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Painting of a barricade on Rue Soufflot (with the Panthéon behind), Paris, June 1848. By Horace Vernet.

The June Days Uprising (French: les journées de Juin) refers to the French workers' revolt from 23 June to 25 June 1848, after the closure of the National Workshops created by the Second Republic to give work to the unemployed. The repression, by General Louis Eugène Cavaignac, killed 1,500 people and 15,000 political prisoners were deported to Algeria. Gen. Cavaignac was then named head of the executive power, and Louis Blanc was judicially persecuted by the government. This marked the end of the hopes of a "Democratic and Social Republic" (République démocratique et sociale) and the victory of the liberals over the Radical Republicans.

Chronology

  • 1847-1848 : In a context of economic crisis, the Republicans opposed to the July Monarchy (1830-1848) start a campaign of public banquets (Campagne des banquets). The prohibition of one of them leads to a protest march, culminating in riots during which the National Guard rallied itself to the rioters.
  • February 24, 1848. King Louis-Philippe abdicates and the deputies proclaim a provisional government composed of Radical Republicans and moderates (Louis Blanc, "Albert l'Ouvrier" — alias Alexandre MartinAlexandre Ledru-Rollin, François Arago, Lamartine, Flocon, Crémieux, Garnier-Pagès, Marie, Marrast) and presided over by Dupont de l'Eure. The Second Republic is proclaimed, along with universal male suffrage, freedom of the press and of reunion, and the abolition of slavery by the Schoelcher decree.
  • February 26: Creation of the National Workshops intended to resolve unemployment in large towns affected by the economic crisis since 1847.
  • March 15: The far left, fearing bad results, unsuccessfully tried to report elections.
  • April 23 and 24: Election of the Constituent Assembly; all candidates proclaim themselves "Republicans". Those who win are members of various electoral lists (scrutin de liste départemental until 1852), thus mainly moderates and "Republicans of the eve" (Républicains du lendemain).
  • June 21: The National Workshops are suppressed because of their cost.
  • June 22: Beginning of the June uprising provoked by the closure of the workshops, harshly repressed by the army headed by general Cavaignac.
  • June 25: Death on the barricades of Monseigneur Affre, archbishop of Paris.
    • — assassination of général Bréa by the insurgents.
  • June 26: End of the uprising with the fall of the last barricade on faubourg Saint-Antoine. 1,500 were killed and 15,000 prisoners deported to Algeria. The National Assembly decides to depose a judicial complaint against Louis Blanc.
  • June 28: The National Assembly rewards general Cavaignac by naming him head of the executive power.
  • July 3: Dissolving of the National Workshops.
  • July 27: Following the repression of the June uprising, the Assembly restricts the Clubs' activities and forbids the participation of women and children.
  • July 28: Act restricting the activities of political clubs.

See also

What does "report the election" mean, in this sentence from the main article: March 15: The far left, fearing bad results, unsuccessfully tried to report elections.

External links

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The June Days
File:Horace Vernet-Barricade rue
Painting of a barricade on Rue Soufflot (with the Panthéon behind), Paris, June 1848. By Horace Vernet.
Participants The working class of France
Location France
Date June 23, 1848 (1848-06-23) – June 26, 1848 (1848-06-26)
Result Revolution is a failure, however the government puts forward a new constitution and elections are called in which Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte is elected.

The June Days Uprising (French: les journées de Juin) was a revolution staged by the citizens of France, whose only source of income was the National Workshops, from 23 June to 26 June 1848.[1] The Workshops were created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed, however only pointless jobs were provided which barely gave them enough money to survive.[2] When the revolution broke out the National Guard lead by General Louis Eugène Cavaignac was called out to quell the protests, however things did not go peacefully. The repression killed 4,500 people and over 4000 insurgents were deported to Algeria and soon after all thoughts of a revolution had been forgotten.[2] This revolution marked the end of the hopes of a "Democratic and Social Republic" (République démocratique et sociale) and the victory of the liberals over the Radical Republicans.

