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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jutland peninsula

Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; pronounced /ˈdʒʌtlənd/ in English), historically also called Cimbria, forms the mainland part of Denmark. It has the North Sea to its west, Kattegat and Skagerrak to its north, the Baltic Sea to its east, and the Danish-German border to its south. The German state of Schleswig Holstein is part of the Cimbrian Peninsula but not part of Jutland.

Today, the Danish parts of Jutland belong to either of the three administrative regions North Jutland, Central Jutland or South Denmark.

The German parts of Jutland peninsula today form the state of Schleswig-Holstein.

Contents

Geography

Dunes on Jutland's coast-line.

Its terrain is relatively flat, with heaths, plains and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east. The Danish portion has an area of 29,775 km² (11,496 square miles) and a population of 2,528,129 (2008)[1]. Population density is 84 per km² (218 per sq.mi.).

The northernmost part of Jutland is separated by the Limfjord from the mainland, but is still commonly reckoned as part of the peninsula. It only became an island following a flood in 1825. The area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy (after its districts) or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord; it is only partly coterminous with the region called North Jutland.

The islands Læsø, Anholt and Samsø in Kattegat and Als at the rim of the Baltic Sea South are administratively and historically tied to Jutland, although especially the latter two are also regarded traditional districts of their own. Inhabitants of Als would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders.

The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight.

History

Main History of Denmark and History of Schleswig-Holstein.
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Historic regions

     North Jutlandic Island (Denmark) is historically a part of Jutland although it was separated from it by a flood in 1825.      Northern Jutland (Denmark)      Northern Schleswig (Denmark)      Southern Schleswig (Germany)      Holstein (Germany)

History of Jutland

Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the other two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, Cimbri and Charudes.

Many Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and Frisians moved from continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c. 450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England (Angleland). This is thought by some to be related to the drive of the Huns from Asia across Europe, although the arrival of the Danes would more likely have been a major contributory factor, since conflicts between the Danes and the Jutes were both many and bloody.[citation needed]

The Danes took considerable steps to protect themselves from the depredations of the Christian Frankish emperors, principally with the building of the Danevirke, a wall stretching across South Jutland at the shortest distance from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea.

Charlemagne removed pagan Saxons from the southernmost part of the peninsula at the Baltic Sea[citation needed]— the later Holstein area — and moved Abodrites (or Obotrites), a group of Wendish Slavs who pledged allegiance to Charlemagne and who had for the most part converted to Christianity, into the area instead.[citation needed]

To speed transit between the Baltic and the North Sea, canals have been built across the peninsula, notably the Eiderkanal in the late 18th century and the Kiel Canal, completed in 1895 and still in use.

During World War I, the Battle of Jutland was one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the British Royal Navy engaged the German Navy leading to heavy casualties and ship losses on both sides. The battle was initially regarded a German victory, based on the total number of capital ships sunk and the number of sailors killed. However, the British fleet remained in control of the North Sea, and in tactical terms most commentators regard Jutland either as a German victory or as indecisive.

Danish part

Dialect

Main article: Jutlandic — See also: Danish language: Dialects

Typical of Jutland are the distinctive Jutish (or Jutlandic) dialects which differ substantially from Standard Danish, especially West Jutlandic and South Jutlandic. Dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark and the dialect-speaking Jutlander remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes.

Cities

The largest cities in the Danish section of Jutland are:

  1. Århus
  2. Aalborg
  3. Esbjerg
  4. Randers
  5. Kolding
  6. Horsens
  7. Vejle
  8. Herning
  9. Silkeborg
  10. Fredericia
  11. Viborg
  12. Holstebro
  13. Sønderborg
  14. Hjørring
  15. Frederikshavn
  16. Haderslev
  17. Skive

Aarhus, Randers, Kolding, Horsens, Vejle, Fredericia, Haderslev along with a number of smaller towns make up the East Jutland metropolitan area. Administratively, Danish Jutland consists of Region Nordjylland, Region Midtjylland, and the western half of Region Syddanmark which also covers Funen.

German part

Main article: Schleswig-Holstein
Kiel is the largest city on the German side of the Cimbrian peninsula.
Flensburg has the largest Danish minority of any city in Germany.

The southern third of the Jutland peninsula is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein. Schleswig-Holstein comprises two parts, the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which have passed back and forth between the Danes and Germans rulers several times. The last adjustment of the Danish-German border followed the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920 and resulted in Denmark's regaining Northern Schleswig (Danish: Nordslesvig or more commonly today: Sønderjylland).

The historical southern border of Jutland is the river Eider, which is also the border between the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, as well as the historical border between the Danish and German realms from c. 800 to 1864. Although most of Schleswig-Holstein is geographically part of the Jutland peninsula, most German residents there would not identify themselves with Jutland or even as "Jutlanders", but rather with North Germany (German: Norddeutschland) and consider themselves Northern Germans (German: Norddeutsche).

