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.Juris Doctor (see etymology and abbreviations below) is a professional doctorate [1][2][3][4][5][6] and first professional degree[7][8] in Law.^ For comprehensive details on this course, see the Juris Doctor in the online handbook.
  • UTS: Juris Doctor (C04236v1) - Law 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC datasearch.uts.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let us help you earn your law degree or juris doctor degree online.
  • Law Degree Online, Juris Doctorate Degree, JD Degree, Accredited Online Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC onlinestudyprograms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Admitted to practice in California, Ms. Pierce received her Juris Doctor from the University of Southern California, Order of the Coif, and her Bachelor's degree from the University of California at San Diego with Provost Honors.

.The degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the United States in the late 19th century as a degree similar to the old European doctor of law degree (such as the Dottore in Giurisprudenza in Italy and the Juris Utriusque Doctor).^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Juris Doctor from the University of Wisconsin 2005 .

.Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is the only American law degree that has a goal of being the primary professional preparation for lawyers and the only professional degree in law.^ The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Revolutionary approach: Scientific study of law .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law , it is the first and only law degree that has a goal of being the primary professional preparation for lawyers (and therefore a terminal professional degree).
  • Juris Doctor - Judgepedia 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC judgepedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a three year program in most jurisdictions.^ It is a three year program in most jurisdictions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The three-year program is a part-time program.
  • Concord Law School Online 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.braintrack.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program generally lasts three years.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[9][10] .As with other professional doctorates in the United States and Canada (M.D., D.C., D.O., D.D.S., D. Min. etc.^ The American Bar Association permits J.D. holders in the United States to use the title of "Doctor," [140] [141] and some local bar associations in the United States have also issued concurring opinion statements.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other professional doctorates in the United States and Canada ( M.D. , D.C. , D.O. , D.D.S. , D. Min.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ German Federal Ministry of Education analyzing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

), a research .dissertation or thesis is not required.^ An approved master's thesis or doctoral dissertation in Anthropology will satisfy the advanced writing requirement of the College of Law if so certified by a law school faculty member.
  • Joint Degree Program - Department of Anthropology at the University of Florida 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC web.anthro.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ An approved master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation in Interdisciplinary Ecology will satisfy the advanced writing requirement of the College of Law if so certified by a law school faculty member.
  • Juris Doctor / Master of Science or Doctor of Philosophy Joint Degree Program - The School of Natural Resources and Environment at the University of Florida 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC snre.ufl.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a professional doctoral program and usually does not require a thesis or dissertation for completion.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.This degree primarily exists in the United States, but since about 1997[citation needed] it has appeared in universities in other countries for the first time, although it has a unique form in each country.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The JD is a first degree in law in the United States and is read as a graduate degree.
  • NUS Graduate Law Programme vs SMU Juris Doctor [Archive] - BrightSparks Forum 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC forum.brightsparks.com.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ J.D. This degree primarily exists in the United States, but recently has appeared in universities in other countries for the first time, although it has a unique form in each country.
  • Juris Doctor - Judgepedia 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC judgepedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Etymology and abbreviations

.In the United States, the degree is conferred in Latin as Juris Doctor or in English as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence.^ Education: Bachelor of Arts, Florida State University, 1981; Juris Doctor, Florida State University, 1985.
  • 2006 candidates for county, circuit judge races» Naples Daily News 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.naplesnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Let us help you earn your law degree or juris doctor degree online.
  • Law Degree Online, Juris Doctorate Degree, JD Degree, Accredited Online Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC onlinestudyprograms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Education: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Bachelor of Science in Psychology (2004); Southern Illinois University School of Law, Juris Doctor (2007).

.In academic tradition in the United States, degrees conferred in Latin generally may be abbreviated in Latin only, while degrees conferred in English may be abbreviated in either English or Latin—provided the degree has a Latin equivalent.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In academic tradition in the United States, degrees conferred in Latin generally may be abbreviated in Latin only, while degrees conferred in English may be abbreviated in either English or Latin—provided the degree has a Latin equivalent.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The degree was first awarded by Harvard in the United States in the late 19th century as a degree similar to the old European doctor of law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Judgepedia 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC judgepedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, Juris Doctor may only be abbreviated J.D., while Doctor of Jurisprudence may be abbreviated either D.Jur. or J.D. Either abbreviation may be rendered with or without punctuation to meet requirements of academic style manuals (e.g., the AMA Manual of Style uses no punctuation for most abbreviations — MD, DO, JD, DJur, PhD, etc.^ Thus, Juris Doctor may only be abbreviated J.D. , while Doctor of Jurisprudence may be abbreviated either D.Jur.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Jd law degree Use of juris doctor...
  • Juris Doctor Definition | Definition of Juris Doctor at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An exemption from a course that may be credited to the Juris Doctor will only be granted if: .
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

). 

Historical context

Origins of the law degree

.The foundations of the first universities in Europe were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law.^ Concord Law School is the first of its kind.
  • Concord Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.jobprofiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The foundations of the first universities in Europe were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A. The case method, also often referred to as the Socratic method, is a method of learning first implemented by in the early 20 th century by Harvard and Columbia law schools.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The first European university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city.^ The first European university, that of Bologna , was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Concord Law School is the first of its kind.
  • Concord Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.jobprofiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Year Four Students must take first-year Law.
  • The University of Western Ontario : COMBINED HONORS SPECIALIZATION IN HISTORY (BA)/JURIS DOCTOR (JD) PROGRAM 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.westerncalendar.uwo.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age.^ The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other programs from Concord Law School Other Law programs .
  • Juris Doctor Degree from Concord Law School | OEDb 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC oedb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During law school, Ms. Lee served as a Dean's Fellow instructing law students on legal research, analysis and writing.
  • The Metropolitan Law Group 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC metropolitanlaw.net [Source type: Academic]

[12] .While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law (except for certain jurisdictions such as the Admiralty Court) and although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions.^ Certain law schools specialize in certain areas.
  • Online Juris Doctor (JD) Degree | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transfer Applicants The University welcomes applications from students seeking to transfer from other law schools.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English legal system is the root of the systems of other common-law countries, such as the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[13]

The history of legal training in England

The Inns of Court of London served as a professional school for lawyers in England
.The nature of the J.D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England.^ The history of legal training in England .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Inns of Court of London served as a professional school for lawyers in England The nature of the J.D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given, therefore law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law.^ The teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Monash JD recognises the specific needs of non-law graduates returning to study law and teaches the knowledge and skills only a law degree from one of Australia's leading universities can provide.
  • Master of Laws (Juris Doctor), Monash University 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.monash.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Private Law Practice (1996-1998)Lecturer, California State University Chico (1982-Present).
  • Cal Northern School of Law: Cal Northern Faculty & Administration 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.calnorthern.edu [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.^ Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court , but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Industrial training/professional practice .
  • UTS: C04236v1 Juris Doctor - Law, UTS Handbook 2010 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.handbook.uts.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will give all students a basic understanding of the legal system and of the nature of the abilities demanded by the professional practice of law.
  • Murdoch University - Juris Doctor - Home 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.murdoch.edu.au [Source type: General]

[15] .However, because of the lack of standardization of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world.^ However, because of the lack of standardization of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, because the law degree in Italy is more advanced than a standard undergraduate program, [113] and lawyers in Italy often use the title of "doctor" [114] (Italian law authorizes all university graduates, including undergraduates, to use the title of doctor) [115] lawyers in Italy believe that the best translation of their degree is "J.D." which commonly appears on their resumes and profiles.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades , the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students merely sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system.^ In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students merely sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Our mission is to prepare students to practice law in an ethical and professional manner and to use their legal skills often in combination with other professional training in business and government.
  • Juris Doctor (JD) : Suffolk University Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.law.suffolk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While at McGeorge, she was awarded the Witkin Award: Professional Responsibility, was a student member of the Anthony M. Kennedy American Inn of Court and was a primary legislation editor and primary articles & symposium editor for the McGeorge Law Review during the 2008-09 school year.
  • Newsmakers -- Published Jan. 4, 2010 | Recordnet.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.recordnet.com [Source type: News]

[17] .The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation.^ The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court -like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But a system like the Inns did not develop, and a college education was not required in England until the 19th century, so this system was unique.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Schools differ in the range and variety of practical education they offer, but the benefits of integrating this experience with theoretical study are well established.
  • The Juris Doctor Degree 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though very specialized in purpose.^ By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge , though very specialized in purpose.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bachelor's degree originated at the University of Paris, which system was implemented at Oxford and Cambridge.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] .With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew.^ With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades , the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[20]
.Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, and included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.^ Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, and included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law (except for certain jurisdictions such as the Admiralty Court) and although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation , its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Where a student was previously enrolled in a combined program with law, and law courses were included in the completion of the other award status will only be given so that overall the student will have passed the equivalent of six years of full-time study.
  • ANU COLLEGE OF LAW - Postgraduate Courses 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC law.anu.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

.The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged, structured and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programs for the trades.^ The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged, structured and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programs for the trades.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[21] .The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729.[22] William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the program for the purpose of professional study, and the lectures were very philosophical and theoretical in nature.^ William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the program for the purpose of professional study, and the lectures were very philosophical and theoretical in nature.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court , but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court.^ Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Viewing options: Alphabetical By units Printer-friendly version Advanced study in health administration and law is available through dual degree programs co-sponsored by the department and the schools of law at the University of Richmond and at Washington and Lee University.
  • VCU Bulletins :: Combined degree programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.pubapps.vcu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court , but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.The Inns of Court continued but became less effective and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination, therefore in 1846 Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to the legal education provided in Europe and the United States.^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Inns of Court continued but became less effective and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination, therefore in 1846 Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to the legal education provided in Europe and the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LSAT Bar examination Continuing Legal Education .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until later in the century, and even then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.^ The law school makes admission decisions on a rolling admissions basis.
  • University of Missouri - Kansas City : Admission to the Juris Doctor Program 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC web2.umkc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even when some universities offered training in law, they did not offer a degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until later in the century, and even then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Legal training in colonial North America and 19th century U.S.

.Initially there was much resistance to lawyers in colonial North America because of the role they had played in hierarchical England, but slowly the colonial governments started using the services of professionals trained in the Inns of Court in London, and by the end of the American Revolution there was a functional bar in each state.^ With the beginning of the American Revolution, the supply of lawyers from Britain ended.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Initially in the United States the legal professionals were trained and imported from England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal training in colonial North America and 19th century U.S. .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United States they emerged as quite different than those in England.^ Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United States they emerged as quite different than those in England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Initially in the United States the legal professionals were trained and imported from England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The J.D. originated in the United States during a movement to improve training of the professions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[25]
.Initially in the United States the legal professionals were trained and imported from England.^ The history of legal training in England .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Initially in the United States the legal professionals were trained and imported from England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] .A formal apprenticeship or clerkship program was established first in New York in 1730—at that time a seven-year clerkship was required, and in 1756 a four-year college degree was required in addition to five years of clerking and an examination.^ A formal apprenticeship or clerkship program was established first in New York in 1730—at that time a seven-year clerkship was required, and in 1756 a four-year college degree was required in addition to five years of clerking and an examination.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most schools with part-time programs require four years of part-time study to earn the JD degree.
  • The Juris Doctor Degree 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lsac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Later the requirements were reduced to require only two years of college education.^ Later the requirements were reduced to require only two years of college education.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Concord’s Juris Doctor program is grounded in the core bar courses, with the first two years devoted entirely to required courses.
  • Juris Doctor (JD) Law School Program | Concord Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC info.concordlawschool.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Participants spend two years at Ottawa and two years at one of two U.S. law schools: Michigan State University College of Law in East Lansing, Michigan or American University (Washington College of Law) in Washington D.C. .
  • Facult� de droit | Section de common law - Joint LL.B / JD. (USA) Degree Program 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.commonlaw.uottawa.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .But a system like the Inns did not develop, and a college education was not required in England until the 19th century, so this system was unique.^ But a system like the Inns did not develop, and a college education was not required in England until the 19th century, so this system was unique.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Inns of Court continued but became less effective and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination, therefore in 1846 Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to the legal education provided in Europe and the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century during a movement to improve the training of professionals by raising the requirements for entry and completion of the degree necessary to enter the profession.
  • Is a juris Doctorate degree a Bachelers, Masters or Doctoral Degree? - Yahoo! Answers 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The clerkship program required much individual study and the mentoring lawyer was expected to carefully select materials for study and guide the clerk in his study of the law and ensure that it was being absorbed.^ The Program requires four years of study.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The clerkship program required much individual study and the mentoring lawyer was expected to carefully select materials for study and guide the clerk in his study of the law and ensure that it was being absorbed.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (This evaluation examines past law study and the courses proposed to be taken at CalSouthern and determines whether this combined work will meet the requirements of the Committee of Bar Examiners).
  • Juris Doctor | JD – Online Law Degree – California Southern University School of Law 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.calsouthern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .The student was supposed to compile his notes of his reading of the law into a "commonplace book", which he would try to memorize.^ The student was supposed to compile his notes of his reading of the law into a " commonplace book ", which he would try to memorize.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to gain acceptance into the Concord Law School, students must have an undergraduate degree and meet the minimum grade requirements.
  • Juris Doctor Degree from Concord Law School | OEDb 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC oedb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, if an idea of yours about how this or that law should be, and then it is adopted by the law-makers, you would have moved the development of the law into a certain direction.

