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Jurassic Park
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by Kathleen Kennedy
Gerald R. Molen
Written by Screenplay:
David Koepp
Michael Crichton
Malia Scotch Marmo (uncredited)
Novel:
Michael Crichton
Starring Sam Neill
Laura Dern
Jeff Goldblum
Richard Attenborough
Joseph Mazzello
Ariana Richards
Martin Ferrero
Bob Peck
Samuel L. Jackson
Wayne Knight
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Editing by Michael Kahn
Studio Amblin Entertainment
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) June 11, 1993
Running time 127 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Spanish
Budget $63,000,000[1]
Gross revenue $914,691,118[2]
Followed by The Lost World: Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction adventure thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. The film centers on the fictional Isla Nublar (Spanish for "Cloudy Island"), in Costa Rica, where billionaire philanthropist John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) and a team of genetic scientists from his company have created an amusement park of cloned dinosaurs. Threatened with legal action over the accidental death of an island worker, Hammond invites a trio of scientists -- paleontologist Alan Grant (Sam Neill), paleobotanist Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) -- to inspect the park (and appease the company lawyers) before its public opening. During a storm that evacuates most of the island, except for the visitors and a small team of employees, sabotage engineered by a rival company sets the dinosaurs loose, and the island's few inhabitants attempt to escape the island under peril.

Spielberg acquired the motion picture rights to the novel before its publication in 1990, and Crichton himself was hired to adapt the novel into a proper screenplay. David Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence, and made numerous changes to the characters. Spielberg hired Stan Winston Studios to create animatronics to portray the dinosaurs, shots of which were then mixed with newly developed computer-generated imagery by Industrial Light & Magic. Paleontologist Jack Horner aided the actors and the special effects team in creating authenticity (although aspects of the animals' depictions became outdated due to changes in evolutionary theories). Filming took place from August 24 to November 30, 1992, in Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, and California.

Jurassic Park is regarded as a landmark in the use of computer-generated imagery, and received positive reviews from critics, who praised the effects, though reactions to other elements of the picture, such as character development, were mixed. During its release, the film grossed more than $914 million worldwide, becoming the most successful film released up to that time (surpassing E.T. the Extra Terrestrial and surpassed 4 years later by Titanic), and it is currently the thirteenth-highest-grossing feature film (taking inflation into account, it is the 18th-highest-grossing film in North America). It is the most successful film from both NBC Universal and Steven Spielberg. Ironically, this makes Universal one of only two of the "Big Six" film studios not to have a movie make at least $1 billion worldwide (along with Sony Pictures Entertainment, whose highest grossing film is Spider-Man 3). Jurassic Park spawned a franchise, including the sequels The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) and Jurassic Park III (2001).

Contents

Plot

In Jurassic Park, located on Isla Nublar, an island approximately 120 miles west of Costa Rica, an employee for the genetic engineering company InGen is attacked and killed while placing a Velociraptor into a specially built enclosure, prompting a lawsuit from his family. CEO John Hammond (Richard Attenborough) is pressured by his investors to allow a safety inspection by experts before opening the park. He invites paleontologist Alan Grant (Sam Neill), paleobotanist Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), chaos theorist Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum), and his investors' attorney Donald Gennaro (Martin Ferrero) to perform the inspection. The group meets a Brachiosaurus when they set off into the park. At the park, they learn that InGen created the dinosaurs by cloning genetic material found in mosquitoes that fed on dinosaur blood, preserved in Dominican amber. The DNA from these samples was spliced with DNA from frogs to fill in sequence gaps. Only female dinosaurs are created to prevent uncontrolled breeding within the park. The team is also shown the enclosure of the Velociraptor, dubbed "raptors", extremely intelligent, aggressive and ferocious predators.

Malcolm is disgusted by what he sees as the rape of mother nature, Sattler is worried, but Grant remains neutral. They meet Hammond's grandchildren, Tim (Joseph Mazzello) and Alexis "Lex" Murphy (Ariana Richards), and go on a vehicular tour of the park via 2 electric-powered Ford Explorers. Ellie leaves the tour to supervise and take care of a sick Triceratops with Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Gerry Harding (Gerald R. Molen). A tropical storm hits the island as most InGen employees leave for the day leaving only Hammond, game warden Robert Muldoon (Bob Peck), chief engineer Ray Arnold (Samuel L. Jackson), and leading computer programmer Dennis Nedry (Wayne Knight) to supervise the park and the visitors.

