 Streicher’s position began to unravel. He was accused of keeping Jewish property seized after Kristallnacht in November 1938; he was charged with spreading untrue stories about Göring - such as alleging that his daughter Edda was conceived by artificial insemination, and he was confronted with his excessive personal behavior, including unconcealed adultery and several furious verbal attacks on other Gauleiter. In February 1940 he was stripped of his party offices and withdrew from the public eye, although he was permitted to continue publishing Der Stürmer. Streicher also remained on good terms with Hitler.

Streicher's wife, Kunigunde Streicher, died in 1943 after 30 years of marriage.

When Germany surrendered to the Allied armies in May 1945, Streicher said later, he decided to commit suicide. Instead, he married his former secretary, Adele Tappe. Days later, on May 23, 1945, Streicher was captured in the town of Waidring, Austria, by a group of American officers led by Major Henry Plitt – who was Jewish. At first Streicher claimed to be a painter named “Joseph Sailer,” but after a few questions, quickly admitted to his true identity.[7]

During his trial, Streicher claimed that he had been mistreated by Allied soldiers after his capture. By his account they ordered him to take off his clothes in his cell, burned him with cigarettes, allowed him to drink only water from a toilet, and beat him with a whip. He further claimed that some of the soldiers also spit at him and forced his mouth open to spit in it. [8]

Trial and execution

In custody
1946-10-08 21 Nazi Chiefs Guilty.ogv
Oct 17, 1946 Newsreel of Nuremberg Trials Sentencing

Julius Streicher was not a member of the military and did not take part in planning the Holocaust, or the invasion of other nations. Yet his pivotal role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the prosecutors' judgment, to include him in the indictment of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal – which sat, ironically, in Nuremberg, where Streicher had once been an unchallenged authority.

During the trial, Captain Gustave Gilbert, a German-speaking American intelligence officer and psychologist, who had access to all the prisoners held in the Nuremberg jail, classified Streicher as having an I.Q. of 106, lowest among the Nazis tested.

During his trial, Streicher displayed for the last time the flair for courtroom theatrics that had made him famous in the 1920s. He answered questions from his own defense attorney with diatribes against Jews, the Allies, and the court itself, and was frequently silenced by the court officers. Streicher was largely shunned by all of the other Nuremberg defendants. He also peppered his testimony with references to passages of Jewish texts he had so often carefully selected and inserted (invariably out of context) into the pages of Der Stürmer.

The corpse of Julius Streicher after his execution in 1946.

Streicher was found guilty of crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial and sentenced to death on October 1, 1946.[9] The judgment against him read, in part:

“...For his 25 years of speaking, writing, and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as ‘Jew-Baiter Number One.’ In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the German people to active persecution... Streicher's incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity.”

Streicher was hanged in the early hours of October 16, 1946, along with the nine other condemned defendants from the first Nuremberg trial (Göring, Streicher's nemesis, committed suicide only hours earlier). Streicher's was the most melodramatic of the hangings carried out that night. At the bottom of the scaffold he cried out "Heil Hitler!" When he mounted the platform, he delivered his last sneering reference to Jewish scripture, snapping "Purim-Fest 1946!" The Jewish holiday Purim celebrates the escape by the Jews from extermination at the hands of Haman, an ancient Persian government official. At the end of the Purim story, Haman is hanged.[10][11] Streicher's final declaration before the hood went over his head was, "The Bolsheviks will hang you one day!"

The consensus among eyewitnesses was that Streicher's hanging did not proceed as planned, and that he did not receive the quick death from spinal severing typical of the other executions at Nuremberg. Howard K. Smith, who covered the executions for the International News Service, reported that Streicher "went down kicking" which may have dislodged the hangman's knot from its ideal position. Smith stated that Streicher could be heard groaning under the scaffold after he dropped through the trap-door, and that the executioner intervened under the gallows, which was screened by wood panels and a black curtain, to finish the job.[12] U. S. Army Master Sergeant John C. Woods was the main executioner, and not only insisted he had performed all executions correctly, but stated he was very proud of his work.