[29] .Although those were the ideals, in reality the clerks were often overworked and rarely were able to study the law individually as expected.^ Although those were the ideals, in reality the clerks were often overworked and rarely were able to study the law individually as expected.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A law student is expected to devote the major portion of his or her time to law studies; any outside employment must therefore be restricted.
  • Juris Doctor 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four years of law study are required by the California State Bar for those seeking such eligibility through the Law Study Program.
  • http://www.nwculaw.edu/cgi-bin/nwcu/academics_curriculum.html 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nwculaw.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They were often employed to tedious tasks, such as making handwritten copies of documents.^ They were often employed to tedious tasks, such as making handwritten copies of documents.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Holders of these degrees often are employed as paralegal s or in a law-related field such as insurance , trust companies , or banking .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The apprenticeship programs often employed the trainee with menial tasks, and while they were well trained in the day to day operations of a law office, they were generally unprepared practitioners or legal reasoners.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Finding sufficient legal texts was also a seriously debilitating issue, and there was no standardization in the books assigned to the clerk trainees because they were assigned by their mentor, whose opinion of the law may have differed greatly from his peers.^ Finding sufficient legal texts was also a seriously debilitating issue, and there was no standardization in the books assigned to the clerk trainees because they were assigned by their mentor, whose opinion of the law may have differed greatly from his peers.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no 'title' associated with the JD. For a lawyer to earn the title Doctor, they need to complete an LLM (Masters of the Letters of Law).
  • WikiAnswers - How do you address someone with a juris doctorate degree 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The school serves working professionals, family caretakers, and others whose circumstances may prevent them from pursuing a legal education at a fixed facility law school.

[30] .It was said by one famous attorney in the U.S., William Livingston, in 1745 in a New York newspaper that the clerkship program was severely flawed, and that most mentors "have no manner of concern for their clerk's future welfare...^ It was said by one famous attorney in the U.S., William Livingston , in 1745 in a New York newspaper that the clerkship program was severely flawed, and that most mentors "have no manner of concern for their clerk's future welfare… [T]is a monstrous absurdity to suppose, that the law is to be learnt by a perpetual copying of precedents."
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clerkship program required much individual study and the mentoring lawyer was expected to carefully select materials for study and guide the clerk in his study of the law and ensure that it was being absorbed.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Competition to JSD degree programs can be fierce, due to the mentoring aspect of JSD degree programs, which makes severe demands on the student as well as the mentoring faculty member.
  • Online Juris Doctor (JD) Degree | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[T]is a monstrous absurdity to suppose, that the law is to be learnt by a perpetual copying of precedents."[29] .There were some few mentors that were dedicated to the service, and because of their rarity, they became so sought after that the first law schools evolved from the offices of some of these attorneys who took on many clerks and began to spend more time training than practicing law.^ After many years I decided law school .
  • Juris Doctor Admission - JD information, advice, tips, and strategies 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC jdadmission.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although law students do not complete a thesis, there is some research training in law school.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were some few mentors that were dedicated to the service, and because of their rarity, they became so sought after that the first law schools evolved from the offices of some of these attorneys who took on many clerks and began to spend more time training than practicing law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[29]
Tapping Reeve, founder of the first law school in North America, the Litchfield Law School, in 1773
.In time, the apprenticeship program was not considered sufficient to produce lawyers fully capable of serving their clients' needs.^ Tapping Reeve , founder of the first law school in North America, the Litchfield Law School , in 1773 In time, the apprenticeship program was not considered sufficient to produce lawyers fully capable of serving their clients' needs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am not seriously considering the MJ. I do need to get educated in the subject...I believe I can get what I need with a certificate program instead of doing either the JD or the MJ. A certificate program is about $10k, the MJ about $25k, and the JD about $75k.

^ I believe that communication with my clients is paramount, so I will make myself available for any need my clients may have at virtually any time.
  • Westlake Law Group Attorney Profiles 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.westlakelawgroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .The apprenticeship programs often employed the trainee with menial tasks, and while they were well trained in the day to day operations of a law office, they were generally unprepared practitioners or legal reasoners.^ The apprenticeship programs often employed the trainee with menial tasks, and while they were well trained in the day to day operations of a law office, they were generally unprepared practitioners or legal reasoners.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Advanced Legal Reasoning (Law 645) .
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finding sufficient legal texts was also a seriously debilitating issue, and there was no standardization in the books assigned to the clerk trainees because they were assigned by their mentor, whose opinion of the law may have differed greatly from his peers.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[32] .The establishment of formal faculties of law in U.S. universities did not occur until the latter part of the 18th century.^ The establishment of formal faculties of law in U.S. universities did not occur until the latter part of the 18th century.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until later in the century, and even then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ UC home About the University Current Students Key Contacts Library Staff home You are here: Faculty of Law > Courses > Juris Doctor Search...
  • Juris Doctor with Honours : Faculty of Law : University of Canberra 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.canberra.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .With the beginning of the American Revolution, the supply of lawyers from Britain ended.^ With the beginning of the American Revolution, the supply of lawyers from Britain ended.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The first law degree granted by a U.S. university was a Bachelor of Law in 1793 by the College of William and Mary, which was abbreviated L.B.; Harvard was the first university to use the LL.B. abbreviation in the United States.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He earned his law degree from Arizona State University College of Law in 2007.
  • Arizona Personal Injury Attorneys at Law | Wattel And York 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.wattelandyork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.The first university law programs in the United States, such as that of the University of Maryland established in 1812, included much theoretical and philosophical study, including works such as the Bible, Cicero, Seneca, Aristotle, Adam Smith, Montesquieu and Grotius.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Canadian and Australian universities have law programs that are very similar to the J.D. programs in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first university law programs in the United States, such as that of the University of Maryland established in 1812, included much theoretical and philosophical study, including works such as the Bible, Cicero , Seneca , Aristotle, Adam Smith, Montesquieu and Grotius .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[35] .It has been said that the early university law schools of the early 19th century seemed to be preparing students for careers as statesmen rather than as lawyers.^ It has been said that the early university law schools of the early 19th century seemed to be preparing students for careers as statesmen rather than as lawyers.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In discussing a university provost whose lack of a degree higher than the J.D. from the University of Michigan law school caused controversy, the Washington Times reported that she "holds a juris doctor degree from University of Michigan Law School -- which is equivalent to a master's degree, not a doctorate" and in a separate story that "A spokesman for Mrs. Reuben-Cooke's alma mater said her law degree is not equivalent to a doctorate."
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Study Abroad The Law School offers summer study abroad programs in Sorrento, Italy and, in cooperation with the University of North Carolina School of Law, in Sydney, Australia.
  • Additional Academic Information - Juris Doctor Degree - Programs of Study - Office of Academic Records - Hofstra Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC law.hofstra.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .At the LL.B. programs in the early 1900s at Stanford University and Yale continued to include "cultural study," which included courses in languages, mathematics and economics.^ At the LL.B. programs in the early 1900s at Stanford University and Yale continued to include "cultural study," which included courses in languages, mathematics and economics.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This section of the website describes the program that includes independent study courses.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where a student was previously enrolled in a combined program with law, and law courses were included in the completion of the other award status will only be given so that overall the student will have passed the equivalent of six years of full-time study.
  • ANU COLLEGE OF LAW - Postgraduate Courses 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC law.anu.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.In the 1850s there were many proprietary schools which originated from a practitioner taking on multiple apprentices and establishing a school and which provided a practical legal education, as opposed to the one offered in the universities which offered an education in the theory, history and philosophy of law.^ After many years I decided law school .
  • Juris Doctor Admission - JD information, advice, tips, and strategies 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC jdadmission.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1850s there were many proprietary schools which originated from a practitioner taking on multiple apprentices and establishing a school and which provided a practical legal education, as opposed to the one offered in the universities which offered an education in the theory, history and philosophy of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Education: Bachelor of science, Clarkson University, mechanical engineering; juris doctor, William & Mary; master of law, London School of Economics and Political Science.
  • The Press Republican - Westport school bond, board vote today 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.pressrepublican.com [Source type: News]

[38] .The universities assumed that the acquisition of skills would happen in practice, while the proprietary schools concentrated on the practical skills during education.^ The universities assumed that the acquisition of skills would happen in practice, while the proprietary schools concentrated on the practical skills during education.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Outside work during the first year of law school is strongly discouraged by the Faculty in view of the unique educational experience of the first year and time constraints imposed by it.
  • Dwayne O. Andreas School of Law 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.barry.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The founding partner of the firm, Mr. LoRicco has been practicing law in the State of Connecticut since 1956, when he graduated from Georgetown University School of Law.
  • LoRicco Trotta & LoRicco - ltllaw.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ltllaw.com [Source type: Academic]

[38]

Revolutionary approach: Scientific study of law

Joseph Story, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, lecturer of law at Harvard and proponent of the scientific study of law
.In part to compete with the small professional law schools, there began a great change in U.S. university legal education.^ Joseph Story , U.S. Supreme Court Justice, lecturer of law at Harvard and proponent of the scientific study of law In part to compete with the small professional law schools, there began a great change in U.S. university legal education.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Law School will not initially seek ABA approval of its program, but the curriculum is designed to meet all ABA standards appropriate to our educational mission.
  • HUSSON: School of Law, The Juris Doctor 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.husson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For those earnest about embarking on legal studies and find that they must combine school and full-time personal obligations, the Southern University Law Center offers a part-time day program.
  • Juris Doctor Degree 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sulc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For a short time beginning in 1826 Yale began to offer a complete "practitioners' course" which lasted two years and included practical courses, such as pleading drafting.^ Where a student was previously enrolled in a combined program with law, and law courses were included in the completion of the other award status will only be given so that overall the student will have passed the equivalent of six years of full-time study.
  • ANU COLLEGE OF LAW - Postgraduate Courses 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC law.anu.edu.au [Source type: Academic]

^ These courses will only be offered every second or third year; accordingly, students from several entering classes will be participating in the survey at the same time.
  • Curriculum and Graduation Requirements/Admission - Peking University School of Transnational Law 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.stl.szpku.edu.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ Credit hours: 4 Course professor: Douglas McElvy Offered in the first semester of the fourth year .
  • Juris Doctor Curriculum 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.obcl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .U.S. Supreme Court justice Joseph Story started the spirit of change in legal education at Harvard when he advocated a more "scientific study" of the law in the 19th century.^ U.S. Supreme Court justice Joseph Story started the spirit of change in legal education at Harvard when he advocated a more "scientific study" of the law in the 19th century.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Directed Legal Studies (Law 650) .
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Revolutionary approach: Scientific study of law .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[40] .At the time he was a lecturer at Harvard.^ At the time he was a lecturer at Harvard.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore at Harvard the education was much of a trade school type of approach to legal education, contrary to the more liberal arts education advocated by Blackstone at Oxford and Jefferson at William and Mary.^ Therefore at Harvard the education was much of a trade school type of approach to legal education, contrary to the more liberal arts education advocated by Blackstone at Oxford and Jefferson at William and Mary.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ U.S. Supreme Court justice Joseph Story started the spirit of change in legal education at Harvard when he advocated a more "scientific study" of the law in the 19th century.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the mid-19th century there was much concern about the quality of legal education in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[41] .Nonetheless there continued to be debate among educators over whether legal education should be more vocational, as at the private law schools, or through a rigorous scientific method, such as that developed by Story and Langdell.^ Nonetheless there continued to be debate among educators over whether legal education should be more vocational, as at the private law schools, or through a rigorous scientific method, such as that developed by Story and Langdell .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He frequently participates in continuing legal education in order to keep himself updated as to the most current laws, techniques, and areas of expertise and court rulings that might affect our clients.

[42][43] .In the words of Dorsey Ellis, "Langdell viewed law as a science and the law library as the laboratory, with the cases providing the basis for learning those 'principles or doctrines' of which 'law, considered as a science, consists.'"^ In the words of Dorsey Ellis, "Langdell viewed law as a science and the law library as the laboratory, with the cases providing the basis for learning those 'principles or doctrines' of which 'law, considered as a science, consists.'"
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A. The case method, also often referred to as the Socratic method, is a method of learning first implemented by in the early 20 th century by Harvard and Columbia law schools.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Doctor of the Science of Law (J.S.D.) degree provides students who primarily intend to pursue an academic career an opportunity for extended study, research, and scholarly writing.
  • Course Information Suite, Course Catalog, Class Schedule, Programs of Study, General Education Requirements, GenEd 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC courses.illinois.edu [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Nonetheless, into the year 1900 most states did not require a university education (although an apprenticeship was often required) and most practitioners had not attended any law school or college.^ Many have not attended college for several years.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Year: Required law school courses.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later the requirements were reduced to require only two years of college education.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.Therefore, the modern legal education system in the U.S. is a combination of teaching law as a science and a practical skill,[45] implementing elements such as clinical training, which has become an essential part of legal education in the U.S. and in the J.D. program of study.^ Numerical grades are not assigned to the legal practice program or to clinical courses.
  • Curriculum and Graduation Requirements/Admission - Peking University School of Transnational Law 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.stl.szpku.edu.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, the modern legal education system in the U.S. is a combination of teaching law as a science and a practical skill, [45] implementing elements such as clinical training, which has become an essential part of legal education in the U.S. and in the J.D. program of study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The upper-level legal practice program .
  • Curriculum and Graduation Requirements/Admission - Peking University School of Transnational Law 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.stl.szpku.edu.cn [Source type: Original source]

[46] .Whereas in the 18th and 19th century, few U.S. lawyers trained in an apprenticeship "achieved a level of competence necessary to adequately serve their clients," today as a result of the development of the U.S. legal education system, "law graduates perceive themselves to be prepared upon graduation" for the practice of law.^ It also prepares them for the experience of collaborating as practicing lawyers.