The medieval Code of Jutland applied for Schleswig until 1900 when it was replaced by the Prussian Civil Code. Some rarely used clauses of the Jutlandic Code still apply north of the Eider today, but not south of the Eider.

Cities

The largest cities in the German part of Jutland or the Jutland Peninsula are Kiel, Lübeck, Flensburg, and Neumünster.

References

External links

See also


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia : Denmark : Jutland

Jutland (Danish: Jylland) is a large peninsular stretching northwards towards Scandinavia, and is the only part of Denmark, connected to the European continent, and hence sometimes know as mainland Denmark, although the capital is on the island of Zealand. It's about 350km long, counting from the German border, although the northernmost part is actually technically an island, and it's home 2.5 million people, roughly half the country's population.

  • Århus - Jutland's unofficial capital, and most populous city. Home of some of the regions best attractions.
  • Aalborg - Is a regional centre for the northern part of the peninsula, with an attractive old town in the city core.
  • Esbjerg - Centre of the Danish fishery and offshore industries, and a well connected access point to the West coast.
  • Kolding - Dynamic city forming one of the corners of one of Denmark's most dynamic commercial regions.
  • Herning - Main city, and a major traffic junction, for Western Jutland.
  • Silkeborg - Main city of the lake lands, one of Denmark's most beautiful regions.
  • Billund - Home of Lego, and the original Lego land park, of of Denmark's top attractions, and the regions major airport.
  • Ebeltoft - Old charming city centre, the worlds biggest intact wooden ship, and beautiful nature.
  • Ribe - Denmarks oldest city, with pretty medieval buildings and cobblestoned streets.
  • Læsø - Off the beaten path island in Kattegat with unique architecture and atmosphere.
  • Blokhus - The beatiful wide sandy beach is one of the west coast's largest tourist draws.

Talk

While English speakers are perhaps less prevalent than in Copenhagen, most people under 50, will still have atleast some understanding of the language. German language proficiency is far better in Southern Jutland and the West coast, than anywhere else in Denmark, and in those regions almost everyone will have basic understanding of German, due to the overwhelming number of German tourists descending on the beaches in the summer months.

Get in

By plane

Billund Airport is the main airport on the penisula, and number two in Denmark as a whole - fields many international flights, and has direct connections with almost every major North European hub. Aalborg and Århus airports also sees' substantial traffic, with a few international routes on the schedule. There are also serveral smaller regional airports dotted around Jutland with a couple of daily flights to Copenhagen.

By car

There is two ways to get into Jutland by car.

  1. By german autobahn A7, crossing the state border at Frøslev
  2. By swedish motorway E20, through the Oresund Bridge, the Great Belt Bridge and the Little Belt Bridge.

Get around

For intercity transportation in Jutland, there is a network of express buses dubbed XBus [1] (map), which connects most major towns and cities on routes without or with little rail service. Prices are set according to distance, as a rule of thumb (while in no way completely accurate) expect to pay around 1 DKK per kilometre.

  • Jelling Massive carved runestones from the 10th century is a world heritage site.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

