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Jynx
124jynx.png
National Pokédex
Scyther - Jynx (#124) - Electabuzz
Series Pokémon series
First game Pokémon Red and Blue
Designed by Ken Sugimori
Voiced by (English) Rachael Lillis
Voiced by (Japanese) Mayumi Tanaka

Jynx, known in Japan as Rougela (ルージュラ Rūjura?), is a Pokémon species in Nintendo and Game Freak's Pokémon franchise. Created by Ken Sugimori, Jynx first appeared in the video games Pokémon Red and Blue and subsequent sequels, later appearing in various merchandise, spinoff titles and animated and printed adaptations of the franchise. The character is voiced in Japanese by Mayumi Tanaka and by Rachael Lillis in English.

Jynx's design and humanoid appearance has been heavily criticized by the Western media, most notably by cultural critic Carole Boston Weatherford, who described Jynx as representing blackface after seeing the character's depiction in the anime. Due to complaints, Gamefreak modified her appearance to be less offensive, though criticisms from 1UP.com and similar sources have persisted.

Contents

Design and characteristics

Jynx was conceived and developed by Ken Sugimori for the first generation of Pocket Monsters games Red and Green, known outside of Japan as Pokémon Red and Blue.[1] Known as the "Human Shape" Pokémon, Jynx is a female-only species that resemble short, large women. Originally portrayed with a black face and hands, Jynx's design was changed to purple coloration after criticism.[2] In addition Jynx have large pink lips, saucer-like eyes, white arms, and long, blond hair. The "clothes" they appear to wear are actually part of their body, resembling a circular red bra and skirt. Jynx have no visible feet, and in the games leave no footprints. Their hands are depicted with four fingers and an opposable thumb; however, game representations of the character featured only three fingers on each hand until the release of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire.

Jynx Pokémon walk in a dance-like fashion, wiggling their hips in a manner described by Nintendo as "seductive".[3] It uses dancing to communicate, with the exact rhythm relying on its emotion at the time. The dance affects people, causing them to themselves dance with no regard to their actions.[4] Jynx speak in a language that only other Jynx can understand, though the sound is described as similar to human speech.[5] This trait is carried on to games where Pokémon speak English such as the Pokémon Mystery Dungeon series, with the text appearing as combinations of "X"'s, "O"'s, punctuation marks, and/or musical notes, instead of legible words.[6] Jynx are psychic, and can attack either by kissing an opponent or launching "strange orbs" at them, and can protect themselves with a psychically-generated barrier.[7][8]

Appearances

In video games

In the Pokémon video game series, Jynx has usually been available by trade with an in-game NPC. This applies for all games except Pokémon Gold, Silver, and Crystal,[9] and Platinum. Because of the controversy of Jynx's skin, it was changed from black to purple in Pokémon Stadium 2 and all later games. Jynx is the evolved form of Smoochum.[10]

In anime

Jynx first appeared in the Pokémon anime in Holiday Hi-Jynx when one of Santa Claus's Jynx was separated from him and Ash and friends helped to return the Jynx to her owner.[11] The episode was not re-aired in USA because of the controversy over her appearance. Jynx appeared again in the episode The Ice Cave,[12] which was not aired in English-speaking countries for the same reason. Jynx also made a cameo as a doll that Misty wins.[13] Jynx later appears in Pokémon Orange Islands series, in episodes still present in American rotations.