^ Whereas in the 18th and 19th century, few U.S. lawyers trained in an apprenticeship "achieved a level of competence necessary to adequately serve their clients," today as a result of the development of the U.S. legal education system, "law graduates perceive themselves to be prepared upon graduation" for the practice of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal training in colonial North America and 19th century U.S. .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[47]

Creation of the J.D. and major common law approaches to legal education

.The J.D. originated in the United States during a movement to improve training of the professions.^ The J.D. originated in the United States during a movement to improve training of the professions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United States they emerged as quite different than those in England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a law degree that initially appeared in the United States during the 1960s.

.The didactic approaches which resulted were revolutionary for university education and have slowly been implemented outside the U.S., but only recently (since about 1997) and in stages.^ The didactic approaches which resulted were revolutionary for university education and have slowly been implemented outside the U.S., but only recently (since about 1997) and in stages.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of tradition, and concerns about less famous universities implementing a J.D. program, there was some reluctance by some institutions, such as Yale Law School, to implement the J.D. as the only law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was established, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and socratic methods as its didactic approach.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The degrees which resulted from this new approach, such as the M.D. and the J.D., are just as different from their European counterparts as the educational approaches differ.^ The degrees which resulted from this new approach, such as the M.D. and the J.D., are just as different from their European counterparts as the educational approaches differ.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The didactic approaches which resulted were revolutionary for university education and have slowly been implemented outside the U.S., but only recently (since about 1997) and in stages.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given, therefore law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

Legal education in the United States

Legal education in the United States
Stages
Pre-law
Law school
Trial practice
Legal clinic
Juris Doctor
Master of Laws
Doctor of Laws
Exams
LSAT
Bar examination
Continuing Legal Education
Organizations
Law School Admission Council
American Bar Association
.Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century, the first being the M.D. in 1807,[48] but the professional law degree took more time.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Juris Doctor is considered a first professional degree or professional doctorate .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The J.D. is a first professional degree and a professional doctorate.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.At the time the legal system in the United States was still in development as the educational institutions were developing.^ At the time the legal system in the United States was still in development as the educational institutions were developing.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United States they emerged as quite different than those in England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The status of the legal profession was at that time still ambiguous (unlike that of the medical practitioners, whose place in society has always been well established), therefore the development of the legal degree took much time.^ The status of the legal profession was at that time still ambiguous (unlike that of the medical practitioners, whose place in society has always been well established), therefore the development of the legal degree took much time.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rigorous part-time programs feature courses developed and taught by some of the best legal minds in the country.
  • Doctorate - Executive Juris Doctorate | Doctoral Degree | Concord Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.classesandcareers.com [Source type: General]
  • Doctorate - Juris Doctor | Doctoral Degree | Concord Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.classesandcareers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was established, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and socratic methods as its didactic approach.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[49] .Even when some universities offered training in law, they did not offer a degree.^ Even when some universities offered training in law, they did not offer a degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ De la Cruz holds a bachelor's degree in Political Science from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Juris Doctorate from Suffolk University Law School.
  • Denver Post: Stocks 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC finance.denverpost.com [Source type: General]
  • PE.com | Southern California News | News for Inland Southern California 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC markets.pe.com [Source type: General]
  • About - Business & Finance - MEDIAVIEWER 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC markets.about.com [Source type: General]

^ For those earnest about embarking on legal studies and find that they must combine school and full-time personal obligations, the Southern University Law Center offers a part-time day program.
  • Juris Doctor Degree 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sulc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Because in the United States there were no Inns of Court, and the English academic degrees did not provide the necessary professional training, the models from England were inapplicable, and the degree program took some time to develop.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because in the United States there were no Inns of Court, and the English academic degrees did not provide the necessary professional training, the models from England were inapplicable, and the degree program took some time to develop.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Initially in the United States the legal professionals were trained and imported from England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[50] .At first the degree took the form of a B.L. (such as at the College of William and Mary), but then Harvard, keen on importing legitimacy through the trappings of Oxford and Cambridge, implemented an LL.B. degree.^ At first the degree took the form of a B.L. (such as at the College of William and Mary), but then Harvard, keen on importing legitimacy through the trappings of Oxford and Cambridge, implemented an LL.B. degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first law degree granted by a U.S. university was a Bachelor of Law in 1793 by the College of William and Mary , which was abbreviated L.B.; Harvard was the first university to use the LL.B. abbreviation in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] .This was somewhat controversial at the time because it was a professional training without any of the cultural or classical studies required of a bachelors degree in England.^ This was somewhat controversial at the time because it was a professional training without any of the cultural or classical studies required of a bachelors degree in England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court , but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[52] .Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.^ Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Degrees: Bachelor’s and master’s degrees in English and Chinese .
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Industrial training/professional practice .
  • UTS: C04236v1 Juris Doctor - Law, UTS Handbook 2010 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.handbook.uts.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]

Creation of the Juris Doctor

.In the mid-19th century there was much concern about the quality of legal education in the United States.^ In the mid-19th century there was much concern about the quality of legal education in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The traditional curriculum is grounded in legal education requirements of the Committee of Bar Examiners, State Bar of California.
  • Doctorate - Juris Doctor | Doctoral Degree | Concord Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.classesandcareers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Christopher Columbus Langdell, who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The creation of the modern Juris Doctor program is largely credited to Christopher Columbus Langdell , who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christopher Columbus Langdell , who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The historian Robert Stevens wrote that "it was Langdell's goal to turn the legal profession into a university educated one — and not at the undergraduate level, but through a three-year post baccalaureate degree."^ The historian Robert Stevens wrote that "it was Langdell's goal to turn the legal profession into a university educated one — and not at the undergraduate level, but through a three-year post baccalaureate degree."
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Langdell dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States; the historian Robert Stevens wrote that "it was Langdell's goal to turn the legal profession into a university educated one — and not at the undergraduate level, but through a three-year post baccalaureate degree."
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

[54] .This graduate level study would allow the intensive legal training that Langdell had developed, known as the case method (a method of studying landmark cases) and the socratic method (a method of examining students on the reasoning of the court in the cases studied).^ This graduate level study would allow the intensive legal training that Langdell had developed, known as the case method (a method of studying landmark cases) and the socratic method (a method of examining students on the reasoning of the court in the cases studied).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LAWR helps students develop legal analysis skills gradually.

^ In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students merely sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was established, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and socratic methods as its didactic approach.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was established, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and socratic methods as its didactic approach.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He received his Juris Doctor degree from Loyola Law School in 1987.
  • GroupLink 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lpw-law.com [Source type: Original source]

[55] .The J.D. was established as the equivalent of the J.U.D. in Germany to reflect the advanced study required to be an effective lawyer.^ The J.D. was established as the equivalent of the J.U.D. in Germany to reflect the advanced study required to be an effective lawyer.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clerkship program required much individual study and the mentoring lawyer was expected to carefully select materials for study and guide the clerk in his study of the law and ensure that it was being absorbed.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was not a conversion of the LL.B. degree, but a graduate degree to be distinguished from undergraduate programs.^ It was not a conversion of the LL.B. degree, but a graduate degree to be distinguished from undergraduate programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lone exceptions within the Commonwealth are Canada , India and Australia , where the LL.B. – although still an undergraduate degree – is typically offered as a second-entry bachelor's degree, not as a first-entry bachelor's degree.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Harvard was first to offer the new doctorate.^ Harvard was first to offer the new doctorate.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Juris Doctor ( J.D. ) is a first degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries, most notably the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Juris Doctor graduate degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the late 19th century.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.The University of Chicago Law School was the first to offer it exclusively (i.e., the first to not offer both the J.D. and the LL.B.).^ Students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, although most students do not apply until sometime in the first year.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of Political Science and the Gould School of Law jointly offer a dual degree program leading to the J.D. and M.A. degrees.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert K. Morrow School of Law, Adjunct Faculty Juris Doctor, American University E-mail:  morrow@chapman.edu   .
  • Faculty Directory 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC web.chapman.edu [Source type: Academic]

[56] .While approval was still pending at Harvard, the degree was introduced at many other law schools in the United States.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Law schools in the United States are surprisingly uniform when it comes to the requirements for getting the degree.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ While approval was still pending at Harvard, the degree was introduced at many other law schools in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because of tradition, and concerns about less famous universities implementing a J.D. program, there was some reluctance by some institutions, such as Yale Law School, to implement the J.D. as the only law degree.^ Because of tradition, and concerns about less famous universities implementing a J.D. program, there was some reluctance by some institutions, such as Yale Law School, to implement the J.D. as the only law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some states accept only a degree from an ABA-accredited school.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find a Juris Doctorate Degree program at any law school .
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

[57] .By the 1960s every law school except Yale offered a J.D. as its sole professional law degree.^ By the 1960s every law school except Yale offered a J.D. as its sole professional law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As the first school to offer an accredited Juris Doctor (JD) degree 100% online, Concord has attracted working professionals and others whose time constraints prevent them from attending a campus based law school.
  • Doctor of Juris Prudence Degrees - LegalPrograms.net 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.shgresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a leading national law school, Georgetown traditionally has attracted students of demonstrated ability from every section of the country.
  • Georgetown Law - JD Admissions Information (Admissions) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.law.georgetown.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Yale continued to confer the LL.B. as its professional degree in law until 1971.[58] Nonetheless, the LL.B. at Yale retained the didactical changes of the "practitioners courses" of 1826 and was very different from the LL.B. in common law countries other than Canada.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major common law approaches and the LL.B. .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Yale Law School was the last to rename the degree-it conferred the LL.B. until 1971.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
Christopher Langdell, one of the scholars at Harvard who established the J.D.
James Parker Hall, one of the first deans of the University of Chicago School of Law and a major proponent of the J.D.

Major common law approaches and the LL.B.

.The English legal system is the root of the systems of other common-law countries, such as the United States.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English legal system is the root of the systems of other common-law countries, such as the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Originally common lawyers in England were trained exclusively in the Inns of Court, but even though it took nearly 150 years since common law education began with Blackstone at Oxford for university education to be part of legal training in England and Wales, eventually the LL.B. became the degree usually taken before becoming a lawyer.^ The history of legal training in England .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Major common law approaches and the LL.B. .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Originally common lawyers in England were trained exclusively in the Inns of Court, but even though it took nearly 150 years since common law education began with Blackstone at Oxford for university education to be part of legal training in England and Wales, eventually the LL.B. became the degree usually taken before becoming a lawyer.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nonetheless, in England and Wales the LL.B. is an undergraduate scholarly program and does not provide all of the training required before becoming licensed in that jurisdiction.^ Nonetheless, in England and Wales the LL.B. is an undergraduate scholarly program and does not provide all of the training required before becoming licensed in that jurisdiction.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

^ Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[59] .Both barristers and solicitors must undertake two further periods of training (the Bar Vocational Course and pupillage for barristers and the LPC and a training contract for solicitors).^ Both barristers and solicitors must undertake two further periods of training (the Bar Vocational Course and pupillage for barristers and the LPC and a training contract for solicitors).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is generally regarded as a professional postgraduate degree and, as the City University website states, the J.D. is not an equivalent to a PhD. [97] After either the LL.B. or the J.D. is completed, in order to practice, graduates of both are required to undertake the PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both institutions are accredited by the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC), but not the American Bar Association .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The bachelor's degree originated at the University of Paris, which system was implemented at Oxford and Cambridge.^ The bachelor's degree originated at the University of Paris, which system was implemented at Oxford and Cambridge.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He graduated from Wayne State University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1968 and received his Juris Doctor Law degree from Wayne State University in 1971.
  • Thav, Gross, Steinway & Bennett, P.C. | Attorneys 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.thavgross.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kozeny earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Notre Dame.
  • Kramer & Frank, P.C. - St. Louis Office 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.lawusa.com [Source type: Academic]