Having been bribed by InGen's rival Lewis Dodgson (Cameron Thor), Nedry takes an opportunity to shut down the park's security system so he can steal dinosaur embryos and deliver them to an informant at the auxiliary dock. As a result, the security systems of the whole park are shut down, most notably allowing the Tyrannosaurus to break through the deactivated electric fence surrounding its pen. The cowardly Gennaro flees from the car into a nearby bathroom, while Tim and Lex accidentally attract the T-Rex's attention with a flashlight and are attacked. Grant distracts the T-Rex with a flare, but just as she is about to leave, Malcolm tries the same trick with less success, and in fleeing from the T-Rex, attracts her attention and tells Grant to take the kids and run. Gennaro is devoured and Malcolm is severely injured and assumed killed, while the children and Grant only narrowly avoid being killed themselves.

Soon after they flee the wreckage, Sattler and Muldoon arrive. They discover the remains of Gennaro, and find that Malcolm is actually alive but has a severe leg wound, which he managed to support with his belt. Upon further investigation they find footprints belonging to Grant and the kids. Just then, the T-Rex returns and Malcolm, Muldoon, and Sattler barely escape her in their Jeep. Meanwhile, Nedry crashes his Jeep and, while trying to winch it, is killed by a Dilophosaurus. Grant, Tim, and Lex spend the night in a tree. While hiking to safety the next morning, they discover hatched eggs, indicating that the dinosaurs are breeding. Grant realizes that the frog DNA is responsible: some species of frog are known to spontaneously change sex in a single-sex environment.

Arnold tries to hack Nedry's computer to turn the fences back on but fails for lack of a key identifier. He does a full system restart, which requires him to shut down the entire power grid from the Visitor Center and to manually reset the circuit breakers from the utility shed. When he does not return from the shed, Sattler and Muldoon follow and discover the raptors have escaped, the shutdown having cut off power to the electric fences around their pen. Muldoon realizes that they are near and tells Sattler to go to the utility shed herself and turn the power back on while he tries to distract the raptors and hunt them down. Sattler arrives at the shed and manages to reset the breakers, then she is chased by a raptor, discovers Arnold's remains, and manages to escape the maintenance shed. Muldoon is attacked and killed by a second raptor while hunting the third raptor. Grant and the kids finally arrive at the Visitor Center, after Tim is electrocuted when the fences turn back on and revived by Grant. Grant leaves them to find the others and finds Sattler first, then joins Malcolm and Hammond in the emergency bunkers.

Raptors enter the Visitor Center and Lex and Tim narrowly escape them in the kitchen (locking one in the freezer). Grant and Sattler take Lex and Tim to the control room, where Lex is finally able to restore the Park's computer systems to call Hammond to request a helicopter rescue of the survivors. Grant and Sattler hold off a raptor trying to open the door to the computer room, until the power is restored and the electromagnetic locks begin working. With the door secure, the raptor breaks into the room through the window, and the group climbs into the ceiling crawlspace and arrive at the Visitors Center rotunda, above the skeleton display. The raptors pursue and, after a scuffle on top of the fossil exhibits where the raptors block their escape route, 'help' comes from an unlikely source; the Tyrannosaurus arrives and attacks the raptors. The T-Rex and raptors fight while Grant, Sattler, Lex, and Tim escape. The four flee, climb into Hammond and Malcolm's jeep and leave. Grant says he will not endorse the park, a choice with which Hammond concurs. Meanwhile inside the T-Rex tears apart one of the raptors and kills the other by hurling it at a Tyrannosaurus skeleton on display. As the group fly away in the helicopter, the children fall asleep beside Grant, who contemplatively looks out the window over the horizon at a flock of birds flying nearby, the modern descendants of dinosaurs.