Jynx's made an appeal in a contest in All Things Bright and Beautifly.[14] However, because Jynx had been animated with black skin instead of purple, her 13-second appearance was cut from the English dub. Jynx later appears in episodes 116 and 117 of Pokémon: Advanced Generation, with the inoffensive purple skin color.[15][16] Because the main order of these episodes would have been during February which is also Black History Month, KidsWB chose to air these episodes out of order and air them in April after the Hoenn Championship League episodes as it would help build the ratings with the Grand Festival and Hoenn League episodes and it would have avoided offending people during February due to the Jynx controversy. However one exception was in the episode Hi Ho Silver Wind! where a purple Jynx had a minor cameo which aired in February.[17] These episodes were aired in the normal rotational order in the UK. A trio of Jynx sisters were later depicted in the episode Three Jynx and a Baby. These three Jynx were overly-protective towards their sister, a Smoochum. The Smoochum evolved into a Jynx at the end of the episode.[18]

In printed material

Jynx's most notable role in the Pokémon manga is being under the ownership of Lorelei in Pokémon Adventures. Lorelei's Jynx is noted for having the ability to generate voodoo dolls out of ice using its Ice Beam. When Lorelei draws crosses on any part of the dolls using her lipstick, ice shackles form on the specified body parts of her targets, eventually freezing the victim over completely. Even after the victims are broken free, the freeze induces lasting numbness in the areas where it was applied. Both Red and Sabrina suffered this condition and had to seek a cure atop Mt. Silver by bathing in the hotsprings there. Another ability of Lorelei's Jynx is revealed in the Sevii Islands saga: she can create a wispy band of ice around targets, with which Lorelei can use to track down using her powder case.

Jynx has made a number of appearances in the Pokémon Trading Card Game, with the black-skinned design (sometimes US version cards show up purple and edited before the controversy) before the Weatherford controversy, and with the purple-skinned design after Nintendo regained control of the Pokémon TCG. Jynx first appeared in the Base Set with her black-skinned design, but later reprints of this card have the purple-skinned design.

Cultural impact

Jynx's original design in Pokémon Red and Blue

Jynx's appearance and design have received criticisms in various publications. Children's book author and cultural critic Carole Boston Weatherford published an article in the Greensboro News Record alleging that Jynx's design bore a striking resemblance to blackface actors, an image considered racist against Blacks,[19] and further described the Pokémon as "a dead ringer for an obese drag queen." She further attacked the Pokémon in the magazine Advertising Age, comparing it to Little Black Sambo and suggesting its name as also a possible derogatory remark towards Blacks relating to voodoo.[20] Since then, the Jim Crow Museum at Ferris State University has listed Jynx as an example of racism in modern material.[21] In response, Gamefreak modified Jynx's design in localized versions of the games, a change which would several years later be reflected in the Japanese versions of the games and the anime series.[2] In addition, episodes featuring the older Jynx design were censored, or completely removed from televised syndication by Warner Bros.[22]

Criticisms still persist, such as 1UP.com which, in an article discussing the "lamest Pokémon" of the series, referred to it as the "infamous blackface Pokémon".[23] In their podcast Retronauts they emphasized it further, noting the design as "creepy" and that it maintained the issue of racism still.[24] IGN also criticized the design, characterizing Jynx as a "transvestite midget in racially offensive makeup".[25] GameDaily ranked it first on their list of the "Top 10 Weirdest Looking Pokémon", noting its design suggested the presence of breasts, and echoing qualms regarding its resemblance to blackface performers.[26] Games.net ranked it fourth on their "Top 10 Disturbingly Sexual Game Characters" list, questioning why the character was clothed in what resembled a "slinky dress and push-up bra".[27] On the other hand, the book Gaming Cultures and Place in Asia-Pacific defended Jynx's design, suggesting Sugimori developed it to draw upon the humor of heta-uma (a term meaning bad/nice), and described the design as oscillating between the poles of good and bad, as a result offering diversity within the game and inviting scrutiny from players.[28] GamesRadar described Magmar and Jynx as the Romeo and Juliet of Pokémon.[29]

In recent years, some fans of Pokémon with knowledge of Japanese culture have noted that Jynx is more likely inspired by ganguro, a Japanese fashion where girls tan heavily, bleach their hair, and apply large amounts of makeup, instead of a black stereotype. Most people who support this theory base it on Jynx's long, straight, blonde hair, a common attribute of ganguro fashion.