[60] .The "arts" designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics.^ The "arts" designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This program gives J.D. students the opportunity to study abroad and earn a J.D. degree from USC and an LL.M. degree from the University of London, the LSEs parent school, in three years.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of the "J.D." designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[61] .On continental Europe the bachelor's degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford and Cambridge.^ On continental Europe the bachelor's degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford and Cambridge.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At first the degree took the form of a B.L. (such as at the College of William and Mary), but then Harvard, keen on importing legitimacy through the trappings of Oxford and Cambridge, implemented an LL.B. degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Degrees: Bachelor’s and master’s degrees in English and Chinese .
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

Cambridge followed the same practice until relatively recently, renaming its LL.B. degree as LL.M. in 1982.[62]
.Because the English legal education is undergraduate and provides a general education (retaining some of the characteristics of the liberal arts degree advocated by Blackstone) a great number of the graduates have no intention of becoming solicitors or barristers.^ Because the English legal education is undergraduate and provides a general education (retaining some of the characteristics of the liberal arts degree advocated by Blackstone) a great number of the graduates have no intention of becoming solicitors or barristers.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

^ The comparative law program generally consists of twenty-four semester hours of courses surveying U.S. law, because the foreign law graduates are expected to be fluent in English and to understand legal reasoning and the main concepts of tort, contract, property, procedure, and other major areas of law.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] .The approach of the English degree can be seen in the required curriculum, in which there is no study of civil procedure, and relatively few courses in advanced law such as business entities, bankruptcy, evidence, family law, etc.^ Civil procedure is a course of study mandated by the American Bar Association.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ LAW 730 - Business Bankruptcy .
  • Program: Juris Doctor Dual Programs - University of Nevada, Las Vegas - acalog ACMS™ 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC catalog.unlv.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The approach of the English degree can be seen in the required curriculum, in which there is no study of civil procedure, and relatively few courses in advanced law such as business entities, bankruptcy, evidence, family law, etc.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[64] .There has been a trend in the past twenty years in England to introduce more professionally relevant courses in the curriculum, particularly in "qualifying law degrees," and the law school has taken a more central role in the preparation of lawyers in England,[64] but the degree is still more scholarly or academic than those in North America.^ There has been a trend in the past twenty years in England to introduce more professionally relevant courses in the curriculum, particularly in "qualifying law degrees," and the law school has taken a more central role in the preparation of lawyers in England, [64] but the degree is still more scholarly or academic than those in North America.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First Year: Required law school courses.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Year: Required law school curriculum.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is also the case for other commonwealth jurisdictions such as in Australia, India and Hong Kong.^ This is also the case for other commonwealth jurisdictions such as in Australia, India and Hong Kong.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lone exceptions within the Commonwealth are Canada , India and Australia , where the LL.B. – although still an undergraduate degree – is typically offered as a second-entry bachelor's degree, not as a first-entry bachelor's degree.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, university presidents (or would-be presidents) holding a J.D. as their highest degree have been criticized for their lack of a terminal doctorate; others feel that such a criticism is unfounded.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Legal education in Canada has unique variations from other commonwealth countries. .Even though the legal system of Canada is mostly a transplant of the English system (Quebec excepted), the Canadian system is unique in that there are no Inns of Court, the practical training occurs in the office of a licensed attorney, and, since 1889, a university degree has been a prerequisite to initiating a clerkship (which requirement was not implemented until much later in England).^ No university in Italy awards a Juris Doctor degree, nor are there any plans to implement the degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Even though the legal system of Canada is mostly a transplant of the English system (Quebec excepted), the Canadian system is unique in that there are no Inns of Court, the practical training occurs in the office of a licensed attorney, and, since 1889, a university degree has been a prerequisite to initiating a clerkship (which requirement was not implemented until much later in England).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court , but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] .The education in law schools in Canada was similar to that in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, but with a greater concentration on statutory drafting and interpretation, and elements of a liberal education.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The education in law schools in Canada was similar to that in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, but with a greater concentration on statutory drafting and interpretation, and elements of a liberal education.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[66] .The bar associations in Canada were influenced by the changes at Harvard, and were sometimes quicker to nationally implement the changes proposed in the United States, such as requiring previous college education before studying law.^ Legal education in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The bar associations in Canada were influenced by the changes at Harvard, and were sometimes quicker to nationally implement the changes proposed in the United States, such as requiring previous college education before studying law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the J.D. requires students to finish the core bar subjects in just 2 1/2 years; take elective courses (such as legal theory, philosophy, and sometimes even theology); undergo an apprenticeship; and write and defend a thesis.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[66]

Modern variants and curriculum

.Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given, therefore law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.^ Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given, therefore law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other states will accept foreign legal education, with or without subsequent U.S. legal education, but typically requiring the foreign degree was earned in a country where the basic law is the common law of England.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. Supreme Court justice Joseph Story started the spirit of change in legal education at Harvard when he advocated a more "scientific study" of the law in the 19th century.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[67] .This has proven true in the context of the various forms of the J.D. which have been implemented around the world.^ This has proven true in the context of the various forms of the J.D. which have been implemented around the world.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Until about 1997 the J.D. was unique to law schools in the U.S. But with the rise in international success of law firms from the United States, and the rise in students from outside the U.S. attending U.S. law schools, attorneys with the J.D. have become increasingly common internationally.^ The Program utilizes materials available at virtually every elite law school in the United States.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midterm examinations are reviewed by the law schools faculty and returned to the student with comments.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, although most students do not apply until sometime in the first year.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .Therefore the prestige of the J.D. has also risen, and many universities outside of the U.S. have started to offer the J.D., often for the express purpose of raising the prestige of their law school and graduates.^ Therefore the prestige of the J.D. has also risen, and many universities outside of the U.S. have started to offer the J.D., often for the express purpose of raising the prestige of their law school and graduates.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gregorius graduated from Chapman University School of Law in 2006.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many law school graduates use their legal knowledge in areas outside the legal profession.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .Such institutions usually aim to appropriate the name of the degree only, and sometimes the new J.D. program of study is the same as that of their traditional law degree, which is usually more scholarly in purpose than the professional training intended with the J.D. as created in the U.S. Various characteristics can therefore be seen among J.D. degrees as implemented in universities around the world.^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

^ Diversity in student population has become a common goal among law school admission boards, and recruiting non-traditional students with real world experience is often difficult as few professionals are willing to abandon careers for a full-time day program.
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Holders of these degrees often are employed as paralegal s or in a law-related field such as insurance , trust companies , or banking .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Comparisons of J.D. Variants[69]
Jurisdiction Scholarly Content Required? Duration in Years Different curriculum from LL.B. in Jurisdiction? Sufficient Education for License?
Standard J.D. Program No 3 Yes Yes
Australia only 1 legal theory course 3 No (1 less year only) No
Canada Yes (including research paper) 3 No No
Hong Kong Yes (including research paper or dissertation) 2-3 No (additional research or dissertation only) No
Japan No 3 N/A No
Philippines Yes (including major thesis) 4 No (additional thesis and apprenticeship only) Yes

Types and characteristics

.Until very recently, only law schools in the United States offered the Juris Doctor.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until very recently, only law schools in the United States offered the Juris Doctor .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Juris Doctor with honors (1980), Florida State University School of Law.
  • City of Miami - Office of the City Attorney 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.miamigov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starting about 1997, universities in other countries began introducing the J.D. as a first professional degree in law, with differences appropriate to the legal systems of the countries in which these law schools are situated.^ Other law degrees in the United States .
  • Juris Doctor at AllExperts 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The J.D. is a first professional degree and a professional doctorate.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Starting about 1997, universities in other countries began introducing the J.D. as a first professional degree in law, with differences appropriate to the legal systems of the countries in which these law schools are situated.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

Standard Juris Doctor curriculum

.As stated by James Hall and Christopher Langdell, two people who were involved in the creation of the J.D., the J.D. is a professional degree like the M.D., intended to prepare practitioners through a scientific approach of analysing and teaching the law through logic and adversarial analysis (such as the Casebook and Socratic methods).^ A. The case method, also often referred to as the Socratic method, is a method of learning first implemented by in the early 20 th century by Harvard and Columbia law schools.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attorneys like facts, and so should you if you're considering applying to law school, either for a JD degree or a JSD degree.
  • Online Juris Doctor (JD) Degree | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bunkis stays busy through referrals from satisfied patients from around the globe, who frequently cite his caring, attentive approach and expert surgical skills.
  • Juris Bunkis, MD - Dublin Breast Augmentation and Plastic Surgery - LoveYourLook.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.loveyourlook.com [Source type: General]

[70] .It has existed as described in the United States for over 100 years, and can therefore be termed the standard or traditional J.D. program.^ It has existed as described in the United States for over 100 years, and can therefore be termed the standard or traditional J.D. program.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Program utilizes materials available at virtually every elite law school in the United States.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program requires three years of study and 72 semester units.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.^ The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Requirements for completion of the dual degree program are 112 units, including 78 units in law and 34 units in planning.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required[71]).^ The Program requires four years of study.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required [71] ).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.As a professional training, it provides sufficient training for entry into practice (no apprenticeship is necessary to sit for the bar exam).^ As a professional training, it provides sufficient training for entry into practice (no apprenticeship is necessary to sit for the bar exam).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court , but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This curriculum is professionally oriented, [100] but does not provide the education sufficient for a license, as all candidates for a license must attend the Legal Training and Research Institute.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.It requires at least three academic years of full time study.^ The JDET Program requires three academic years of study.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program requires three years of study and 72 semester units.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Program requires four years of study.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Strictly defined, the United States is the only jurisdiction with this form of a J.D., but the University of Tokyo (in Japan) and the University of Melbourne (in Australia) are attempting to follow this model closely.^ Strictly defined, the United States is the only jurisdiction with this form of a J.D., but the University of Tokyo (in Japan) and the University of Melbourne (in Australia) are attempting to follow this model closely.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Regular Applicants Applicants who have earned a postsecondary undergraduate degree from a college or university accredited by an accrediting agency recognized by the United States Department of Education generally qualify as regular applicants.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For graduates of other departments

.There has been an increase in the popularity of entering the professions, and to meet this demand some schools offer a program for students who have already graduated from another department to return to school to earn a law degree.^ The Department of Political Science and the Gould School of Law jointly offer a dual degree program leading to the J.D. and M.A. degrees.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This program is offered to international students.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There has been an increase in the popularity of entering the professions, and to meet this demand some schools offer a program for students who have already graduated from another department to return to school to earn a law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many of the participants in this kind of program already have some work experience.^ Many of the participants in this kind of program already have some work experience.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Simple busy work found in many programs is eliminated.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The busy work found in many programs offered by other schools has been eliminated.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The best example of this form are the J.D. programs in Hong Kong and some in Australia.^ The best example of this form are the J.D. programs in Hong Kong and some in Australia.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Established in 1911, the University of Hong Kong is a leading university in Asia and offers exchange programs with prominent universities worldwide.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is also the case for other commonwealth jurisdictions such as in Australia, India and Hong Kong.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Those programs are more or less identical to the LL.B. programs, except they are usually more intensive and thus take less time to complete.^ Q. Can a student take more than 4 years to complete the JDAT Program?
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those programs are more or less identical to the LL.B. programs, except they are usually more intensive and thus take less time to complete.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Because such programs are essentially an LL.B. program, this kind of program is academic in nature, shorter than other J.D. programs, and more training is required before a graduate is qualified to apply to the bar for admission (such as Professional Legal Training and an apprenticeship).^ Other program requirements .
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Juris Doctor - Attorney Track Independent Study Program Admission to Practice in a State Other Than California Most states require graduation from a law school approved by the American Bar Association or approved or accredited by that states Supreme Court or examining committee as a prerequisite to taking the bar examination in that state.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Program is designed to meet the requirements of the Committee of Bar Examiners of the State Bar of California.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Replacement for the LL.B.