Cast

From left: Donald Gennaro (Martin Ferrero), Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern), John Hammond (Richard Attenborough), Alan Grant (Sam Neill) and Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum)
  • Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant: A world renowned paleontologist excavating Velociraptor fossils in the Montana Badlands. He dislikes children, frightening one with a talon of a raptor, but he soon has to protect Hammond's grandchildren. Neill was Spielberg's original choice, but he was too busy. Spielberg then met Richard Dreyfuss and Kurt Russell, who were too expensive, and William Hurt turned down the role.[3] Spielberg then pushed back filming a month to let Neill play the character: he wound up only having a weekend's break between filming Family Pictures and Jurassic Park. Neill prepared for the role by meeting paleontologist Jack Horner, who would later be the technical adviser on the entire trilogy.[4] Neill scarred his wrist filming the T. rex attack when the flare he held went off.[5]
  • Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler: A paleobotanist and graduate student of Grant. Dern also met Horner and visited the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, learning to prepare a fossil.[4] Sigourney Weaver was reportedly Spielberg's first choice, before landing with Dern.
  • Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm: A mathematician and chaos theorist. He warns of the danger of resurrecting dinosaurs and becomes Hammond's main opposition. He also falls for Sattler, another in a long line of romantic interests. Goldblum was Spielberg's first choice,[4] and he is a big fan of dinosaurs.[6] To prepare for his role, Goldblum met with James Gleick and Ivar Ekeland to discuss chaos theory.[7]
  • Ariana Richards as Alexis "Lex" Murphy: Hammond's granddaughter, a vegetarian and self-professed computer hacker.
  • Joseph Mazzello as Timothy "Tim" Murphy: Lex's younger brother, into dinosaurs. He has read Grant's book.
  • Richard Attenborough as John Hammond: CEO of InGen and architect of Jurassic Park. Jurassic Park was Attenborough's first acting role since 1979's The Human Factor. He repeats the line "...spared no expense..." no fewer than five times during the film.[8]
  • Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry: The disgruntled architect of Jurassic Park's computer systems and the main antagonist of the film. He is bribed by Biosyn agent Lewis Dodgson for $1.5 million to deliver frozen dinosaur embryos. For his character's death, Knight was shot with an air gun filled with KY Jelly to simulate the Dilophosaurus's venomous spit. The jelly dyed the actor's hair purple, something which the actor would reminisce with the technician who shot the jelly at him when they discovered they were neighbors.[9]
  • Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold: The park's chief engineer. He switches off the main power to reboot the mainframe but unwittingly unleashes the raptors in doing so and ends up being their prey.
  • Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon: The park's game warden. He is concerned about the intelligence of the raptors and would have them all destroyed. His fear proved justified when he was killed by a raptor on the left of him as he was about to shoot one in front of him.
  • Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro: A lawyer who represents Hammond's concerned investors. He was eaten alive by the Tyrannosaurus after abandoning Lex and Tim and hiding in a bathroom nearby.
  • B. D. Wong as Dr. Henry Wu: The park's chief geneticist, who is responsible for making all the dinosaurs female and lysine deficient. He leaves during the storm.
  • Gerald R. Molen, the film's producer, cameoed as Gerry Harding, the park's veterinarian, who appears to take care of the Triceratops.
  • Cameron Thor as Lewis Dodgson: The head of InGen's rival corporation Biosyn in the novel. He only appears in the film to give Nedry a shaving cream can to put stolen embryos in before he goes to Jurassic Park.
  • Dean Cundey, the film's cinematographer, cameoed as the Dockworker to whom Nedry talks on the computer.
  • Greg Burson as the voice of Mr. DNA
  • Richard Kiley as the voice of the car tour guide.

Production

Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur; he continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel Jurassic Park.[10] Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989 while he and Crichton were discussing a screenplay that would become the television series ER.[11] Before the book was published, Crichton demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million as well as a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Brothers and Tim Burton, Sony Pictures Entertainment and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante bid for the rights,[11] but Universal eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg.[12] Universal paid Crichton a further $500,000 to adapt his own novel,[13] which he had finished by the time Spielberg was filming Hook. Crichton noted that because the book was "fairly long" his script only had about 10 to 20 percent of the novel's content; scenes were dropped for budgetary and practical reasons.[14] After completing Hook, Spielberg wanted to film Schindler's List. Music Corporation of America president Sid Sheinberg gave a green light to the film on one condition: that Spielberg make Jurassic Park first. Spielberg later said, "He knew that once I had directed Schindler I wouldn't be able to do Jurassic Park."[11] At the time, MCA was the owner of Universal Pictures.