Contents

Background

During this time France was in a period of internal turmoil and had gone through many revolutions such as, the July Revolution, and the The 1848 Revolution.[1] All of these revolutions were caused by the fact that the rulers that were instated after the defeat of Napoleon were conservative and wanted to keep the old ways of society such as, only allowing the upper classes to vote and to have privileges in society, which the people did not like.[1] Leaders such as Charles X and Louis XVIII were overthrown and a ruler who slightly differed from these two was put into power, his name was Louis Philippe.

Although Louis Philippe can still be considered conservative, he went in a different direction from the previous two rulers. Philippe was a king who mainly associated with the middle classes, during his reign he extended voting rights, among other privileges, to the middle class. This was a big step for France as this king was not just focusing on the upper class, but was spreading privileged to other social classes. However, Philippe still retained qualities from previous kings, such as the extremely bad treatment of the lower class, both by the king and his foreign minister Guizot.[1] The lower classes spent almost 15 hours a day laboring in factories and even their children, who were under 18, where toiling in the factories.[1] Working and living conditions were extremely harsh and the pay was minimal. The people cried out to the king for help, however these calls fell on deaf ears.[3] Due to this and the economic crisis that ensued during his reign a revolution was held against him and he abdicated to Europe.[3]

This leads us to the formation of the Provisional Government of the Second French Republic.[2] This government got off to a good start, improving Paris, introducing Universal adult suffrage, which gave everyone over 21 the right to vote and also, starting the National Workshops which was to provide jobs for the unemployed, although these jobs were very pointless.[2] Soon, the Workshops were being flooded with unemployed workers seeking jobs and soon the system was becoming ladened and neared it's breaking point.[2] As the number of workers continued to increase the government requested that General Eugène Cavaignac start planning defenses for the city.[2] Soon after the governent started to hear that banquets being held for the workers were planning mass demonstrations, as a result on June 21 plans were already underway to close the Workshops.

Revolution

On June 23, the Comte de Falloux's committee issued a decree that the Workshops would be closed in three days and that the options were that young men could join the army, provincials could return home or they could simply be dismissed.[2] As the anger about the closing of the Workshops increased and the June days began later that day.[1] In certain sections of the city hundreds of barricades were thrown up which blocked communication and reduced mobility of persons significantly.[2] The National Guard was called out to stop the rioting and when the Guard confronted the protesters fierce fighting broke out.[2]

The hard workers had now become insurgents and were tearing up stones to use as barricades.[2] The numbers of military members were estimated to be over 40,000, however the number if insurgents were estimated to be higher. The insurgent's number were getting larger as they traveled from house to house recruiting other citizens to join them and threatening them with death if they refused.[2] The insurgents also seized many armories to gather weapons, regardless they were still running low on ammunition.[2] However the revolutionists would rather die than to return to their lives of poverty.[2]

Large amounts of blood was shed on the streets as the National Guard fired on the barricades, but the National Guard's men were not the only ones firing. The insurgents also inflicted heavy casualties to the Guard, who lost many of their men. By June 6 the revolution was all over, 4,500 people lay dead, with many more injured and over 4000 insurgents were deported to Algeria. After the insurgents were crushed all ideas of a revolution were abandoned.[1][2]

Aftermath

After the revolution a new constitution a new constitution was put in place declaring France a democratic republic and that a president should be elected every four years by the people.[4] Once a president was elected he would have the power to select and dismiss his Ministers and high ranking officials.[4] The constitution also stated that there should be an Assembly of 750 people who would have legislative powers, these people were to be elected by the people every three years.[4] After this constitution was introduced, elections were held and Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was elected, thus becoming the king of the Second French empire.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Peacock, Herbert L. (1982). "5" (in English). A History of Modern Europe 1789-1981. pp. 91-112. ISBN 978-0435317201. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Castelli, Helen. "June Days (June 22-26, 1848)". http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/ip/junedays.htm. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "France History - French History of the Bourbon Dynasty". Bonjour La France. http://www.bonjourlafrance.com/france-history/bourbon-dynasty.htm. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c Sache, Ivan. "France: Second Republic (1848-1852)". Flags of the World. http://flagspot.net/flags/fr_secdr.html. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 

See also

External links


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