See also

References

  1. ^ Stuart Bishop (2003-05-30). "Game Freak on Pokémon!". CVG. Archived from the original on 2008-02-08. http://www.webcitation.org/5VSJaR6xT. Retrieved 2008-02-07. 
  2. ^ a b "A Decade of Pokemon Scandals - Jynx Incites Racial Backlash". Yahoo. http://videogames.yahoo.com/events/a-decade-of-pokemon-scandals/a-decade-of-pokemon-scandals/1299469/5. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  3. ^ Game Freak. Pokémon Red and Blue. (Nintendo). Game Boy. (1998-09-30) "It seductively wiggles its hips as it walks. It can cause people to dance in unison with it."
  4. ^ Game Freak. Pokémon Ruby. (Nintendo). Game Boy Advance. (2003-03-17) "Jynx walks rhythmically, swaying and shaking its hips as if it were dancing. Its motions are so bouncingly alluring, people seeing it are compelled to shake their hips without giving any thought to what they are doing"
  5. ^ Game Freak. Pokémon Diamond. (Nintendo). Nintendo DS. (2007-04-22) "Its cries sound like human speech. However, it is impossible to tell what it is trying to say."
  6. ^ Chunsoft. Pokémon Mystery Dungeon: Blue Rescue Team and Red Rescue Team. (Nintendo). Nintendo DS. (2006-09-18) "∞XO@#*~♪♪♪"
  7. ^ HAL Laboratory. Pokémon Ranger. (Nintendo). Nintendo DS. (2006-10-30) "Jynx swings its hips as if it's dancing while walking. Beware of its kiss attack!"
  8. ^ Creatures Inc.. Pokémon Ranger: Shadows of Almia. (Nintendo). Nintendo DS. (2008-11-10) "It attacks by launching strange orbs. It protects itself with a psychic barrier."
  9. ^ "Pokémon Locations Listing". IGN. http://guidesarchive.ign.com/guides/12865/pokedexloc.html. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  10. ^ "Walkthrough - Ice Path". IGN. http://guidesarchive.ign.com/guides/12865/8.html. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  11. ^ "Holiday Hi-Jynx". Hideki Sonoda (writer). Pokémon. Various. 1999-12-11. No. 63, season 1.
  12. ^ "The Ice Cave". Yukiyoshi Ōhashi (writer). Pokémon. Various. 2002-05-30. No. 250, season 3.
  13. ^ "Princess vs. Princess". Junki Takegami (writer). Pokémon. Various. 1999-09-04. No. 52, season 1.
  14. ^ "All Things Bright and Beautifly". Atsuhiro Tomioka (writer). Pokémon. Various. 2003-12-27. No. 286, season 6.
  15. ^ "Pacifidlog Jam". Aya Matsui (writer). Pokémon. Various. 2006-04-08. No. 116, season 6.
  16. ^ "Berry, Berry Interesting". Masashi Sogo (writer). Pokémon. Various. 2006-02-11. No. 117, season 6.
  17. ^ "Hi Ho Silver Wind!". Atsuhiro Tomioka (writer). Pokémon. Various. 2006-02-18. No. 121, season 6.
  18. ^ "Three Jynx and a Baby". Junki Takegami (writer). Pokémon. Various. 2006-11-25. No. 440, season 9.
  19. ^ Weatherford, Carole Boston (2000-01-16). "Politically Incorrect Pokémon, One Of The Pokémon Characters Reinforces An Offensive Racial Stereotype". Greensboro News Record (Greensboro, N.C.): H.3. 
  20. ^ Weatherford, Carole Boston (2000-02-28). "Pokemon phenom harbors racist image;Jynx character is a stereotype comparable to Little Black Sambo". Advertising Age (Crain Communications, Inc.). 
  21. ^ Dr. Pilgrim, David. "New Racist Forms: Jim Crow in the 21st Century". The Jim Crow Museum, Ferris State University. http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/newforms/. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  22. ^ DeVries, Jack (2009-02-02). "Pokemon Report: You Can't Do That on Television". IGN. http://ds.ign.com/articles/949/949928p2.html. 
  23. ^ Bailey, Kat. "Top 5 Lamest Pokemon". 1UP.com. UGO Networks. http://www.1up.com/do/feature?cId=3169539. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  24. ^ Jerry Parish, James Mielke, Ryan O'Donnell, Richard Li, Shane Bettenhausen.. Retronauts Episode 18 1UP.com UGO Networks. (2007-04-05). Podcast accessed on 2009-06-10.
  25. ^ DeVries, Jack (2008-11-14). "Pokemon Report: Do Not Want". IGN. http://ds.ign.com/articles/930/930334p1.html. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  26. ^ Buffa, Chris. "Top 10 Weirdest Looking Pokémon". GameDaily. AOL. http://www.gamedaily.com/articles/galleries/top-10-weirdest-looking-pokemon/?page=10. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  27. ^ Karl, Ben; Rudden, Dave (2007-10-05). "Top Ten Disturbingly Sexual Game Characters". games.net. http://www.games.net/article/netten/2/116901/top-ten-disturbingly-sexual-game-characters/. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  28. ^ Hjorth, Larissa; David Surman (2009). "9" (PDF). Gaming Cultures and Place in Asia-Pacific. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 0415996279. http://newport.academia.edu/documents/0009/2577/MERGEDPOKEMON.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  29. ^ "Pokemusings, week 32, page 2". GamesRadar. http://www.gamesradar.com/f/pokemusings-week-32/a-20080214142523511091/p-2. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Translingual