JUTLAND (Danish Jylland), though embracing several islands as well as a peninsula, may be said to belong to the continental portion of the kingdom of Denmark. The peninsula (Chersonese or Cimbric peninsula of ancient geography) extends northward, from a line between Lubeck and the mouth of the Elbe, for 270 m. to the promontory of the Skaw (Skagen), thus preventing a natural communication directly east and west between the Baltic and North Seas. The northern portion only is Danish, and bears the name Jutland. The southern is German, belonging to Schleswig-Holstein. The peninsula is almost at its narrowest (36 m.) at the frontier, but Jutland has an extreme breadth of 110 m. and the extent from the south-western point (near Ribe) to the Skaw is 180 m. Jutland embraces nine amter (counties), namely, HjOrring, Thisted, Aalborg, Ringkjobing, Viborg, Randers, Aarhus, Vejle and Ribe. The main watershed of the peninsula lies towards the east coast; therefore such elevated ground as exists is found on the east, while the western slope is gentle and consists of a low sandy plain of slight undulation. The North Sea coast (western) and Skagerrack coast (north-western) consist mainly of a sweeping line of dunes with wide lagoons behind them. In the south the northernmost of the North Frisian Islands (Fanb) is Danish. Towards the north a narrow mouth gives entry to the Limfjord, or Liimfjord, which, wide and ramifying among islands to the west, narrows the east and pierces through to the Cattegat, thus isolating the counties of Hjorring and Thisted (known together as Vendsyssel). It is, however, bridged at Aalborg, and its depth rarely exceeds 12 ft. The seaward banks of the lagoons are frequently broken in storms, and the narrow channels through them are constantly shifting. The east coast is slightly bolder than the west, and indented with true estuaries and bays. From the south-east the chain of islands forming insular Denmark extends towards Sweden, the strait between Jutland and Fiinen having the name of the Little Belt. The low and dangerous coasts, off which the seas are generally very shallow, are efficiently served by a series of lifeboat stations. The western coast region is well compared with the Landes of Gascony. The interior is low. The Varde, Omme, Skjerne, Stor and Karup, sluggish and tortuous streams draining into the western lagoons, rise in and flow through marshes, while the eastern Limfjord is flanked by the swamps known as Vildmose. The only considerable river is the Gudenaa, flowing from S.W. into the Randersfjord (Cattegat), and rising among the picturesque lakes of the county of Aarhus, where the principal elevated ground in the peninsula is found in the Himmelbjerg and adjacent hills (exceeding 500 ft.). The German portion of the peninsula is generally similar to that of western Jutland, the main difference lying in the occurrence of islands (the North Frisian) off the west coast in place of sand-bars and lagoons. Erratic blocks are of frequent occurrence in south Jutland. (For geology, and the general consideration of Jutland in connexion with the whole kingdom, see Denmark.) Although in ancient times well wooded, the greater portion of the interior of Jutland consisted for centuries of barren driftsand, which grew nothing but heather; but since 1866, chiefly through the instrumentality of the patriotic Heath association, assisted by annual contributions from the state, a very large proportion of this region has been more or less reclaimed for cultivation. The means adopted are: (i.) the plantation of trees; (ii.) the making of irrigation canals and irrigating meadows; (iii.) exploring for, extracting and transporting loam, a process aided by the construction of short light railways; and (iv.), since 1889, the experimental cultivation of fenny districts. The activity of the association takes the form partly of giving gratuitous advice, partly of experimental attempts, and partly of model works for imitation. The state also makes annual grants directly to owners who are willing to place their plantations under state supervision, for the sale of plants at half price to the poorer peasantry, for making protective or sheltering plantations, and for free transport of marl or loam. The species of timber almost exclusively planted are the red fir (Picea excelsa) and the mountain pine (Pinus montana). This admirable work quickly caused the population to increase at a more rapid rate in the districts where it was practised than in any other part of the Danish kingdom. The counties of Viborg, RingkjObing and Ribe cover the principal heath district.

Jutland is well served by railways. Two lines cross the frontier from Germany on the east and west respectively and run northward near the coasts. The eastern touches the ports of Kolding, Fredericia, Vejle, Horsens, Aarhus, Randers, Aalborg on Limfjord, Frederikshavn and Skagen. On the west the only port of first importance is Esbjerg. The line runs past Skjerne, RingkjObing, Vemb and Holstebro to Thisted. Both throw off many branches and are connected by lines east and west between Kolding and Esbjerg, Skanderborg and Skjerne, Langaa and Struer on Limfjord via Viborg. Of purely inland towns only Viborg in the midland and HjOrring in the extreme north are of importance.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Jutland

Plural
-

Jutland

  1. a peninsula in northern Europe which belongs to Denmark

Translations


Dutch

Proper noun

Jutland n.

  1. Jutland

Simple English

File:Jutland peninsula
Jutland Peninsula

Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe. It forms the mainland part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany. It separates the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. Its terrain is relatively flat, with low hills and peat bogs. It has an area of 29,775 km² (11,496 square miles), and a population of 2,491,852 (2004).

The northern two thirds of the peninsula are occupied by the westernmost portion of the Kingdom of Denmark. There is no separate name for the Danish portion of the peninsula, so it is simply called the same name. The northernmost part of Jutland became an island following a flood in 1825; the Limfjord now separates it from the mainland. This island is called Nørrejydske Ø ("North Jutlandic Island") and is still commonly reckoned as part of the peninsula; it is also partly coterminous with the county and future region called North Jutland.

The southern third is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein, with the duchies of Schleswig (also Sønderjylland/Southern Jutland) and Holstein. Both duchies have passed back and forth between the Danes and various German rulers. In the last border movement, Denmark regained North Schleswig (Nordslesvig in Danish) by plebiscite in 1920. Southern Schleswig remained German.

The River Elbe forms the southern border of Jutland with the city of Hamburg on its shore. The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight.

The largest cities on the Jutland Peninsula are:

  1. Århus, Denmark
  2. Kiel, Germany
  3. Lübeck, Germany
  4. Aalborg, Denmark
  5. Flensburg, Germany
  6. Esbjerg, Denmark
  7. Randers, Denmark
  8. Kolding, Denmark
  9. Vejle, Denmark
  10. Horsens, Denmark

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