.Some Canadian and Australian universities have law programs that are very similar to the J.D. programs in the United States.^ Some Canadian and Australian universities have law programs that are very similar to the J.D. programs in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first university law programs in the United States, such as that of the University of Maryland established in 1812, included much theoretical and philosophical study, including works such as the Bible, Cicero , Seneca , Aristotle, Adam Smith, Montesquieu and Grotius .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.These include the Osgoode Hall Law School [72] and University of Toronto Law School (in Canada)[73] in Canada, and the University of Melbourne in Australia [74].^ These include the Osgoode Hall Law School [72] and University of Toronto Law School (in Canada) [73] in Canada, and the University of Melbourne in Australia [74] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To prepare graduates to practice in jurisdictions on both sides of the border, some pairs of law schools, such as the New York University (NYU) Law School and Osgoode Hall Law School, [92] , the University of Ottawa Law School and the Michigan State University Law School, [93] and the University of Windsor Law School and the University of Detroit Mercy Law School, [94] have developed joint American-Canadian J.D programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ALAN J. BEARDSLEY — Mr. Beardsley was admitted to the California Bar in 1981, after graduation from New York University School of Law that same year.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, when the J.D. program was introduced at these institutions, it was a mere re-naming of their second-entry LL.B. program and entailed no significant substantive changes to their curricula.^ Therefore, when the J.D. program was introduced at these institutions, it was a mere re-naming of their second-entry LL.B. program and entailed no significant substantive changes to their curricula.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required [71] ).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[75] .The reason given for so doing is because of the international popularity and recognizability of the J.D., and the need to recognize the demanding graduate characteristics of the program.^ The reason given for so doing is because of the international popularity and recognizability of the J.D., and the need to recognize the demanding graduate characteristics of the program.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There has been an increase in the popularity of entering the professions, and to meet this demand some schools offer a program for students who have already graduated from another department to return to school to earn a law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[76] .Because these programs are in institutions heavily influenced by those in the U.K., the J.D. programs often have some small scholarly element (see chart above, entitled "Comparisons of J.D. Variants").^ Because these programs are in institutions heavily influenced by those in the U.K., the J.D. programs often have some small scholarly element (see chart above, entitled "Comparisons of J.D. Variants").
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of tradition, and concerns about less famous universities implementing a J.D. program, there was some reluctance by some institutions, such as Yale Law School, to implement the J.D. as the only law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, when the J.D. program was introduced at these institutions, it was a mere re-naming of their second-entry LL.B. program and entailed no significant substantive changes to their curricula.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.And because the legal systems are also influenced by that of the U.K., an apprenticeship is still required before being qualified to apply for a license to practice (see country sections below, under "Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.").^ (See debate section below).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And because the legal systems are also influenced by that of the U.K., an apprenticeship is still required before being qualified to apply for a license to practice (see country sections below, under "Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.").
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because such programs are essentially an LL.B. program, this kind of program is academic in nature, shorter than other J.D. programs, and more training is required before a graduate is qualified to apply to the bar for admission (such as Professional Legal Training and an apprenticeship).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.

Australia

.As in all other commonwealth countries, the standard law degree in Australia is the LL.B. Although the J.D. is "growing in popularity,"[77] only 10 of the 30 law schools offer the J.D., and the J.D. has replaced the LL.B. in only one of them.^ As in all other commonwealth countries, the standard law degree in Australia is the LL.B. Although the J.D. is "growing in popularity," [77] only 10 of the 30 law schools offer the J.D., and the J.D. has replaced the LL.B. in only one of them.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Juris doctor degree grows in popularity .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.^ Students have a maximum of 9 years to complete this program.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ ALAN J. BEARDSLEY — Mr. Beardsley was admitted to the California Bar in 1981, after graduation from New York University School of Law that same year.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ USQ law graduates have the option of completing their practical legal training through a one-year traineeship in a law practice, or through a practical legal program offered by USQ’s preferred provider or another institution that offers a practical legal training qualification).
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The LL.B. curriculum is less scholarly than that in the U.K., usually only requiring one jurisprudice or theory course.^ The LL.B. curriculum is less scholarly than that in the U.K., usually only requiring one jurisprudice or theory course.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nonetheless, in England and Wales the LL.B. is an undergraduate scholarly program and does not provide all of the training required before becoming licensed in that jurisdiction.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Those programs are more or less identical to the LL.B. programs, except they are usually more intensive and thus take less time to complete.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[78] .Many universities such as Australian National University, Bond University, University of Southern Queensland, University of New England, University of Melbourne, Monash University, Murdoch University, University of Technology Sydney, University of New South Wales and the University of Notre Dame Australia now offer the J.D.,[79] usually for graduates from non-law programs who wish to study law.^ Many universities such as Australian National University , Bond University , University of Southern Queensland , University of New England , University of Melbourne , Monash University , Murdoch University , University of Technology Sydney , University of New South Wales and the University of Notre Dame Australia now offer the J.D., [79] usually for graduates from non-law programs who wish to study law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The newly established De La Salle University College of Law will likewise offer the J.D., although it will offer the program using a trimestral calendar, unlike the model curriculum that uses a semestral calendar.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.But at the University of Melbourne the J.D. degree, like at the University of Toronto, has completely replaced the LL.B. as the degree of law.^ But at the University of Melbourne the J.D. degree, like at the University of Toronto, has completely replaced the LL.B. as the degree of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dual MSW/JD degree would require the completion of 80 law credit hours and 51 social work credit hours, as 9 hours of law courses are accepted toward the MSW and 9 hours of social work courses are accepted toward the JD. .
  • Program: Juris Doctor Dual Programs - University of Nevada, Las Vegas - acalog ACMS™ 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC catalog.unlv.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A first degree is required for admittance to all J.D. programs in Australia.^ The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A first degree is required for admittance to all J.D. programs in Australia.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

.The program lasts two or three years fulltime and the courses, like the LL.B. program, are professionally oriented.^ It is a three year program in most jurisdictions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program generally lasts three years.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In most jurisdictions it is a three year program.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.But for both the J.D. and LL.B. programs, a graduate cannot be licensed to practice until after completing an articled clerkship program or practical legal training course.^ But for both the J.D. and LL.B. programs, a graduate cannot be licensed to practice until after completing an articled clerkship program or practical legal training course.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Even though the legal system of Canada is mostly a transplant of the English system (Quebec excepted), the Canadian system is unique in that there are no Inns of Court, the practical training occurs in the office of a licensed attorney, and, since 1889, a university degree has been a prerequisite to initiating a clerkship (which requirement was not implemented until much later in England).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.University of Technology Sydney offers Practical Legal Training as part of their J.D. program enabling direct admission upon graduation.^ University of Technology Sydney offers Practical Legal Training as part of their J.D. program enabling direct admission upon graduation.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many universities such as Australian National University , Bond University , University of Southern Queensland , University of New England , University of Melbourne , Monash University , Murdoch University , University of Technology Sydney , University of New South Wales and the University of Notre Dame Australia now offer the J.D., [79] usually for graduates from non-law programs who wish to study law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Juris Doctor - Executive Track Program (Telecommunications Courses) Instructional Policies and Methods The Juris Doctor-Executive Track Program places a greater emphasis on learning practical skills than the Juris Doctor-Attorney Track Program which is designed in part to prepare graduates for the California Bar Examination.
  • Taft Law School - Online Executive Juris Doctor Program, JD Distance Learning 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bond University offers a J.D. program that has core requirements that are identical to the LL.B. However, Bond University J.D. students are also required to complete five masters level elective subjects.^ This program is offered to international students.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Students have a maximum of 9 years to complete this program.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

.The Bond University J.D. program can therefore be described as an integrated bachelors and masters degree [80] Even more unusual is the "LL.M. (J.D.)" at Monash University, which is the same as the Bond University program, and that institution also states that their degree is not a professional doctorate.^ Degrees: Bachelor’s and master’s degrees in English and Chinese .
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Degrees: Bachelor’s and Master of Business Administration degrees from University of Chicago; doctoral degree from Northwestern University .
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Degrees: Bachelor’s degree in geology, College of Wooster; master’s and doctoral degrees in hydrogeology, The Ohio State University .
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

[81] .The LL.M offered at Monash university is also offered at several other Australian universities including the University of Adelaide and the University of Western Australia.^ The LL.M offered at Monash university is also offered at several other Australian universities including the University of Adelaide and the University of Western Australia.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many universities such as Australian National University , Bond University , University of Southern Queensland , University of New England , University of Melbourne , Monash University , Murdoch University , University of Technology Sydney , University of New South Wales and the University of Notre Dame Australia now offer the J.D., [79] usually for graduates from non-law programs who wish to study law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.A Masters Degree is a lesser degree to the PhD program which is available across Australia.^ A Masters Degree is a lesser degree to the PhD program which is available across Australia.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Master of Music in Music Education degree at Capital University The Kodály philosophy Children's choirs Background: Director of the Capital in Hungary Honors Program and director of graduate programs at the Conservatory of Music.
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If you are one of those people, it may be exciting to realize that you now have a viable option available to you: online JD degree programs.
  • Online Juris Doctor (JD) Degree | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Canada

.Several law schools in Canada award their graduates the designation Juris Doctor [82].^ Several law schools in Canada award their graduates the designation Juris Doctor [82] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Find a Juris Doctorate Degree program at any law school .
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ USQ or another university, and law courses were credited to the other award, exemptions are only granted so that, on completion of the Juris Doctor at USQ, the student will have successfully completed the equivalent of at least six years of full-time study .
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.In order to be admitted to a Juris Doctor program, applicants must have completed a minimum 3-year Bachelor's study.^ The Program requires four years of study.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to be admitted to a Juris Doctor program, applicants must have completed a minimum 3-year Bachelor's study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Complete the traditional program of studies given by a three-year Juris Doctorate Degree provider 2.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

[83] .All Canadian Juris Doctor programs consist of three years, and have similar content in their mandatory first year courses.^ In most jurisdictions it is a three year program.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Juris Doctor is 50% of the program, that is, the equivalent of 12 courses.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Program consists of four academic years.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As with U.S. J.D. programs, such as that of the New York University Law School,[84] the mandatory first year courses in Canadian law schools outside Quebec include "public" "constitutional" or "state" law, tort law, contract law, criminal law,and some sort of "professional practice" course [85].^ First Year: Required law school courses.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Canadian and Australian universities have law programs that are very similar to the J.D. programs in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Law Sections: Criminal law and general Practice .
  • 2006 candidates for county, circuit judge races» Naples Daily News 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.naplesnews.com [Source type: News]

.Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, Aboriginal law, etc.^ Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, Aboriginal law, etc.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First-year required courses are prerequisites to all upper-level law courses.
  • Program: Juris Doctor Dual Programs - University of Nevada, Las Vegas - acalog ACMS™ 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC catalog.unlv.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The four law elective courses may be selected from any of the electives listed below.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[86] .After graduation from an accredited law school, each Province's law society requires completion of a bar examination, and a period of supervised "articling" prior to independent practice.^ Q. What are a graduates chances of passing the California Bar Examination after completing the Program ?
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Juris Doctor - Attorney Track Independent Study Program Admission to Practice in a State Other Than California Most states require graduation from a law school approved by the American Bar Association or approved or accredited by that states Supreme Court or examining committee as a prerequisite to taking the bar examination in that state.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midterm examinations are reviewed by the law schools faculty and returned to the student with comments.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87].
.
Use of the "J.D." designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.
^ Use of the "J.D." designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required [71] ).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[68]. .The Canadian J.D. is a degree in Canadian Law.^ The Canadian J.D. is a degree in Canadian Law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of the "J.D." designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts,[88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89][90].^ Degrees: Bachelor’s degree in nursing; Juris Doctor .
  • Experts & Speakers List 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.capital.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ SARAH M. FLYNN — Ms. Flynn received her Bachelor of Science in Law while concurrently obtaining her Juris Doctorate Degree from Southern California Institute of Law school.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Education: Bachelor of Arts, Florida State University, 1981; Juris Doctor, Florida State University, 1985.
  • 2006 candidates for county, circuit judge races» Naples Daily News 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.naplesnews.com [Source type: News]

.This is equivalent to the manner in which United States J.D. graduates are treated in Canadian jurisdictions such as Ontario [91].^ This is equivalent to the manner in which United States J.D. graduates are treated in Canadian jurisdictions such as Ontario [91] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To prepare graduates to practice in jurisdictions on both sides of the border, some pairs of law schools, such as the New York University (NYU) Law School and Osgoode Hall Law School, [92] , the University of Ottawa Law School and the Michigan State University Law School, [93] and the University of Windsor Law School and the University of Detroit Mercy Law School, [94] have developed joint American-Canadian J.D programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.To prepare graduates to practice in jurisdictions on both sides of the border, some pairs of law schools, such as the New York University (NYU) Law School and Osgoode Hall Law School,[92] , the University of Ottawa Law School and the Michigan State University Law School,[93] and the University of Windsor Law School and the University of Detroit Mercy Law School,[94] have developed joint American-Canadian J.D programs.^ The Juris Doctor - Attorney Track Independent Study Program Admission to Practice in a State Other Than California Most states require graduation from a law school approved by the American Bar Association or approved or accredited by that states Supreme Court or examining committee as a prerequisite to taking the bar examination in that state.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Program utilizes materials available at virtually every elite law school in the United States.
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USQ law graduates have the option of completing their practical legal training through a one-year traineeship in a law practice, or through a practical legal program offered by USQ’s preferred provider or another institution that offers a practical legal training qualification).
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

China

.Officially there is no such thing as a J.D. in the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), as the government does not authorize professional doctorates.^ Officially there is no such thing as a J.D. in the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.), as the government does not authorize professional doctorates.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No university in Italy awards a Juris Doctor degree, nor are there any plans to implement the degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps the most notable thing about pursuing a doctorate-level degree in law is how open the door is, and to how many people.
  • Online Juris Doctor (JD) Degree | Doctorate Programs | WorldWideLearn.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.worldwidelearn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] .The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.^ The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levine attended the University of California at Santa Barbara, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in Law and Society in 1994.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Starting in the fall of 2008 the Shenzhen campus of Peking University started the School of Transnational Law, which attempts to introduce a U.S.-styled graduate education in law.^ Starting in the fall of 2008 the Shenzhen campus of Peking University started the School of Transnational Law , which attempts to introduce a U.S.-styled graduate education in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gregorius graduated from Chapman University School of Law in 2006.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is important when reviewing the Juris Doctorate degree advice and ratings to take into account cost of the education, location of the law school, prestige, practical application, and location.
  • Juris Doctorate Degree | Business.com 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