Spielberg hired Stan Winston to create the animatronic dinosaurs, Phil Tippett to create go motion dinosaurs for long shots, Michael Lantieri to supervise the on-set effects, and Dennis Muren to do the digital compositing. Paleontologist Jack Horner supervised the designs, to help fulfil Spielberg's desire to portray the dinosaurs as animals rather than monsters. Horner dismissed the raptors' flicking tongues in Tippett's early animatics,[15] complaining, "[The dinosaurs] have no way of doing that!" Taking Horner's advice, Spielberg insisted that Tippett take the tongues out.[16] Winston's department created fully detailed models of the dinosaurs before molding latex skins, which were fitted over complex robotics. Tippett created stop-motion animatics of major scenes, but, despite go motion's attempts at motion blurs, Spielberg still found the end results unsatisfactory in terms of working in a live-action feature film.[15] Animators Mark Dippe and Steve Williams went ahead in creating a computer-generated walk cycle for the T. rex skeleton and were approved to do more.[17] When Spielberg and Tippett saw an animatic of the T. rex chasing a herd of Gallimimus, Spielberg said, "You're out of a job," to which Tippett replied, "Don't you mean extinct?"[15] Spielberg later wrote both the animatic and his dialogue between him and Tippett into the script.[18]

Malia Scotch Marmo began a script rewrite in October 1991 over a five-month period, merging Ian Malcolm with Alan Grant.[19] Screenwriter David Koepp came on board afterward, starting afresh from Marmo's draft, and used Spielberg's idea of a cartoon shown to the visitors to remove much of the exposition that fills Crichton's novel.[20] Spielberg also excised a sub-plot of Procompsognathus escaping to the mainland and attacking young children, as he found it too horrific.[21] This sub-plot would eventually be used as a prologue in the Spielberg-directed sequel, The Lost World. Hammond was changed from a ruthless businessman to a kindly old man, because Spielberg identified with Hammond's obsession with showmanship.[22] He also switched the characters of Tim and Lex; in the book, Tim is aged 11 and into computers, and Lex is only seven or eight and into sports. Spielberg did this because he wanted to work with the younger Joseph Mazzello, and it also allowed him to introduce the sub-plot of Lex's adolescent crush on Grant.[4] Koepp changed Grant's relationship with the children, making him hostile to them initially to allow for more character development.[11] Koepp also took the opportunity to cut out a major sequence from the book, for budgetary reasons, where the T. rex chases Grant and the children down a river before being tranquilized by Muldoon. This scene was revived in part in Jurassic Park III with the Spinosaurus replacing the T.rex.[20]

After 25 months of pre-production, filming began on August 24, 1992, on the Hawaiian island of Kauaʻi.[23] The three-week shoot involved various daytime exteriors.[12] On September 11, Hurricane Iniki passed directly over Kauaʻi, which caused the crew to lose a day of shooting.[24] Several of the storm scenes from the movie are actual footage shot during the hurricane. The scheduled shoot of the Gallimimus chase was moved to Kualoa Ranch on the island of Oahu and one of the beginning scenes had to be created by digital animating a still shot of scenery.[18] The crew moved back to mainland USA to shoot at Universal Studios's Stage 24 for scenes involving the raptors in the kitchen.[12] The crew also shot on Stage 23 for the scenes involving the power supply, before going on location to Red Rock Canyon for the Montana dig scenes.[25] The crew returned to Universal to shoot Grant's rescue of Tim, using a fifty-foot prop with hydraulic wheels for the car fall, and the Brachiosaurus encounter. The crew filmed scenes for the Park's labs and control room, which used animations for the computers lent from Silicon Graphics and Apple.[26]

The crew moved to Warner Bros. Studios' Stage 16 to shoot the T. rex attack on the tour cars.[26] Shooting proved frustrating due to water soaking the foam rubber skin of the animatronic dinosaur.[6] The ripples in the glass of water caused by the T. rex's footsteps was inspired by Spielberg listening to Earth, Wind and Fire in his car, and the vibrations the bass rhythm caused. Lantieri was unsure of how to create the shot until the night before filming, when he put a glass of water on a guitar he was playing, which achieved the concentric circles in the water Spielberg wanted. The next morning, guitar strings were put inside the car and a man on the ground plucked the strings to achieve the effect.[27] Back at Universal, the crew filmed scenes with the Dilophosaurus on Stage 27. Finally, the shoot finished on Stage 12, with the climactic chases with the raptors in the Park's computer rooms and Visitor's Center.[28] Spielberg brought back the T. rex for the climax, abandoning his original ending in which Grant uses a platform machine to maneuver a raptor into a fossil tyrannosaur's jaws.[29] The film wrapped twelve days ahead of schedule on November 30,[12][30][31] and within days editor Michael Kahn had a rough cut ready, allowing Spielberg to go ahead with filming Schindler's List.[32]