References

  1. ^ Testimony of Julius Streicher (as witness) at the International Military Tribunal (IMT), Friday, 26th April, 1946
  2. ^ a b IMT testimony of Julius Streicher, Friday, 26th April, 1946
  3. ^ Temple-Raston, Dina, Using Der Sturmer as a Model in Rwanda, New York Sun, March 2, 2005
  4. ^ Showalter, Dennis, Jews, Nazis, and the Law: The Case of Julius Streicher, 1997, in the Museum of Tolerance on-line library at http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=gvKVLcMVIuG&b=395155
  5. ^ a b c d e Showalter, Jews, Nazis, and the Law
  6. ^ Encyclopeida Britannica Online at www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/568753/Julius-Streicher
  7. ^ Henry Plitt Interview
  8. ^ Randall L. Bytwerk: "Julius Streicher - Nazi editor of the notorious Anti-Semitic newspaper Der Sturmer", 1983
  9. ^ Detailed Biographical Time-lines and Trial History of the Nuremberg Defendents
  10. ^ .The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial
  11. ^ Purim 1946? Not Exactly
  12. ^ News Article - The Execution of Nazi War Criminals
  • Bytwerk, Randall L. (2001). Julius Streicher: Nazi Editor of the Notorious Anti-Semitic Newspaper Der Stürmer. New York: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1156-1. 
  • Overy, Richard J. (1984). Goering: The Iron Man. London: Routledge. 
  • Ruault, Franco (2006). "Neuschöpfer des deutschen Volkes". Julius Streicher im Kampf gegen "Rassenschande". Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-54499-0. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

He who knows the truth and does not speak it is a miserable coward.

Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. His publishing firm released anti-Semitic books for children. After the war, he was convicted of crimes against humanity and executed.