Etymology

This definition is lacking an etymology or has an incomplete etymology. You can help Wiktionary by giving it a proper etymology.

Proper noun

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Wikipedia

Jynx

  1. a taxonomic genus, within subfamily Jynginae - the wrynecks
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Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Piciformes
Familia: Picidae
Subfamilia: Jynginae
Genus: Jynx
Species: J. ruficollis - J. torquilla

Name

Jynx Linnaeus, 1758

Reference

Systema Naturae ed.10 p.112

Vernacular names

Български: Въртошийка
Česky: Krutihlav obecný
Dansk: Vendehals
Deutsch: Wendehals
English: Wryneck
Lietuvių: Grąžiagalvė
Nederlands: Draaihals
日本語: アリスイ属
Polski: Krętogłów
Русский: Вертишейка
Suomi: Käenpiiat
Svenska: Göktyta
Türkçe: Boyunburan

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Jynx
Image:Jynx.png
Name Jynx
Pokedex Number 124
Hoenn Number 282
Johto Number 153
Stage Basic
Evolves From Smoochum
Signature Attack Lovely Kiss
Species Human Shape Pokémon
Type Ice / Psychic
Height 4′07″ (1.4m)
Weight 89.5 lbs. (40.6kg)
Gender distribution 100% Female
Ability Oblivious / Forewarn
1st Appearance Pokémon Red and Blue

Jynx (ルージュラ, Rūjura, Rougela in original Japanese language versions) is a character in the Pokémon franchise, originally introduced in Pokémon Red and Blue. Jynx is noted more than other Pokémon characters due to the controversy over her original appearance (see below).

The name Jynx is a play on the English word "jinx", a curse or hex of bad luck. The reasoning behind this isn't immediately clear. Jynx's name could also come from "lynx", which could vaguely explain its ice type. Rougela comes from the word "rouge".

Contents

Characteristics

Jynx is based of the mountain crone Yama-uba, as the crone has golden-white hair and was often depicted in red kimono, two traits that Jynx also has. Jynx's lipstick and eyeliner (which it is sometimes depicted with) come from the Yamanba fashion trend, which is also named after the witch (Yamanba/Yamamba were alternative names for Yama-uba). Jynx can also be interpreted to be Ganguro in appearance.