Special effects work continued on the film, with Tippett's unit adjusting to new technology with Dinosaur Input Devices:[33] models which fed information into the computers to allow themselves to animate the characters traditionally. In addition, they acted out scenes with the raptors and Gallimimus. As well as the computer-generated dinosaurs, ILM also created elements such as water splashing and digital face replacement for Ariana Richards' stunt double.[15] Compositing the dinosaurs onto the live action scenes took around an hour. Rendering the dinosaurs often took two to four hours per frame, and rendering the T. rex in the rain even took six hours per frame.[34] Spielberg monitored their progress from Poland.[35] Composer John Williams began work on the score at the end of February, and it was conducted a month later by John Neufeld and Alexander Courage.[36] The sound effects crew, supervised by George Lucas,[37] were finished by the end of April. Jurassic Park was finally completed on May 28, 1993.[36]

Dinosaurs on screen

Despite the title of the film referencing the Jurassic period, most of the dinosaurs featured did not exist until the Cretaceous period.[38] When explaining the ferocity of the Velociraptor to a cynical young boy, Dr. Grant says "Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous period..."

Stan Winston's animatronic Tyrannosaurus, on Warner Bros Stage 16
  • Tyrannosaurus rex, abbreviated as "T. rex", is the star of the film and, according to Spielberg, the reason he rewrote the ending for fear of disappointing the audience.[15] Winston's animatronic T. rex stood 20 feet (6.1 m), weighed 13,000 pounds (5,900 kg),[26] and was 40 feet (12 m) long.[39] Jack Horner called it "the closest I've ever been to a live dinosaur".[39] The dinosaur is depicted with a vision system based on movement. Its roar is a baby elephant mixed with a tiger and an alligator, and its breath is a whale's blow.[36] A dog attacking a ball was used for the sounds of it tearing a Gallimimus apart.[15]
  • Velociraptor (dubbed simply "raptor" in the film) also has a major role and is portrayed as the film's antagonist. The animal's depiction was not based on the actual dinosaur species in question (which itself was significantly smaller), rather the related (and larger) species Deinonychus, which was called Velociraptor antirrhopus by some scientists.[40] Crichton's writing followed this, but by the time production of the film took place, the idea had been dropped by the scientific community. Coincidentally, before Jurassic Park's theatre release, the similar Utahraptor was discovered, though was proved bigger in appearance to the film's raptors; this prompted Stan Winston to joke, "We made it, then they discovered it."[39] For the attack on character Robert Muldoon, the raptors were played by men in suits.[28] Dolphin screams, walruses bellowing, geese hissing, an African crane's mating call, and human rasps were mixed to formulate various raptor sounds.[15][36] Following discoveries made after the film's release, most paleontologists theorized that dromaeosaurs like Velociraptor and Deinonychus had feathers.[41]
  • Dilophosaurus was also very different from its real-life counterpart, made significantly smaller to make sure audiences did not confuse it with the raptors.[42] Its neck frill and its ability to spit venom are fictitious. Its vocal sounds were made by combining a swan, a hawk, a howler monkey, and a rattlesnake.[15]
  • Brachiosaurus The sauropod in the movie is described as being a Brachiosaurus. It is the first dinosaur seen by the park's visitors. Though Brachiosaurus is still a valid scientific name, the "Brachiosaurus brancai" in the movie is no longer valid. The sauropod in the movie was actually a Giraffatitan.[43]. However, scientists continue to argue whether Giraffititan remains a valid genus or should be subsumed under Brachiosaurus. It is inaccurately depicted as chewing its food as well as standing up on its hind legs to browse among the high tree branches. Despite scientific evidence of their having limited vocal capabilities, sound designer Gary Rydstrom decided to represent them with whale songs and donkey calls to give them a melodic sense of wonder.[36]
  • Triceratops has an extended cameo. Its appearance was a particular logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Spielberg asked to shoot the animatronic of the sick creature earlier than expected.[44] Winston also created a baby Triceratops for Ariana Richards to ride, which was cut from the film for pacing reasons.[45]
  • Gallimimus and Parasaurolophus' roles are mainly cameos. Gallimimus feature in a stampede scene where one of them is devoured by the Tyrannosaurus. Parasaurolophus appears in the background during the first encounter with the "Brachiosaurus".