Contents

Sourced

  • Heil Hitler! (when asked to state his name) You know my name well. Julius Streicher! The Bolsheviks will hang you one day! (to the hangman) Purim festival, 1946! I am now by God my father! Adele, my dear wife.
    • Last words, 10/16/46, quoted in "The Quest for the Nazi Personality" - Page 157 by Eric A. Zillmer - History - 1995
  • The Jew always lives from the blood of other peoples, he needs such murders and such sacrifices. The victory will be only entirely and finally achieved when the whole world is free of Jews.
    • 1937 speech, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 57 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
  • There must be a punitive expedition against the Jews in Russia, a punitive expedition which will expect: death sentence and execution. Then the world will see the end of the Jews is also the end of Bolshevism.
    • Der Stürmer, May 1939, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 50 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
  • This is our mission at home, to approach these future decisions without hesitation, to do our duty and to remain strong. We know the enemy, we have called him by name for the last twenty years: he is the World Jew. And we know that the Jew must die.
    • October 31, 1939 speech, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 50 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
  • Developments since the rise of National Socialism make it probable that the continent will be freed from its Jewish destroyers of people and exploiters forever, and the German example after the German victory in World War II will also serve to bring about the destruction of the Jewish world tormentors on other continents.
    • Der Stürmer, January 6, 1944, quoted in "The Trial of the Germans" - Page 57 - by Eugene Davidson - History - 1997
  • My publication was for a fine purpose. Certain snobs may now look down on it and call it common or even pornographic, but until the end of the war, I had Hitler's greatest respect, and Der Stürmer had the party's complete support. At our height, we had a circulation of 1.5 million. Everybody read Der Stürmer, and they must have liked it or they wouldn't have bought it. The aim of Der Stürmer was to unite Germans and to awaken them against Jewish influence which might ruin our noble culture.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
A people that does not protect its racial purity will perish!
  • Hitler promised me protection after I had participated in the Munich putsch in 1923. I am very proud that I marched alongside Hitler in that affair. Hitler was never forgetful of that fact, and his faith and confidence in me was unshaken until the end. I, in turn, never broke my oath of loyalty to him.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • Christ was a Jew, and God, he is supposed to have made the universe. That's a little far-fetched because if God made the world, who made God?
    • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • I was all for setting up a separate Jewish state in Madagascar or Palestine or someplace, but not to exterminate them. Besides, by exterminating 4 million Jews - they say 5 or 6 million at this trial, but that is all propaganda, I am sure it wasn't more than 4.5 million - they have made martyrs out of those Jews. For example, because of the extermination of these Jews, anti-Semitism has been set back many years in certain foreign countries where it had been making good progress.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, April 6, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • The main thing I tried to stress was how badly I was treated in the American camp at Freising, but the American prosecutor and the judges ruled that my comments on my poor treatment there had to be expunged from the record because it was irrelevant. I don't think it is irrelevant when we National Socialists are accused of war crimes and of murdering 5 million Jews and millions of other innocent people such as partisans, hostages, war prisoners. Therefore, I should have been allowed to insert into the record of this trial how badly I was treated personally as a prisoner of war, after the war was over, mind you, in Freising.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • It is a trial within a nation but a trial of victors against the vanquished. Even before the trials started, the victors who are our judges were quite convinced that we were guilty and that we should all pay the price.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • I remember reports that the American and English newspapers were very happy about the fact that so many were killed in Dresden. There are many instances of barbarity and cruelty on the part of the Allies which I could tell you.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • It's perfectly understandable and proper for one to be anti-Semite, but to exterminate women and children is so extraordinary, it's hard to believe. No defendant here wanted that.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, June 15, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • Yes, I believe I had a part in it insofar as for years I have written that any further mixture of German blood with Jewish blood must be avoided. I have written such articles again and again; and in my articles I have repeatedly emphasized the fact that the Jews should serve as an example to every race, for they created the racial law for themselves - the law of Moses, which says, "If you come into a foreign land you shall not take unto yourself foreign women." And that, Gentlemen, is of tremendous importance in judging the Nuremberg Laws. These laws of the Jews were taken as a model for these laws. When after centuries, the Jewish lawgiver Ezra demonstrated that notwithstanding many Jews had married non-Jewish women, these marriages were dissolved. That was the beginning of Jewry which, because it introduced these racial laws, has survived throughout the centuries, while all other races and civilizations have perished.
    • After Streicher was asked about his participation in the Nuremberg Race laws of 1935. Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946, Volume 12, Secretariat of the Tribunal, Nuremberg, Germany, page 315
  • Germans must fight Jews, that organized body of world criminals against whom Christ, the greatest anti-Semite of all time, had fought.
    • Quoted in "Hitler's Elite, Shocking Profiles of the Reich's Most Notorious Henchmen," Berkley Books, 1990
  • Only the Jews had remained victorious after the dreadful days of World War I. These were the people of whom Christ said, "Its father is the devil."
    • Quoted in "Anti-Judaism and the Fourth Gospel" - Page 14 - by Reimund Bieringer, Didier Pollefeyt, Frederique Vandecasteele-Vanneuville - Religion - 2001
  • Anti-Semitic publications have existed in Germany for centuries. A book I had, written by Dr. Martin Luther, was, for instance, confiscated. Dr. Martin Luther would very probably sit in my place in the defendants' dock today, if this book had been taken into consideration by the Prosecution. In this book The Jews and Their Lies, Dr. Martin Luther writes that the Jews are a serpent's brood and one should burn down their synagogues and destroy them...
    • Quoted in "The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition" - by Raul Hilberg - History - 2003
  • Two niggers undressed me and tore my shirt in two. I kept only my pants. Being handcuffed, I could not pull them up when they fell down. So now I was naked. Four days! On the fourth day, I was so cold that my body was numb. I couldn't hear anything. Every two - four hours (even in the night!) Niggers came along under command of a white man and hammered at me. Cigarette burns on the nipples. Fingers gouged into eye-sockets. Eyebrows and chest hair pulled out. Genitals beaten with an oxwhip. Testicles very swollen. Spat at. "Mouth open" and was spat into. When I refused to open, my jaws were pried apart with a stick and my mouth spat into. Beaten with a whip - swollen, dark-blue whelps all over the body... Photographed naked! Jeered at wearing an old army greatcoat which they hung round me.
    • Note handed to his lawyer, Dr. Hans Marx, about the torture he endured in his cell. Quoted in "Julius Streicher" - Page 42 - by Randall L. Bytwerk - 2001
  • He who knows the truth and does not speak it is a miserable coward.
    • Alternate version: He who knows the truth and does not speak it truly is a miserable creature.
    • Quoted in "Julius Streicher" - Page 211 - By Randall L. Bytwerk
  • A people that does not protect its racial purity will perish!