Jynx has an imposing appearance, resembling an exaggerated stereotype of a husky human lady. She has purple/black skin, long blonde hair, and an eye-catching set of rose-red lips. The "clothes" it appears to wear are indeed part of its body, made to look like a pair of circular red bra and a red skirt. In the games, Jynx have no feet or footprints. In one short scene in the anime, though, a Jynx's feet are shown (see In the Anime). Also, Jynx's foot appears in the N64 Pokemon Stadium games when she uses the "Mega Kick" attack, which can be taught to her via TM.

In the Pokédex from FireRed and LeafGreen versions, Jynx is grouped with urban Pokémon, ones who lives in cities and towns, though they also live in caves (possibly another influence from the Yama-uba, who also lived in caves and mountains). Jynx vocalizes a mysterious language understood only by other Jynx, and no human or other Pokémon is able to understand it (though it sounds vaguely human). Scientists are studying Jynx's unique tongue to try and understand what is being said.

Jynx walks in a dance-like fashion, where her wiggling ugly motions with her hips are very seductive. In fact, her bouncing motions are alluring enough so that any person seeing it feels compelled to follow along in the same dance procession without giving a second thought as to what she is doing.

Jynx is known for its smooching habit, which it actually uses as a battling tool. A Jynx usually gives a sleep or confusion-inducing kiss to its opponents, using her signature attack "Lovely Kiss."

Prior to the modern Jynx design seen above and introduced more recently, Jynx originally had pure-black flesh.

This original design bore a striking, but purely coincidental, resemblance to blackface actors. A strong case can be made for Jynx being a parody of or homage to the Japanese Ganguro and Yamanba fashion trends, which were extremely popular when Pokémon was first released, but it can't be denied that blackface-influenced characters have appeared elsewhere in anime and manga - examples can be found near the beginning of Osamu Tezuka's early graphic novel Metropolis as well as the character Mr. Popo from the Dragonball series.

As Pokémon became more popular in the US, this perceived similarity to a racist image from America's past offended some. In particular, on May 4, 2000, an article was released that day saying that children's book author Carole Boston Weatherford had been personally offended and had accused Jynx as being a racist stereotype in an article page entitled Politically Incorrect Pokémon in the magazine Black World Today. She has described the Pokémon as "a dead ringer for an obese drag queen," which was liberated shortly after the anime episode Holiday Hi-Jynx had aired. Several other episodes later on concerning Jynx and others were also either banned or cut in USA. However, the above image can still be seen in the "Poké rap" segments of the original series (see anime).

In response to this controversy, in 2000 Nintendo changed Jynx's face from black to purple and its hands from blue to purple in localized versions, a change which would be reflected several years later in the Japanese versions of the games and the Advanced Generation anime. The newly-redesigned Jynx has white arms, whilst the arms of the original Jynx were red.

Appearances

Because of the above controversy, Jynx's skin was changed from black to purple in Pokémon Stadium 2 and all later games.

In an odd twist, although Jynx, along with Electabuzz and Magmar, were all given pre-evolutions in the second generation, it seems that only the latter two were given evolutions in the fourth generation. The reason why is unknown, although it could be to avoid further controversy.

Jynx and Smoochum have received a new ability in the fourth generation, called "Forewarn", which allows them to see the opponents move list (Hypno and Drowzee also share this ability). Also, it should be noted that Jynx is, from the fourth generation on, unable to use physical moves such as Ice Punch and Body Slam effectively, both of which are learned naturally by Jynx, due to the new physical/special split based on the nature of a move rather than its type.

Anime

Jynx made an appearance in the episode The Ice Cave, which was not aired in English-speaking countries, and in the episode Holiday Hi-Jynx, which isn't re-aired in USA but is in the UK, both because of the controversy over her appearance. It is also made a camo in "Princess vs. Princess" as a doll that Misty wins. She later appears in Pokémon Orange Islands series, in episodes still present in American rotations. Also, in the Orange Island series, Jynx was shown to have human-like feet in a cameo appearance. This likely happened because the Orange Island arc was a filler and produced before Gold and Silver versions of the game were made.