Distribution

Universal spent $65 million on the marketing campaign for Jurassic Park, making deals with 100 companies to market 1,000 products.[46] These included three Jurassic Park video games by Sega and Ocean Software,[47] a toy line by Kenner that was distributed by Hasbro,[48] and a novelization aimed at young children.[49] The released soundtrack included unused material.[50] Trailers for the film only gave fleeting glimpses of the dinosaurs,[51] a tactic journalist Josh Horowitz described as "that old Spielberg axiom of never revealing too much" when Spielberg and director Michael Bay did the same for their production of Transformers in 2007.[52] The film was marketed with the tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years In The Making." This was a joke Spielberg made on set about the genuine, millions of years old mosquito in amber used for Hammond's walking stick.[53]

The film premiered at the National Building Museum on June 9, 1993, in Washington, D.C.,[54] in support of two children's charities.[55] The film made its VHS and LaserDisc debut on October 4, 1994,[56] and was first released on DVD on October 10, 2000.[57] The film was also released in a package with The Lost World: Jurassic Park.[58] The DVD was re-released with both sequels on December 11, 2001,[59] as the Jurassic Park Trilogy, and as the Jurassic Park Adventure Pack on November 29, 2005.[60]

Following the film's release, a traveling exhibition began.[61] Steve Englehart wrote a series of comic books published by Topps Comics. They acted as a continuation of the film, consisting of the two-issue Raptor, the four-issue Raptors Attack and Raptors Hijack, and Return to Jurassic Park, which lasted nine issues. All published issues were republished under the single title Jurassic Park Adventures in the United States and as Jurassic Park in the United Kingdom.[62] Ocean Software released a game sequel entitled Jurassic Park Part 2: The Chaos Continues in 1994 on Super NES and Game Boy.[47]

Jurassic Park was broadcast on television for the first time on May 7, 1995, following the April 26 airing of The Making of Jurassic Park.[63] Some 68.12 million people tuned in to watch, garnering NBC a 36 percent share of all available viewers that night. Jurassic Park was the highest-rated theatrical film broadcast on television by any network since the April 1987 airing of Trading Places.[64]

"The Jurassic Park Ride" went into development in November 1990[65] and premiered at Universal Studios Hollywood on June 15, 1996,[66] at a cost of $110 million.[65] Islands of Adventure in Orlando, Florida, has an entire section of the park dedicated to Jurassic Park that includes the main ride, christened "Jurassic Park River Adventure", and many smaller rides and attractions based on the series.[67] The Universal Studios theme park rides have been designed to support the film's plot, with Hammond supposedly having been contacted to rebuild the Park at the theme park location.[66]

Reception

Commercial

Jurassic Park became the most financially successful film released worldwide as of that time, beating Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial which previously held the title, though it did not top E.T. in North America.[68] The film opened with $47 million in its first weekend[2] and had grossed $81.7 million by its first week.[69] The film stayed at number one for three weeks and eventually grossed $357 million in the U.S. and Canada.[70] The film also did very well in international markets, breaking opening records in the United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan.[71] Spielberg earned over $250 million from the film.[72] Jurassic Park's worldwide gross was topped five years later by James Cameron's Titanic.[73] It still remains the oldest movie in the top 20 highest grossing movies of all time to this day.

Critical

The film received mostly positive reviews. High praise was heaped on the visual effects, although there was much criticism leveled at the characterization and departures from the book. Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a true movie milestone, presenting awe- and fear-inspiring sights never before seen on the screen… On paper, this story is tailor-made for Mr. Spielberg's talents…[but] [i]t becomes less crisp on screen than it was on the page, with much of the enjoyable jargon either mumbled confusingly or otherwise thrown away."[74] In Rolling Stone, Peter Travers described the film as "colossal entertainment—the eye-popping, mind-bending, kick-out-the-jams thrill ride of summer and probably the year [...] Compared with the dinos, the characters are dry bones, indeed. Crichton and co-screenwriter David Koepp have flattened them into nonentities on the trip from page to screen."[75] Roger Ebert noted, "The movie delivers all too well on its promise to show us dinosaurs. We see them early and often, and they are indeed a triumph of special effects artistry, but the movie is lacking other qualities that it needs even more, such as a sense of awe and wonderment, and strong human story values."[76] Henry Sheehan argued, "The complaints over Jurassic Park's lack of story and character sound a little off the point," pointing out the story arc of Grant learning to protect Hammond's grandchildren despite his initial dislike of them.[22] Rotten Tomatoes reported that 84% of critics gave Jurassic Park a positive write-up with 90% of top critics being positive.[77]