.The program misleadingly advertises in English that it confers a J.D. degree, but in Chinese the official degree awarded is a master's degree of international law (国际法律硕士).^ The program misleadingly advertises in English that it confers a J.D. degree, but in Chinese the official degree awarded is a master's degree of international law (国际法律硕士).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The professional degree of Juris Doctor is awarded to those students in the Program who have fulfilled all of the following requirements: .
  • Taft Law School 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.taftu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96] .The curriculum of the program appears to be nearly identical to that of a J.D. program at a U.S. university and requires three years of study.^ It is a three year program in most jurisdictions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The curriculum of the program appears to be nearly identical to that of a J.D. program at a U.S. university and requires three years of study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program generally lasts three years.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[97]

Hong Kong (China)

.The primary law degree in Hong Kong is the LL.B., which is more or less identical to the LL.B. in England.^ The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The J.D. in Hong Kong is almost identical to the LL.B. and is reserved for graduates of non-law disciplines.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Legal education in Hong Kong The primary law degree in Hong Kong is the LL.B., which is more or less identical to the LL.B. in England.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The J.D. degree was first offered at the City University of Hong Kong, and is now also offered at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and the University of Hong Kong (since September 2009).^ The J.D. degree was first offered at the City University of Hong Kong , and is now also offered at the Chinese University of Hong Kong , and the University of Hong Kong (since September 2009).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from August 2008 All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009 Doctoral degrees Law degrees History .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Today Oxford offers the bachelor's degree in law (B.C.L.) as a second entry program, contrary to the practice of all other English universities.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[98] .The degree is known as the 法律博士 in Chinese, or Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese.^ The degree is known as the 法律博士 in Chinese, or Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The J.D. in Japan is known as Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士) [127] and in China it is called 法律博士 ( Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese, or Falü Boshi in Mandarin).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[99] .The J.D. in Hong Kong is almost identical to the LL.B. and is reserved for graduates of non-law disciplines.^ The J.D. in Hong Kong is almost identical to the LL.B. and is reserved for graduates of non-law disciplines.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, since 2009, the J.D. at the City University of Hong Kong has had a comparatively stricter grading policy from the normal LL.B. .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

However, since 2009, the J.D. at the City University of Hong Kong has had a comparatively stricter grading policy from the normal LL.B.
.As in most jurisdictions where an LL.B is the primary law degree, there is still much confusion over status of the J.D. in Hong Kong.^ As in most jurisdictions where an LL.B is the primary law degree, there is still much confusion over status of the J.D. in Hong Kong.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, although most students do not apply until sometime in the first year.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is generally regarded as a professional postgraduate degree and, as the City University website states, the J.D. is not an equivalent to a PhD.[100] After either the LL.B. or the J.D. is completed, in order to practice, graduates of both are required to undertake the PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.^ It is generally regarded as a professional postgraduate degree and, as the City University website states, the J.D. is not an equivalent to a PhD. [97] After either the LL.B. or the J.D. is completed, in order to practice, graduates of both are required to undertake the PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Students are not eligible for either of their dual degrees until they complete the requirements for both degrees.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[101]

Japan

.In Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士) and has replaced the bachelor of law as the first entry law degree.^ The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The J.D. program requires a bachelors degree for entry.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士) and has replaced the bachelor of law as the first entry law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[102] .The program generally lasts three years.^ It is a three year program in most jurisdictions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program generally lasts three years.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The curriculum of the program appears to be nearly identical to that of a J.D. program at a U.S. university and requires three years of study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.This curriculum is professionally oriented,[103] but does not provide the education sufficient for a license, as all candidates for a license must attend the Legal Training and Research Institute.^ This curriculum is professionally oriented, [100] but does not provide the education sufficient for a license, as all candidates for a license must attend the Legal Training and Research Institute.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

^ As a professional training, it provides sufficient training for entry into practice (no apprenticeship is necessary to sit for the bar exam).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[104]

Philippines

.In the Philippines, the J.D.exists alongside the more common LL.B. Like the standard LL.B, it requires four years of study, is considered as a graduate degree and requires prior undergraduate study as a prerequisite for admission, and covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations.^ In the Philippines , the J.D.exists alongside the more common LL.B. Like the standard LL.B, it requires four years of study, is considered as a graduate degree and requires prior undergraduate study as a prerequisite for admission, and covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was not a conversion of the LL.B. degree, but a graduate degree to be distinguished from undergraduate programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The main purpose of the J.D. in Australia is to give the opportunity for non-law graduates to study law, therefore it is supplementary to, and not a substitute for, the LL.B. The LL.B programs are usually combined with an arts degree (BA/LL.B) and can be completed in five years, or are offered as second entry programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the J.D. requires students to finish the core bar subjects in just 2 1/2 years; take elective courses (such as legal theory, philosophy, and sometimes even theology); undergo an apprenticeship; and write and defend a thesis.^ However, the J.D. requires students to finish the core bar subjects in just 2 1/2 years; take elective courses (such as legal theory, philosophy, and sometimes even theology); undergo an apprenticeship; and write and defend a thesis.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required [71] ).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Students must satisfy the upper division writing requirement, either by completing a major, faculty-supervised writing project such as a dissertation, or by taking a course with a substantial writing component.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[105] .Notwithstanding these differences, both the J.D. and the LL.B. are considered the equivalent of a master's degree by the Philippines' Commission on Higher Education.^ Notwithstanding these differences, both the J.D. and the LL.B. are considered the equivalent of a master's degree by the Philippines' Commission on Higher Education.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Philippines , the J.D.exists alongside the more common LL.B. Like the standard LL.B, it requires four years of study, is considered as a graduate degree and requires prior undergraduate study as a prerequisite for admission, and covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The European Research Council states that, "First-professional degrees will not be considered...PhD-equivalent, even if recipients carry the title 'Doctor'."
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[106]
.The degree was first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo de Manila Law School, which first developed the model program later adopted by most schools now offering the J.D..^ Ateneo de Manila Law School.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The law school offers a dual degree program with the London School of Economics (LSE).
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The degree was first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo de Manila Law School , which first developed the model program later adopted by most schools now offering the J.D..
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

After the Ateneo, schools such as the University of Batangas College of Law began offering the J.D., with schools such as the Far Eastern University Institute of Law offering a joint degree program leading to a J.D. and an MBA.[107] In 2008, the University of the Philippines College of Law began conferring the J.D. on its graduates, the school choosing rename its LL.B. program into a J.D. because to accurately reflect the nature of education the university provides as "nomenclature does not accurately reflect the fact that the LL.B. is a professional as well as a post baccalaureate degree."[108] In 2009, the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) and Silliman University also shifted their respective LL.B Programs to Juris Doctor -applying the change to incoming freshmen students for School Year 2009-2010.[109][110]. .The newly established De La Salle University College of Law will likewise offer the J.D., although it will offer the program using a trimestral calendar, unlike the model curriculum that uses a semestral calendar.^ Online Degrees : Online Colleges : Online Education All rights reserved This Online Education and Online Degrees provider is essential in helping find University or College Students for campus based degree programs .

^ Students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, although most students do not apply until sometime in the first year.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of Political Science and the Gould School of Law jointly offer a dual degree program leading to the J.D. and M.A. degrees.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111]

Others

India
.At this time the Juris Doctor does not exist in India, and no official entity in India authorizes the award of a Juris Doctorate degree.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No university in Italy awards a Juris Doctor degree, nor are there any plans to implement the degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Discussion of the Juris Doctor as not a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.A new venture Jindal Global Law School sought to start an academic program with a recognized Juris Doctor degree,[112] however that plan was withdrawn, and the school now only offers the more traditional LL.B. and LL.M. degrees.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Moseley received her Juris Doctor degree from the University of San Diego School of Law.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Discussion of the Juris Doctor as not a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

Italy
.No university in Italy awards a Juris Doctor degree, nor are there any plans to implement the degree.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No university in Italy awards a Juris Doctor degree, nor are there any plans to implement the degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Discussion of the Juris Doctor as not a doctoral level degree .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, because the law degree in Italy is more advanced than a standard undergraduate program,[113] and lawyers in Italy often use the title of "doctor"[114] (Italian law authorizes all university graduates, including undergraduates, to use the title of doctor)[115] lawyers in Italy believe that the best translation of their degree is "J.D." which commonly appears on their resumes and profiles.^ Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was not a conversion of the LL.B. degree, but a graduate degree to be distinguished from undergraduate programs.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[116]

Honorifics and designations

Persons licensed as attorneys in the United States often use a variety of titles and suffixes, however, the titles "Attorney," "attorney-at-law," "Esquire" ("Esq.") and "lawyer" must be distinguished from "J.D.". Generally, the designation "J.D." indicates a person who has received the J.D. degree from a law school, whereas "Attorney" and the like indicate the person is licensed to practice law. .Some states restrict the use of the "J.D." suffix to those licensed to practice law.^ Some states restrict the use of the "J.D." suffix to those licensed to practice law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The American Bar Association permits J.D. holders in the United States to use the title of "Doctor," [140] [141] and some local bar associations in the United States have also issued concurring opinion statements.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There has been some debate in the United States as to whether J.D. recipients may use the title of Doctor and refer to themselves as "Doctor" (see debate section).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.Arizona, for instance, disallows the use of "J.D." as a title if it is "reasonably likely to induce others to believe the person or entity is authorized to engage in the practice of law in Arizona".[117] (In all states, a person who is not admitted to practice law but who represents or implies that he or she is an attorney may be subject to penalties for the unauthorized practice of law or impersonating a lawyer, both of which are criminal offenses in many jurisdictions.^ Arizona, for instance, disallows the use of "J.D." as a title if it is "reasonably likely to induce others to believe the person or entity is authorized to engage in the practice of law in Arizona ".
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flynn was admitted to practice law in the State of California in June of 2004.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Law Sections: Criminal law and general Practice .
  • 2006 candidates for county, circuit judge races» Naples Daily News 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.naplesnews.com [Source type: News]

)[118]
.There has been some debate in the United States as to whether J.D. recipients may use the title of Doctor and refer to themselves as "Doctor" (see debate section).^ Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (See debate section below).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There has been some debate in the United States as to whether J.D. recipients may use the title of Doctor and refer to themselves as "Doctor" (see debate section).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.ABA Informal Opinion 1152 (1970) and Disciplinary Rule 2-102(E) permit those who hold a Juris Doctor (J.D.) to use the title.^ ABA Informal Opinion 1152 (1970) and Disciplinary Rule 2-102(E) permit those who hold a Juris Doctor (J.D.) to use the title.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Please note this qualification does not entitle graduates to use the title 'Doctor'.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The American Bar Association permits J.D. holders in the United States to use the title of "Doctor," [140] [141] and some local bar associations in the United States have also issued concurring opinion statements.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[119] .Some local bar associations in the U.S. have released opinion papers stating that J.D. holders may use the title of "doctor" in those jurisdictions.^ The American Bar Association permits J.D. holders in the United States to use the title of "Doctor," [140] [141] and some local bar associations in the United States have also issued concurring opinion statements.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some local bar associations in the U.S. have released opinion papers stating that J.D. holders may use the title of "doctor" in those jurisdictions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[120] On the other hand, the Maine Bar Association has disallowed the usage, stating that “Regular use of the title ‘doctor’ is almost exclusively confined to certain health professionals (and) to some extent, academics with a Ph.D. degree and clergymen”; The North Carolina Bar Association has ruled that a lawyer with a Juris Doctor may not hold himself out to the public as having a doctorate, or use the title “doctor.” [121]
.The J.D. is not considered by some to be a terminal degree, leading to questions about the status of the J.D. as a doctorate and the eligibility of J.D. holders to use the "doctor" title.^ The J.D. is not considered by some to be a terminal degree, leading to questions about the status of the J.D. as a doctorate and the eligibility of J.D. holders to use the "doctor" title.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Please note this qualification does not entitle graduates to use the title 'Doctor'.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.(See debate section below).^ (See debate section below).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There has been some debate in the United States as to whether J.D. recipients may use the title of Doctor and refer to themselves as "Doctor" (see debate section).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.The degree is the professional law degree in the United States, and is treated as a terminal degree in U.S. academic practice.^ In the United States, J.D. holders are treated similar to holders of research doctorate degrees by academic policies.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the degree is the highest level professional law degree in the United States, and is treated as a terminal degree in U.S. academic practice.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the highest degree of some university presidents—a position that typically requires[122] a Ph.D. or comparable[123] degree—is a J.D. (e.g., former Harvard president Derek Bok, and the presidents of Columbia and Johns Hopkins universities).^ Harvard president Derek Bok , and the presidents of Columbia and Johns Hopkins universities).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the highest degree of some university presidents—a position that typically requires [121] a Ph.D. or comparable [122] (i.e.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Even when some universities offered training in law, they did not offer a degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