Her 13-second appearance in Pokémon AG episode 23 All Things Bright and Beautifly was cut out when the episode was localized for English-speaking countries. She later appears in episodes 116 and 117 of Pokémon AG, with the inoffensive purple skin color.

In episodes 116 and 117, because the main episode order of these episodes would have been during February which is also Black History Month, KidsWB chose to air these episodes out of order and air them in April after the Hoenn Championship League episodes as it would help build the ratings with the Grand Festival and Hoenn League episodes and it would have avoided offending people during February due to the Jynx controversy. However one exception was in the episode "Hi Ho Silver Wind!" (AG121) where a purple Jynx had a minor cameo which aired in February. These episodes were aired in the normal rotational order in the UK.

Three Jynx(s) and a Smoochum were in episode AG169 aired in Japan on 16 March 2006 and in the U.S. on 25 November 2006. Then the Smoochum evolved, so it ended with four Jynx(s).

Jynx is voiced by Mayumi Tanaka in the original Japanese version of the anime.

Manga

Jynx's most notable role is being under the ownership of Lorelei in Pokémon Special. Lorelei's Jynx is noted for having the ability to generate voodoo dolls out of ice using its Ice Beam. When Lorelei draws crosses on any part of the dolls using her lipstick, ice shackles form on the specified body parts of her targets, eventually freezing the victim over completely. Even after the victims are broken free, the freeze induces lasting numbness in the areas where it was applied. Both Red (Special) and Sabrina suffered this condition and had to seek a cure atop Mt. Silver by bathing in the hotsprings there.

Another ability of Lorelei's Jynx is revealed in the Sevii Islands saga: it can create a wispy band of ice around targets, with which Lorelei can use to track down using her powder case.

Trading Card game

Jynx in the Pokémon Trading Card Game.

Jynx has made a number of appearances in the Pokémon Trading Card Game, with the black-skinned design (sometimes US version cards show up purple and edited before the controversy) before the Weatherford controversy, and with the purple-skinned design after Nintendo regained control of the Pokémon TCG. Jynx first appeared in the Base Set with her black-skinned design, but later reprints of this card have the purple-skinned design. The list of expansion sets Jynx has appeared in is the following, all as Basic Pokémon:

  • Base Set (Psychic-type, reprinted in Legendary Collection)
  • Gym Challenge (Psychic-type, as Sabrina’s Jynx)
  • Neo Revelation (Water-type)
  • Expedition (Water-type)
  • Aquapolis (Psychic-type)
  • EX Unseen Forces (Water-type)

References

Publications
  • Barbo, Maria. The Official Pokémon Handbook. Scholastic Publishing, 1999. ISBN 0-439-15404-9.
  • Loe, Casey, ed. Pokémon Special Pikachu Edition Official Perfect Guide. Sunnydale, CA: Empire 21 Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-930206-15-1.
  • Nintendo Power. Official Nintendo Pokémon FireRed & Pokémon LeafGreen Player’s Guide. Nintendo of America Inc., August 2004. ISBN 1-930206-50-X
  • Mylonas, Eric. Pokémon Pokédex Collector’s Edition: Prima’s Official Pokémon Guide. Prima Games, September 21 2004. ISBN 0-7615-4761-4
  • Nintendo Power. Official Nintendo Pokémon Emerald Version Player’s Guide. Nintendo of America Inc., April 2005. ISBN 1-930206-58-5

External links

  • Official Pokémon website
  • Bulbapedia (a Pokémon-centric Wiki)’s article about Jynx as a species
  • Jynx on serebii.net
  • Pokémon Dungeon Pokédex entry, full of statistics analysis
  • PsyPoke - Jynx Pokédex entry and Usage Overview
  • Smogon.com - Jynx Tactical Data

This article uses material from the "Jynx" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







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