Unsourced

  • People who do not supervise the purity of their own race...will perish.
  • The Jews are a race and not a religion. My goal was not to persecute the Jews but to enlighten Gentiles to put them on guard.
  • I know more about the Jews than the Jews do themselves. I've known all along you are Jewish by your voice. At first I wasn't sure. But then one of the others told me. Then I listened and I could tell by your voice.
    • To Dr. Gustave Mark Gilbert, while Leon Goldensohn listens, January 24, 1946
  • When a Negro soldier on the Rhine misuses a German girl, she is lost to the race.
    • 1923 article

About Streicher

  • I also never read a work of Streicher or of that stupid journal Der Stürmer. I saw only one page of it and that sufficed. That paper was forbidden in my house. The whole administrative district here in Nuremberg was terrible under Streicher and I finally succeeded in dissolving it. The Göring Commission here in Nuremberg which investigated Streicher's activities was famous. Streicher was not a normal man.
  • For example, take Streicher, he is often classified with me because he was a journalist and propagandist. I always thought him very dumb and a sexual pervert. Therefore, I denounced Der Stürmer in public, although never on the radio, but frequently before classes of 200 to 250 journalists in the political propaganda courses which I gave at the university. I can state this quite frankly. In my defense, I want to touch the story of my relationship to Streicher with only a single sentence. On two occasions I attempted to prohibit Der Stürmer because of pornography. Regarding The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, I thought that to be a stupid invention. Those are the only things that I will bring out in my defense in that regard. I think that in former years Streicher was a very cruel man, because I had several experiences with journalists who had been whipped by Streicher here in Nuremberg. They had been placed in concentration camps and I was able to liberate them only through the help of Hess at that time. I also believe that there was more than a little truth to the charges of embezzlement which were rumored at that time. Today I think a trifle better of him. I think he is mainly stupid. The crime does not lie in him but in the man who gave him power - the Führer. I think that Streicher's mind is slow but that he has a certain natural strength which causes him to be a fanatic. This type of dumb individual can often be used for fanatical purposes.
  • Streicher, let me give you some advice. I work in a Jewish bank. I have learned to be silent at times when my German heart gladly would have spoke. The Jews are few in number but great in the economic and political power they have achieved, and their power is dangerous. You, my dear Streicher, are still young and cocky, and don't mince words. But never forget what I am telling you: the Jews have great power, and that power is dangerous, very dangerous.
    • Bank Employee, to Streicher, in 1912
  • A Gauleiter of Franconia whose occupation was to pour forth filthy writings about the Jews, but who had no idea that anybody would read them.
  • Streicher, the venomous vulgarian, manufactured and distributed obscene racial libels, which incited the populace to accept and assist the progressively savage operations of "race purification."
    • Robert H. Jackson
  • This Streicher affair is a tragedy...Streicher is irreplaceable...There's no question of his coming back but I must do him justice. If one day I write my memoirs, I shall have to recognize that this man fought like a buffalo in our cause...I can't help thinking that, in comparison with so many services, the reasons for Streicher's dismissal are really very slender.
    • Adolf Hitler after ordering Streicher to retire to his country estate and remain under house arrest
  • Bravo, Streicher!
    • Rudolf Hess yells this out from his cell when Streicher refused to get dressed for his execution, 10/16/46

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