In other cases the J.D. has been deemed insufficient for a high-level admistrative position in academia. [124],[125]
.The J.D. is a professional doctorate degree,[126] and some J.D. holders in the United States use the title of "Doctor" in professional[119] and academic situations.^ The J.D. is a first professional degree and a professional doctorate.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Academic and professional organizations recognize the J.D. as a professional doctorate .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[127] .In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g.^ Please note this qualification does not entitle graduates to use the title 'Doctor'.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ He earned his Juris Doctor degree from the University of Southern California School of Law in 1978 and his B.A. degree from USC in 1975.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, although most students do not apply until sometime in the first year.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Peru, Brazil, Macau, Portugal, Argentina, and Italy),[128] J.D. holders who are attorneys will often use the title of doctor as well.^ Peru, Brazil, Macau, Portugal, Argentina, and Italy), [125] J.D. holders who are attorneys will often use the title of doctor as well.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Please note this qualification does not entitle graduates to use the title 'Doctor'.
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ However, because the law degree in Italy is more advanced than a standard undergraduate program, [113] and lawyers in Italy often use the title of "doctor" [114] (Italian law authorizes all university graduates, including undergraduates, to use the title of doctor) [115] lawyers in Italy believe that the best translation of their degree is "J.D." which commonly appears on their resumes and profiles.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[129] .The J.D. in Japan is known as Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士)[130] and in China it is called 法律博士 (Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese, or Falü Boshi in Mandarin).^ The J.D. in Japan is known as Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士) [127] and in China it is called 法律博士 ( Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese, or Falü Boshi in Mandarin).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The degree is known as the 法律博士 in Chinese, or Faat Leot Bok Si in Cantonese .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士) and has replaced the bachelor of law as the first entry law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[131] .The characters 博士 in Japanese and Chinese mean "doctor" and this is the same title given to holders of both professional and academic doctorate degrees.^ The characters 博士 in Japanese and Chinese mean "doctor" and this is the same title given to holders of both professional and academic doctorate degrees.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The J.D. is a first professional degree and a professional doctorate.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Academic and professional organizations recognize the J.D. as a professional doctorate .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[132]

Executive Juris Doctor

.The Executive Juris Doctor is awarded by two online universities in the United States.^ The Executive Juris Doctor is awarded by two online universities in the United States.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ USQ or another university, and law courses were credited to the other award, exemptions are only granted so that, on completion of the Juris Doctor at USQ, the student will have successfully completed the equivalent of at least six years of full-time study .
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[133]. .Concord Law School claims trademark rights to the EJD acronym, the only degree that has had a trademark claim[134] (the purpose of a trademark is to reserve exclusive use).^ Concord Law School claims trademark rights to the EJD acronym, the only degree that has had a trademark claim [131] (the purpose of a trademark is to reserve exclusive use).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Van Susteren was the first Stuart Stiller Fellow at Georgetown Law Center and was awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree from Stetson Law School.
  • Fox News successful: time to re-educte their customers? - Page 3 - Baltimore Sun talk forum 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC talk.baltimoresun.com [Source type: General]

^ Moseley received her Juris Doctor degree from the University of San Diego School of Law.
  • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

[135] .The program is offered by the online universities of Concord Law School of Kaplan University and Taft Law School of The Taft University System.^ Concord Law School Accreditation .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, although most students do not apply until sometime in the first year.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of Political Science and the Gould School of Law jointly offer a dual degree program leading to the J.D. and M.A. degrees.
  • USC Catalogue: The Schools: USC Gould School of Law: Dual Degree Programs 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both institutions are accredited by the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC), but not the American Bar Association.^ Both institutions are accredited by the Distance Education and Training Council (DETC), but not the American Bar Association .
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ American Bar Association, 2007.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ American Council on Education (2008).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[133] .Holders of the EJD are not able to sit for a bar exam in any jurisdiction without an additional qualifying law degree.^ Holders of the EJD are not able to sit for a bar exam in any jurisdiction without an additional qualifying law degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a professional training, it provides sufficient training for entry into practice (no apprenticeship is necessary to sit for the bar exam).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

[136] .The program requires three years of study and 72 semester units.^ It is a three year program in most jurisdictions.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The curriculum of the program appears to be nearly identical to that of a J.D. program at a U.S. university and requires three years of study.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Year of program and semester in which course is normally studied .
  • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[134] .The program was created to meet the needs of professionals who have no intention of practicing law, but who seek a law degree to supplement their own specialization.^ The program was created to meet the needs of professionals who have no intention of practicing law, but who seek a law degree to supplement their own specialization.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required [71] ).
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as practical or professional training, and not, as in England, merely a bachelor of arts denoting a specialization in law.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

Academic status of the J.D.

.Opinions differ as to whether or not the J.D. is a true doctorate degree.^ As a result, there has been disagreement as to whether or not the J.D. is a doctoral level degree.
  • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

Evidence that the J.D. is a doctoral level degree

.
  • The American Bar Association, which regulates and accredits the Juris Doctor degree, authorizes holders of Juris Doctor degree to use the title "Doctor "[137][138] which is sometimes used to refer to holders of research doctorates, and some local bar associations in the United States have also issued concurring opinion statements.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The American Bar Association permits J.D. holders in the United States to use the title of "Doctor," [140] [141] and some local bar associations in the United States have also issued concurring opinion statements.
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g.
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    [120] . .However, one Australian academic institution has stated that, despite its name, recipients of its Juris Doctor are not entitled to use the honorific title "Doctor" at that institution.^ An Australian academic institution has stated that, despite its name, recipients of the Juris Doctor are not entitled to use the honorific title "Doctor" at that institution.
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts, [88] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically [89] [90] .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Please note this qualification does not entitle graduates to use the title 'Doctor'.
    • Programs and Courses - Juris Doctor (DJUR) 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.usq.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    [139];
  • .
  • Some academic and professional organizations describe the J.D. distinctly as a professional doctorate.^ Academic and professional organizations recognize the J.D. as a professional doctorate .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The characters 博士 in Japanese and Chinese mean "doctor" and this is the same title given to holders of both professional and academic doctorate degrees.
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The J.D. is a professional doctorate degree, [123] and some J.D. holders in the United States use the title of "Doctor" in professional [119] and academic situations.
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    [140][141][142][143][144][145][146].
  • Like holders of research doctorate degrees, holders of the Juris doctor are issued doctoral robes in ceremonial contexts,[147][148][149].
  • The Juris Doctor is the sole graduate degree of some university presidents—a position for which universities commonly require a Ph.D.[150] or comparable[123] (i.e. terminal)[151] degree—is a J.D. (e.g. former Harvard president Derek Bok, and the presidents of Columbia [152] and Johns Hopkins universities).

Evidence that the J.D. is not a doctoral level degree

.
  • The European Research Council, "First-professional degrees will not be considered...PhD-equivalent, even if recipients carry the title 'Doctor'."[153] The U.S. Department of Labor sets the starting pay grade for "Ph.D. or equivalent doctoral degree OR 3 full years of progressively higher level graduate education".[154] at a higher level than for those with "Master's or equivalent graduate degree (such as LL.B., J.D.)".
  • The Juris Doctor is a prerequisite for the LLM (Master of Laws) which, in turn, is a prerequisite for the SJD (Doctor of Laws), making the SJD the terminal academic degree in law.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The European Research Council states that, "First-professional degrees will not be considered...PhD-equivalent, even if recipients carry the title 'Doctor'."
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    [155] [156]
  • A Washington Times reporter, in discussing a university provost whose lack of a graduate degree other than the Juris Doctor she reported caused controversy, wrote that she "holds a juris doctor degree from University of Michigan Law School -- which is equivalent to a master's degree, not a doctorate" and in a separate story that "A spokesman for Mrs. Reuben-Cooke's alma mater said her law degree is not equivalent to a doctorate." .[157],[158]
  • The Students’ Law Society at the University of Windsor described the J.D. as a "name change" and said "A Windsor Law J.D. would not be a graduate degree [but rather] an undergraduate professional degree program.".[159]
  • The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology states that, despite its name, recipients of the Juris Doctor are not entitled to use the honorific title "Doctor" at that institution.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ W. SCOTT PLYLER — Scott Plyler received his juris doctor degree from Western State University in 1979.
    • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    [160]. .The minutes of a 2004 Deans Council Meeting at Austin Peay State University state that the Juris Doctor is not a doctorate and not a terminal degree.^ The Juris Doctor as a doctoral level degree .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ W. SCOTT PLYLER — Scott Plyler received his juris doctor degree from Western State University in 1979.
    • Tobin Lucks Principals and Associates 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.tobinlucks.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Juris doctor degree grows in popularity .
    • Juris Doctor - Powerset 15 January 2010 13:013 UTC blog.powerset.com [Source type: Academic]