In 1994, the film won all three Academy Awards it was nominated for: Visual Effects, Sound Effects Editing, and Sound (at the same ceremony, Steven Spielberg, Michael Kahn, and John Williams took home Academy Awards for Schindler's List). The film won honours outside of the U.S. including the 1994 BAFTA for Best Special Effects, as well as the Award for the Public's Favourite Film.[78] It won the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation,[79] and the 1993 Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction, Best Writing for Crichton and Koepp and Best Special Effects.[80] The film won the 1993 People's Choice Awards for Favorite All-Around Motion Picture.[81] Young Artist Awards were given to Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello, with the film winning an Outstanding Action/Adventure Family Motion Picture award.[82]

Legacy

Empire called the first encounter with a Brachiosaurus the 28th most magical moment in cinema.[83]

The American Film Institute named Jurassic Park the 35th most thrilling film of all time on June 13, 2001,[84] and Bravo chose the scene in which Lex and Tim are stalked by two Raptors in the kitchen as the 95th scariest of all time in 2005.[85] On Empire magazine's fifteenth anniversary in 2004, it judged Jurassic Park the sixth most influential film of the magazine's lifetime.[86] On Film Review's fifty-fifth anniversary in 2005, it declared the film to be one of the five most important in the magazine's lifetime.[87] In 2006, IGN ranked Jurassic Park as the 19th greatest film franchise of all time.[88]

Most significantly, when many filmmakers saw Jurassic Park's use of computer-generated imagery, they realized that many of their visions, previously thought unfeasible or too expensive, were now possible. Stanley Kubrick, the director of 2001: A Space Odyssey, contacted Spielberg to direct A.I.,[86] George Lucas started to make the Star Wars prequels,[89] and Peter Jackson began to re-explore his childhood love of fantasy films, a path that led him to The Lord of the Rings and King Kong.[90] Jurassic Park has also inspired films and documentaries such as the American adaptation of Godzilla, Carnosaur, and Walking with Dinosaurs,[86] as well as numerous parodies, like the Leslie Nielsen comedy feature Spy Hard. Stan Winston, enthusiastic about the new technology pioneered by the film, joined with IBM and director James Cameron to form a new special effects company, Digital Domain.[91]

Differences From Novel

The original novel contains many differences from the movie which are both major and minor to the plot.

  • when the T-Rex attacks the car with the children, Lex did not have a flashlight in the book, instead Tim found her below the wheel before the windshield was broken
  • the movie uses Ford Explorers as the cars for the basic tour of the park but in the book the cars used are electric Toyota Land Cruisers which where made in Japan
  • Dr. Wu is seen throughout the book were as the movie only features him in the scene which the baby raptor is hatched in the lab
  • the book explains that the reason Nedry stole the embryos was because a man from a competing company believed that InGen would patten the creation of the dinosaurs and sell them to consumers as pets (which Hammond says he would never do) and therefore paid Nedry to still the embryos since he had access to them
  • in the movie Hammond and Malcolm survive but in the book Hammond is attacked by Procompsognathus (referred to as compys) and dies from the poison they carry and Malcolm is attack just like in the movie but at the end of the book he slips into a comma and dies
  • another major change in the movie is that the island is intact at the end but in the book the Costa Rica military blow up the island
  • in the movie it is Ellie who turns the main power back on with help from Hammond but in the book Tim is the one who switches the park to main power from the computers in the control room
  • the security scene in which Lex is on the computer trying to fix the security is not in the book since Lex knows nothing about computers in the book
  • in the book the T-Rex is seen multiple times
  • the ability for the dinosaurs to breed is explained by Grant to be due to amphibian DNA used to complete the dinosaur DNA but is never checked where in the book Dr. Wu confirms that Grant may be right since they did use amphibian DNA (Grant explains that amphibians had the ability to change sex so as to mate with other amphibians)
  • Lex says after seeing the goat she is a vegetarian but in the book she is not a vegetarian
  • in the movie Gennaro is killed but in the book he survives to the very end, instead in the book the following morning Grant, the kids and Regis discover a younger T-Rex and Regis is killed by the T-Rex

References

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External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
E.T. the Extra Terrestrial
Highest-grossing film of all time
1993-1997
Succeeded by
Titanic
Preceded by
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country
Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film
1993
Succeeded by
Stargate

|}


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Jurassic Park is a 1993 film about an island theme park stocked with genetically-engineered dinosaurs. When the park's creator invites three scientists down to solicit their opinions, a series of mishaps strands them all inside with the security systems out of commission, and the humans find themselves under attack by the resurrected predators.