    [161]
  • The U.S. government sets the starting pay grade for "Master's or equivalent graduate degree(s) (such as LL.B., J.D., or M.D.)" at GS-9, but the pay grade for "Ph.D. or equivalent doctoral degree(s)" at GS-11.[162]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. "Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education". http://www.pb.uillinois.edu/aaude/documents/graded_glossary.doc. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  2. ^ National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients". InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics NSF 06-312: 7. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06312/nsf06312.pdf.  Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  3. ^ San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". http://www.sdcba.org/ethics/ethicsopinion69-5.html. Retrieved 2008-05-26. . Under "other references" differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate
  4. ^ University of Utah (2006). "University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook". http://www.gradschool.utah.edu/catalog/degree.php. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  5. ^ German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education". http://www.blk-bonn.de/papers/hochschulsystem_usa.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-26.  Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  6. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. 3. 2002. p. 962:1a. 
  7. ^ U.S. Department of Education (2008). "USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education — Graduate/Post Education Levels". http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-professional-studies.html. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  8. ^ College Blue Book (1999). Degrees Offered by College and Subject. New York: MacMillan. pp. 817. (the degrees offered by law schools are listed in this volume as doctorates and not first professional degrees)
  9. ^ University of Washington School of Law. "JD Program & Policies". http://www.law.washington.edu/students/academics/. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  10. ^ Russo, Eugene (2004). "The Changing Length of PhDs". Nature 431 (7006): 382–383. doi:10.1038/nj7006-382a. PMID 15372047. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v431/n7006/full/nj7006-382a.html. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  11. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  12. ^ García y García, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  13. ^ García y García (1992), 390.
  14. ^ Stein (1981), 434, 435.
  15. ^ Stein (1981), 434, 436.
  16. ^ a b c Stein (1981), 436.
  17. ^ Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, p. 430.
  18. ^ Stein (1981), 431.
  19. ^ Stein (1981), 432.
  20. ^ Stein (1981), 433.
  21. ^ Stein (1981), 434.
  22. ^ a b Stein (1981), 435.
  23. ^ Moline, Brian J., Early American Legal Education, 42 Washburn Law Journal 775, 793 (2003).
  24. ^ Moline (2003), 775.
  25. ^ Stein (1981), 429.
  26. ^ Stein (1981), 438.
  27. ^ a b Stein (1981), 439.
  28. ^ Moline (2003), 781.
  29. ^ a b c Moline (2003), 782.
  30. ^ Moline (2003), 782 and 783.
  31. ^ Sonsteng, J. (2007). "A Legal Education Renaissance: A Practical Approach for the Twenty-First Century" . William Mitchell Law Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, Revised April 2, 2008. Accessed May 26, 2008. page 13.
  32. ^ Stein (1981).
  33. ^ Stein (1981), 442.
  34. ^ Kirkwood, M. and Owens, W. A Brief History of the Stanford Law School, 1893-1946, Stanford University School of Law. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  35. ^ Moline (2003), 794.
  36. ^ Moline (2003), 795.
  37. ^ Kirkwood, 19.
  38. ^ a b Sonsteng (2007), 15.
  39. ^ a b Moline (2003), 798.
  40. ^ Moline (2003), 800.
  41. ^ a b Moline (2003), 801.
  42. ^ Stein (1981), 445.
  43. ^ For detailed discussions of the development of Langdell's method, see LaPiana, W. (1994). Logic and Experience: The Origin of Modern American Legal Education, New York: Oxford University Press; and Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, pages 449-450.
  44. ^ Ellis, D. (2001). Legal Education: A Perspective on the Last 130 Years of American Legal Training, 6 Wash. U.J.L. & Pol'y 157, p. 166.
  45. ^ Moline (2003), 802.
  46. ^ Sonsteng (2007), 19.
  47. ^ Reed (1921) and Stein (1981).
  48. ^ Reed (1921), 162.
  49. ^ a b Reed (1921), 165.
  50. ^ Reed (1921), 164.
  51. ^ Reed (1921), 167.
  52. ^ Reed (1921), 161; and Reed, A. (1928). Present-Day Law Schools in the United States and Canada, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21, Boston: Merrymount Press, page 78
  53. ^ Reed (1928), 74; and Reed (1921), 169.
  54. ^ Stevens, R. (1971). "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School," in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p.427.
  55. ^ Harno, A. (2004) Legal Education in the United States, New Jersey: Lawbook Exchange, page 50.
  56. ^ Herbermann, 112-117.
  57. ^ Schoenfeld, M. (1963). "J.D. or LL.B as the Basic Law Degree," Cleveland-Marshall Law Review, Vol. 4, pp. 573-579, quoted in Joanna Lombard, LL.B. to J.D. and the Professional Degree in Architecture, Proceedings of the 85th ACSA Annual Meeting, Architecture: Material and Imagined and Technology Conference, 1997. pp. 585-591.
  58. ^ a b Schoenfeld (1963).
  59. ^ John H. Langbein, "Scholarly and Professional Objectives in Legal Education: American Trends and English Comparisons," Pressing Problems in the Law, Volume 2: What are Law Schools For?, Oxford University Press, 1996.
  60. ^ Reed, (1921), 160
  61. ^ Reed (1921), 161
  62. ^ The History of the LL.M.
  63. ^ Langbein, J. (1996). "Scholarly and Professional Objectives in Legal Education: American Trends and English Comparisons," Pressing Problems in the Law, Volume 2: What are Law Schools For?, Oxford University Press.
  64. ^ a b Langbein (1996).
  65. ^ Reed (1921), 27.
  66. ^ a b Reed (1928), 390.
  67. ^ See, Langbein (1996).
  68. ^ a b c University of British Columbia Board of Governors approves request for LL.B to be renamed J.D. [1].
  69. ^ Verification of the data in this table can be found in the subsequent paragraphs of this section.
  70. ^ Hall, J. (1907). American Law School Degrees, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 112-117.
  71. ^ For example, see J.D. Substantial Writing Requirement, NYU School of Law. Accessed July 23, 2009.
  72. ^ Belford, T. (2009). "Why Change to a J.D. Degree?
  73. ^ University of Toronto J.D. admissions FAQ [2].
  74. ^ University of Melbourne. "About Use — The Melbourne JD". http://jd.law.unimelb.edu.au/go/about-us/melbourne-jd. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  75. ^ Belford, T. (2009). "Why Change to a J.D. Degree? Globe Campus. Accessed August 24, 2009.
  76. ^ idem
  77. ^ Susannah Moran (17 August 2007). Juris doctor degree grows in popularity. The Australian. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
  78. ^ University of Queensland. University of Queensland School of Law LL.B. Program Outline. Accessed March 23, 2007.
  79. ^ Oztrekk.com. Description of Australian Law School Programs. Accessed March 23, 2007.
  80. ^ Bond University. Juris Doctor. Accessed April 7, 2008. Also stated by RMIT at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Juris Doctor. Accessed April 7, 2008.
  81. ^ Monash University. Master of Laws (Juris Doctor). Accessed April 7, 2008.
  82. ^ Osgoode Law School "Dean Patrick Monahan on the Growing Number of Canadian Law Schools Switching from the LLB to JD Degree Designation" [3]
  83. ^ http://law.queensu.ca/prospectiveStudents/jdProgram/admissionInformation/firstYearAdmissionStandards.html
  84. ^ http://www.law.nyu.edu/academics/courses/requiredfirstyearcourses/index.htm
  85. ^ http://www.osgoode.yorku.ca/jd/first_year_courses.html
  86. ^ Canadian law school concentrations, certificates and joint-degree programs [4].
  87. ^ Law Law Society of Upper Canada PRP [5].
  88. ^ http://www.law.utoronto.ca/prosp_stdn_content.asp?itemPath=3/6/15/6/0&contentId=983#States
  89. ^ http://www.law.nyu.edu/llmjsd/graduateadmissions/barexaminformation/index.htm.
  90. ^ http://www.nybarexam.org/Foreign/ForeignLegalEducation.htm
  91. ^ http://www.citizenship.gov.on.ca/english/working/career/professions/lawyers.shtm
  92. ^ NYU/Osgoode Joint LL.B/J.D. [6].
  93. ^ Michigan State University School of Law and the University of Ottawa Joint J.D. - LL.B. Degree Program
  94. ^ University of Windsor / University of Detroit. J.D./LL.B. Program Accessed June 1, 2008.
  95. ^ P.R.C. National People's Congress. Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Academic Degrees(2004). Accessed September 12, 2008.
  96. ^ Peking University Shenzhen, School of Transnational Law. 学院概况 [7]. Accessed June 6, 2008. Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School. 国际法学院国际法律硕士接受调剂生通知 [8]. Accessed June 6, 2008.
  97. ^ Peking University Shenzhen, School of Transnational Law. J.D. Program First-Year Curriculum, 2008-2009. Accessed June 6, 2008.
  98. ^ The University of Hong Kong. Juris Doctor (JD) Overview. Accessed December 15, 2008.
  99. ^ The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Law. The Juris Doctor (JD) Programme. Accessed June 29, 2008. City University of Hong Kong. Programmes and Courses: Juris Doctor. Accessed June 29, 2008.
  100. ^ City University of Hong Kong. Programmes and Courses. Accessed April 7, 2008.
  101. ^ Hong Kong Bar Association. General Admission. Accessed June 1, 2008.
  102. ^ The Justice System Reform Council (2001). For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century.
  103. ^ Yokohama National University Law School.Program Introduction and Dean's Message. Accessed April 7, 2008.
  104. ^ Foote, D. (2005). Justice System Reform in Japan. Annual meeting of the Research Committee of Sociology of Law, Paris. European Network on Law and Society.
  105. ^ Ateneo de Manila Law School. Philippine Leadership Crisis and the J.D. Program. Accessed April 7, 2008.
  106. ^ Clarificatory Guidelines Relative to the Offering of the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B) Program and Juris Doctor (JD) Degree Program
  107. ^ Curriculum models (2006). Philippine Association of Law Schools.
  108. ^ University of Philippines College of Law. News. April 25, 2008.
  109. ^ The Weekly Sillimanian Vol. LXXXII No.4: SU Law adopts Juris Doctor Program. By: Princess Dianne Kris S. Decierdo. Published July 15, 2009. Archived copies can be viewed and verified at the Sillimaniana Section of the Silliman University Main Library.
  110. ^ PLM Curricula and Degree Programs
  111. ^ De La Salle University College of Law Brochure (last accessed July 2009).
  112. ^ About O.P. Jindal Global University. O.P. Jindal Global University. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  113. ^ i.e. the Laurea Specialisticà in Giurisprudenza
  114. ^ Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  115. ^ Regio Decreto 4 giugno 1938, n.1269, art. 48 (in Italian). Accessed February 16, 2009.
  116. ^ E.g. search for lawyers in Italy on Martindale and view the individual profiles.
  117. ^ Ariz. Sup. Ct. R. 31 (a)(2)(B)(2). Accessed June 10, 2008.
  118. ^ See, e.g., Texas Penal Code section 38.122 (falsely holding oneself out as a lawyer, third degree felony, two to ten years in prison per Tex. Penal Code sec. 12.34) and section 38.123 (unauthorized practice of law, generally, Class A misdemeanor).
  119. ^ a b American Bar Association. Model Code of Professional Responsibility, Disciplinary Rule 2-102(E). Cornell University Law School, LLI. Accessed February 10, 2009. Peter H. Geraghty. Are There Any Doctors Or Associates In the House?. American Bar Association, 2007.
  120. ^ a b For example, See North Carolina State Bar. Use of the Title "Doctor" in Academia, 2007 Formal Ethics Opinion 5. North Carolina State Bar, April 20, 2007. Texas State Bar Association. Texas Committee on Professional Ethics, Op. 550. Texas Center for Legal Ethics and Professionalism, May 2004. Florida Bar Association. Opinion 88-2. The Florida Bar, January 15, 1988. New Jersey Advisory Committee on Professional Ethics. Opinion 461. New Jersey Bar Association. South Carolina Bar Association. Ethics Advisory Opinion 76-02. South Carolina Bar Association, 1976. Michigan Bar Association. Opinion 1176. Michigan Bar Association, 1976.
  121. ^ http://www.abanet.org/media/youraba/201002/article11.html
  122. ^ See University of Utah Academic Senate, Senate Summary, 11/3/03, vol. 34 n. 3, pg. 2 (3rd full paragraph). Ohio University Presidential Position Description. Ohio University. Accessed February 20, 2009.
  123. ^ a b See American Bar Association. Council Statement 2. American Bar Association.
  124. ^ [9]
  125. ^ [10]
  126. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange; National Science Foundation (2006); San Diego County Bar Association (1969); University of Utah (2006); German Federal Ministry of Education; Encyclopedia Britannica (2002).
  127. ^ E.g. University of Montana School of Business Administration. Profile of Dr. Michael Harrington. University of Montana, 2006. See also Distance Learning Discussion Forums. New wrinkle in the "Is the JD a doctorate?" debate. Distance Learning Discussion Forums, 2003-2005.
  128. ^ E.g. Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009; Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009; and Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  129. ^ E.g. Dr. Ronald Charles Wolf. Accessed February 16, 2009. Florida Bar News. Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues. Florida Bar Association, July 1, 2006.
  130. ^ Google Translate; Longman English-Japanese Dictionary (2007). Pearson Education, Essex U.K.; Pocket Kenkyusha Japanese Dictionary. (2003). Oxford, N.Y.
  131. ^ Google Translate; The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary. (2002). Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, Beijing.; Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (Chinese-English). (2006). Pearson Education, Hong Kong, 2006.
  132. ^ See previous two cites, respectively, for Japanese and Chinese usage. Also see The Morrison Foester law firm website, one of the largest law firms in Asia and the United States, for an example of usage.
  133. ^ a b The Chronicle of Higher Education. (October 30, 2007). Concord Law School Merges with Kaplan U.. Accessed June 12, 2008. Concord Law School. Concord Law School Accreditation. Accessed June 12, 2008.
  134. ^ a b Concord Law School. EJDsm. Accessed June 12, 2008.
  135. ^ Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Co., Inc., 514 U.S. 159 (1995)
  136. ^ Concord Law School. EJDsm. Accessed June 12, 2008. The website states that students "are not required to adhere to the strict guidelines of the State Bar of California" because of this fact.
  137. ^ American Bar Association. Model Code of Professional Responsibility, Disciplinary Rule 2-102(E). Cornell University Law School, LLI. Accessed February 10, 2009.
  138. ^ Peter H. Geraghty. Are There Any Doctors Or Associates In the House?. American Bar Association, 2007.
  139. ^ RMIT University, Postgraduate Program in Juris Doctor.[11]
  140. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  141. ^ National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients," "InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics" NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate).
  142. ^ San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate)
  143. ^ University of Utah (2006). University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees),
  144. ^ German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education". Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analyzing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate).
  145. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopedia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).
  146. ^ http://www.globecampus.ca/in-the-news/globecampusreport/why-change-to-a-jd-degree/
  147. ^ Haycraft, Frank W (1927). The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities & Colleges. London: Cheshunt Press. 
  148. ^ Lackmiller, D (1969). Scholars on Parade: Colleges, Universities, Costumes and Degrees. New York: MacMillan. 
  149. ^ American Council on Education (2008). "American Costume Code & Ceremony Guide". http://www.acenet.edu/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Search&template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=10625. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
  150. ^ See University of Utah Academic Senate, Senate Summary, 11/3/03, vol. 34 n. 3, pg. 2 (3rd full paragraph). Ohio University Presidential Position Description. Ohio University. Accessed February 20, 2009. Presidential Search. Stony Brook University. Accessed February 22, 2009. Presidential Candidate Search. University of South Carolina. Accessed February 22, 2009.
  151. ^ For another example of the J.D. being considered a terminal degree for purposes of an academic appointment, See http://web.archive.org/web/20080111070646/http://www.walsh.edu/faculty-23.htm
  152. ^ http://www.law.columbia.edu/fac/Lee_Bollinger
  153. ^ PhD and Equivalent Doctoral Degrees: The ERC Policy
  154. ^ United States Department of Labor
  155. ^ Yale Law School, Admission Requirements for J.S.D
  156. ^ Comparing American and British Legal Education Systems: Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools, Kenneth K. Mwenda, Cambria Press. [12]
  157. ^ [13]
  158. ^ [14]
  159. ^ http://cronus.uwindsor.ca/clubs/sls/slsmain.nsf/54ef3e94e5fe816e85256d6e0063d208/10ff8b04ff3a317885256d88005720f6/$FILE/Report%20from%20the%20JD%20Degree%20Designation%20Committee%20-%20March%202009.pdf Student Law Society
  160. ^ RMIT University, Postgraduate Program in Juris Doctor.[15],
  161. ^ Austin Peay State University, Minutes of Deans Council Meeting, July 28, 2004. [16],
  162. ^ United States Department of Labor

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

From Latin juris, genitive singular of jus (law), and doctor (teacher)

Noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Juris Doctor
Plural
Juris Doctors
Juris Doctor (plural Juris Doctors)
  1. A first professional graduate degree and professional doctorate in law.

Synonyms

  • J.D., JD, Doctor of Laws (in the U.S. only).

Simple English

Juris Doctor is an academic degree in law. Like the Doctor of Medicine degree it is a professional doctorate,[1] which prepares lawyers for their profession. It is the primary law degree in the United States.

References

  1. Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education. Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients," "InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics" NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education". Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopedia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Juris Doctor, which are similar to those in the above article.








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