Directed by Steven Spielberg. Screenplay by Michael Crichton and David Koepp. Based on the novel by Michael Crichton.
An Adventure 65 Million Years in the Makingtagline

Contents

Dr. Alan Grant

  • [Responding to an unimpressed 10-year-old] Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous Period. You get your first look at this "six foot turkey" as you enter a clearing. He moves like a bird, lightly, bobbing his head. And you keep still because you think that maybe his visual acuity is based on movement like T-Rex – he'll lose you if you don't move. But no, not Velociraptor. You stare at him, and he just stares right back. And that's when the attack comes. Not from the front, but from the side, from the other two raptors you didn't even know were there. Because Velociraptor's a pack hunter, you see, he uses coordinated attack patterns and he is out in force today. And he slashes at you with this – a six-inch retractable claw, like a razor, on the middle toe. He doesn't bother to bite your jugular like a lion, oh no … he slashes at you here [makes slashing motions below the child's chest] or here … [above the groin] or maybe across the belly, spilling your intestines. The point is … you are alive when they start to eat you. So you know … try to show a little respect.

Dr. Ian Malcolm

  • You've never heard of Chaos theory? Non-linear equations? Strange attractors? Dr. Sattler, I refuse to believe you're not familiar with the concept of attraction.
  • But again, how do you know they're all female? Does someone go into the park and, uh … pull up the dinosaurs' skirts?
  • Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should.
  • All major changes are like death. You can't see what is on the other side until you get there.

Lex Murphy

  • It's a UNIX system! I know this!

Dialogue

Ian Malcolm: God creates dinosaurs. God destroys dinosaurs. God creates man. Man destroys God. Man creates dinosaurs.
Ellie Sattler: Dinosaurs eat man … woman inherits the earth.

John Hammond: [eating several bowls of ice cream, which were melting] They were all melting.
Ellie Sattler: Malcom's okay for now, I gave him a shot of morphine.
John Hammond: They'll be fine. Who better to get the children through Jurassic Park than a dinosaur expert? You know the first [swallows] attraction I built when I came down from Scotland … was a flea circus. Petticoat Lane. Really … quite wonderful. We had, uh … a wee trapeze, a merry-go…carousel. Heh. And a see-saw. They all moved, motorized, of course, but people would say they could see the fleas, "No, I can see the fleas, mummy, can't you see the fleas?" Clown fleas, highwire fleas and fleas on parade. But with this place … I wanted to give them something that wasn't an illusion. Something that was real. Something they could see, and touch. An aim not devoid of merit.
Ellie Sattler: But you can't think through this one, John. You have to feel it.
John Hammond: You're right, you're absolutely right. Hiring Nedry was a mistake, that's obvious, we're over-dependent on automation, I can see that now. Now the next time, everything's correctable. Creation is an act of sheer will. Next time it'll be flawless.
Ellie Sattler: It's still the flea circus. It's all an illusion.
John Hammond: When we have control again –
Ellie Sattler: You never had control! That's the illusion! I was overwhelmed by the power of this place. But I made a mistake, too. I didn't have enough respect for that power and it's out now. The only thing that matters now are the people we love. Alan and Lex and Tim … John, they're out there where people are dying. So … [takes a spoonful of ice cream, swallows] it's good.
John Hammond: Spared no expense.

John Hammond: All major theme parks have delays. When they opened Disneyland in 1956, nothing worked.
Ian Malcolm: Yeah, but John, if the Pirates of the Caribbean breaks down, the pirates don't eat the tourists.

John Hammond: How can we stand in the light of discovery and not act?
Ian Malcolm: Oh, what's so great about discovery? It's a violent, penetrative act, that scars what it observes. What you call discovery … I call the rape of the natural world.

Taglines

  • An Adventure 65 Million Years in the Making
  • The most phenomenal discovery of our time … becomes the greatest adventure of all time.

Cast

See also

External links

Wikipedia
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